Chicago, IL, United States

University of Illinois at Chicago

www.uic.edu
Chicago, IL, United States

The University of Illinois at Chicago, or UIC, is a state-funded public research university located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Its campus is in the Near West Side community area, adjacent to the Chicago Loop. The second campus established under the University of Illinois system, UIC is also the largest university in the Chicago area, having approximately 28,000 students enrolled in 15 colleges.UIC operates the largest medical school in the United States, and serves as the principal educator for Illinois’ physicians, dentists, pharmacists, physical therapists, nurses and other healthcare professionals. UIC's medical school has research expenditures exceeding $412 million and consistently ranks in the top 50 U.S. institutions for research expenditures.In the 2015 U.S. News & World Report's ranking of colleges and universities, UIC ranked as the 149th best in the "national universities" category. The 2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked UIC as the 13th best in the world among universities less than 50 years old.UIC competes in NCAA Division I Horizon League as the UIC Flames in sports. The UIC Pavilion is home to all UIC basketball games. It also serves as a venue for concerts. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Johns Hopkins University and University of Illinois at Chicago | Date: 2015-04-22

The present invention provides novel indoleamide compounds for treating tuberculosis, including drug-resistant M-tuberculosis, compositions comprising the indoleamides and methods of using the indoleamides in conjunction with other biologically active agents for the treatment of tuberculosis in a subject in need thereof.


News Article | May 23, 2017
Site: www.sej.org

"On Thursday, a group of scientists, including three working for the U.S. Geological Survey, published a paper that highlighted the link between sea-level rise and global climate change, arguing that previously studies may have underestimated the risk flooding poses to coastal communities. However, three of the study’s authors say the Department of Interior, under which USGS is housed, deleted a line from the news release on the study that discussed the role climate change played in raising Earth’s oceans. 'While we were approving the news release, they had an issue with one or two of the lines,' said Sean Vitousek, a research assistant professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. 'It had to do with climate change and sea-level rise.'" Dino Grandoni reports for the Washington Post May 22, 2017.


News Article | May 29, 2017
Site: phys.org

Particle collisions at RHIC—a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility located at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory—regularly recreate tiny specs of quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a mixture of quarks and gluons, the fundamental building blocks of visible matter, which last existed as free particles some 14 billion years ago. The collisions free the quarks and gluons from their confinement within ordinary particles (e.g., protons and neutrons) so nuclear physicists can study their interactions and the force that holds them together in the universe today. The new measurements, described in a paper just published in Physical Review Letters, are the first to come from a precision upgrade to RHIC's STAR detector known as the "Heavy Flavor Tracker" (HFT). Specifically, the paper gives details about the first direct measurement at RHIC of how a type of heavy particle containing a "charm" quark gets caught up in the flow of the expanding fireball. This measurement—a testament to the capabilities of the HFT—gives scientists a new window into understanding the interactions of the particles that make up the subatomic soup. "By comparing our measurements with theoretical predictions that include the various parameters that play a role in these interactions—things like the diffusion coefficient (how quickly the charm quarks spread throughout the plasma) and viscosity (how sticky the QGP is)—we can learn about how these different properties relate to one another, and ultimately why the QGP behaves the way it does," said Brookhaven physicist Flemming Videbaek, the project manager responsible for the overall fabrication of the STAR HFT. Particles containing heavy quarks are considered ideal probes for understanding quark-gluon plasma because they may interact differently with the plasma than light quarks do, offering up subtle clues about its properties. But the QGP spits out particles containing heavy quarks only rarely, amid thousands of other particles made of the lighter varieties of quarks. The few heavy particles that do emerge decay into other particles almost instantly—mere fractions of a millimeter from the QGP fireball in which they were created. This rarity and rapid decay make heavy particles difficult to detect. STAR's HFT, a state-of-the-art tracking device now sitting at the center of the house-sized detector, was designed to track the elusive but important heavy particles. Developed by nuclear physicists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the HFT is the first silicon detector at a collider that uses Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor technology—the same technology used in digital cameras. The ultrathin sensors—unlike many of the particle detection components of STAR—sit very close to the central beampipe in which the collisions take place. While not quite close enough to detect the heavy charm quark itself, this location and the detector's high resolution (360 million pixels measuring 20 x 20 microns each) allow it to pick up signs of the heavy particles' decay. For this particular study, STAR physicists were tracking particles called kaons and pions that emerge when charm-quark-containing particles known as a D-zeros decay. A concerted effort from many groups of the collaboration—including researchers from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Kent State University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago—made this analysis successful in a short time. "We use the HFT to look for kaons and pions that are very close to one another— within fractions of a millimeter of one another—whose paths from the collision emerge from a single point that's away from the collision vertex, but not very far, about 100-500 microns," Videbaek said. That's the distance D0s travel before they decay, he explained. If the kaon and pion have just the right mass and trajectories emerging from such a point, the scientists can conclude that they originated from a D0 at that spot—and use these measurements to track the emergence of D0s from all around the QGP. "The precision of our measurement is unprecedented," said Xin Dong, a physicist at Berkeley Lab who led the postdocs and students conducting the physics analysis on the heavy flavor results. "It was extremely challenging due to interference from thousands of other particles produced in the same heavy ion collisions—a bit like picking a needle out of a haystack." The findings—based on an analysis of tens of thousands of such "needles" in 1.1 billion collisions—were somewhat surprising. Think of the shape created when two spherical gold ions collide off center forming an oblong overlap—something like a football standing on end. STAR physicists found more D0s emerging from the fat part of the "football" than from its pointy ends. This pattern of "elliptic flow" was familiar from measurements of lighter particles emerging from the QGP. But nuclear physicists didn't initially expect such heavy particles to get caught up in the flow. "D0s are created in the very first part of the collision, when the quarks and gluons are free," Videbaek said. "Physicists didn't think these heavy-quark particles would have time to interact, or equilibrate, with the QGP, which exists for only an infinitesimally small fraction of a second." Instead, the fact that the heavy quarks exhibit the same elliptic flow as lighter particles do is evidence that they are in equilibrium, interacting with the free quarks and gluons in the QGP. "The type of flow we observed for particles with heavy quarks suggests that their interactions inside the quark-gluon plasma are so strong that the heavy quarks themselves become part of the quark-gluon 'soup,'" said Dong. Grazyna Odyniec, leader of Berkeley Lab's Relativistic Nuclear Collisions Program, added, "The discovery of the elliptic flow of a very massive charm quark is of fundamental importance for our understanding of quark-gluon plasma phase dynamics. It opens up a broad range of theoretical speculations about the nature of a possible mechanism (or mechanisms) behind this observation." Brookhaven Lab physicist and STAR collaboration spokesperson Zhangbu Xu noted that the ability to track the flow and diffusion of the heavy particles gives nuclear physicists a new way to "see" and study the interactions of the freely moving quarks and gluons and other properties of the QGP—somewhat analogous to the way scientists from the last century tracked the vibrations of pollen grains in water to learn about its properties. "Einstein proved in 1905 that atoms and molecules exist, and that we could use the so-called Brownian motion of pollen grains to measure the properties of the fluid and other fundamental physics constants," Xu said. "Now we can use the charm quarks like the pollen grains to measure the flow and other properties of the QGP." Explore further: New CERN results show novel phenomena in proton collisions


Stephanov M.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We point out that the quartic cumulant (and kurtosis) of the order parameter fluctuations is universally negative when the critical point is approached on the crossover side of the phase separation line. As a consequence, the kurtosis of a fluctuating observable, such as, e.g., proton multiplicity, may become smaller than the value given by independent Poisson statistics. We discuss implications for the beam energy scan program at RHIC at BNL. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Aggarwal S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2014

Spray ignition represents a critical process in numerous propulsion and energy conversion devices. Compared to a gaseous mixture, ignition in a spray is significantly more complex, as the state of ignition in the latter case can be defined by three distinct ignition modes namely, droplet ignition, droplet cluster ignition, and spray ignition. Ignition for an individual droplet represents the appearance of a flame surrounding the droplet or in the wake region, with a dimension on the order of droplet diameter. The cluster or group ignition refers tothe ignition aroundor inside a droplet cloud, while the spray ignition implies the appearance of aglobal flame witha characteristic dimension few ordersof magnitude larger than adroplet. In all three modes, ignition is preceded by the evaporation of fuel droplets, formation of a combustible gaseous fuel-air mixture, and initiation of chemical reactions producing sufficient radical species. The identification of the dominant ignition mode for given two-phase properties represents a problem of significant fundamental and practical importance. Research dealing with laminar and turbulent spray ignition has been reviewed by Aggarwal [1] and Mastorakos [2], respectively, while Annamalai and Ryan [3] have provided a review of droplet group combustion/ignition. In the present review, we discuss experimental, theoretical, and computational research dealing with individual droplet ignition. Topics include the quasi-steady and unsteady models for the ignition of a fuel droplet in a stagnant environment, the droplet ignition in a high-pressure environment, the convective effects on droplet ignition, and multicomponent fuel droplet ignition. Studies dealing with the two-stage and NTC ignition behavior for a droplet are also discussed. Finally, relationship between the droplet ignition mode to droplet cluster and spray ignition modes is briefly described. Potential topics for further research are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lau L.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2011

CCN1 (CYR61) is a dynamically expressed, multifunctional matricellular protein that plays essential roles in cardiovascular development during embryogenesis, and regulates inflammation, wound healing and fibrogenesis in the adult. Aberrant CCN1 expression is associated with myriad pathologies, including various cancers and diseases associated with chronic inflammation. CCN1 promotes diverse and sometimes opposing cellular responses, which can be ascribed, as least in part, to disparate activities mediated through its direct binding to distinct integrins in different cell types and contexts. Accordingly, CCN1 promotes cell proliferation, survival and angiogenesis by binding to integrin αvβ 3, and induces apoptosis and senescence through integrin α6β1 and heparin sulfate proteoglycans. The ability of CCN1 to trigger the accumulation of a robust and sustained level of reactive oxygen species underlies some of its unique activities as a matrix cell-adhesion molecule. Emerging studies suggest that CCN1 might be useful as a biomarker or therapeutic target in certain diseases. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.


LaSarre B.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Federle M.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2013

Cell-cell communication, or quorum sensing, is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria that is used to coordinate gene expression among local populations. Its use by bacterial pathogens to regulate genes that promote invasion, defense, and spread has been particularly well documented. With the ongoing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, there is a current need for development of alternative therapeutic strategies. An antivirulence approach by which quorum sensing is impeded has caught on as a viable means to manipulate bacterial processes, especially pathogenic traits that are harmful to human and animal health and agricultural productivity. The identification and development of chemical compounds and enzymes that facilitate quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI) by targeting signaling molecules, signal biogen-esis, or signal detection are reviewed here. Overall, the evidence suggests that QSI therapy may be efficacious against some, but not necessarily all, bacterial pathogens, and several failures and ongoing concerns that may steer future studies in productive directions are discussed. Nevertheless, various QSI successes have rightfully perpetuated excitement surrounding new potential therapies, and this review highlights promising QSI leads in disrupting pathogenesis in both plants and animals. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


BACKGROUND–: Intramyocardial triglyceride (TG) turnover is reduced in pressure overloaded, failing hearts, limiting availability of this rich source of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) for mitochondrial β-oxidation and nuclear receptor activation. This study explored two major dietary fats, palmitate and oleate, in supporting endogenous TG dynamics and peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation in sham-operated (SHAM) and hypertrophied (transverse aortic constriction, TAC) rat hearts.METHODS AND RESULTS–: Isolated SHAM and TAC hearts were provided media containing carbohydrate with either C-palmitate or C-oleate for dynamic C NMR spectroscopy and endpoint LC/MS of TG dynamics. With palmitate, TAC hearts contained 48% less TG versus SHAM (P=0.0003), while oleate maintained elevated TG in TAC, similar to SHAM. TG turnover in TAC was greatly reduced with palmitate (TAC: 46.7±12.2 nmol/g dw/min; SHAM: 84.3±4.9; P=0.0212), as was β-oxidation of TG. Oleate elevated TG turnover in both TAC 140.4±11.2) and SHAM (143.9±15.6), restoring TG oxidation in TAC. PPAR-α target gene transcripts were reduced by 70% in TAC with palmitate, while oleate induced normal transcript evels. Additionally, mRNA levels for PGC-1α and PGC-1β in TAC hearts were maintained by oleate. With these metabolic effects, oleate also supported a 25% improvement in contractilityover palmitate with TAC (P=0.0202).CONCLUSIONS–: The findings link reduced intracellular lipid storage dynamics to impaired PPAR-α signaling and contractility in diseased hearts, consistent with a rate-dependent lipolytic activation of PPAR-α In decompensated hearts, oleate may serve as a beneficial energy substrate versus palmitate by upregulating TG dynamics and nuclear receptor signaling. © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Chemical Synthesis | Award Amount: 303.33K | Year: 2017

The Chemical Synthesis Program of the Chemistry Division supports this project by Professor Justin Mohr to develop new catalyst molecules that aid in the synthesis of complex molecules. Professor Mohr is a faculty member in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His research program is combined with the development of new educational tools that can be used to explain complex concepts to science learners. On the research front, Professor Mohr and his students seek to control the behavior of highly reactive molecules that contain either an unpaired electron or an anion. These intermediates are formed and then converted into the production of target molecules where the specific spatial arrangement of the atoms required is difficult to obtain using currently available methods. This project contributes to the fields of organic synthesis, organometallic chemistry, and physical organic chemistry and builds new molecules with potential long-range applications in medicine, agriculture, biochemistry, and materials science. On the educational front, Professor Mohr is working to educate young students through outreach activities that involve children in grades K-12 students, and to increase laboratory research opportunities for underrepresented students. Within this overall effort is a plan to introduce the concept of catalysis to middle school students. Catalysts are molecules that help reactions proceed faster toward desirable targets while not being consumed. By helping students to understand how catalysts react, Professor Mohr is able to teach the students many of the key concepts that form the foundation of modern chemical methods. Professor Mohrs education plan also includes an effort to identify college age organic chemistry students that are prone to have difficulty with spatial recognition tasks. Such difficulties can impede their education, so his plan is to identify the problem early so that extra help can be provided to the students in a timely fashion so as to ensure their long-term success.

First-row transition metals are attractive catalysts for generating reactive organic radical intermediates. These radical species are particularly suited to novel regio- and stereoselective coupling reactions with conjugated alkenes. This research seeks to develop new variants of such transformations that have specific uses in the synthesis of complex molecules applicable to the synthesis of natural products, functional materials, agrochemicals, and biochemical probes. This approach explores control of site-selectivity in reactions of conjugated dienolates. The research uses insights into the electronic structure of these anionic intermediates to overcome the typical selectivity in the location of bond formation with ambident nucleophiles. Use of this concept to synthesize organofluorine compounds reveals an unprecedented stereocontrol element with the potential to generate valuable, stereochemically rich organofluorine compounds. The research also seeks to understand the fundamental chemical concepts that explain this novel stereocontrol effect. The educational plan makes use of chemical reactivity as a platform to introduce the concept of metal catalysis to middle school students through a tangible demonstration. A second portion of the educational plan seeks to identify students at risk for difficulty in learning stereochemical concepts and to provide early interventions that improve educational outcomes. These components address scientific development at multiple levels.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Campus Cyberinfrastrc (CC-NIE) | Award Amount: 499.75K | Year: 2017

The sizes of scientific datasets are growing exponentially across all scientific disciplines due to several factors such as improved scientific instrumentation, social media and decreasing costs of storage. To extract real value from these geographically distant datasets, researchers need to have access to these datasets at high speeds which is typically not possible with traditional campus networks. The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is building HPRNet, a high performance research network providing last mile connectivity for over 31 research projects. HPRNet not only improves the ongoing research productivity, but also sets the stage for future innovations and collaborations. UIC is a public university and minority serving institution (MSI) in the heart of Chicago area where HPRNet significantly impacts the research training of underrepresented groups. The project team is working with other NSF and institutionally funded minority training programs on campus to ensure access to HPRNet resources.

For HPRNets deployment, 13 locations are identified at UIC where 10 to 40 Gigabit uplinks to regional, national and international R&E networks are established. HPRNet builds on the Science DMZ model that works in concert with the current campus research network (CRN) and a special data storage system known as Data Transfer Node (DTN) to deliver high-performance and reliable network paths for data-intensive applications, including high-volume bulk data transfer, remote experiment and/or instrumentation control, cloud computing, data-mining and advanced visualization.

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