Chicago, IL, United States
Chicago, IL, United States

The University of Illinois at Chicago, or UIC, is a state-funded public research university located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Its campus is in the Near West Side community area, adjacent to the Chicago Loop. The second campus established under the University of Illinois system, UIC is also the largest university in the Chicago area, having approximately 28,000 students enrolled in 15 colleges.UIC operates the largest medical school in the United States, and serves as the principal educator for Illinois’ physicians, dentists, pharmacists, physical therapists, nurses and other healthcare professionals. UIC's medical school has research expenditures exceeding $412 million and consistently ranks in the top 50 U.S. institutions for research expenditures.In the 2015 U.S. News & World Report's ranking of colleges and universities, UIC ranked as the 149th best in the "national universities" category. The 2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked UIC as the 13th best in the world among universities less than 50 years old.UIC competes in NCAA Division I Horizon League as the UIC Flames in sports. The UIC Pavilion is home to all UIC basketball games. It also serves as a venue for concerts. Wikipedia.

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Johns Hopkins University and University of Illinois at Chicago | Date: 2015-04-22

The present invention provides novel indoleamide compounds for treating tuberculosis, including drug-resistant M-tuberculosis, compositions comprising the indoleamides and methods of using the indoleamides in conjunction with other biologically active agents for the treatment of tuberculosis in a subject in need thereof.

Stephanov M.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We point out that the quartic cumulant (and kurtosis) of the order parameter fluctuations is universally negative when the critical point is approached on the crossover side of the phase separation line. As a consequence, the kurtosis of a fluctuating observable, such as, e.g., proton multiplicity, may become smaller than the value given by independent Poisson statistics. We discuss implications for the beam energy scan program at RHIC at BNL. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Aggarwal S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2014

Spray ignition represents a critical process in numerous propulsion and energy conversion devices. Compared to a gaseous mixture, ignition in a spray is significantly more complex, as the state of ignition in the latter case can be defined by three distinct ignition modes namely, droplet ignition, droplet cluster ignition, and spray ignition. Ignition for an individual droplet represents the appearance of a flame surrounding the droplet or in the wake region, with a dimension on the order of droplet diameter. The cluster or group ignition refers tothe ignition aroundor inside a droplet cloud, while the spray ignition implies the appearance of aglobal flame witha characteristic dimension few ordersof magnitude larger than adroplet. In all three modes, ignition is preceded by the evaporation of fuel droplets, formation of a combustible gaseous fuel-air mixture, and initiation of chemical reactions producing sufficient radical species. The identification of the dominant ignition mode for given two-phase properties represents a problem of significant fundamental and practical importance. Research dealing with laminar and turbulent spray ignition has been reviewed by Aggarwal [1] and Mastorakos [2], respectively, while Annamalai and Ryan [3] have provided a review of droplet group combustion/ignition. In the present review, we discuss experimental, theoretical, and computational research dealing with individual droplet ignition. Topics include the quasi-steady and unsteady models for the ignition of a fuel droplet in a stagnant environment, the droplet ignition in a high-pressure environment, the convective effects on droplet ignition, and multicomponent fuel droplet ignition. Studies dealing with the two-stage and NTC ignition behavior for a droplet are also discussed. Finally, relationship between the droplet ignition mode to droplet cluster and spray ignition modes is briefly described. Potential topics for further research are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lau L.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2011

CCN1 (CYR61) is a dynamically expressed, multifunctional matricellular protein that plays essential roles in cardiovascular development during embryogenesis, and regulates inflammation, wound healing and fibrogenesis in the adult. Aberrant CCN1 expression is associated with myriad pathologies, including various cancers and diseases associated with chronic inflammation. CCN1 promotes diverse and sometimes opposing cellular responses, which can be ascribed, as least in part, to disparate activities mediated through its direct binding to distinct integrins in different cell types and contexts. Accordingly, CCN1 promotes cell proliferation, survival and angiogenesis by binding to integrin αvβ 3, and induces apoptosis and senescence through integrin α6β1 and heparin sulfate proteoglycans. The ability of CCN1 to trigger the accumulation of a robust and sustained level of reactive oxygen species underlies some of its unique activities as a matrix cell-adhesion molecule. Emerging studies suggest that CCN1 might be useful as a biomarker or therapeutic target in certain diseases. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

LaSarre B.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Federle M.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2013

Cell-cell communication, or quorum sensing, is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria that is used to coordinate gene expression among local populations. Its use by bacterial pathogens to regulate genes that promote invasion, defense, and spread has been particularly well documented. With the ongoing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, there is a current need for development of alternative therapeutic strategies. An antivirulence approach by which quorum sensing is impeded has caught on as a viable means to manipulate bacterial processes, especially pathogenic traits that are harmful to human and animal health and agricultural productivity. The identification and development of chemical compounds and enzymes that facilitate quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI) by targeting signaling molecules, signal biogen-esis, or signal detection are reviewed here. Overall, the evidence suggests that QSI therapy may be efficacious against some, but not necessarily all, bacterial pathogens, and several failures and ongoing concerns that may steer future studies in productive directions are discussed. Nevertheless, various QSI successes have rightfully perpetuated excitement surrounding new potential therapies, and this review highlights promising QSI leads in disrupting pathogenesis in both plants and animals. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

BACKGROUND–: Intramyocardial triglyceride (TG) turnover is reduced in pressure overloaded, failing hearts, limiting availability of this rich source of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) for mitochondrial β-oxidation and nuclear receptor activation. This study explored two major dietary fats, palmitate and oleate, in supporting endogenous TG dynamics and peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation in sham-operated (SHAM) and hypertrophied (transverse aortic constriction, TAC) rat hearts.METHODS AND RESULTS–: Isolated SHAM and TAC hearts were provided media containing carbohydrate with either C-palmitate or C-oleate for dynamic C NMR spectroscopy and endpoint LC/MS of TG dynamics. With palmitate, TAC hearts contained 48% less TG versus SHAM (P=0.0003), while oleate maintained elevated TG in TAC, similar to SHAM. TG turnover in TAC was greatly reduced with palmitate (TAC: 46.7±12.2 nmol/g dw/min; SHAM: 84.3±4.9; P=0.0212), as was β-oxidation of TG. Oleate elevated TG turnover in both TAC 140.4±11.2) and SHAM (143.9±15.6), restoring TG oxidation in TAC. PPAR-α target gene transcripts were reduced by 70% in TAC with palmitate, while oleate induced normal transcript evels. Additionally, mRNA levels for PGC-1α and PGC-1β in TAC hearts were maintained by oleate. With these metabolic effects, oleate also supported a 25% improvement in contractilityover palmitate with TAC (P=0.0202).CONCLUSIONS–: The findings link reduced intracellular lipid storage dynamics to impaired PPAR-α signaling and contractility in diseased hearts, consistent with a rate-dependent lipolytic activation of PPAR-α In decompensated hearts, oleate may serve as a beneficial energy substrate versus palmitate by upregulating TG dynamics and nuclear receptor signaling. © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Chemical Synthesis | Award Amount: 303.33K | Year: 2017

The Chemical Synthesis Program of the Chemistry Division supports this project by Professor Justin Mohr to develop new catalyst molecules that aid in the synthesis of complex molecules. Professor Mohr is a faculty member in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His research program is combined with the development of new educational tools that can be used to explain complex concepts to science learners. On the research front, Professor Mohr and his students seek to control the behavior of highly reactive molecules that contain either an unpaired electron or an anion. These intermediates are formed and then converted into the production of target molecules where the specific spatial arrangement of the atoms required is difficult to obtain using currently available methods. This project contributes to the fields of organic synthesis, organometallic chemistry, and physical organic chemistry and builds new molecules with potential long-range applications in medicine, agriculture, biochemistry, and materials science. On the educational front, Professor Mohr is working to educate young students through outreach activities that involve children in grades K-12 students, and to increase laboratory research opportunities for underrepresented students. Within this overall effort is a plan to introduce the concept of catalysis to middle school students. Catalysts are molecules that help reactions proceed faster toward desirable targets while not being consumed. By helping students to understand how catalysts react, Professor Mohr is able to teach the students many of the key concepts that form the foundation of modern chemical methods. Professor Mohrs education plan also includes an effort to identify college age organic chemistry students that are prone to have difficulty with spatial recognition tasks. Such difficulties can impede their education, so his plan is to identify the problem early so that extra help can be provided to the students in a timely fashion so as to ensure their long-term success.

First-row transition metals are attractive catalysts for generating reactive organic radical intermediates. These radical species are particularly suited to novel regio- and stereoselective coupling reactions with conjugated alkenes. This research seeks to develop new variants of such transformations that have specific uses in the synthesis of complex molecules applicable to the synthesis of natural products, functional materials, agrochemicals, and biochemical probes. This approach explores control of site-selectivity in reactions of conjugated dienolates. The research uses insights into the electronic structure of these anionic intermediates to overcome the typical selectivity in the location of bond formation with ambident nucleophiles. Use of this concept to synthesize organofluorine compounds reveals an unprecedented stereocontrol element with the potential to generate valuable, stereochemically rich organofluorine compounds. The research also seeks to understand the fundamental chemical concepts that explain this novel stereocontrol effect. The educational plan makes use of chemical reactivity as a platform to introduce the concept of metal catalysis to middle school students through a tangible demonstration. A second portion of the educational plan seeks to identify students at risk for difficulty in learning stereochemical concepts and to provide early interventions that improve educational outcomes. These components address scientific development at multiple levels.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Core R&D Programs | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2016

This project examines how high school science teachers develop practices of classroom assessment in order to make instructional decisions that optimize student learning in light of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). In implementing the NGSS, teachers are faced with performance expectations that integrate cross-cutting concepts, practices and disciplinary core ideas in ways that depart from more traditional content-focused goals. The practices entail a range of science literacies including question generation, data representation, explanatory modeling, and communication among scientists and with the general public. To be successful, teachers must align these multi-dimensional student performance expectations with instruction that supports these and assessments that demonstrate students progress. This project engages high school science teachers to develop assessments that cover the multiple dimensions of the performance expectations. Developing these assessments occurs as teachers focus on the nature of the evidence in student work that would indicate progress toward proficiency. Teachers work in learning communities so they can draw on each others content and pedagogical expertise as they iteratively refine their assessment designs.

The project builds upon hypothetical learning trajectories for teachers, comprising five dimensions of teacher knowledge and practice: Assessment literacy and practices; views of student roles in assessment practices; participation within collaborative design teams; assessment design practices aligned with NGSS; and NGSS-aligned instructional practices. These dimensions organize a three-year professional development sequence for teachers from six different urban public high schools of a large and diverse school district. The location of this work also enables consideration of how teachers progressively address factors such as language learning, student economic backgrounds, and the needs of special education students. Throughout the sequence, teachers work within professional learning communities focused on iterative cycles of assessment design, implementation, reflection, and revision. The project applies mixed-methods to a variety of data sources, including teacher surveys, documentation of assessment design cycles, student work products, and observations of instructional practices. Analyses aim to further develop the hypothetical learning trajectories, obtain additional insights into teacher collaborative practices, and examine the relationship between changes in teacher assessment practices, their instructional methods, and student learning. Furthermore, engaging teachers in not only the collaborative design of assessments but also in the co-design of the professional development sequence reinforces this projects capacity to afford and foster local innovations that mitigate or resolve tensions extant in science education. This project is supported by NSFs EHR Core Research (ECR) program. The ECR program emphasizes fundamental STEM education research that generates foundational knowledge in the field.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Campus Cyberinfrastrc (CC-NIE) | Award Amount: 499.75K | Year: 2017

The sizes of scientific datasets are growing exponentially across all scientific disciplines due to several factors such as improved scientific instrumentation, social media and decreasing costs of storage. To extract real value from these geographically distant datasets, researchers need to have access to these datasets at high speeds which is typically not possible with traditional campus networks. The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is building HPRNet, a high performance research network providing last mile connectivity for over 31 research projects. HPRNet not only improves the ongoing research productivity, but also sets the stage for future innovations and collaborations. UIC is a public university and minority serving institution (MSI) in the heart of Chicago area where HPRNet significantly impacts the research training of underrepresented groups. The project team is working with other NSF and institutionally funded minority training programs on campus to ensure access to HPRNet resources.

For HPRNets deployment, 13 locations are identified at UIC where 10 to 40 Gigabit uplinks to regional, national and international R&E networks are established. HPRNet builds on the Science DMZ model that works in concert with the current campus research network (CRN) and a special data storage system known as Data Transfer Node (DTN) to deliver high-performance and reliable network paths for data-intensive applications, including high-volume bulk data transfer, remote experiment and/or instrumentation control, cloud computing, data-mining and advanced visualization.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Molecular Biophysics | Award Amount: 220.00K | Year: 2017

CAREER: Mechanism of Protein Catalyzed Membrane Fusion
PI:Lorieau, Justin

The fusion and poration of membranes underlies many fundamental processes in biology, including interaction of viruses with their hosts, neurotransmission and vesicle trafficking. This project aims to determine the mechanism of membrane fusion at the molecular level. The PI will use the prototypic influenza hemagglutinin fusion protein to understand membrane fusion during viral infection and cellular entry. The results of this project will reveal how proteins mediate membrane fusion and answer important questions on viral infection. These results will lead to important insights into a variety of viral infection mechanisms, as well as enhance our knowledge of fundamental processes in biological membranes. The educational aspects of the project integrates graduate students, undergraduates and research experiments in the classroom with molecular techniques in modern biophysics.

Membrane fusion will be studied by investigating the vital fusion peptide (HAfp) and transmembrane (HAtmd) domains of the influenza hemagglutinin. These domains are highly conserved and necessary for influenza membrane fusion and cellular entry. Yet, their molecular structures, impact on membranes, and intermolecular interactions remain poorly understood. The PI has made important advances in producing full-length, fully functional HAfp proteins as well as developed new techniques in NMR to determine how proteins impact membranes. With these advances, the PI will investigate 1) features in the HAfp structure that enhance early fusion activity, 2) changes in membrane structure and lipid dynamics by HAfp peptides, and 3) the protein-protein interactions necessary for pore formation late in the membrane fusion process. A multi-pronged biophysical approach will be used, including molecular structure determination by NMR, calorimetry of membranes, fluorescence spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, analytic ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography.

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