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Chicago, IL, United States

The University of Illinois at Chicago, or UIC, is a state-funded public research university located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Its campus is in the Near West Side community area, adjacent to the Chicago Loop. The second campus established under the University of Illinois system, UIC is also the largest university in the Chicago area, having approximately 28,000 students enrolled in 15 colleges.UIC operates the largest medical school in the United States, and serves as the principal educator for Illinois’ physicians, dentists, pharmacists, physical therapists, nurses and other healthcare professionals. UIC's medical school has research expenditures exceeding $412 million and consistently ranks in the top 50 U.S. institutions for research expenditures.In the 2015 U.S. News & World Report's ranking of colleges and universities, UIC ranked as the 149th best in the "national universities" category. The 2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked UIC as the 13th best in the world among universities less than 50 years old.UIC competes in NCAA Division I Horizon League as the UIC Flames in sports. The UIC Pavilion is home to all UIC basketball games. It also serves as a venue for concerts. Wikipedia.

Lau L.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

CCN1 (CYR61) is a dynamically expressed, multifunctional matricellular protein that plays essential roles in cardiovascular development during embryogenesis, and regulates inflammation, wound healing and fibrogenesis in the adult. Aberrant CCN1 expression is associated with myriad pathologies, including various cancers and diseases associated with chronic inflammation. CCN1 promotes diverse and sometimes opposing cellular responses, which can be ascribed, as least in part, to disparate activities mediated through its direct binding to distinct integrins in different cell types and contexts. Accordingly, CCN1 promotes cell proliferation, survival and angiogenesis by binding to integrin αvβ 3, and induces apoptosis and senescence through integrin α6β1 and heparin sulfate proteoglycans. The ability of CCN1 to trigger the accumulation of a robust and sustained level of reactive oxygen species underlies some of its unique activities as a matrix cell-adhesion molecule. Emerging studies suggest that CCN1 might be useful as a biomarker or therapeutic target in certain diseases. © 2011 Springer Basel AG. Source

Aggarwal S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science

Spray ignition represents a critical process in numerous propulsion and energy conversion devices. Compared to a gaseous mixture, ignition in a spray is significantly more complex, as the state of ignition in the latter case can be defined by three distinct ignition modes namely, droplet ignition, droplet cluster ignition, and spray ignition. Ignition for an individual droplet represents the appearance of a flame surrounding the droplet or in the wake region, with a dimension on the order of droplet diameter. The cluster or group ignition refers tothe ignition aroundor inside a droplet cloud, while the spray ignition implies the appearance of aglobal flame witha characteristic dimension few ordersof magnitude larger than adroplet. In all three modes, ignition is preceded by the evaporation of fuel droplets, formation of a combustible gaseous fuel-air mixture, and initiation of chemical reactions producing sufficient radical species. The identification of the dominant ignition mode for given two-phase properties represents a problem of significant fundamental and practical importance. Research dealing with laminar and turbulent spray ignition has been reviewed by Aggarwal [1] and Mastorakos [2], respectively, while Annamalai and Ryan [3] have provided a review of droplet group combustion/ignition. In the present review, we discuss experimental, theoretical, and computational research dealing with individual droplet ignition. Topics include the quasi-steady and unsteady models for the ignition of a fuel droplet in a stagnant environment, the droplet ignition in a high-pressure environment, the convective effects on droplet ignition, and multicomponent fuel droplet ignition. Studies dealing with the two-stage and NTC ignition behavior for a droplet are also discussed. Finally, relationship between the droplet ignition mode to droplet cluster and spray ignition modes is briefly described. Potential topics for further research are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

BACKGROUND–: Intramyocardial triglyceride (TG) turnover is reduced in pressure overloaded, failing hearts, limiting availability of this rich source of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) for mitochondrial β-oxidation and nuclear receptor activation. This study explored two major dietary fats, palmitate and oleate, in supporting endogenous TG dynamics and peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation in sham-operated (SHAM) and hypertrophied (transverse aortic constriction, TAC) rat hearts.METHODS AND RESULTS–: Isolated SHAM and TAC hearts were provided media containing carbohydrate with either C-palmitate or C-oleate for dynamic C NMR spectroscopy and endpoint LC/MS of TG dynamics. With palmitate, TAC hearts contained 48% less TG versus SHAM (P=0.0003), while oleate maintained elevated TG in TAC, similar to SHAM. TG turnover in TAC was greatly reduced with palmitate (TAC: 46.7±12.2 nmol/g dw/min; SHAM: 84.3±4.9; P=0.0212), as was β-oxidation of TG. Oleate elevated TG turnover in both TAC 140.4±11.2) and SHAM (143.9±15.6), restoring TG oxidation in TAC. PPAR-α target gene transcripts were reduced by 70% in TAC with palmitate, while oleate induced normal transcript evels. Additionally, mRNA levels for PGC-1α and PGC-1β in TAC hearts were maintained by oleate. With these metabolic effects, oleate also supported a 25% improvement in contractilityover palmitate with TAC (P=0.0202).CONCLUSIONS–: The findings link reduced intracellular lipid storage dynamics to impaired PPAR-α signaling and contractility in diseased hearts, consistent with a rate-dependent lipolytic activation of PPAR-α In decompensated hearts, oleate may serve as a beneficial energy substrate versus palmitate by upregulating TG dynamics and nuclear receptor signaling. © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Caffrey M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Trends in Microbiology

The HIV envelope proteins glycoprotein 120 (gp120) and glycoprotein 41 (gp41) play crucial roles in HIV entry, therefore they are of extreme interest in the development of novel therapeutics. Studies using diverse methods, including structural biology and mutagenesis, have resulted in a detailed model for envelope-mediated entry, which consists of multiple conformations, each a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In this review, the challenges, strategies and progress to date for developing novel entry inhibitors directed at disrupting HIV gp120 and gp41 function are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Trustees Of Tufts College, U.S. Air force and University of Illinois at Chicago | Date: 2014-05-16

The claimed invention provides a fusion polypeptide comprising a fibrous protein domain and a mineralization domain. The fusion is used to form an organic-inorganic composite. These organic-inorganic composites can be constructed from the nano- to the macro-scale depending on the size of the fibrous protein fusion domain used. In one embodiment, the composites can also be loaded with other compounds (e.g., dyes, drugs, enzymes) depending on the goal for the materials, to further enhance function. This can be achieved during assembly of the material or during the mineralization step in materials formation.

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