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Varese, Italy

The University of Insubria is an Italian university located in Como and Varese, with secondary locations in Busto Arsizio and Saronno. It was founded in 1998, it has been named after the area where it is situated, the historical-geographical region of Insubria.According to the ranking made by Il Sole 24 Ore in 2011, the University of Insubria places itself 16th out of the 58 state-supported Italian universities; third in Lombardy after Politecnico di Milano and University of Pavia.The Faculty of Law in Como has passed from the 9th to the 6th place in the CENSIS 2010/2011 Faculty of Law table. Wikipedia.

Di Guardo A.,University of Insubria
Integrated environmental assessment and management | Year: 2013

Evaluating organism exposure in the ecosystems is a difficult task and can be carried out measuring or predicting concentrations in the environment. Although current regulatory approaches favor a modeling approach, they either use a static representation of the environment and of the chemical discharge or a simplified dynamic approach (e.g., dealing with pesticides). Improving the ecological realism of exposure prediction offers a number of challenges. Some are related to the understanding of basic mechanisms such as bioavailability and the determination of internal exposure or the need to develop new paradigms for polar and ionized chemicals. Other issues are the need to provide monitoring data to understand the environmental fate of chemical mixtures, polar and ionized chemicals and metabolites, to understand the complexity of exposure in spatially and temporally variable environments. Exposure models require the development of suitable approaches to simulate the complexity of exposure in the ecosystems including the development of a variety of temporal and spatial scenarios and the integration of submodels (such as aquatic and terrestrial food webs). Finally, the integration of dynamic exposure and effect models is envisaged to fully carry out a more realistic ecological risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 SETAC. Source

University of Insubria and Light In Light S.R.L. | Date: 2013-03-15

An embodiment of a lighting system for illuminating an environment with a lighting that simulates natural lighting includes: a first light source which emits a beam of visible light; a diffused-light generator delimited by an inner surface, which receives the light beam, and an outer surface, the diffused-light generator being at least partially transparent to the light beam. The diffused-light generator transmits at least part of the light beam and emits, through the outer surface, visible diffused light, the correlated color temperature of the transmitted light being lower than the CCT of the visible diffused light. The lighting system includes a dark box which hosts the first light source, the dark box being optically coupled to the environment via the diffused-light generator.

Bartalena L.,University of Insubria
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Bertolotti F.,University of Insubria
Nature Materials | Year: 2016

Size and shape tunability and low-cost solution processability make colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots (QDs) an emerging class of building blocks for innovative photovoltaic, thermoelectric and optoelectronic devices. Lead chalcogenide QDs are known to crystallize in the rock-salt structure, although with very different atomic order and stoichiometry in the core and surface regions; however, there exists no convincing prior identification of how extreme downsizing and surface-induced ligand effects influence structural distortion. Using forefront X-ray scattering techniques and density functional theory calculations, here we have identified that, at sizes below 8 nm, PbS and PbSe QDs undergo a lattice distortion with displacement of the Pb sublattice, driven by ligand-induced tensile strain. The resulting permanent electric dipoles may have implications on the oriented attachment of these QDs. Evidence is found for a Pb-deficient core and, in the as-synthesized QDs, for a rhombic dodecahedral shape with nonpolar {110} facets. On varying the nature of the surface ligands, differences in lattice strains are found. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group Source

Bartalena L.,University of Insubria
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Treatment of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is a major challenge, and the outcome of medical therapy is unsatisfactory in about one-third of cases. Glucocorticoids are the first-line therapy for moderate-to-severe and active GO, more commonly given through the intravenous route. Uncertainty remains as to the best therapeutic approach when the initial glucocorticoid treatment provides an incomplete response or no response. The choice largely depends on personal experience because of the limited evidence in this field. In the author's view, if a first course of glucocorticoids provides a suboptimal response, a second course of intravenous (or oral) glucocorticoids associated with orbital radiotherapy should be given. An alternative might be represented by oral glucocorticoids associated with cyclosporine. The use of biological agents, the most promising being rituximab, is for the time being experimental and warrants support from randomized clinical trials. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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