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Chicago, IL, United States

The University of Illinois at Chicago, or UIC, is a state-funded public research university located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Its campus is in the Near West Side community area, adjacent to the Chicago Loop. The second campus established under the University of Illinois system, UIC is also the largest university in the Chicago area, having approximately 28,000 students enrolled in 15 colleges.UIC operates the largest medical school in the United States, and serves as the principal educator for Illinois’ physicians, dentists, pharmacists, physical therapists, nurses and other healthcare professionals. UIC's medical school has research expenditures exceeding $412 million and consistently ranks in the top 50 U.S. institutions for research expenditures.In the 2015 U.S. News & World Report's ranking of colleges and universities, UIC ranked as the 149th best in the "national universities" category. The 2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked UIC as the 13th best in the world among universities less than 50 years old.UIC competes in NCAA Division I Horizon League as the UIC Flames in sports. The UIC Pavilion is home to all UIC basketball games. It also serves as a venue for concerts. Wikipedia.

Ng S.S.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Hui-Chan C.W.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

Objectives: (1) To determine the relationships of ankle dorsiflexor strength, ankle plantarflexor strength, and spasticity of the ankle plantarflexors with walking endurance; (2) to determine whether affected ankle dorsiflexor strength makes an independent contribution to walking endurance; and (3) to quantify its relative contribution to the walking endurance of people with spastic hemiplegia after stroke. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: University-based rehabilitation center. Participants: Subjects (N=62) with spastic hemiplegia. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Walking endurance was measured by the distance covered in the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Ankle dorsiflexor and plantarflexor strength were measured using a load-cell mounted on a custom-built foot support. Plantarflexor spasticity was measured using the Composite Spasticity Scale. Results: The six-minute walk distances showed stronger positive correlation with affected dorsiflexor strength (r=.793, P≤.000) when compared with affected plantarflexor strength (r=.349, P=.005). Results of the regression model showed that after adjusting for basic demographic and stroke-related impairments, affected ankle dorsiflexor strength remained independently associated with six-minute walk distance, accounting for 48.8% of the variance. Conclusions: This is the first study, to our knowledge, to document the importance of ankle dorsiflexor strength as an independent determinant of walking endurance in stroke survivors with spastic plantarflexors. Our findings suggest that stroke rehabilitation programs aiming to improve walking endurance should include strengthening exercises for the ankle dorsiflexors. © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.

Czysz A.H.,University of Illinois at Chicago
CNS & neurological disorders drug targets | Year: 2013

Dietary fish oil, a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), has become increasingly popular for antidepressant therapy, in part because about half of patients treated with conventional antidepressants either fail to remit or discontinue therapy due to side effects. The inception of n-3 PUFA as a putative depression therapeutic may have stemmed from reports suggesting that dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency is linked to both altered membrane PUFA content as well as clinical depression. Several studies have examined n-3 PUFA treatment in depression, either singly or in combination with conventional antidepressant drugs. While results have been encouraging, fish oil treatment remains controversial. At least some of the reason for this is the lack of a defined site of action for n-3 PUFA that would be consistent with an antidepressant effect. This review will address this issue. While it is possible, even likely, that n-3 PUFA have multiple sites of action, this chapter will focus on sites at which n-3 PUFA modify G protein signaling and how those sites relate to both depression and antidepressant action. Much of the focus herein will be on specialized membrane domains (lipid rafts) and the effects that agents modifying those rafts have on elements of G protein signaling cascades. The relevance of specific alterations of G protein signaling for both depression and antidepressant action will be discussed, as will the ability for n-3 PUFA to act either as an antidepressant or in concert with conventional antidepressants.

Pandey G.N.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Bipolar disorders | Year: 2013

Suicide is a major public health concern as each year 30000 people die by suicide in the USA alone. In the teenage population, it is the second leading cause of death. There have been extensive studies of psychosocial factors associated with suicide and suicidal behavior. However, very little is known about the neurobiology of suicide. Recent research has provided some understanding of the neurobiology of suicide, which is the topic of this review. Neurobiology of suicide has been studied using peripheral tissues such as platelets, lymphocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid obtained from suicidal patients or from the postmortem brains of suicide victims. These studies have provided encouraging information with regard to the neurobiology of suicide. They show an abnormality of the serotonergic mechanism, such as increased serotonin receptor subtypes and decreased serotonin metabolites (e.g. 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid). These studies also suggest abnormalities of receptor-linked signaling mechanisms such as phosphoinositide and adenylyl cyclase. Other biological systems that appear to be dysregulated in suicide involve the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors. More recently, several studies have also indicated abnormalities of neuroimmune functions in suicide. Some encouraging information emerged from the present review, primarily related to some of the neurobiological mechanisms mentioned above. It is hoped that neurobiological studies may eventually result in the identification of appropriate biomarkers for suicidal behavior as well as appropriate therapeutic targets for its treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Amin-Hanjani S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Neurosurgery | Year: 2012

The results of the recently published Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study, which failed to show a benefit of extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass over medical therapy in patients with symptomatic hemodynamically significant carotid occlusion, have been interpreted by some as the end of the line for EC-IC bypass in the management of stroke. Despite being carefully conceived and executed, several aspects of the trial design, study population, and underlying assumptions deserve further examination to determine how best to translate these results into clinical practice. Although a general expansion of EC-IC bypass use in this population would not be supported by the trial results, a select subset of patients with medically refractory hemodynamic symptoms may well benefit from surgery performed with sufficiently low perioperative morbidity. The potential for beneficial functional or cognitive impact of revascularization also remains under investigation. Limited application and further study with an eye to future developments, rather than complete abandonment, is warranted. Copyright © 2012 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

Huang R.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
RNA biology | Year: 2011

Population differences observed for complex traits may be attributed to the combined effect of socioeconomic, environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors. To better understand population differences in complex traits, genome-wide genetic and gene expression differences among ethnic populations have been studied. Here we set out to evaluate population differences in small non-coding RNAs through an evaluation of microRNA (miRNA) baseline expression in HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from 53 CEU (Utah residents with northern and western European ancestry) and 54 YRI (African from Ibadan, Nigeria). Using the Exiqon miRCURYTM LNA arrays, we found that 16% of all miRNAs evaluated in our study differ significantly between these 2 ethnic groups (pBonferroni corrected< 0.05). Furthermore, we explored the potential biological function of these observed differentially expressed miRNAs by comprehensively examining their effect on the transcriptome and their relationship with cellular sensitivity drug phenotypes. After multiple testing adjustment (false discovery rate (FDR)< 0.1), we found that 55% and 88% of the differentially expressed miRNAs were significantly and inversely correlated with an mRNA expression phenotype in the CEU and YRI samples, respectively. Interestingly, a substantial proportion (64%) of these miRNAs correlated with cellular sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (FDR< 0.05). Lastly, upon performing a genome-wide association study between SNPs and miRNA expression, we identified a large number of SNPs exhibiting different allele frequencies that affect the expression of these differentially expressed miRNAs, suggesting the role of genetic variants in mediating the observed population differences.

Kitsiou S.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Pare G.,HEC Montreal | Jaana M.,University of Ottawa
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2015

Background: Growing interest on the effects of home telemonitoring on patients with chronic heart failure (HF) has led to a rise in the number of systematic reviews addressing the same or very similar research questions with a concomitant increase in discordant findings. Differences in the scope, methods of analysis, and methodological quality of systematic reviews can cause great confusion and make it difficult for policy makers and clinicians to access and interpret the available evidence and for researchers to know where knowledge gaps in the extant literature exist. Objective: This overview aims to collect, appraise, and synthesize existing evidence from multiple systematic reviews on the effectiveness of home telemonitoring interventions for patients with chronic heart failure (HF) to inform policy makers, practitioners, and researchers. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library to identify all relevant, peer-reviewed systematic reviews published between January 1996 and December 2013. Reviews were searched and screened using explicit and inclusion criteria. Standardized forms were used to extract data and the methodological quality of included reviews was appraised using the AMSTAR (assessing methodological quality of systematic reviews) instrument. Summary of findings tables were constructed for all primary outcomes of interest, and quality of evidence was graded by outcome using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system. Post-hoc analysis and subgroup meta-analyses were conducted to gain further insights into the various types of home telemonitoring technologies included in the systematic reviews and the impact of these technologies on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 15 reviews published between 2003 and 2013 were selected for meta-level synthesis. Evidence from high-quality reviews with meta-analysis indicated that taken collectively, home telemonitoring interventions reduce the relative risk of all-cause mortality (0.60 to 0.85) and heart failure-related hospitalizations (0.64 to 0.86) compared with usual care. Absolute risk reductions ranged from 1.4%-6.5% and 3.7%-8.2%, respectively. Improvements in HF-related hospitalizations appeared to be more pronounced in patients with stable HF: hazard ratio (HR) 0.70 (95% credible interval [Crl] 0.34-1.5]). Risk reductions in mortality and all-cause hospitalizations appeared to be greater in patients who had been recently discharged (≤28 days) from an acute care setting after a recent HF exacerbation: HR 0.62 (95% CrI 0.42-0.89) and HR 0.67 (95% CrI 0.42-0.97), respectively. However, quality of evidence for these outcomes ranged from moderate to low suggesting that further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the observed estimates of effect and may change these estimates. The post-hoc analysis identified five main types of non-invasive telemonitoring technologies included in the systematic reviews: (1) video-consultation, with or without transmission of vital signs, (2) mobile telemonitoring, (3) automated device-based telemonitoring, (4) interactive voice response, and (5) Web-based telemonitoring. Of these, only automated device-based telemonitoring and mobile telemonitoring were effective in reducing the risk of all-cause mortality and HF-related hospitalizations. More research data are required for interactive voice response systems, video-consultation, and Web-based telemonitoring to provide robust conclusions about their effectiveness. Conclusions: Future research should focus on understanding the process by which home telemonitoring works in terms of improving outcomes, identify optimal strategies and the duration of follow-up for which it confers benefits, and further investigate whether there is differential effectiveness between chronic HF patient groups and types of home telemonitoring technologies. ©Spyros Kitsiou, Guy Paré, Mirou Jaana.

Han K.Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Protein and peptide letters | Year: 2012

The cornea is physiologically avascular. Following a corneal injury, wound healing often proceeds without neovascularization (NV); however, corneal NV may be induced during wound healing in certain inflammatory, infectious, degenerative, and traumatic states. Such states disrupt the physiologic balance between pro-angiogenic and antiangiogenic mediators, favoring angiogenesis. Contributors to such states are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are key factors in both extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Similarly, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) exert pro-angiogenic effects. Here, we elaborate on the facilitative role of MMPs-specifically Membrane Type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP, MMP14)-in corneal NV. Additionally, we provide new insight into the signaling relating to MT1-MMP, Ras, and ERK in the bFGF-induced VEGF-A expression pathways within the corneal fibroblasts.

Jones R.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Risk Analysis | Year: 2011

Influenza remains a significant threat to public health, yet there is significant uncertainty about the routes of influenza transmission from an infectious source through the environment to a receptor, and their relative risks. Herein, data pertaining to factors that influence the environmental mediation of influenza transmission are critically reviewed, including: frequency, magnitude and size distribution and virus expiration, inactivation rates, environmental and self-contact rates, and viral transfer efficiencies during contacts. Where appropriate, two-stage Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis is used to characterize variability and uncertainty in the reported data. Significant uncertainties are present in most factors, due to: limitations in instrumentation or study realism; lack of documentation of data variability; or lack of study. These analyses, and future experimental work, will improve parameterization of influenza transmission and risk models, facilitating more robust characterization of the magnitude and uncertainty in infection risk. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

Abbasi T.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Garcia J.G.N.,Earl Bane of Medicine
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Of the multiple and diverse homeostatic events that involve the lung vascular endothelium, participation in preserving vascular integrity and therefore organ function is paramount. We were the first to show that the lipid growth factor and angiogenic factor, sphingosine-1-phosphate, is a critical agonist involved in regulation of human lung vascular barrier function (Garcia et al. J Clin Invest, 2011). Utilizing both in vitro models and preclinical murine, rat, and canine models of acute and chronic inflammatory lung injury, we have shown that S1Ps, as well as multiple S1P analogues such as FTY720 and ftysiponate, serve as protective agents limiting the disruption of the vascular EC monolayer in the pulmonary microcirculation and attenuate parenchymal accumulation of inflammatory cells and high protein containing extravasated fluid, thereby reducing interstitial and alveolar edema. The vasculo-protective mechanism of these therapeutic effects occurs via ligation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors and an intricate interplay of S1P with other factors (such asMAPKS, ROCKs, Rho, Rac1) with rearrangement of the endothelial cytoskeleton to form strong cortical actin rings in the cell periphery and enhanced cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix tethering dynamics. This cascade leads to reinforcement of focal adhesions and paracellular junctional complexes via cadherin, paxillin, catenins, and zona occludens. S1P through its interaction with Rac and Rho influences the cytoskeletal rearrangement indicated in the later stages of angiogenesis as a stabilizing force, preventing excessive vascular permeability. These properties translate into a therapeutic potential for acute and chronic inflammatory lung injuries. S1P has potential for providing a paradigm shift in the approach to disruption of critical endothelial gatekeeper function, loss of lung vascular integrity, and increased vascular permeability, defining features of acute lung injury (ALI), and may prove to exhibit an intrinsically protective role in the pulmonary vasculature ameliorating agonist- or sepsis-induced pulmonary injury and vascular leakage. © Springer-Verlag Wien 2013.

Lynch J.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Genetics | Year: 2015

The parasitoid wasp Nasonia represents a genus of four species that is emerging as a powerful genetic model system that has made and will continue to make important contributions to our understanding of evolutionary biology, development, ecology, and behavior. Particularly powerful are the haplodiploid genetics of the system, which allow some of the advantages of microbial genetics to be applied to a complex multicellular eukaryote. In addition, fertile, viable hybrids can be made among the four species in the genus. This makes Nasonia exceptionally well suited for evolutionary genetics approaches, especially when combined with its haploid genetics and tractability in the laboratory. These features are complemented by an expanding array of genomic, transcriptomic, and functional resources, the application of which has already made Nasonia an important model system in such emerging fields as evolutionary developmental biology and microbiomics. This article describes the genetic and genomic advantages of Nasonia wasps and the resources available for their genetic analysis. © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

Wang J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Biometrika | Year: 2010

In cluster analysis, one of the major challenges is to estimate the number of clusters. Most existing approaches attempt to minimize some distance-based dissimilarity measure within clusters. This article proposes a novel selection criterion that is applicable to all kinds of clustering algorithms, including distance based or non-distance based algorithms. The key idea is to select the number of clusters that minimizes the algorithm's instability, which measures the robustness of any given clustering algorithm against the randomness in sampling. A novel estimation scheme for clustering instability is developed based on crossvalidation. The proposed selection criterion's effectiveness is demonstrated on a variety of numerical experiments, and its asymptotic selection consistency is established when the dataset is properly split. © 2010 Biometrica Trust.

Smalheiser N.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014

If mRNAs were the only RNAs made by a neuron, there would be a simple mapping of mRNAs to proteins. However, microRNAs and other non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs; endo-siRNAs, piRNAs, BC1, BC200, antisense and long ncRNAs, repeat-related transcripts, etc.) regulate mRNAs via effects on protein translation as well as transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Not only are genes ON or OFF, but their ability to be translated can be turned ON or OFF at the level of synapses, supporting an enormous increase in information capacity. Here, I review evidence that ncRNAs are expressed pervasively within dendrites in mammalian brain; that some are activity-dependent and highly enriched near synapses; and that synaptic ncRNAs participate in plasticity responses including learning and memory. Ultimately, ncRNAs can be viewed as the post-it notes of the neuron. They have no literal meaning of their own, but derive their functions from where (and to what) they are stuck. This may explain, in part, why ncRNAs differ so dramatically from protein-coding genes, both in terms of the usual indicators of functionality and in terms of evolutionary constraints. ncRNAs do not appear to be direct mediators of synaptic transmission in the manner of neurotransmitters or receptors, yet they orchestrate synaptic plasticity-and may drive species-specific changes in cognition.

Wu-Wong J.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Mizobuchi M.,Showa University
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2014

Introduction: Mineral and bone disorder (MBD) begins early in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Phosphate imbalance in CKD-MBD can lead to various pathologies of clinical importance such as further deterioration of kidney function, cardiovascular complications, renal osteodystrophy and increased mortality.Areas covered: The authors conducted a systematic review of the biomedical literature to evaluate currently available drugs and new phosphate binder therapeutics in development.Expert opinion: There is a need to continue searching for novel phosphate binders that better match an 'ideal' product profile. This profile should have: i) a product that is highly efficient in binding phosphate; ii) low patient compliance issues; iii) minimal interaction with other drugs; and iv) reduced side effects and safety concerns. Targeting alternative mechanisms, such as developing inhibitors for intestinal type II sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter, may also improve the limitations of phosphate binder therapeutics. Current medical practice focuses on using serum phosphorus levels as the only marker for detecting, monitoring and treating phosphate imbalance in CKD. However, the consequences of phosphate imbalance are evident in non-dialysis patients before serum phosphate levels rise above the normal range. There is a need to search for other markers to guide detection and treatment of clinically significant alterations in phosphate metabolism of non-dialysis CKD. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Gupta P.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Nature communications | Year: 2013

A key mechanism of bacterial resistance to macrolide antibiotics is the dimethylation of a nucleotide in the large ribosomal subunit by erythromycin resistance methyltransferases. The majority of erm genes are expressed only when the antibiotic is present and the erythromycin resistance methyltransferase activity is critical for the survival of bacteria. Although these genes were among the first discovered inducible resistance genes, the molecular basis for their inducibility has remained unknown. Here we show that erythromycin resistance methyltransferase expression reduces cell fitness. Modification of the nucleotide in the ribosomal tunnel skews the cellular proteome by deregulating the expression of a set of proteins. We further demonstrate that aberrant translation of specific proteins results from abnormal interactions of the nascent peptide with the erythromycin resistance methyltransferase-modified ribosomal tunnel. Our findings provide a plausible explanation why erm genes have evolved to be inducible and underscore the importance of nascent peptide recognition by the ribosome for generating a balanced cellular proteome.

Cantz P.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Mental Health, Religion and Culture | Year: 2012

Freud's materialistic treatment of religion has discouraged and stigmatised inquiries concerning the potential theoretical and clinical utility that biblical stories could offer to the ongoing development of psychoanalysis. As a result, the historical development of psychoanalysis has been disproportionally influenced by the Hellenic ideals that influenced the German humanistic pedagogical value of Bildung, to which Freud was an ardent disciple. However, since it has consistently been recognised that Western culture has been mutually influenced by both biblical and Hellenistic attitudes, it may be warranted to extend this dialectal interplay into the realm of individual psychology, in the process delimiting a space whereby psychoanalysis and biblical thought can constructively coexist. In this vein, prototypical myths from the Greek and biblical traditions can reliably be situated on a psycho-mythological continuum, with Greek myths representing a less integrated level of ego development and biblical narratives reflecting an unambivalent, higher level of psychological organisation. The Greek mythology of Oedipus and the biblical Binding of Isaac has been chosen to illustrate this dynamic. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Nikaj S.,Texas Christian University | Chaloupka F.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2014

Introduction: We estimated the impact of cigarette prices on youth smoking in 38 countries with the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Methods: We used a 2-part model of cigarette demand. In the first part, we estimated the impact of prices on the decision to smoke. Conditional on smoking, we then estimated the effect of price on the number of cigarettes smoked. We employed 2-way fixed effects to address country-level time-invariant heterogeneity and controlled for an array of local-level variables to address local-level heterogeneity. Results: The estimated total price elasticity is -1.5 for a sample that contains both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Constraining the sample to only low- and middle-income countries, we found a total price elasticity of -2.2, suggesting that smoking among youths in low-income countries is more responsive to cigarette price changes. Conclusion: Cigarette price increases are highly effective in reducing smoking prevalence and consumption among youths globally and particularly among youths in low- and middle-income countries. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.

Schmidt K.A.,Texas Tech University | Whelan C.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Oikos | Year: 2010

Seasonal fecundity is strongly influenced by the number of nests attempted (including renests following nest failure) in a season. This number is often assumed to be set by the length of the breeding season or through some predetermined maximum. Instead, the decision to renest likely results from a cost-benefit analysis honed by natural selection where the ultimate components of fitness, i.e. reproduction and survival, tradeoff with one another. Moreover, reproductive decision making should not occur in an information-vacuum. In a world where habitat quality (i.e. likelihood of nest success) is uncertain females should use nest failures to update the probability their renest nest will succeed, and this estimate in turn can affect the decision to renest. We develop a model of renesting behavior based on these conceptual ideas using the framework of statistical decision theory (SDT) and the process of Bayesian updating. We assume that renesting incurs 1) a cost to future reproductive success and 2) a reduction in expected reproductive success for each successive replacement nest. We show, all else equal, birds should curtail renesting with (1) increased residual reproductive success, (2) increased cost to future reproduction, (3) declines in current reproduction with successive attempts, and (4) increasing nest predation rates. We also explore several ecological implications of the model. First, uncertainty in habitat quality and the process of information updating, based on nest outcomes, link changes in the quality or proportion of one habitat type to the behavior in the other habitat. Second, females may use their estimate of habitat quality, based on a sample of nesting attempts, to decide whether to return or disperse to a new site between years. We compare this to the win-stay: lose-switch rule for dispersal and discuss the implications for population dynamics. © 2009 The Authors.

Ressler N.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Biological Reviews | Year: 2010

It is argued that conscious emotional feelings can not be adequately explained by just particular circuits or coherent activations within the brain, as is conventionally believed; nor by activations representing environmental stimuli going to the brain. According to the model suggested herein, the limbic system responds to sensory and other inputs according to how closely they are associated with built-in rewards or punishments. It does this by (a) activating the autonomic nervous system so that it prepares the body to acquire a reward or avoid a punishment, and (b) also activating the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC activations are temporally correlated with the autonomic activations and the feedback to them, so that they become identified with the autonomic attempts to acquire (a reward) or avoid (a punishment). The PFC circuit thus acquires a valence. The valence, along with arousal in a given context, underlies conscious emotional feelings. The model is related to: (a) how attention progresses along networks within working memory; (b) how a single, unified percept is formed; (c) how both value-based and cognitive-based responses are formulated; and (d) how the stream of consciousness is put together and driven forward. These concepts are integrated into a scenario of the orchestration of conscious experience and behaviour by subcortical-limbic system structures interacting with the cortex, and are shown to be consistent with much of the literature. © 2009 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Seybolt S.E.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2010

As sulfur containing thiols, alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) are powerful antioxidants and free radical scavengers capable of performing many of the same functions as glutathione (GSH). ALA supplementation may help protect mitochondria from oxidative stress, a possible mechanism contributing to certain forms of brain diseases called schizophrenia. Shortly before the advent of antipsychotic medications, two small studies found ALA relieved psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia. More recently, animal studies have shown ALA augmentation improves mitochondrial function. At pharmaceutical levels, niacinamide helps preserve mitochondrial membrane integrity and acts as an antioxidant. ALA is a precursor for lipoamide, an essential mitochondrial coenzyme and niacinamide is a component of niacinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NADH, the reduced form of NAD, is involved in the reduction of ALA to DHLA within the mitochondria. This is relevant to contemporary research because DHLA increases GSH and low GSH levels contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Tan C.W.,City University of Hong Kong | Friedland S.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Low S.H.,California Institute of Technology
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2011

Spectrum management is used to improve performance in multiuser communication system, e.g., cognitive radio or femtocell networks, where multiuser interference can lead to data rate degradation. We study the nonconvex NP-hard problem of maximizing a weighted sum rate in a multiuser Gaussian interference channel by power control subject to affine power constraints. By exploiting the fact that this problem can be restated as an optimization problem with constraints that are spectral radii of specially crafted nonnegative matrices, we derive necessary and sufficient optimality conditions and propose a global optimization algorithm based on the outer approximation method. Central to our techniques is the use of nonnegative matrix theory, e.g., nonnegative matrix inequalities and the Perron-Frobenius theorem. We also study an inner approximation method and a relaxation method that give insights to special cases. Our techniques and algorithm can be extended to a multiple carrier system model, e.g., OFDM system or receivers with interference suppression capability. © 2006 IEEE.

Baughman R.P.,University of Cincinnati | Nunes H.,Service de pneumologie | Sweiss N.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lower E.E.,University of Cincinnati
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2013

The treatment options for pulmonary sarcoidosis have increased over the past 10 years. As new treatments have been introduced, the best way to assess and compare treatments remains unknown. The goal of this review is to discuss the standard treatments for pulmonary sarcoidosis, including glucocorticoids, and cytotoxic agents, such as methotrexate, azathioprine and leflunomide, and compare them to the newer biological agents, such as infliximab and adalimumab. We also discuss some novel treatments which are currently being evaluated. To compare these different regimens, we look at the measures used to assess response. These include pulmonary function, chest imaging, steroid sparing potential and, more recently, improvements in quality of life measures. While there is, as yet, no standard assessment for response, there is a growing consensus that response to treatment may include improvement of one or more of the following: forced vital capacity, chest imaging and steroid sparing. Several drugs used for pulmonary sarcoidosis have demonstrated improvement in one or more of these measures. Copyright©ERS 2013.

Regalbuto J.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining | Year: 2011

The direction of federal funding for biomass conversion into biofuels has shifted dramatically in just the last few years. Four years ago, the national action plan essentially read 'ethanol-only', and was to meet the new renewable fuel standards solely with cellulosic ethanol. While ethanol is still part of the picture, the most recent emphasis is on 'high energy density, infrastructure-compatible biofuels' - hydrocarbons. In this paper, the transition from one focus to the other, a real sea change, is conveyed from the perspective of one who, with the support of the NSF and colleagues in other federal agencies, helped to bring it about. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Zeidman L.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of the History of the Neurosciences | Year: 2013

Dr. Haakon Sæthre was a leader of Norwegian neurology and psychiatry. He was resourceful, compassionate and had immense pride in his independent homeland. He described Sæthre-Chotzen syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly type III). When Nazi Germany occupied Norway during World War II, Sæthre fearlessly and actively resisted, from revoking his medical association membership, to hiding persecuted Jews as patients in his psychiatric ward and aiding in their escape to Sweden, to managing the largest "illegal" food warehouse in Oslo with Danish humanitarian aid. As a prominent and noticeable citizen, he was arrested and executed by the Nazis in reprisal for the resistance's assassination of a hated Norwegian Nazi. His legacy lives on in Norway, where he was honored by a scholarship fund, a portrait and multiple plaques at Ullevål Hospital, and a street and memorial statue in his hometown. He was a hero and should be remembered by all who practice neurology. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Kallwitz E.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

The metabolic syndrome is common after liver transplant being present in approximately half of recipients. It has been associated with adverse outcomes such as progression of hepatitis C and major vascular events. As the United States population ages and the rate of obesity increases, prevention of the metabolic syndrome in the post-transplant population deserves special consideration. Currently, the metabolic syndrome after transplant appears at least two times more common than observed rates in the general population. Specific guidelines for patients after transplant does not exist, therefore prevention rests upon knowledge of risk factors and the presence of modifiable elements. The current article will focus on risk factors for the development of the metabolic syndrome after transplant, will highlight potentially modifiable factors and propose potential areas for intervention. As in the non-transplant population, behavioral choices might have a major role. Opportunities exist in this regard for health prevention studies incorporating lifestyle changes. Other factors such as the need for immunosuppression, and the changing characteristics of wait listed patients are not modifiable, but are important to know in order to identify persons at higher risk. Although immunosuppression after transplant is unavoidable, the contribution of different agents to the development of components of the metabolic syndrome is also discussed. Ultimately, an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome after transplant is likely unavoidable, however, there are many opportunities to reduce the prevalence. © 2012 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

Schwartz A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Perspectives in Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

The Flexner Report highlighted the importance of teaching medical students to reason about uncertainty.The science of medical decision making seeks to explain how medical judgments and decisions ought ideally to be made, how they are actually made in practice, and how they can be improved, given the constraints of medical practice.The field considers both clinical decisions by or for individual patients and societal decisions designed to benefit the public. Despite the relevance of decision making to medical practice, it currently receives little formal attention in the U.S. medical school curriculum. This article suggests three roles for medical decision making in medical education. First, basic decision science would be a valuable prerequisite to medical training. Second, several decision-related competencies would be important outcomes of medical education; these include the physician's own decision skills, the ability to guide patients in shared decisions, and knowledge of health policy decisions at the societal level. Finally, decision making could serve as a unifying principle in the design of the medical curriculum, integrating other curricular content around the need to create physicians who are competent and caring decision makers. © 2011.

Slavin K.V.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Progress in Neurological Surgery | Year: 2011

Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an established neuromodulation approach that has been successfully used for the treatment of various painful conditions since the early 1960s. This review provides a comprehensive summary of relevant publications on PNS dividing its history into three distinct periods. The milestones of the field are related to the development of procedures, equipment and indications. As the most rapidly growing segment of operative neuromodulation, PNS continues to evolve as current and emerging clinical indications become matched by basic and clinical research, technological developments and procedural refinements. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Schraufnagel D.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Annals of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2013

Influencing policy to improve health can be considered an extension of health care workers' duty to help people. Communicating with elected representatives is a basic mechanism to effect lasting change. Communications that influence public officials should be clear, concise, courteous, and logical. They are strengthened by citing evidence and example. They must recommend a course of action, which should be principled and related to the representative's constituents. © 2013 by the American Thoracic Society.

Vajaranant T.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Pasquale L.R.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
Menopause | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive review on hormone-based pathophysiology of aging of the optic nerve and glaucoma, including a literature review and expert opinions. Glaucoma, a group of intraocular pressure-related optic neuropathies, is characterized by the slow progressive neurodegeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons, resulting in irreversible visual sensitivity loss and blindness. Increasing evidence suggests that glaucoma represents the accelerated aging of the optic nerve and is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. This review highlights the high burden of glaucoma in older women and the importance of understanding the hormone-related pathophysiology of optic nerve aging and glaucoma in women. Strong epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence supports the proposed hypothesis that early loss of estrogen leads to premature aging and increased susceptibility of the optic nerve to glaucomatous damage. Future investigations into the hormone-related mechanisms of aging and glaucoma will support the development of novel sex-specific preventive and therapeutic strategies in glaucoma. © 2012 by The North American Menopause Society.

Coughlin M.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Prabhakar B.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2012

The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) led to a rapid response not only to contain the outbreak but also to identify possible therapeutic interventions, including the generation of human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs). hmAbs may be used therapeutically without the drawbacks of chimeric or animal Abs. Several different methods have been used to generate SARS-CoV specific neutralizing hmAbs including the immunization of transgenic mice, cloning of small chain variable regions from naïve and convalescent patients, and the immortalization of convalescent B cells. Irrespective of the techniques used, the majority of hmAbs specifically reacted with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein and likely prevented receptor binding. However, several hmAbs that can bind to epitopes either within the RBD, located N terminal of the RBD or in the S2 domain, and neutralize the virus with or without inhibiting receptor binding have been identified. Therapeutic utility of hmAbs has been further elucidated through the identification of potential combinations of hmAbs that could neutralize viral variants including escape mutants selected using hmAbs. These results suggest that a cocktail of hmAbs that can bind to unique epitopes and have different mechanisms of action might be of clinical utility against SARS-CoV infection, and indicate that a similar approach may be applied to treat other viral infections. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Plata E.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lucking R.,Field Museum
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2013

A survey of crustose microlichens at Los Amigos Biological Station in Amazonian Peru revealed 116 species of Graphidaceae at this site. This is the second highest number of Graphidaceae ever reported for a single site world-wide, after the Surumoni crane station in Venezuela, with 131 species, and followed by Fakahatchee Strand Park Preserve in Florida, with 111 species. Based on the number of Graphidaceae found at Los Amigos, we predict the total lichen species richness at this site to be approximately 700 species. Of the 116 species encountered at Los Amigos, 59 were graphidoid species (former Graphidaceae s.str.) and 67 thelotremoid species (former Thelotremataceae). The following 18 species are described as new: Ampliotrema sorediatum Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Chapsa hypoconstictica Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Chapsa scabiocarpa Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Chapsa subsorediata Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Diorygma nigricans Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Fissurina flavomedullosa Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Fissurina platythecioides Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Graphis apertoinspersa Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Graphis pitmanii Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Leucodecton inspersum Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia cicra Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia fenestrata Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia microsorediata Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia natashae Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia plicata Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia protoinspersa Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, Ocellularia pustulata Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova, and Thelotrema amazonicum Rivas Plata & Lücking, spec. nova. © 2012 Mushroom Research Foundation.

Gaston G.B.,University of Illinois at Chicago
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2013

Most studies of cultural competence in healthcare examine healthcare providers' definitions of cultural competence practices. This study is unique in that it examines the relationship between African-American patients' perceptions of the cultural competence of their HIV healthcare providers and the adherence of these patients to medical self-care and antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cross-sectional, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted at the Ruth Rothstein CORE Center in Chicago, Illinois. The sample consisted of 202 HIV-positive African-Americans who completed surveys during clinic visits. Multiple measures were used, including the Patient Assessments of Cultural Competency survey instrument developed by the Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Medical self-care was measured using the advice and instructions scale and the self-care symptom management for people living with HIV/AIDS categorical scale. ART adherence was measured using the Adherence Behaviors Self-Report and Adherence Self-Report scales. The data revealed many significant correlations between variables. The more patients believed that providers should integrate culture in HIV treatment; the better their reported health (F1,138=0.151, P=0.05) and the more they followed their provider's advice and instructions (medical self-care; F1,138=0.029, P=0.05). Participants who trusted their providers engaged in more medical self-care (F1, 138=0.280, P=0.01). More shared treatment decisions were reported among participants who had higher levels of education (F1,127=0.337, P=0.05). Findings of this study indicate the need for increased attention to the role of cultural competence in HIV/AIDS care. Understanding patient perceptions of provider cultural competence has the potential to improve HIV treatment adherence and health outcomes. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Chronis-Tuscano A.,University of Maryland University College | Stein M.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
CNS Drugs | Year: 2012

Given the high heritability of the disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common among parents of children with ADHD. Parental ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting, negative parent-child interaction patterns and a diminished response to behavioural parent training. We describe our previous research demonstrating that stimulant medications for mothers with ADHD are associated with reductions in maternal ADHD symptoms. Although limited beneficial effects on self-reported parenting were also found in our study, the impact of ADHD medications on functional outcomes related to parenting and family interactions may not be sufficient for many families. Many questions remain with regard to how best to treat multiplex ADHD families in which a parent and child have ADHD. In particular, future studies are needed: (1) to evaluate how best to sequence pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment for adult ADHD and behavioural parenting interventions; (2) to determine the best approach to maintaining treatment effects over the long term for both parents and children; and (3) to identify individual predictors of treatment response. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved.

Culbert G.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
International Journal of Prisoner Health | Year: 2014

Purpose - About one in five men living with HIV in the USA passes through a correctional center annually. Jails and prisons are seen therefore as key intervention sites to promote HIV treatment as prevention. Almost no research, however, has examined inmates' perspectives on HIV treatment or their strategies for retaining access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during incarceration. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of an exploratory study examining men's perceptions of and experiences with HIV care and ART during incarceration. Design/methodology/approach - Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 HIV positive male and male-to-female transgendered persons recently released from male correctional centers in Illinois, USA. Findings - Interpersonal violence, a lack of safety, and perceived threats to privacy were frequently cited barriers to one's willingness and ability to access and adhere to treatment. Over 60 percent of study participants reported missed doses or sustained treatment interruption (greater than two weeks) because of failure to disclose their HIV status, delayed prescribing, intermittent dosing and out-of-stock medications, confiscation of medications, and medication strikes. Research limitations/implications - Substantial improvements in ART access and adherence are likely to follow organizational changes that make incarcerated men feel safer, facilitate HIV status disclosure, and better protect the confidentiality of inmates receiving ART. Originality/value - This study identified novel causes of ART non-adherence among prisoners and provides first-hand information about how violence, stigma, and the pursuit of social support influence prisoner's decisions to disclose their HIV status or accept ART during incarceration. Copyright © 2014 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

Ye Z.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Ye Z.,Central China Normal University
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2014

Heavy-flavor quarks are dominantly produced from initial hard partonic scattering processes in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Their interaction with QCD medium is sensitive to the medium properties. Thus heavy-flavor quarks are suggested as an excellent probe to study the properties of the hot and dense nuclear matter created at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. In these proceedings, we report the first results of open charm meson production in U+U collisions at sNN=193 GeV with the STAR experiment. We also present the latest results in p+p collisions at s=200 GeV and 500 GeV, and those in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV. In these measurements, D0 and D*+ mesons are reconstructed through hadronic decay channels. For both U+U and Au+Au collisions, D0 meson invariant yields are determined from minbias and 0-10% central-triggered events for the pT range from 0 to 6 GeV/c. For p+p collisions, events with high ET triggers are used to extend the pT range of the measured cross section up to 10 GeV/c at s=200 GeV and to about 20 GeV/c at s=500 GeV, respectively. Nuclear modification factors (RAA) of D0 mesons are extracted from these results and are compared to various theoretical model calculations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Primary and recurrent infections of the cornea by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) are important causes of eye disease. Three unrelated classes of glycoprotein D receptors for HSV-1 entry into cells have been identified. This study was undertaken to uncover the relative significance of nectin-1 as an entry receptor in corneal infection and HSV-1 spread to the trigeminal ganglia (TG), a site important for HSV-1 latency and recurrent corneal infection. To assess the significance of nectin-1, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, in primary HSV-1 infection and spread to the TG, we used a murine model of corneal infection and a HSV-1 mutant, KOS(Rid1), which can only use nectin-1 for entry. Immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and plaque assays using HSV-1 infected tissues were performed. We demonstrated that receptor usage by HSV-1 limited to nectin-1 does not significantly change the spread of HSV-1 in the corneal epithelium during primary infection. We also found that nectin-1-specific entry does not affect the capacity of the virus to spread to the TG from the cornea. Our findings suggest that nectin-1 alone is sufficient for HSV-1 entry into the cornea and spread to the TG.

Goldberg E.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lancaster L.T.,National Center for Ecological Analysis And Synthesis | Ree R.H.,Field Museum of Natural History
Systematic Biology | Year: 2011

Geographic characters-traits describing the spatial distribution of a species-may both affect and be affected by processes associated with lineage birth and death. This is potentially confounding to comparative analyses of species distributions because current models do not allow reciprocal interactions between the evolution of ranges and the growth of phylogenetic trees. Here, we introduce a likelihood-based approach to estimating region-dependent rates of speciation, extinction, and range evolution from a phylogeny, using a new model in which these processes are interdependent. We demonstrate the method with simulation tests that accurately recover parameters relating to the mode of speciation and source-sink dynamics. We then apply it to the evolution of habitat occupancy in Californian plant communities, where we find higher rates of speciation in chaparral than in forests and evidence for expanding habitat tolerances. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved.

Mandal B.,Washington State University | Powell L.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Economics and Human Biology | Year: 2014

This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N = 10,700; years = 2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Schraufnagel D.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Pediatric, Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology | Year: 2015

Electronic cigarettes have become popular and are heavily promoted as a safer cigarette and an aid to quit smoking. Although they may have value in reducing cigarette use among smokers, they are of limited value in smoking cessation and pose many problems, particularly in children. Nicotine is highly addictive and affects virtually all cells in the body. It is particularly harmful to developing brains and other organs. The electronic nicotine delivery systems are largely uncontrolled and safety risks are manifold. Initiating nicotine use and increasing dependence in the population may be linked with increased tobacco and other addictive substance abuse even if the individual electronic cigarette delivers less harm than a combustible cigarette does. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Law E.H.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Leung M.,Surrey Memorial Hospital
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2015

Objective: To review the evidence for the use of steroids in adults presenting with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), or overlap. Data Sources: EMBASE (1974 to April 2014), MEDLINE (1946 to April 2014), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2014) were searched using the terms: prednisone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, prednisolone, steroids, glucocorticoids, corticosteroids, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and SJS/TEN overlap. Study Selection and Data Extraction: English-language, full reports of experimental and observational studies were included. Bibliographies from pertinent publications were reviewed for additional references. Prespecified outcomes included survival, survival to discharge, hospitalization without intensive care, length of intensive care stay, duration of hospitalization, ophthalmological complications, infection rates, and adverse events. Data Synthesis: Six studies that used steroids for SJS, TEN, and/or overlap were included. All studies were retrospective cohort studies with no case-control or cross-sectional studies; 5 studies reported on steroid doses, and 2 studies reported time from disease onset to steroid use (2-4 days). Only 1 of 6 studies reported a statistically significant impact on mortality with steroids use (odds ratio = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Adverse event rates were not reported in any of the studies. Conclusions: A review of the current evidence reveals a need for prospective, randomized controlled studies to provide more definitive conclusions on steroid use in patients with SJS, TEN, and/or overlap. © The Author(s) 2014

Jivrajka R.V.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Shammas M.C.,Shammas Eye Medical Center | Shammas H.J.,University of Southern California
Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To assess the refractive error in the second eye to undergo surgery when the intraocular lens (IOL) power was modified to correct 50% of the error from the first eye when such an error exceeded 0.50 diopter (D). Design: Prospective, observational case series. Participants: Two hundred fifty patients with bilateral, sequential cataract surgery. Methods: Two hundred fifty consecutive patients who underwent the first-eye cataract operation 1 to 3 months earlier were scheduled for cataract surgery in the second eye. When choosing the IOL power for the second eye, the calculations were adjusted to correct 50% of the first-eye refractive error (FERE). The adjusted second-eye refractive error (aSERE) was evaluated 6 to 8 weeks after surgery. It was compared with the FERE, with a potential nonadjusted SERE, and with a potential fully adjusted SERE. Main Outcome Measures: Postoperative refractive error. Results: The median aSERE was significantly lower in the second eye compared with the median FERE in the 47 cases in which the FERE ranged from -0.50 to -1.00 D (-0.12 vs. -0.66 D), in the 15 cases in which the FERE exceeded -1.00 D (-0.12 vs. -1.25 D), in the 24 cases in which the FERE ranged from 0.50 to 1.00 D (-0.03 vs. 0.65 D), and in the 11 cases in which the FERE exceeded 1.00 D (-0.29 vs. 1.19 D). The difference was statistically significant in all categories (P<0.00001). Conclusions: In patients undergoing bilateral sequential cataract surgery and in cases in which the FERE exceeded 0.50 D, the refractive error of the second eye can be improved by modifying the IOL power to correct up to 50% of the error from the first eye. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Kapoor S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Skinmed | Year: 2010

Acanthosis nigricans is a dermatologic condition commonly seen in diabetics and obese individuals. Histologically, it is characterized by the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Clinically, the lesions appear as dark-brown thickened plaques. The neck and the axillas are the most commonly affected sites. Treatment involves management of the underlying disorder. Topical tretinoin and calcipotriol have also been used with some limited success. Other treatment options include laser and surgical excision.

Stolley M.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine | Year: 2010

Treatment advances have led to a growing population of childhood cancer survivors. Many are at risk for developing treatment-related late effects. Diet and physical activity may affect levels of health risk. A number of papers have examined these behaviors in childhood cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to provide a review and summary of the published studies in the areas of diet, physical activity, and related interventions among childhood cancer survivors. A systematic search was conducted for studies published prior to October 2009. Descriptive and intervention studies that included survivors of childhood cancers and a measurement of diet and/or physical activity were reviewed. Twenty-six manuscripts met criteria: ten addressed diet; 20 addressed physical activity, and six included intervention studies. Results suggest that childhood cancer survivors engage in health-promoting activities at rates comparable to the general population. Behavioral interventions have mostly targeted physical activity. Results, overall, are not encouraging, due primarily to difficulties recruiting and retaining participants. Although more rigorous studies are needed, recommendations for health-promoting behaviors should be a regular topic of discussion between health care providers and their childhood cancer survivor patients.

Stamos T.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Current opinion in cardiology | Year: 2010

Anemia is a relatively common finding in heart failure. Anemia in heart failure patients has been independently associated with reduced exercise tolerance, increased heart failure hospitalizations and increased all-cause mortality. Anemia would appear to be a reasonable treatment target for patients with heart failure. The review will discuss the potential causes of anemia in heart failure patients and give an up-to-date overview of treatment trials. Studies assessing the pathophysiology of anemia in heart failure patients have recently demonstrated the potential importance of iron deficiency, abnormal iron metabolism and hemodilution. Treatment studies have focused on the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, with recent trials showing mixed results. Despite initial studies indicating a possible beneficial effect of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in the treatment of anemic heart failure patients, clinical trial data, to date, have failed to show convincing evidence for morbidity or mortality benefit, and information on the long-term safety is lacking. Ongoing large-scale trials will have the potential to provide such information in the future.

Dwivedi Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Annals of medicine | Year: 2010

Abstract Suicide is a major public health concern. The etiology and pathogenic mechanisms associated with suicidal behavior are poorly understood. Recent research on the biological perspective of suicide has gained momentum and appears to provide a promising approach for identifying potential risk factors associated with this disorder. One of the areas that have gained the most attention in suicide research is the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which participates in many physiological functions in the brain, including synaptic and structural plasticity. Several studies consistently show that expression of BDNF is reduced in blood cells of suicidal patients and in brains of subjects who committed suicide. Recent studies also demonstrate abnormalities in the functioning of BDNF, because its cognate receptors (tropomycin receptor kinase B and pan75 neurotrophin receptor) are abnormally active and/or expressed in the post-mortem brains of suicide subjects. There is further evidence of the role of BDNF in suicide as numerous studies show a strong association of suicidal behavior with BDNF functional polymorphism. Overall, it appears that abnormalities in BDNF signaling may serve as an important biological risk factor in the etiology and pathogenesis of suicide.

Garcia J.G.N.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2011

Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome, are complex illnesses involving the interplay of both environmental (such as mechanical ventilation) and genetic factors. To understand better the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis associated with ALI, we recently identified several candidate genes by global expression profiling in preclinical models of ALI and relevant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We summarize here several strategies successfully used to identify novel ALI candidate genes and detail the validation of variants in these genes as contributing factors to ALI pathobiology, conclusions based on functional analyses, and specific genetic association studies conducted in ALI cohorts. Continued insights into ALI pathogenesis and identification of genetic variants, which confer ALI risk and severity, promise to reveal novel molecular therapeutic targets that can be translated into personalized treatments to reduce the very high, unacceptable mortality of this disorder.

Lyon M.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Dermatologic Therapy | Year: 2010

Panniculitis can be the initial presentation of both alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and pancreatic disease. They can both present with abscess-like draining nodules, but may present like other forms of panniculitis with erythematous nodules. It is important to consider these in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with panniculitis. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a relatively common disorder mainly affecting the lungs and liver. It frequently goes undiagnosed, yet critical interventions can be made to minimize disease progression. Panniculitis associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can be difficult to treat. Pancreatic panniculitis occurs in less than 3% of patients with underlying pancreatic disease and is often associated with arthritis. Diagnosis and treatment of the underlying pancreatic disease is imperative. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hughes J.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2010

The goal of this report is to review periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs), particularly their associated symptoms, the possibility that the pattern represents a focal status epilepticus, and finally the usefulness of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The associated symptoms often include an "altered state of consciousness" or "confusional state," but also more specific symptoms have been noted, such as nystagmus retractorius, cortical blindness, depression, apraxia, amnesia, hemianopsia, hemiparesis, gaze preference or deviation, dysphasia, and speech impediment. PLEDs have often been referred to as an ictal pattern, and many investigators have viewed the condition an example of subclinical status epilepticus. The intense hypermetabolism and increased blood flow revealed by PET and SPECT scans have been considered to support the ictal nature of this waveform. Although the pattern is difficult to treat, the AEDs that have been reported as successful include carbamazepine, midazolam, pentobarbital, sodium valproate, and felbamate. As only subtle symptoms are, at times, present and therefore may be missed and the pattern is known to be difficult to treat, epileptologists who view the PLED pattern as only an EEG curiosity and decide against treatment may wish to reevaluate the electroclinical evidence related to this interesting and significant pattern. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Blumenthal S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Perspectives in Biology and Medicine | Year: 2010

In 1941, Gellhorn reported that administration of human blood to hypophysectomized/adrenodemedullated rats caused a fall in blood sugar. This was among the early demonstrations that human blood possesses glucose-lowering or insulin-like activity (ILA). Gellhorn assumed he had detected only insulin. During the 1960s, however, it became evident that plasma ILA contained at least two components: one, suppressible ILA (SILA), was inactivated by anti-insulin antibody and was therefore considered to be indistinguishable from pancreatic insulin; the other, nonsuppressible ILA (NSILA), was unaffected by anti-insulin antibody. Subsequent work resolved NSILA into insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), two 7.5 kilodalton peptides with potent mitogenic properties; established their identity with the somatomedins; and investigated both their therapeutic potential and role in the pathogenesis of neoplastic and other human diseases. Insulin and the IGFs exhibit striking homologies in amino acid composition and some degree of overlap in their signaling pathways and actions.Moreover, insulin-like proteins have been identified not only in all vertebrate classes but also in molluscs, insects, and worms.These observations are the basis for the hypothesis that the genes encoding vertebrate insulins and IGFs and inver-tebrate insulin-like molecules evolved from a common ancestral gene, and for the concept of an insulin superfamily of growth-promoting peptides. © 2010 by The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Song R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians | Year: 2012

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants born prior to 32 weeks gestation or with a birth weight less than 1500 grams. In this article, we review hematological abnormalities associated with NEC. A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus, and the electronic archive of abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the Pediatric Academic Societies. Thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, increased or decreased neutrophil counts, and hemolytic anemia are frequent events in NEC. NEC is associated with several hematological abnormalities, which may play a direct or indirect role in the pathogenesis of gut mucosal injury, and may also carry important prognostic information.

Specht J.,Free University of Berlin | Luhmann B.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Geiser C.,Utah State University
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology | Year: 2014

Consistency and change in personality were analyzed by examining personality types across adulthood and old age using data from 2 nationally representative panel studies from Germany (N = 14,718; 16-82 years) and Australia (N = 8,315; 15-79 years). In both samples, the Big Five personality traits were measured twice across a period of 4 years. Latent profile analyses and latent profile transition analyses revealed 4 main findings: First, solutions with 3 (in the German sample) or 4 (in the Australian sample) personality types were found to be most interpretable. Second, measurement invariance tests revealed that these personality types were consistent across all age groups but differed slightly between men and women. Third, age was related to the number of individuals classified within each personality type. Namely, there were more resilients and fewer undercontrollers in older compared with younger age groups. Fourth, there was strong consistency of personality type membership across a period of 4 years in both genders and most age cohorts. Comparatively less consistency across time was found for undercontrollers and individuals in old age. Taken together, these findings show that in the 2 nations studied here, personality types were highly consistent across gender, age, and time. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Merrill B.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2012

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can generate all of the cell types found in the adult organism. Remarkably, they retain this ability even after many cell divisions in vitro, as long as the culture conditions prevent differentiation of the cells. Wnt signaling and b-catenin have been shown to cause strong effects on ESCs both in terms of stimulating the expansion of stem cells and stimulating differentiation toward lineage committed cell types. The varied effects of Wnt signaling in ESCs, alongside the sometimes unconventional mechanisms underlying the effects, have generated a fair amount of controversy and intrigue regarding the role of Wnt signaling in pluripotent stem cells. Insights into the mechanisms of Wnt function in stem cells can be gained by examination of the causes for seemingly opposing effects of Wnt signaling on self-renewal versus differentiation. © 2012 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Suk A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Combinatorial Theory. Series B | Year: 2016

Given a finite point set P⊂Rd, a k-ary semi-algebraic relation E on P is a set of k-tuples of points in P determined by a finite number of polynomial equations and inequalities in kd real variables. The description complexity of such a relation is at most t if the number of polynomials and their degrees are all bounded by t. The Ramsey number Rk d,t(s,n) is the minimum N such that any N-element point set P in Rd equipped with a k-ary semi-algebraic relation E of complexity at most t contains s members such that every k-tuple induced by them is in E or n members such that every k-tuple induced by them is not in E.We give a new upper bound for Rk d,t(s,n) for k≥3 and s fixed. In particular, we show that for fixed integers d, t, sR3 d,t(s,n)≤2no(1), establishing a subexponential upper bound on R3 d,t(s,n). This improves the previous bound of 2nC1 due to Conlon, Fox, Pach, Sudakov, and Suk where C1 depends on d and t, and improves upon the trivial bound of 2nC2 which can be obtained by applying classical Ramsey numbers where C2 depends on s. As an application, we give new estimates for a recently studied Ramsey-type problem on hyperplane arrangements in Rd. We also study multi-color Ramsey numbers for triangles in our semi-algebraic setting, achieving some partial results. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Storm B.C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Levy B.J.,Stanford University
Memory and Cognition | Year: 2012

Remembering and forgetting reflect fundamentally interdependent processes in human memory (Bjork, 2011). This interdependency is particularly apparent in research on retrieval-induced forgetting, which has shown that retrieving a subset of information can cause the forgetting of other information (Anderson et al. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition 20:1063-1087, 1994). According to one prominent theoretical account, retrieval-induced forgetting is caused by an inhibitory process that acts to resolve competition during retrieval. Specifically, when cues activate competing, contextually inappropriate responses, those responses are claimed to be inhibited in order to facilitate the retrieval of target responses (Anderson Journal of Memory and Language 49: 415-445, 2003; Levy & Anderson Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6: 299-305, 2002; Storm, 2011b). Interest in retrieval-induced forgetting has grown steadily over the past two decades. In fact, a search of the abstracts at the 5th International Conference on Memory (ICOM, York University, 2011) revealed 40 presentations specifically mentioning "retrieval-induced forgetting," and nearly twice that number referring to the concept of inhibition. Clearly, researchers are interested in the empirical phenomenon of retrieval-induced forgetting, and inhibition is gaining increasing attention as a mechanism involved in memory. The goal of the present progress report is to critically review the inhibitory account of retrieval-induced forgetting and to provide direction so that future research can have a more meaningful impact on our understanding of human memory. © 2012 Psychonomic Society, Inc.

Mazumder S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Rathore A.K.,National University of Singapore
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

Emerging trends of high-power-density power-electronics interfaces for renewable- and alternative-energy sources have led to the need for high-frequency-inverter designs without compromising energy-conversion efficiency. In that context, a zero-voltage-switching (ZVS)-based scheme is described in this letter, for a cycloconverter-type high-frequency-link inverter, which is applicable for renewable- and alternative-energy sources as well as other commercial applications. The proposed scheme achieves the primary-side-converter-assisted switching of the ac/ac converter switches under ZVS condition. The modes of operation of the ac/ac converter are explained to outline the behavioral response. The results on the efficacy of the ZVS-based inverter and its performance show satisfactory performances. © 2010 IEEE.

Nutescu E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
The American journal of managed care | Year: 2011

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism-the components of venous thromboembolism (VTE)-are significant causes of morbidity and mortality and are a major burden on US healthcare systems. Current VTE prevention strategies are often suboptimal after total hip or total knee arthroplasty, possibly due to drawbacks of the established anticoagulants, resulting in residual VTE and associated (or related) costs of care. New anticoagulant agents under development may address some of the limitations of current options and possibly increase adherence to guidelines for thromboprophylaxis. This article will review the characteristics of the new oral anticoagulants, which may potentially translate into cost savings for the healthcare system.

Ray B.,Indiana University | Chauhan N.B.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lahiri D.K.,Indiana University
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2011

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in the elderly. In AD patients, β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are common features observed in the CNS. Aβ deposition results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to the hyperphosphorylation of tau that are associated with neuronal damage. Cholinesterase inhibitors and a partial NMDA receptor antagonist (memantine) have been identified as potential treatment options for AD. However, clinical studies have found that these drugs fail to prevent the disease progression. From ancient times, garlic (Allium sativum) has been used to treat several diseases. By 'aging' of garlic, some adverse reactions of garlic can be eliminated. Recent findings suggest that 'aged garlic extract' (AGE) may be a therapeutic agent for AD because of its antioxidant and Aβ lowering properties. To date, the molecular properties of AGE have been sparsely studied in vitro or in vivo. The present study tested specific biochemical and molecular effects of AGE in neuronal and AD rodent models. Furthermore, we identified S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC) as one of the most active chemicals responsible for the AGE-mediated effect(s). We observed significant neuroprotective and neurorescue properties of AGE and one of its ingredients, SAC, from ROS (H 2O2)-mediated insults to neuronal cells. Treatment of AGE and SAC were found to protect neuronal cells when they were independently co-treated with ROS. Furthermore, a novel neuropreservation effect of AGE was detected in that pre-treatment with AGE alone protected ∼80% neuronal cells from ROS-mediated damage. AGE was also found to preserve pre-synaptic protein synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) from ROS-mediated insult. For example, treatment with 2% AGE containing diet and SAC (20 mg/kg of diet) independently increased (∼70%) levels of SNAP25 and synaptophysin in Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein-transgenic mice, of which the latter was significantly decreased in AD. Taken together, the neuroprotective, including preservation of pre-synaptic proteins by AGE and SAC can be utilized in future drug development in AD. © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Bhattacharyya S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM | Year: 2011

Obtaining an indication of confidence of predictions is desirable for many data mining applications. Such confidence levels, together with the predicted value, can inform on the certainty or extent of reliability that may be associated with the prediction. This can be useful, for example, where model outputs are used in making potentially costly decisions, and one may then focus on the higher confidence predictions, and in general across risk sensitive applications. The conformal prediction framework presents a novel approach for complementing predictions from machine learning algorithms with valid confidence measures. Confidence levels are obtained from the underlying algorithm, using a non-conformity measure which indicates how 'atypical' a given example set is. The non-conformity measure is key to determining the usefulness and efficiency of the approach. This paper considers inductive conformal prediction in the context of random tree ensembles like random forests, which have been noted to perform favorably across problems. Focusing on classification tasks, and considering realistic data contexts including class imbalance, we develop non-conformity measures for assessing the confidence of predicted class labels from random forests. We examine the performance of these measures on multiple datasets. Results demonstrate the usefulness and validity of the measures, their relative differences, and highlight the effectiveness of conformal prediction random forests for obtaining predictions with associated confidence. © 2011 IEEE.

Smith R.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Wilkins M.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital
Child Neuropsychology | Year: 2015

Over the past three decades, perinatal HIV infection in the United States has evolved from a fatal disease to a manageable chronic illness. As the majority of youth with perinatal HIV infection age into adolescence and adulthood, management of this stigmatizing, transmittable disease in the backdrop of a cadre of environmental stressors presents challenges beyond those of other chronic illnesses. The neurologic and neuropsychological consequences of this neurotropic virus have important implications for the successful navigation of responsibilities related to increasingly independent living of this aging population. This article will review the neurologic and neuropsychological consequences of perinatal HIV infection and concomitant factors in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy and will provide an overview of the neuropathology, pathogenesis, neuroimaging findings, and treatment of perinatal HIV infection, as well as recommendations for service provision and future research. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Ghosh-Dastidar B.,RAND Corporation | Zenk S.N.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Huang C.,Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Methods The Pittsburgh Hill/Homewood Research on Eating, Shopping, and Health study conducted baseline interviews with 1,372 households between May and December 2011 in two low-income, majority African American neighborhoods without a supermarket. Audits of 16 stores where participants reported doing their major food shopping were conducted. Data were analyzed between February 2012 and February 2013.Results Distance to store and prices were positively associated with obesity (p<0.05). When distance to store and food prices were jointly modeled, only prices remained significant (p<0.01), with higher prices predicting a lower likelihood of obesity. Although low- and high-price stores did not differ in availability, they significantly differed in their display and marketing of junk foods relative to healthy foods.Conclusions Placing supermarkets in food deserts to improve access may not be as important as simultaneously offering better prices for healthy foods relative to junk foods, actively marketing healthy foods, and enabling consumers to resist the influence of junk food marketing.Background Lack of access to healthy foods may explain why residents of low-income neighborhoods and African Americans in the U.S. have high rates of obesity. The findings on where people shop and how that may influence health are mixed. However, multiple policy initiatives are underway to increase access in communities that currently lack healthy options. Few studies have simultaneously measured obesity, distance, and prices of the store used for primary food shopping.Purpose To examine the relationship among distance to store, food prices, and obesity. © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

Kiedrowski L.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2014

In cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons when intracellular pH drops from 6.6 to 6.1, yet unclear intracellular stores release micromolar amounts of Zn2+ into the cytosol. Mitochondria, acidic organelles, and/or intracellular ligands could release this Zn2+. Although exposure to the protonophore FCCP precludes reloading of the mitochondria and acidic organelles with Zn2+, FCCP failed to compromise the ability of the intracellular stores to repeatedly release Zn2+. Therefore, Zn 2+-releasing stores were not mitochondria or acidic organelles but rather intracellular Zn2+ ligands. To test which ligands might be involved, the rate of acid-induced Zn2+ release from complexes with cysteine, glutathione, histidine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and carnosine was investigated; [Zn2+] was monitored in vitro using the ratiometric Zn2+-sensitive fluorescent probe FuraZin-1. Carnosine failed to chelate Zn2+ but did chelate Cu2+; the remaining ligands chelated Zn2+ and upon acidification were releasing it into the medium. However, when pH was decreasing from 6.6 to 6.1, only zinc-cysteine complexes rapidly accelerated the rate of Zn2+ release. The zinc-cysteine complexes also released Zn2+ when a histidine-modifying agent, diethylpyrocarbonate, was applied at pH 7.2. Since the cytosolic zinc-cysteine complexes can contain micromolar amounts of Zn2+, these complexes may represent the stores responsible for an acid-induced intracellular Zn2+ release. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Shabana A.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2015

The aim of this paper is to propose a new numerical approach for modeling tires in multibody system (MBS) applications. In this approach, the tires, including the rigid rim, are modeled using one mesh developed using the finite element (FE) absolute nodal co-ordinate formulation (ANCF). The FE tire mesh, which allows for high spinning speed, has a constant inertia matrix and zero Coriolis and centrifugal forces. The connectivity conditions between the tire tread and rim are imposed at a preprocessing stage using linear constraint equations, thereby allowing for the elimination of dependent variables before the start of the simulation. The concept of the rim node is introduced in this paper to allow for the tire/axle assembly in MBS vehicle simulations. The rim node, which is not associated with a particular FE, is used to define the inertia of the rim, treated in this investigation as a rigid body. The procedure for evaluating the inertia coefficients associated with the rim node gradients is described. It is shown how fully parameterized ANCF beam and plate elements can be used to develop new tire geometry that captures details that cannot be captured using existing tire models. The concept of mixed ANCF FEs can also be used with both higher order fully parameterized and gradient deficient ANCF FEs to obtain a better distribution of the tire contact forces. Copyright © 2015 by ASME.

Jacobs D.E.,National Center for Healthy Housing | Jacobs D.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lackofhousing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing.

Slavin K.V.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Progress in Neurological Surgery | Year: 2011

Although commonly used in clinical practice, peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) for treatment of chronic pain is performed mainly with devices developed and marketed for spinal cord stimulation applications. This may be one of the reasons why PNS approach is marked by a very high complication rate, as the anatomy of peripheral nerves and the surrounding soft tissues is quite different from epidural spinal space for which the current devices are designed. The chapter reviews integral components of PNS systems and accessories. It also lists variety of complications observed with PNS approach and points to the ways to minimize their incidence. Based on the literature data and the analysis of the author's experience with PNS procedures it appears that although the rate of complications is relatively high, the morbidity associated with PNS approach is very minor and most problems may be resolved with simple re-operations, usually on outpatient basis. The reduction in complication rate is expected to occur when the hardware used in PNS procedures is appropriately adapted for PNS applications. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Al-Shaer D.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Medsurg nursing : official journal of the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses | Year: 2011

Registered nurses were queried about their knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management. Results suggest knowledge of pain management principles and interventions is insufficient.

Blumenthal S.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Perspectives in Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

In 1945, Earl Sutherland (1915-1975) and associates began studies of the mechanism of hormone-induced glycogen breakdown in the liver. In 1956, their efforts culminated in the identification of cyclic AMP, an ancient molecule generated in many cell types in response to hormonal and other extracellular signals. CyclicAMP, the original "second messenger," transmits such signals through pathways that regulate a diversity of cellular functions and capabilities: metabolic processes such as lipolysis and glycogenolysis; hormone secretion; the permeability of ion channels; gene expression; cell proliferation and survival. Indeed, it can be argued that the discovery of cyclicAMP initiated the study of intracellular signaling pathways, a major focus of contemporary biomedical inquiry.This review presents relevant details of Sutherland's career; summarizes key contributions of his mentors, Carl and Gerti Cori, to the knowledge of glycogen metabolism (contributions that were the foundation for his own research); describes the experiments that led to his identification, isolation, and characterization of cyclic AMP; assesses the significance of his work; and considers some aspects of the impact of cyclic nucleotide research on clinical medicine. © 2012 by The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Zheng Y.,Microsoft | Capra L.,University College London | Wolfson O.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Yang H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology | Year: 2014

Urbanization's rapid progress has modernized many people's lives but also engendered big issues, such as traffic congestion, energy consumption, and pollution. Urban computing aims to tackle these issues by using the data that has been generated in cities (e.g., traffic flow, human mobility, and geographical data). Urban computing connects urban sensing, data management, data analytics, and service providing into a recurrent process for an unobtrusive and continuous improvement of people's lives, city operation systems, and the environment. Urban computing is an interdisciplinary field where computer sciences meet conventional city-related fields, like transportation, civil engineering, environment, economy, ecology, and sociology in the context of urban spaces. This article first introduces the concept of urban computing, discussing its general framework and key challenges from the perspective of computer sciences. Second, we classify the applications of urban computing into seven categories, consisting of urban planning, transportation, the environment, energy, social, economy, and public safety and security, presenting representative scenarios in each category. Third, we summarize the typical technologies that are needed in urban computing into four folds, which are about urban sensing, urban data management, knowledge fusion across heterogeneous data, and urban data visualization. Finally, we give an outlook on the future of urban computing, suggesting a few research topics that are somehow missing in the community. © 2014 ACM 2157-6904/2014/09-ART38 $15.00.

Schechtman M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
The Journal of clinical ethics | Year: 2010

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has in some cases been associated with significant psychological effects and/or personality change. These effects occur sometimes as acute changes experienced intraoperatively or during the initial setting of the stimulator and sometimes as longer term progressive changes in the months following surgery. Sometimes they are the intended outcome of treatment, and in other cases they are an unintended side-effect. In all of these circumstances some patients and caregivers have described the psychological effects of DBS as frightening or disconcerting. I trace the source of these negative reactions to the fear that stimulation-related psychological and personality changes represent a threat to personal identity and agency. This issue has implications both for philosophical theories of personal identity and agency and for clinical concerns. A narrative account of personal identity is developed to illuminate the nature of the threat to identity and agency DBS potentially poses, and to suggest steps that might be taken to mitigate and avoid these threats.

Goldstein L.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Family involvement is essential to the developmental outcome of infants born into Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In this article, evidence has been presented on the parent's perspective of having an infant in the NICU and the context of family. Key points to an educational assessment are also reviewed. Throughout, the parent's concerns and the educational needs of the family are shared, and strategies are given to help therapists enhance their teaching skills and ways to partner with parents. This article also introduces the NICU Discharge Path for parents "Preparing for Your Baby to Come Home". The Path educates parents on the steps towards home and encourages their participation in the process. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Gatenby R.A.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Gillies R.J.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Brown J.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2011

We propose that the drivers of carcinogenesis lie more in the adaptive changes that are enabled by local or systemic alterations of tissue architecture than in the genetic changes observed in cancer cells. A full understanding of cancer biology and therapy through a cataloguing of the cancer genome is unlikely unless it is integrated into an evolutionary and ecological context. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Fagen M.C.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Health promotion practice | Year: 2011

Developmental evaluation is an emerging approach to program evaluation that emphasizes innovation and learning. It is particularly well suited to evaluating innovative programs in their earliest stages of development and adapting existing programs to complex or changing environments. Key features of the developmental evaluation approach include a tight integration between evaluators and program staff and the use of data for continuous program improvement. This article presents developmental evaluation as a complementary approach to the traditional formative-summative evaluation cycle, especially when used for preformative evaluation. To illustrate this emerging approach, the article features a case example from the Illinois Caucus for Adolescent Health's evaluation of its school board sexuality education policy change project. The article concludes by suggesting ways that developmental evaluation can be useful in health promotion practice.

Meraz S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Social Science Computer Review | Year: 2013

Given the dearth of research on nonpartisan political blog networks, this article conducted an exploratory analysis of the network ties of elite, moderate blogs in relation to and in comparison with elite, partisan blogs. Sampling 18 ideologically diverse blogs (left-leaning, moderate, and right-leaning) across three public affairs issues in 2007, it was found that weak-tie connections enabled moderate blogs to bridge all ideological blog networks more comprehensibly and expansively than partisan blog networks. Unfortunately, the bridging effect of weak-tie connections provided less internal and external cohesion within the moderate blog network when compared to both partisan blog networks. Moderate blogs had low intragroup (within group) and intergroup (between group) cohesion: moderate blogs not only linked less internally but received fewer, reciprocal linkages from partisan blog networks. Findings highlight the trade-off that moderate blogs make as they sacrifice the visibility benefits of cohesive community for the informational benefits of heterogeneous, weak-tie connections. © The Author(s) 2012.

Caldwell J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities | Year: 2011

Life stories and perspectives of leaders in the self-advocacy movement were explored to enhance knowledge about disability identity formation. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 leaders in the self-advocacy movement. Five major themes emerged: (a) resistance-claiming personhood and voice; (b) connection with disability community; (c) reclaiming disability and personal transformation; (d) interconnection with broader disability rights movement; and (e) bond with social justice and interdependency. © American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

Suarez-Balcazar Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Occupational therapy international | Year: 2013

Five years ago, an academic department in the United States and the Ann Sullivan Center of Peru (CASP) initiated an international partnership to foster research collaborations and reciprocal consultation, and to create an advanced clinical placement for occupational therapy doctoral students. CASP is a globally recognized hub for community-based research, demonstration and training for people with disabilities (most of whom are from low-income families). CASP has provided occupational therapy students and faculty with a rich cultural environment in which to learn and collaborate as well as opportunities for developing research collaborations. The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss an innovative model of international collaboration highlighting specific areas of exchange and reciprocal learning. First, we will describe the collaboration and CASP's rich learning opportunities. Second, we will discuss a model of collaboration that includes three main phases: planning and preparation, developing and sustaining the partnership, and evaluating and celebrating outcomes and benefits. We illustrate the partnership with a case example and describe exchanges between CASP and a local community agency with whom faculty have collaborated for 20 years. Finally, we discuss implications of our innovative model towards developing and sustaining global partnerships. . Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Howe H.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Global Ecology and Conservation | Year: 2014

The future of tropical biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes will be conservation and restoration of processes of seed dispersal by birds and mammals. Here the Diversity Storage Hypothesis posits that immense biological diversity resides within skewed species-abundance distributions of tropical trees, and further predicts that many species will adjust to increases of 1.5-3.0°C anticipated from climate change by 2100. Common and widespread tropical trees (>100,000,000 individuals) may shift ranges but are unlikely to face extinction. Many rare species (e.g. <1000 individuals) have a more precarious future. The latter may be declining species bound for extinction, incipient species adjusting to environmental changes, or relics of past warmer and more seasonal climates that will be resurrected if processes of seed dispersal allow them to persist and spread. In fragmented agricultural landscapes, preserved or planted corridors, buffers and stepping-stone habitat patches around and between forest remnants are more vital than efforts to preserve or create contemporary forest compositions, dominance relations, and species-abundance distributions. An implication of Diversity Storage is that it is more important to facilitate migration into and out of changing landscapes to allow inherent diversity to adjust and coexist with agricultural economies than to resist change. © 2014 The Author.

Smith-Marsh D.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Drugs of Today | Year: 2013

Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly prevalent disease in the United States, and is associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Prediabetes, which is defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), increases the risk of development of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle improvements, including weight loss and increased physical activity are effective in reducing the conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes by 58%. However, lifestyle interventions alone may be difficult to maintain. Oral pharmacological agents used to treat type 2 diabetes that improve insulin sensitivity, preserve beta cell function and delay carbohydrate metabolism have been shown to prevent the progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes. The risk reduction of diabetes using metformin, pioglitazone, acarbose, valsartan and orlistat in clinical studies has ranged from 14 to 72%. Therefore, persons with IGT tolerance may benefit from pharmacological therapy to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

Brown M.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Feairheller D.L.,Assessment Technology Group
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews | Year: 2013

African Americans have an endothelial dysfunction that likely contributes to their high prevalence of hypertension. Endothelial cell (EC) responses to stimuli could play a role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. High physiological levels of vascular laminar shear stress can alter EC phenotype profoundly. It is not known whether there are race-dependent EC responses to laminar shear stress. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Gao G.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Trends in cardiovascular medicine | Year: 2013

Alternative splicing is a posttranscriptional mechanism that can substantially change the pattern of gene expression. Up to 95% of human genes have multiexon alternative spliced forms, suggesting that alternative splicing is one of the most significant components of the functional complexity of the human genome. Nevertheless, alternative splicing regulation has received comparatively little attention in the study of cardiac diseases. When investigating SCN5A splicing abnormalities in heart failure (HF), we found that 47 of 181 known splicing regulators were upregulated in HF compared to controls, which indicates that splicing regulation may play a key role in HF. Our results show that angiotensin II and hypoxia, signals common to HF, result in increased LUC7L3 and RBM25 splicing regulators, increased binding of RBM25 to SCN5A mRNA, increased SCN5A splice variant abundances, decreased full-length SCN5A mRNA and protein, and decreased Na(+) current. These observations may shed light on a mechanism whereby cardiac function and arrhythmic risk are associated and allow for refined predictions of which patients may be at highest arrhythmic risk or suffer from Na(+) channel blocking anti-arrhythmic drug complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lazarov O.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Marr R.A.,Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Neural stem cells are maintained in the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone in the adult mammalian brain throughout life. Neurogenesis is continuous, but its extent is tightly regulated by environmental factors, behavior, hormonal state, age, and brain health. Increasing evidence supports a role for new neurons in cognitive function in rodents. Recent evidence delineates significant similarities and differences between adult neurogenesis in rodents and humans. Being context-dependent, neurogenesis in the human brain might be manifested differently than in the rodent brain. Decline in neurogenesis may play a role in cognitive deterioration, leading to the development of progressive learning and memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses the different observations concerning neurogenesis in the rodent and human brain, and their functional implications for the healthy and diseased brain. © 2013 Lazarov and Marr.

Sarkar J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the effect of topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal nerves in vivo and in vitro. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mouse eyes were treated topically with vehicle or BAK (0.01% or 0.1%). Wide-field stereofluorescence microscopy was performed to sequentially image the treated corneas in vivo every week for 4 weeks, and changes in stromal nerve fiber density (NFD) and aqueous tear production were determined. Whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of corneas was performed with antibodies to axonopathy marker SMI-32. Western immunoblot analyses were performed on trigeminal ganglion and corneal lysates to determine abundance of proteins associated with neurotoxicity and regeneration. Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether BAK affects neurite outgrowth. BAK-treated corneas exhibited significantly reduced NFD and aqueous tear production, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration and fluorescein staining at 1 week (P < 0.05). These changes were most significant after 0.1% BAK treatment. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration in the cornea showed a significant negative correlation with NFD. Sequential in vivo imaging of corneas showed two forms of BAK-induced neurotoxicity: reversible neurotoxicity characterized by axonopathy and recovery, and irreversible neurotoxicity characterized by nerve degeneration and regeneration. Increased abundance of beta III tubulin in corneal lysates confirmed regeneration. A dose-related significant reduction in neurites occurred after BAK addition to compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells. Although both BAK doses (0.0001% and 0.001%) reduced nerve fiber length, the reduction was significantly more with the higher dose (P < 0.001). Topical application of BAK to the eye causes corneal neurotoxicity, inflammation, and reduced aqueous tear production.

Behery O.A.,Rush University Medical Center | Foucher K.C.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2014

Background: Discordance between subjective and objective functional measures hinders the development of new ways to improve THA outcomes.Questions/purposes: We asked if (1) any kinematic or kinetic gait variables are correlated with preoperative Harris hip scores (HHS), (2) any kinematic or kinetic gait variables are correlated with postoperative HHS, and (3) pre- to postoperative changes in any kinematic or kinetic gait variables are associated with the change in HHS?Methods: For this retrospective study, an institutional review board-approved data repository that included all individuals who participated in motion analysis research studies was used to identify subjects evaluated before (n = 161) and at least 6 months after primary unilateral THA (n = 156). Selected kinematic (sagittal plane dynamic hip ROM and kinetic (peak external moments about the hip in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes) gait variables were collected at subjects’ self-selected normal walking speeds. We used first-order partial correlations to identify relationships between HHS and gait variables, controlling for the influence of speed.Results: Preoperative HHS correlated with hip ROM (R|speed = 0.260; p < 0.001) and the peak extension moment (R|speed = 0.164; p = 0.038), postoperative HHS correlated with the peak internal rotation moment (R|speed = 0.178; p = 0.034), and change in HHS correlated with change in hip ROM (R|speed = 0.288; p = 0.001) and peak external rotation moment (R|speed = 0.291; p = 0.002). Similar associations were seen when the HHS pain and function were analyzed separately.Conclusions: This study identified relationships between a common clinical outcome measure and specific, modifiable gait adaptations that can persist after THA—ROM and transverse plane gait moments. Addressing these aspects of gait dysfunction through focused rehabilitation could be a new strategy for improving clinical outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate this concept.Level of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2014, The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.

McCoy H.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Crime and Delinquency | Year: 2014

Prior research indicated that African American and Caucasian youth respond differently to items on the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2 (MAYSI-2), a mental health screening tool used nationwide in juvenile justice systems, thus possibly affecting mental health need identification. To explore the cause for the differences, cognitive interviews were conducted with eight African American and eight Caucasian male juvenile detainees, aged 12 to 16 years, from two Midwestern detention facilities. Results indicate differences in how both groups interpreted certain mental health symptoms and the dimension of time. Both groups also similarly misinterpreted and were suspicious of some items. To address these issues, the MAYSI-2 could benefit from further examination and development. © 2010 SAGE Publications.

Powell L.M.,Institute for Health Research and Policy | Nguyen B.T.,University of Illinois at Chicago
JAMA Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine the effect of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators, and beverage consumption. Design: Individual-level fixed-effects estimation based on 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting: Nationally representative data from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants: Children aged 2 to 11 years (n=4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n=4699). Main Outcome Measures: Daily total energy intake in kilocalories; intake of grams of sugar, total fat, saturated fat, and protein and milligrams of sodium; and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages, regular soda, and milk consumed. Results: Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126.29 kcal and 160.49 kcal for children and 309.53 kcal and 267.30 kcal for adolescents and with higher intake of regular soda (73.77 g and 88.28 g for children and 163.67 g and 107.25 g for adolescents) and sugar-sweetened beverages generally. Fast-food consumption increased intake of total fat (7.03-14.36 g), saturated fat (1.99-4.64 g), and sugar (5.71-16.24 g) for both age groups and sodium (396.28 mg) and protein (7.94 g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were (1) adverse effects on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents and (2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Conclusion: Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality. © 2013 American Medical Association.

Liu B.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Intelligent Systems | Year: 2010

Sentiment analysis which is the computational study of people's opinions, appraisals, and emotions toward entities, events and their attributes are discussed. Opinions are important because whenever people need to make a decision, they want to hear others' opinions. Sentiment classification classifies whether an opinionated document (such as product reviews) or sentence expresses a positive or negative opinion. Co-reference resolution is a classic problem in natural-language processing, and the research community has not yet found an accurate solution. Object extraction is probably the easiest because one can apply many existing information extraction algorithms. Integration and matching of all five pieces of information in the quintuple is still lacking, which is probably not surprising since the research community likes to focus on individual sub problems. A large number of companies provide sentiment-analysis and opinion mining services.

Wang Q.T.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Developmental Dynamics | Year: 2012

Heart disease is a leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. Heart disease includes a broad range of diseases that affect the development and/or function of the cardiovascular system. Some of these diseases, such as congenital heart defects, are present at birth. Others develop over time and may be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Many of the known heart diseases are associated with abnormal expression of genes. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate gene expression in the heart is essential for the detection, treatment, and prevention of heart diseases. Polycomb Group (PcG) and Trithorax Group (TrxG) proteins are special families of chromatin factors that regulate developmental gene expression in many tissues and organs. Accumulating evidence suggests that these proteins are important regulators of development and function of the heart as well. A better understanding of their roles and functional mechanisms will translate into new opportunities for combating heart disease. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Braithwaite S.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Current Diabetes Reports | Year: 2013

Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, preexisting diabetes, and glycemic variability each may affect hospital outcomes. Observational findings derived from randomized trials or retrospective studies suggest that independent of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, a relationship exists between variability and hospital outcomes. A review of studies conducted in diverse hospital populations is reported here, showing a relationship between measures of variability and nonglycemic outcomes, including ICU and hospital mortality and length of stay. "Glycemic variability" has an intuitive meaning, understood as a propensity of a single patient to develop repeated episodes of excursions of BG over a relatively short period of time that exceed the amplitude expected in normal physiology. It is proposed that each of 3 dimensions of variability should be separately studied: (1) magnitude of glycemic excursions during intervals of relative stability of the moving average of BG, (2) frequency with which a critical magnitude of excursion is exceeded, and (3) presence or absence of fine tuning. Multiple hospital studies have found that the standard deviation (SD) of the data set of blood glucose values (BG) of individual patients predicts outcomes. An appropriate refinement would be to report the "Reverse-transformed group mean of the SD of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient," with confidence intervals. In logarithmic space, group means of the SD of BGs of each patient may be compared, using an appropriate parametric test. Upon reverse transformation, the upper and lower bounds of the confidence intervals become asymmetric about the reverse-transformed group mean of the SD. There is a need to understand what patterns of dispersion of BG over time are captured by SD as a predictor of outcomes. Among the causes of high SD, a subgroup may consist of patients having frequent oscillations of BG. Another subgroup may consist of patients experiencing a major change of overall glycemia during the timeframe of data collection. Appropriate metrics should be developed to recognize both variability in the sense of recurrent large oscillations of BG, and separately to recognize any time-dependent change of overall glycemia during hospitalization. Especially in relation to uncontrolled diabetes, there is a need to know whether rapid correction of chronic hyperglycemia adversely affects hospital outcomes. We have some understanding of how to control or prevent change of overall glycemia, and less understanding of how to control variability. Each may be associated with outcomes, and each may be detected by a high SD, but it remains uncertain whether intervention to prevent either pattern of changing glycemia would affect outcomes. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Smalheiser N.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Literature-based discovery (LBD) refers to a particular type of text mining that seeks to identify nontrivial assertions that are implicit, and not explicitly stated, and that are detected by juxtaposing (generally a large body of) documents. In this review, I will provide a brief overview of LBD,both past and present,and will propose some new directions for the next decade. The prevalent ABC model is not "wrong"; however, it is only one of several different types of models that can contribute to the development of the next generation of LBD tools. Perhaps the most urgent need is to develop a series of objective literature-based interestingness measures, which can customize the output of LBD systems for different types of scientific investigations. © 2011 ASIS&T.

Uslenghi P.L.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters | Year: 2011

A cavity resonator in the shape of a prism with a square base and walls that are either perfect electric or perfect magnetic conductors is considered. The resonator consists of two identical prisms with triangular bases, filled respectively with a double-positive material and a double-negative metamaterial, the two materials having opposite refractive indexes and the same intrinsic impedance. It is shown that electromagnetic fields whose electric or magnetic field is parallel to the height of the prism may exist for any dimensions of the cavity. © 2011 IEEE.

Huggett N.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2014

This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories, time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of "dynamical passage" of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally, the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, causal set theory provides a physics of passage. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

Mazumder S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2016

This paper provides an outline on optically switched power electronic devices - an area of increasing promise. Starting with an outline of the need and benefits of optically activated power electronics, a brief chronological overview of the past optical-technology work is provided, followed by some of the recent novel work conducted by the author's group. The latter focuses on optical power semiconductor device technologies at different voltage levels and relatively recent device controls technologies. Finally, looking forward, some of the potential application areas of photonic power electronics are captured. © 2015 IEEE.

Caicedo-Nunez C.H.,Princeton University | Zefran M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011

We study the task allocation problem: how a set of mobile agents can best monitor a convex region and at the same time localize events such as biochemical threats that appear in the region. As the agents move towards an event to localize it, the coverage of the region deteriorates; on the other hand, if an agent does not help in localizing an event, it will take longer for other agents to localize it. The decision on how an agent should trade off localization and coverage depends on a particular network deployment. We show how different deployments can be parametrized and propose a distributed algorithm to solve the task allocation problem. The algorithm is shown to be stable and scalable, and is shown to converge to an optimal equilibrium position. The proposed parametrization of the task allocation problem depends on the number of agents in the network; we thus present a fast and robust algorithm based on consensus protocols for estimating this number. © 2011 IEEE.

Gonzalez J.,Bemidji State University | Trickett E.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
American Journal of Community Psychology | Year: 2014

This paper describes the processes we engaged into develop a measurement protocol used to assess the outcomes in a community based suicide and alcohol abuse prevention project with two Alaska Native communities. While the literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) is substantial regarding the importance of collaborations, few studies have reported on this collaboration in the process of developing measures to assess CBPR projects. We first tell a story of the processes around the standard issues of doing cross-cultural work on measurement development related to areas of equivalence. A second story is provided that highlights how community differences within the same cultural group can affect both the process and content of culturally relevant measurement selection, adaptation, and development. © 2014 Society for Community Research and Action.

Calhoun E.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Health promotion practice | Year: 2010

Patient Navigation is an intervention aimed at addressing cancer health disparities by eliminating barriers to diagnosis, treatment, and services. Three major patient navigation (PN) programs (The National Cancer Institute, The American Cancer Society &The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services) are underway to address the needs of medically underserved cancer patients. There has not been national training with a defined curriculum for patient navigators (PNs). Curriculum for training the PNs was created by experts from the three programs. The efficacy of training was evaluated using a pre- and posttest. The data show that overall the posttest scores improved from the pretest. In addition, having a high school education or greater or having more years of work experience were significantly related to improvements on the posttest. The first successful standardized national training program was attended by 116 PNs representing 85 cities with the goal to reduce health disparities for medically underserved.

Nicholls D.P.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2011

The Method of Transformed Field Expansions (TFE) has been demonstrated to be a robust and highly accurate numerical scheme for simulating solutions of boundary value and free boundary problems from the sciences and engineering. As a Boundary Perturbation Method it builds highly accurate solutions based upon exact solutions in a simple, canonical, geometry and corrects these via Taylor series to fit the actual geometry at hand. The TFE method has significantly enhanced stability properties when compared with other Boundary Perturbation approaches, however, this comes at the cost of requiring a full volumetric discretization as opposed the surface formulation that other methods can realize. In this paper we outline two techniques for ameliorating this shortcoming, first by employing a Legendre Spectral Element Method to implement efficient, graded meshes, and second by utilizing an Artificial Boundary with a Transparent Boundary Condition placed quite close to the boundary of the domain. In this contribution we focus on the specific problem of simulating the Dirichlet-Neumann operator associated to Laplace's equation on a periodic cell (which arises in the water wave problem). While the details of our results are specific to this problem, the general conclusions are valid for the wider class of problems to which the TFE method can be applied. For each technique we discuss implementation details and display numerical results which support the conclusion that each of these techniques can greatly reduce the computational cost of using the TFE method. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Goodman D.C.,Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice | Robertson R.G.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Health Affairs | Year: 2013

Graduate medical education (GME) has fallen short in training physicians to meet changes in the US population and health care delivery systems. The shortfall in training has happened despite a consensus on the need for accelerated change. This article discusses the varied causes of GME inertia and proposes a new funding mechanism coupled to a competitive peer-review process. The result would be to reward GME programs that are aligned with publicly set priorities for specialty numbers and training content. New teaching organizations and residency programs would compete on an equal footing with existing ones. Over a decade, all current programs would undergo peer review, with low review scores leading to partial, but meaningful, decreases in funding. This process would incentivize incremental and continual change in GME and would provide a mechanism for funding innovative training through special requests for proposals. © 2013 Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

Sadikot R.T.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Methods in Enzymology | Year: 2012

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represent a heterogenous group of lung disease in critically ill patients. Despite the increased understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of ARDS, the mortality remains unacceptably high, ranging from 34 to 64. Hence, ARDS represents an unmet medical need with an urgency to develop effective pharmacotherapies. Several promising targets that have been identified as potential therapies for ARDS have been limited because of difficulty with delivery. In particular, delivery of peptides and proteins to the lung is an ongoing challenge. Nanobiotechnology and nanoscience are the basis of innovative techniques to deliver drugs targeted to the site of inflamed organs, such as the lungs. Nanoscale drug delivery systems have the ability to improve the pharmacokinetics and pharmakodynamics of agents allowing an increase in the biodistribution of therapeutic agents to target organs, resulting in improved efficacy with reduction in drug toxicity. These systems are exploited for therapeutic purpose to carry the drug in the body in a controlled manner from the site of administration to the therapeutic target. Hence, it is an attractive strategy to test potential targets for ALI/ARDS using nanotechnology. To this end, we have identified several potential targets and proposed the delivery of these agents using nanomicelles to improve the drug delivery. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Magin R.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2010

Fractional (non-integer order) calculus can provide a concise model for the description of the dynamic events that occur in biological tissues. Such a description is important for gaining an understanding of the underlying multiscale processes that occur when, for example, tissues are electrically stimulated or mechanically stressed. The mathematics of fractional calculus has been applied successfully in physics, chemistry, and materials science to describe dielectrics, electrodes and viscoelastic materials over extended ranges of time and frequency. In heat and mass transfer, for example, the half-order fractional integral is the natural mathematical connection between thermal or material gradients and the diffusion of heat or ions. Since the material properties of tissue arise from the nanoscale and microscale architecture of subcellular, cellular, and extracellular networks, the challenge for the bioengineer is to develop new dynamic models that predict macroscale behavior from microscale observations and measurements. In this paper we describe three areas of bioengineering research (bioelectrodes, biomechanics, bioimaging) where fractional calculus is being applied to build these new mathematical models. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Esparza A.,ACS Patient Navigator Program | Calhoun E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Cancer | Year: 2011

In March 2010, the American Cancer Society hosted the National Patient Navigation Leadership Summit. The Summit organizers invited cancer clinicians, researchers, practicing public health experts, funders, and patient navigators to develop a national consensus on common outcomes of patient navigation. The goal of the Summit was to develop and propose core metrics for navigation programs to measure the impact on individuals and populations across the disease continuum. This article describes the Summit and outlines the need for such an endeavor in the effort to support the growth and sustainability of patient navigation. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Anderson T.J.,University of Calgary | Phillips S.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

The endothelium plays a crucial role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. Our understanding of its role in health and disease has increased dramatically since the pivotal discovery of nitric oxide more than 30. years ago. Clinical researchers utilized emerging technologies to study the vasodilator properties of the endothelium in both the coronary and peripheral circulation. Early studies established the methodologies and were able to demonstrate attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to atherosclerosis and its risk factors. A variety of interventions can modulate endothelial function. More recent studies have established that some of these measures are independent predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. As such, peripheral measures of endothelial function are now established surrogate markers of vascular risk and have become important markers for clinical research. In this review, we will discuss a variety of measures of peripheral artery function to assess both conduit and resistance vessel function in humans. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Cameselle C.,University of Vigo | Reddy K.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2012

Electrokinetic remediation is a developing remediation technology for the restoration of soils, sludge and sediments contaminated with inorganic and/or organic compounds. The basis of electrokinetic remediation lays in the application of a low intensity direct electric current (typically 1 VDC cm -1) to the contaminated porous matrix (soil, sediment). The electric field induces the mobilization and transport of the contaminants toward the electrodes. Ionic contaminants are transported toward the electrode of the opposite charge due to the transport process known as electromigration. The electric field also induces a net flux of water into the solid porous matrix, known as electro-osmosis. Electro-osmosis transport contaminants in solution in the interstitial fluid toward the cathode if the surface charge of the porous matrix is negative, which is the most common case. Thus, electro-osmosis is the key transport phenomenon for the removal of organic contaminants in soils, sludge and sediments. The most dangerous and recalcitrant organics in soils are hydrophobic and tend to remain attached to the soil particles and organic matter in the soil. In order to enhance the removal of organic contaminants by electro-osmosis, it is necessary to use solubilizing agents that desorb the contaminants and favor their dissolution/solubilization in the interstitial fluid. Surfactants, bio-surfactants, co-solvents, and cyclodextrins were used with different success in the removal of these hydrophobic organics in soils. However, the effectiveness of the process also depends on the maintenance of a high electro-osmotic flow for a long time. This can be achieved by regulating the pH of the soil with the proper flushing solution in the electrodes and using pulsed electric fields. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hanakahi L.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Molecular Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP 6) is a member of the inositol polyphosphate group that participates in numerous intracellular signaling pathways. Cheung and colleagues previously reported that InsP 6 stimulated double-strand break repair by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in cell-free extracts and that InsP 6 binding by the Ku70/80 subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) was required for stimulation of NHEJ in vitro. This report describes InsP 6-dependent phosphorylation of two NHEJ factors, XRCC4 and XLF, in partially purified human cell extracts. XRCC4 and XLF are known substrates for DNA-PK, which does not require InsP 6 for protein kinase activity. Consistent with a role for DNA-PK in these reactions, InsP 6-dependent phosphorylation of XRCC4 and XLF was DNA dependent and not observed in the presence of DNA-PK inhibitors. Depletion of the Ku70/80 DNA-, InsP 6-binding subunit of DNA-PK resulted in loss of InsP 6-dependent phosphorylation and showed a requirement for Ku70/80 in these reactions. Complementation of Ku70/80-depleted reactions with recombinant wild-type Ku70/80 restored InsP 6-dependent phosphorylation of XRCC4 and XLF. In contrast, addition of a Ku70/80 mutant with reduced InsP 6 binding failed to restore InsP 6-dependent phosphorylation. While additional protein kinases may participate in InsP 6-dependent phosphorylation of XRCC4 and XLF, data presented here describe a clear requirement for DNA-PK in these phosphorylation events. Furthermore, these data suggest that binding of the inositol polyphosphate InsP 6by Ku70/80 may modulate the substrate specificity of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related protein kinase DNA-PK. ©2011 AACR.

Chaplin B.P.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2014

Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have emerged as novel water treatment technologies for the elimination of a broad-range of organic contaminants. Considerable validation of this technology has been performed at both the bench-scale and pilot-scale, which has been facilitated by the development of stable electrode materials that efficiently generate high yields of hydroxyl radicals (OH) (e.g., boron-doped diamond (BDD), doped-SnO 2, PbO2, and substoichiometic- and doped-TiO2). Although a promising new technology, the mechanisms involved in the oxidation of organic compounds during EAOPs and the corresponding environmental impacts of their use have not been fully addressed. In order to unify the state of knowledge, identify research gaps, and stimulate new research in these areas, this review critically analyses published research pertaining to EAOPs. Specific topics covered in this review include (1) EAOP electrode types, (2) oxidation pathways of select classes of contaminants, (3) rate limitations in applied settings, and (4) long-term sustainability. Key challenges facing EAOP technologies are related to toxic byproduct formation (e.g., ClO 4- and halogenated organic compounds) and low electro-active surface areas. These challenges must be addressed in future research in order for EAOPs to realize their full potential for water treatment. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Objective: To revie. The role of human large bowel microbacteria (microbiota) i. The glucose homeostasis, to address vitamin D (VD) and prebiotics interactions with microbiota, and to summarize recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of VD and prebiotics supplementation in prediabetes (PreDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods: Primary literature was reviewed i. The following areas: composition and activity of human microbiota associated with PreDM and T2DM, interactions between microbiota and glucose homeostasis. The interaction of microbiota with VD/prebiotics, and RCTs of VD/prebiotics in subjects with PreDM or T2DM.Results: The human microbiota is comprised of 100 trillion bacteria with an aggregate genome that is 150-fold larger tha. The human genome. Data fro. The animal models and human studies reveal that an "obesogenic" diet results int. The initial event of microbiota transformation from symbiosis to dysbiosis. The microbial antigens, such as Gram(-) bacteria and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), translocate t. The host interior and trigger increased energy harvesting and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation with subsequent inflammatory pathways signaling. The "double hit" of steatosis (ectopic fat accumulation) and "-itis" (inflammation) and contribution of "corisks" (e.g., vitamin D deficiency [VDD]) are required to activate molecular signaling, including impaired insulin signaling and secretion, that ends with T2DM and associated diseases. Dietary changes (e.g., prebiotics, VD supplementation) may ameliorate this process if initiated prior t. The process becoming irreversible.Conclusion: Emerging evidence suggests an important role of microbiota in glucose homeostasis. VD supplementation and prebiotics may be useful in managing PreDM and T2DM. © 2013 AACE.

Goldberg J.F.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Goldberg J.F.,New Hill | Harrow M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Bipolar Disorders | Year: 2011

Objectives: Outcome studies have previously documented substantial functional disability among individuals with bipolar disorder, although few follow-up studies have examined the prospective course of illness beyond 10years' duration. Methods: A total of 95 patients with mood disorders (46 with bipolar I disorder and 49 with unipolar nonpsychotic depression) were assessed 15years after index hospitalization. Logistic and linear regression models were used to identify predictors of global functioning, work disability, and social adjustment. Results: At 15-year follow-up, good overall functioning was significantly less common among subjects with bipolar disorder (35%) than unipolar depression (73%) (p<0.001). Work disability was significantly more extensive in bipolar than unipolar disorder subjects (p<0.001). Logistic regression indicated that good outcome 15years after index hospitalization was significantly predicted by a unipolar rather than bipolar disorder diagnosis and the absence of a depressive episode in the preceding year. Past-year depressive, but not past-year manic, syndromes were associated with poorer global outcome and greater work disability. In addition, subsyndromal depression was significantly associated with poorer global, work, and social outcome among bipolar, but not unipolar disorder subjects. Conclusions: A majority of individuals with bipolar I disorder manifest problems with work and global functioning 15years after an index hospitalized manic episode Recurrent syndromal and subsyndromal depression disrupts multiple domains of functional outcome more profoundly in bipolar than unipolar mood disorders. The prevalence, and correlates, of impaired long-term outcome parallel those reported in shorter-term functional outcome studies of bipolar disorder. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

Mankad N.P.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Synlett | Year: 2014

Homogeneous catalysts for C-H functionalization typically require precious metals such as Pd, Ru, Rh, or Ir because of their facility in mediating two-electron redox mechanisms. Base metals such as Cu or Fe instead tend to undergo one-electron redox processes. By coupling together two base metal sites in a hetero bimetallic catalyst design, base metal catalysts for photochemical C-H borylation were discovered. The optimal catalyst, (IPr)Cu-FeCp(CO) 2, represents the first homogeneous catalyst for C-H borylation that contains no precious metals. Using metal-metal cooperativity in this way allows for base metal catalysts to replace precious metal catalysts while maintaining advantageous regio selectivity patterns. The proposed mechanism for heterobimetallic C-H borylation features bimetallic versions of classic organometallic reaction steps, serves as a guide for future catalyst designs, and opens the possibility for other precious metal transformations to be approached using metal-metal cooperativity as a design strategy. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart. New York.

Ligas B.B.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Orthodontics : the art and practice of dentofacial enhancement | Year: 2011

In 1976, Marbach described the term phantom bite as a patient's perception of an irregular bite when the clinician could identify no evidence of a discrepancy. Typically, the patient presents with a history of bite-altering procedures, hyperawareness of occlusion, and a persistent complaint of an uncomfortable bite, usually with an absence of pain. Patients with phantom bite complaints often undergo lengthy, expensive, irreversible, invasive, and unnecessary treatments in search of a resolution of their symptoms. The objectives of the study were: (1) to gauge orthodontists' awareness of phantom bite and its associated signs and symptoms, (2) to identify the most common types of treatments rendered for this phenomenon, (3) to determine if regional differences or length of practice experience affected the aforementioned factors, and (4) to determine sex characteristics of patients with phantom bite. The study consisted of a 14-item survey administered electronically using SurveyMonkey software. Using the American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) directory, 4,124 orthodontists were recruited to participate via email; 337 completed the survey. Approximately 50% of the responding orthodontists were unfamiliar with the term "phantom bite"; however, many reported seeing patients with phantom bite complaints. Demographic differences, such as geographic region of practice or years in practice, did not affect familiarity with this condition or its treatment. The results suggest a need for increasing awareness of this condition among orthodontic practitioners to provide patients with appropriate care.

Nakata C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Im S.,San Francisco State University
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2010

Spurring integration among functional specialists so they collectively create successful, or high-performing, new products is a central interest of innovation practitioners and researchers. Firms are increasingly assembling cross-functional new product development (NPD) teams for this purpose. However, integration of team members' divergent orientations and expertise is notoriously difficult to achieve. Individuals from distinct functions such as design, marketing, manufacturing, and research and development (RandD) are often assigned to NPD teams but have contrasting backgrounds, priorities, and thought worlds. If not well managed, this diversity can yield unproductive conflict and chaos rather than successful new products. Firms are thus looking for avenues of integrating the varied expertise and orientations within these cross-functional teams. The aim of this study is to address two important and not fully resolved questions: (1) does cross-functional integration in NPD teams actually improve new product performance; and if so, (2) what are ways to strengthen integration? The study began by developing a model of cross-functional integration from the perspective of the group effectiveness theory. The theory has been used to explain the performance of a wide range of small, complex work groups; this study is the first application of the theory to NPD teams. The model developed from this theory was then tested by conducting a survey of dual informants in 206 NPD teams in an array of U.S. high-technology companies. In answer to the first research question, the findings show that cross-functional integration indeed contributes to new product performance as long conjectured. This finding is important in that it highlights that bringing together the skills, efforts, and knowledge of differing functions in an NPD team has a clear and coveted payoff: high-performing new products. In answer to the second question, the findings indicate that both intra- (or internal) and extra- (or external) team factors contribute and codetermine cross-functional integration. Specifically, social cohesion and superordinate identity as internal team factors and market-oriented reward system, planning process formalization, and managerial encouragement to take risks as external team factors foster integration. These findings underscore that spurring integration requires addressing the conditions inside as well as outside NPD teams. These specialized work groups operate as organizations within organizations; recognition of this in situ arrangement is the first step toward better managing and ensuring rewards from team integration. Based on these findings, managerial and research implications were drawn for team integration and new product performance. © 2010 Product Development and Management Association.

Zeidman L.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques | Year: 2011

The Nazi regime in Germany from 1933 to 1945 waged a veritable war throughout Europe to eliminate neurologic disease from the gene pool. Fueled by eugenic policies on racial hygiene, the Nazis first undertook a sterilization campaign against "mental defectives," which included neurologic patients with epilepsy and other disorders, as well as psychiatric patients. From 1939-41 the Nazis instead resorted to "euthanasia" of many of the same patients. Some neuroscientists were collaborators in this program, using patients for research, or using extracted brains following their murder. Other reviews have focused on Hallervorden, Spatz, Schaltenbrand, Scherer, and Gross, but in this review the focus is on neuroscientists not well described in the neurology literature, including Scholz, Ostertag, Schneider, Nachtsheim, and von Weizsäcker. Only by understanding the actions of neuroscientists during this dark period can we learn from the slippery slope down which they traveled, and prevent history from repeating itself.

Kiedrowski L.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2011

Although Zn2+ homeostasis in neurons is tightly regulated and its destabilization has been linked to a number of pathologies including Alzheimer's disease and ischemic neuronal death, the primary mechanisms affecting intracellular Zn2+ concentration ([Zn2+] i) in neurons exposed to excitotoxic stimuli remain poorly understood. The present work addressed these mechanisms in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to glutamate and glycine (Glu/Gly). [Zn2+] i and intracellular Ca2+ concentration were monitored simultaneously using FluoZin-3 and Fura-2FF, and intracellular pH (pH i) was studied in parallel experiments using 2′,7′-bis- (2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. Glu/Gly applications under Na +-free conditions (Na+ substituted with N-methyl-D-glucamine+) caused Ca2+ influx, pHi drop, and Zn2+ release from intracellular stores. Experimental maneuvers resulting in a pHi increase during Glu/Gly applications, such as stimulation of Na+-dependent pathways of H+ efflux, forcing H+ efflux via gramicidin-formed channels, or increasing extracellular pH counteracted [Zn2+]i elevations. In the absence of Na+, the rate of [Zn2+]i decrease could be correlated with the rate of pHi increase. In the presence of Na+, the rate of [Zn2+]i decrease was about twice as fast as expected from the rate of pHi elevation. The data suggest that Glu/Gly-induced cytosolic acidification promotes [Zn 2+]i elevations and that Na+ counteracts the latter by promoting pHi-dependent and pHi-independent mechanisms of cytosolic Zn2+ clearance. © 2011 The Author Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Kaestner R.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Silber J.H.,University of Pennsylvania
Milbank Quarterly | Year: 2010

Context: It is widely believed that a significant amount, perhaps as much as 20 to 30 percent, of health care spending in the United States is wasted, despite market forces such as managed care organizations and large, self-insured firms with a financial incentive to eliminate waste of this magnitude. Methods: This article uses Medicare claims data to study the association between inpatient spending and the thirty-day mortality of Medicare patients admitted to hospitals between 2001 and 2005 for surgery (general, orthopedic, vascular) and medical conditions (acute myocardial infarction [AMI], congestive heart failure [CHF], stroke, and gastrointestinal bleeding). Findings: Estimates from the analysis indicated that except for AMI patients, a 10 percent increase in inpatient spending was associated with a decrease of between 3.1 and 11.3 percent in thirty-day mortality, depending on the type of patient. Conclusions: Although some spending may be inefficient, the results suggest that the amount of waste is less than conventionally believed, at least for inpatient care. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

Fantuzzi G.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Cytokine | Year: 2013

Circulating levels of adiponectin (APN) are reduced in obesity and associated comorbidities, with inflammation playing an important role in downregulating APN production. In contrast to obesity and metabolic disease, elevated systemic and local levels of APN are present in patients with inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, including autoimmune and pulmonary conditions, heart and kidney failure, viral hepatitis, organ transplantation and perhaps critical illness. A positive association between inflammation and APN is usually reported in inflammatory/immune pathologies, in contrast with the negative correlation typical of metabolic disease. This review discusses the role of APN in modulation of inflammation and immunity and the potential mechanisms leading to increased levels of APN in inflammatory/immune diseases, including modification of adipose tissue physiology; relative contribution of different tissues and adipose depots; hormonal, pharmacological, nutritional and life style factors; the potential contribution of the microbiota as well as the role of altered APN clearance and release from T-cadherin-associated tissue reservoirs. Potential reasons for some of the apparently contradictory findings on the role of APN as a modulator of immunity and inflammation are also discussed, including a comparison of types of recombinant APN used for in vitro studies and strain-dependent differences in the phenotype of APN KO mice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Yarin A.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Yarin A.L.,TU Darmstadt
Polymers for Advanced Technologies | Year: 2011

The mini-review is devoted to coaxial electrospinning (co-electrospinning, emulsion electrospinning), a group of novel methods for making core-shell nanofibers and hollow nanotubes. The physical aspects of the process are described in brief, in particular, its modeling and possible drawbacks of the process resulting in formation of fibers without a long intact core. After that the main applications of co-electrospinning are considered. They include drug release, encapsulation of different biologically active compounds, cell scaffolds, formation of nanotubes, and nanofluidics. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Nwabuisi-Heath E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
ASN neuro | Year: 2014

The ε4 allele of the gene that encodes apolipoprotein E (APOE4) is the greatest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), while APOE2 reduces AD risk, compared to APOE3. The mechanism(s) underlying the effects of APOE on AD pathology remains unclear. In vivo, dendritic spine density is lower in APOE4-targeted replacement (APOE-TR) mice compared with APOE2- and APOE3-TR mice. To investigate whether this apoE4-induced decrease in spine density results from alterations in the formation or the loss of dendritic spines, the effects of neuron age and apoE isoform on the total number and subclasses of spines were examined in long-term wild-type neurons co-cultured with glia from APOE2-, APOE3- and APOE4-TR mice. Dendritic spine density and maturation were evaluated by immunocytochemistry via the presence of drebrin (an actin-binding protein) with GluN1 (NMDA receptor subunit) and GluA2 (AMPA receptor subunit) clusters. ApoE isoform effects were analyzed via a method previously established that identifies phases of spine formation (day-in-vitro, DIV10-18), maintenance (DIV18-21) and loss (DIV21-26). In the formation phase, apoE4 delayed total spine formation. During the maintenance phase, the density of GluN1+GluA2 spines did not change with apoE2, while the density of these spines decreased with apoE4 compared to apoE3, primarily due to the loss of GluA2 in spines. During the loss phase, total spine density was lower in neurons with apoE4 compared to apoE3. Thus, apoE4 delays total spine formation and may induce early synaptic dysfunction via impaired regulation of GluA2 in spines.

Hughes T.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly | Year: 2011

In this article the author describes the historical context for research on sexual minority women's drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; the author summarizes gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women's drinking over the past several decades and reviews recent literature to highlight progress in the fieldwith a particular focus on the author's own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. The article concludes with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Abcarian H.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery | Year: 2011

Anorectal abscess and fistula are among the most common diseases encountered in adults. Abscess and fistula should be considered the acute and chronic phase of the same anorectal infection. Abscesses are thought to begin as an infection in the anal glands spreading into adjacent spaces and resulting in fistulas in ∼40% of cases. The treatment of an anorectal abscess is early, adequate, dependent drainage. The treatment of a fistula, although surgical in all cases, is more complex due to the possibility of fecal incontinence as a result of sphincterotomy. Primary fistulotomy and cutting setons have the same incidence of fecal incontinence depending on the complexity of the fistula. So even though the aim of a surgical procedure is to cure a fistula, conservative management short of major sphincterotomy is warranted to preserve fecal incontinence. However, trading radical surgery for conservative (nonsphincter cutting) procedures such as a draining seton, fibrin sealant, anal fistula plug, endorectal advancement flap, dermal island flap, anoplasty, and LIFT (ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract) procedure all result in more recurrence/persistence requiring repeated operations in many cases. A surgeon dealing with fistulas on a regular basis must tailor various operations to the needs of the patient depending on the complexity of the fistula encountered. Copyright © 2011 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Adida E.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Perakis G.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Operations Research | Year: 2010

In this paper, we study a make-to-stock manufacturing system where two firms compete through dynamic pricing and inventory control. Our goal is to address competition (in particular a duopoly setting) together with the presence of demand uncertainty. We consider a dynamic setting where multiple products share production capacity. We introduce a demandbased fluid model where the demand is a linear function of the price of the supplier and of her competitor, the inventory and production costs are quadratic, and all coefficients are time dependent. A key part of the model is that no backorders are allowed and the strategy of a supplier depends on her competitor's strategy. First, we reformulate the robust problem as a fluid model of similar form to the deterministic one and show existence of a Nash equilibrium in continuous time. We then discuss issues of uniqueness and address how to compute a particular Nash equilibrium, i.e., the normalized Nash equilibrium. © 2010 INFORMS.

Reddy K.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering | Year: 2010

Throughout the world, subsurface contamination has become a widespread and pervasive problem. Toxic chemicals such as heavy metals and organic compounds are commonly used in a myriad of industries. However, largely through inadvertent or accidental release, these chemicals are presently polluting sites across the United States. In order to protect public health and the environment, further pollution must be prevented and sites with existing contamination urgently need remediation. Unfortunately, remediating subsurface contamination has proved to be a daunting task. Heavy metals and organic compounds often coexist and their distribution within the subsurface is highly dependent on particle and macro-scale heterogeneities. Vast resources have been invested to develop efficient remediation technologies, yet very few of these technologies have been successful. In-situ remediation is often preferred due to minimal site disturbance, safety, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness. The effectiveness of in-situ remediation technologies depends largely on the contaminant chemistry and subsurface heterogeneities (including particle-scale heterogeneities such as fine-grained soils, soils with reactive minerals, and/or soils rich in organic matter as well as macro-scale heterogeneities such as irregular soil layers and/or lenses). Under such heterogeneous conditions, integrated electrokinetic remediation technology has great potential. As a safe and economical remedial option for so many contaminated sites, the application of integrated electrokinetic remediation offers enormous public health, environmental, and financial benefits. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Mueller S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2010

Emerging regulations require an examination of corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis, including emissions from energy consumed at the plant level. However, comprehensive survey data of the industry's average performance dates back to 2001, prior to the industry's expansion phase. Responding to the need for updated data, we conducted a survey to collect energy and processing data for average dry mill ethanol produced during 2008. The study finds that the average liter of anhydrous corn ethanol produced during 2008 requires 28% less thermal energy than 2001 ethanol: 7.18 MJ/l compared to 10 MJ/l. Also, 2008 ethanol requires 32% less electricity: 0.195 kWh/l compared to 0.287 kWh/l, but anhydrous ethanol yields from corn are 5.3% higher and total 0.416 l/kg compared to 0.395 l/kg. Findings also suggest that older plants installed energy efficiency retrofits. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Maki P.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Menopause | Year: 2013

Objective: The critical window hypothesis of hormone therapy (HT) and cognitive function states that the effects of HT depend on timing of initiation with respect to age, the menopausal transition, or both, and that optimal effects are evident with early initiation. This article reviews clinical studies that bear on this hypothesis. Methods: Recognizing that the typical pattern of HT use is early HT initiation, this review describes findings from observational studies of ever use of HT and observational studies that looked specifically at the timing of HT on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive test performance. Randomized trials of HT and verbal memory are discussed, and neuroimaging studies bearing on the hypothesis are reviewed. Results: Observational data suggest that HT generally reduces the risk of AD. Three of three observational studies that specifically examined the timing of initiation in relation to AD risk each provide support for the window, whereas three of five observational studies of HT timing and cognitive test performance do. Randomized clinical trials of estrogen therapy in younger women find support for the hypothesis. Conjugated equine estrogens/ medroxyprogesterone acetate increases risks regardless of timing. Little is known about the cognitive effects of other combination HT formulations. Conclusions: A definitive trial to test the critical window hypothesis is not feasible. Evidence drawn from other sources provides initial support for the hypothesis. Although these findings are relevant to women who use HT to treat vasomotor symptoms, HT is currently not indicated for the treatment of cognitive complaints or for dementia prevention. © 2013 by The North American Menopause Society.

Xie H.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2012

Longitudinal clinical trials are often plagued by nonmonotone missingness due to both patient dropout and intermittent missingness. Standard analysis assumes that missingness is ignorable. Because the assumption can be questionable, the sensitivity of inferences to alternative assumptions about missingness needs to be evaluated. This need arises in the analysis of a longitudinal prostate cancer quality-of-life (QoL) clinical trial dataset, in which nonmonotone missingness occurs. The choice of the missing data model is studied in the analysis. A local sensitivity analysis method is then applied to analyze the dataset and to investigate the changes in parameter estimates in the neighborhood of the ignorable model. One advantage of the method is that it surmounts computational difficulty and completely avoids evaluating the high-dimensional integrals in the likelihood due to nonmonotone missingness. Another is that it can be implemented using the standard software without excessive additional computation. The method is especially advantageous for large clinical datasets for which alternative approaches can become computationally prohibitive. In addition, the analysis demonstrates the importance of exploiting information on reasons for missingness. When such information is unavailable for some missingness and therefore the missingness types (i.e.; dropout versus intermittent missingness) are unknown, a bound analysis is proposed, combined with genetic algorithms, to account for unknown missingness types. The analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the method as a general approach to evaluating the sensitivity of standard analysis to nonignorable nonmonotone missingness in clinical trials. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ruden M.,Rockford College | Ruden M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Puri N.,Rockford College
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2013

Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of human chromosomes. Telomeres shorten with each successive cell division in normal human cells whereas, in tumors, they are continuously elongated by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Telomerase is overexpressed in 80-95% of cancers and is present in very low levels or is almost undetectable in normal cells. Because telomerase plays a pivotal role in cancer cell growth it may serve as an ideal target for anticancer therapeutics. Inhibition of telomerase may lead to a decrease of telomere length resulting in cell senescence and apoptosis in telomerase positive tumors. Several strategies of telomerase inhibition are reviewed, including small molecule inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, immunotherapies and gene therapies, targeting the hTERT or the ribonucleoprotein subunit hTER. G-quadruplex stabilizers, tankyrase and HSP90 inhibitors targeting telomere and telomerase assembly, and T-oligo approach are also covered. Based on this review, the most promising current telomerase targeting therapeutics are the antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor GRN163L and immunotherapies that use dendritic cells (GRVAC1), hTERT peptide (GV1001) or cryptic peptides (Vx-001). Most of these agents have entered phase I and II clinical trials in patients with various tumors, and have shown good response rates as evidenced by a reduction in tumor cell growth, increased overall disease survival, disease stabilization in advanced staged tumors and complete/partial responses. Most therapeutics have shown to be more effective when used in combination with standard therapies, resulting in concomitant telomere shortening and tumor mass shrinkage, as well as preventing tumor relapse and resistance to single agent therapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kumar A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Magnetization transfer (MT) is a neuroimaging technique that is frequently used to characterize the biophysical abnormalities in both gray and white matter regions of the brain. In our study, we used MT to examine the integrity of key nodes in frontal-subcortical circuits in four subject groups: patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with and without major depression (MDD), a healthy control group, and a group diagnosed with MDD without diabetes. In the MDD group, MT studies demonstrated lower magnetization transfer ratios (MTR), a marker of abnormalities in the macromolecular protein pool, in the thalami when compared with the control groups. The group with diabetes and MDD showed lower MTR in the globus pallidus when compared with the group with MDD. Biophysical measures, in subcortical nuclei, correlated inversely with measures of glycemic control, cerebrovascular burden and depression scores. These findings have broad implications for the underlying neuronal circuitry and neurobiology of mood disorders.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 14 July 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.89. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Kshemkalyani A.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing | Year: 2012

An important problem in pervasive environments is detecting predicates on sensed variables in an asynchronous distributed setting to determine context and to respond. We do not assume the availability of synchronized physical clocks because they may not be available or may be too expensive for predicate detection in such environments with a (relatively) low event occurrence rate. We address the problem of detecting each occurrence of a global predicate, at the earliest possible instant, by proposing a suite of three on-line middleware protocols having varying degrees of accuracy. We analyze the degree of accuracy for the proposed protocols. The extent of false negatives and false positives is determined by the run-time message processing latencies. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Miloro M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2010

Purpose: Mandibular retrognathia may cause upper airway obstruction in the pediatric patient due to tongue collapse and physical obstruction in the hypopharyngeal region. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) may be a useful treatment option to avoid tracheostomy. This study reviews 35 patients who underwent DO as treatment for concomitant jaw discrepancy and corrective airway management. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients, 20 male and 15 female, with airway obstruction were evaluated retrospectively using clinic and hospital records. The mean age was 3.5 months (range, 36 weeks' gestation to 4 years). The group consisted of patients with Pierre Robin sequence, Stickler syndrome, Opitz's syndrome, Down syndrome with obstructive sleep apnea, Goldenhar's syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome, and mandibular retrognathia. All patients had obstruction limited to the upper airway related to severe retrognathia and posterior tongue-base displacement confirmed with direct laryngoscopy. All patients underwent mandibular DO to avoid or remove a tracheostomy and allow development of speech and normal feeding. Each patient underwent bilateral mandibular corticotomies and placement of 2 percutaneous Kirchner wires and extraoral distraction devices. Following a 0-day latency, DO was performed at 3 to 5 mm per day (mean: 4 mm per day) for a mean total of 22.5 mm (range, 15-32 mm). The mean consolidation period was 28 days (range, 20-42 days). Preoperative radiographs (lateral cephalometric radiograph and/or CT scan) were obtained in all cases preoperatively and at least 3 months postoperatively for analysis. Results: All patients experienced resolution of obstructive upper airway symptoms during the DO process. No patient required tracheostomy, and pre-existing tracheostomy devices were decannulated before DO completion. Apnea monitors failed to trigger in any patient postdistraction, and sleep studies were normal. The mean follow-up period was 9 months (range, 4-18 months). Radiographic analysis revealed the mean increase in posterior airway space was 12 mm. The mean decrease in overjet was 12 mm. Mandibular length increased a mean of 15 mm, and the sella-nasion-B point angle increased a mean of 16 degrees. DO complications included premature consolidation requiring manual refracture, hypertrophic scarring, device replacement, apertognathia with resolution within 8 to 12 weeks following device removal, and intraoral pin exposure. There were no cases of pin site infections or development of temporomandibular ankylosis. Conclusion: Mandibular distraction osteogenesis is a viable option for the pediatric patient with upper airway obstruction due to mandibular deficiency to avoid a tracheostomy or other surgical intervention. Mandibular DO treats the etiology of the disease process and may allow for future growth. © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

Caldwell J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research | Year: 2010

Background Exploring the life stories of leaders in the self-advocacy movement can expand our knowledge about leadership development of individuals with developmental disabilities. A better understanding of this process may assist with supporting the movement and leadership development of youth with disabilities.Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 leaders in the self-advocacy movement within the USA in order to explore their life stories. Purposeful sampling contributed to a diverse sample of leaders. A grounded theory approach led to the identification of major themes and factors associated with their leadership development.Findings Four major themes emerged: (1) disability oppression and resistance; (2) environmental supports and relationships; (3) leadership skills; and (4) advanced leadership opportunities. Findings have conceptual and practical relevance for future interventions and research. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Carethers J.M.,University of Michigan | Jung B.H.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a somatic genetic disease in which pathogenesis is influenced by the local colonic environment and the patient's genetic background. Consolidating the knowledge of genetic and epigenetic events that occur with initiation, progression, and metastasis of sporadic CRC has identified some biomarkers that might be utilized to predict behavior and prognosis beyond staging, and inform treatment approaches. Modern next-generation sequencing of sporadic CRCs has confirmed prior identified genetic alterations and has classified new alterations. Each patient's CRC is genetically unique, propelled by 2-8 driver gene alterations that have accumulated within the CRC since initiation. Commonly observed alterations across sporadic CRCs have allowed classification into a (1) hypermutated group that includes defective DNA mismatch repair with microsatellite instability and POLE mutations in ∼15%, containing multiple frameshifted genes and BRAFV600E; (2) nonhypermutated group with multiple somatic copy number alterations and aneuploidy in ∼85%, containing oncogenic activation of KRAS and PIK3CA and mutation and loss of heterozygosity of tumor suppressor genes, such as APC and TP53; (3) CpG island methylator phenotype CRCs in ∼20% that overlap greatly with microsatellite instability CRCs and some nonhypermutated CRCs; and (4) elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats in ∼60% that associates with metastatic behavior in both hypermutated and nonhypermutated groups. Components from these classifications are now used as diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment biomarkers. Additional common biomarkers may come from genome-wide association studies and microRNAs among other sources, as well as from the unique alteration profile of an individual CRC to apply a precision medicine approach to care. © 2015 AGA Institute.

Blasco M.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Redleaf M.I.,University of Chicago
Otology and Neurotology | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: In recent years, otologists have begun to place cochlear implants into nonfunctioning ears after sudden unilateral hearing loss. Patients in these trials demonstrate differing degrees of hearing loss in the unimplanted ear. Few studies have examined the role of implantation in patients with normal hearing in the unimplanted ear. To understand if this practice benefits these patients in terms of tinnitus, sound localization, and speech understanding, the available world literature is reviewed. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for publications from database inception to June 1, 2013, without restriction of language. STUDY SELECTION: A search of multiple medical databases was performed to identify articles reporting cases series of cochlear implantation for unilateral hearing loss. Subjects were included for analysis only if the course of hearing loss was acute and rapidly progressive, if the loss was severe to profound, and if the contralateral ear had normal hearing. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Nine appropriate articles were identified, in which 36 patients met our inclusion criteria. Three meta-analyses were performed: of tinnitus (22 patients); of the lowest signal-to-noise ratio, which still allowed 50% sentence understanding (16 patients); and of sentence understanding at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio (12 patients). These found that measures of tinnitus reduction and decreased signal-to-noise ratios to still allow 50% speech discrimination were statistically significantly reduced. Systematic review of subjective changes of tinnitus in 27 patients, speech understanding in 16 patients, and sound localization in 16 patients found 96%, 100%, and 87% were improved, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cochlear implantation in unilateral sudden hearing loss with a normal functioning contralateral ear might prove to be an effective therapy. Tinnitus is reduced as is the signal-to-noise ratio, which still allows 50% speech discrimination. All patients felt that they localized sound better, and most felt that they understood speech better. Further studies should be conducted to compare the success of hearing rehabilitation of cochlear rehabilitation and traditional modalities such as contralateral routing of signal and bone-anchored hearing aids. © 2014, Otology & Neurotology, Inc.

Fung B.C.M.,Concordia University at Montreal | Wang K.,Simon Fraser University | Chen R.,Concordia University at Montreal | Yu P.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
ACM Computing Surveys | Year: 2010

The collection of digital information by governments, corporations, and individuals has created tremendous opportunities for knowledge- and information-based decision making. Driven by mutual benefits, or by regulations that require certain data to be published, there is a demand for the exchange and publication of data among various parties. Data in its original form, however, typically contains sensitive information about individuals, and publishing such data will violate individual privacy. The current practice in data publishing relies mainly on policies and guidelines as to what types of data can be published and on agreements on the use of published data. This approach alone may lead to excessive data distortion or insufficient protection. Privacy-preserving data publishing (PPDP) provides methods and tools for publishing useful information while preserving data privacy. Recently, PPDP has received considerable attention in research communities, and many approaches have been proposed for different data publishing scenarios. In this survey, we will systematically summarize and evaluate different approaches to PPDP, study the challenges in practical data publishing, clarify the differences and requirements that distinguish PPDP from other related problems, and propose future research directions. © 2010 ACM.

Diamond A.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Nutrients | Year: 2015

Most human selenium containing proteins contain selenium in the form of the amino acid selenocysteine, which is encoded in the corresponding mRNA as a UGA codon. Only a few non-selenocysteine containing selenoproteins are present and the nature of the association with selenium is not well understood. This review focuses on two selenocysteine-containing proteins that are members of the glutathione peroxidase family, GPx-1 and GPx-4, and the selenium-associated protein referred to as Selenium Binding Protein 1. Each of these proteins have been described to reside in two or more cellular compartments, and in the case of GPx-1 and SBP1, interact with each other. The enzymatic activity of GPx-1 and GPx-4 have been well described, but it is less clear how their cellular location impacts the health related phenotypes associated with activities, while no catalytic function is assigned to SBP1. The distribution of these proteins is presented as is the possible consequences of that compartmentalization. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Bernstein D.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

This paper presents a Patterson-style list-decoding algorithm for classical irreducible binary Goppa codes. The algorithm corrects, in polynomial time, approximately errors in a length-n n(n-2t - 2)classical irreducible degree-t binary Goppa code. Compared to the best previous polynomial-time list-decoding algorithms for the same codes, the new algorithm corrects approximately t 2/2n extra errors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Abdelsattar Z.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE:: The aim of the study was to identify hospital characteristics associated with variation in patient disposition after emergent surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA:: Colon resections in elderly patients are often done in emergent settings. Although these operations are known to be riskier, there are limited data regarding postoperative discharge destination. METHODS:: We evaluated Medicare beneficiaries who underwent emergent colectomy between 2008 and 2010. Using hierarchical logistic regression, we estimated patient and hospital-level risk-adjusted rates of nonhome discharges. Hospitals were stratified into quintiles based on their nonhome discharge rates. Generalized linear models were used to identify hospital structural characteristics associated with nonhome discharges (comparing discharge to skilled nursing facilities vs home with/without home health services). RESULTS:: Of the 122,604 patients surviving to discharge after emergent colectomy at 3012 hospitals, 46.7% were discharged to a nonhome destination. There was a wide variation in risk and reliability-adjusted nonhome discharge rates across hospitals (15% to 80%). Patients at hospitals in the highest quintile of nonhome discharge rates were more likely to have longer hospitalizations (15.1 vs 13.2; P?

Mazumder S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2016

This paper describes a hybrid modulation scheme for a high-frequency ac-link (HFACL) multistage inverter comprising a front-end dc/ac converter, followed by isolation transformers, an ac/pulsating-dc converter, and a pulsating-dc/ac converter. The hybrid modulation scheme enables 1) removal of the dc-link filter evident in conventional fixed dc-link (FDCL) inverters placed after the ac/pulsating-dc converter stage and before an end stage voltage source inverter and 2) significant reduction in switching loss of the inverter by reducing the high-frequency switching requirement of the pulsating-dc/ac converter by two-third yielding higher efficiency, improved voltage utilization, and reduced current stress. Unlike the FDCL approach, in the HFACL approach, hybrid modulation enables the retention of the sine-wave-modulated switching information at the output of the ac/pulsating-dc converter rather than filtering it to yield a fixed dc thereby reducing the high-frequency switching requirement for the pulsating-dc/ac converter. Overall, the following is outlined: 1) hybrid modulation scheme and its uniqueness, 2) operation of the HFACL inverter using the hybrid modulation scheme, 3) comparison of the efficiency and losses, current stress, and harmonic distortion between the hybrid-modulation-based HFACL inverter and the FDCL inverter, and 4) scaled experimental validation. It is noted that the term hybrid modulation has no similarity with the modulation scheme for a hybrid converter (which are conjugation of two types of converters based on a slow and fast device) reported in the literature. The term hybrid modulation scheme is simply chosen because at any given time only one leg of the inverter output stage (i.e., pulsating-dc/ac converter) switch under high frequency, while the other two legs do not switch. The outlined hybrid modulation scheme is unlike all reported discontinuous modulation schemes where the input is a dc and not a pulsating modulated dc, and at most only one leg stays on or off permanently in a 60° or 120° cycle. © 1986-2012 IEEE.

Khan M.T.H.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Tyrosinase is a multi-copper enzyme widely distributed in different organisms, including plants & mammals, etc., which is responsible for pigmentations, undesired browning of fruits and vegetables. This is the key enzyme in the melanogenesis in human and molting process of insects. Therefore the inhibitors of the enzyme may lead to novel skin whitening agents, anti-browning substances or compounds for insect control. A large numbers of moderate to potent tyrosinase inhibitors have been reported during the last decade. From our group, we reported a number of potent inhibitors from synthetic, semi-synthetic and natural origins. The compounds are from several chemical classes, like phenolics, terpenes, steroids, chalcones, flavonoids, alkaloids, long-chain fatty acids, coumarins, sildenafil analogs, bipiperidines, biscoumarins, oxadiazole, tetraketones, etc. More recently, the crystal structure of mushroom and couple of other tyrosinases has been published and more recently the crystal structure of mushroom tyrosinase complexes with a highly potent inhibitor tropolone has been reported. Yet there is a lack of information of inhibitor-tyrosinase intermolecular interactions. To overcome such issues, some researchers started utilizing in silico tools, like molecular docking simulations, for such purposes. There are also few papers published about the successful utilization of computational tools like QSAR-based and ligand-based virtual screening to identify novel and potent inhibitors of the enzyme. In our group, we are using all possible computational tools, like ligand-based as well structure-based approaches, to identify new inhibitors. In this review, some of such examples are briefly described. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Deogaonkar M.,Ohio State University | Slavin K.V.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Neurosurgery Clinics of North America | Year: 2014

Peripheral nerve stimulation and peripheral nerve field stimulation are emerging as a viable neuromodulatory therapy in the treatment of refractory pain. Although the technology of percutaneous stimulation has been available for decades, recent advancements have broadened the number of indications. Success of treatment revolves around identifying the correct patient population, and the selection and placement of the appropriate electrodes and implantable pulse generators. Most results to date have come from case reports and retrospective studies. However, given the promising outcomes in reducing otherwise medically refractory pain, future randomized controlled studies are needed to assess this emerging technology. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Covey D.P.,Illinois State University | Roitman M.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Garris P.A.,Illinois State University
Trends in Neurosciences | Year: 2014

Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. Although compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyperactivating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyperactivation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural rewards and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Bosland M.C.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Testosterone is increasingly prescribed to middle aged and older men, but the safety of this treatmenthas been called into question, and the possible risk of prostate cancer is unknown.Wetreated Wistar Cpb: WU rats chronically via slow-release Silastic implants with doses of testosterone that increased circulating levels in a dose-related fashion with or without a preceding single injection of the carcinogen N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU). Without MNU, testosterone induced prostate carcinomas in 10%-18% of rats, and after MNU injection, testosterone treatment caused prostate cancer in 50%-71% of rats with a very steep dose response, producing a 50% prostatic tumor incidence even at a testosterone dose that did not elevate circulating testosterone levels. Prostate cancers did not occur in rats given MNU or no treatment, whereas testosterone alone induced a low incidence of prostate cancer and increased the number rats bearing tumors at other sites, particularly malignant tumors. Thus, testosterone was shown to be a weak complete carcinogen and a strong tumor promoter for the rat prostate in this study. These findings have potential significant public health implications for the use of testosterone therapy in men. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society

Long T.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Plants react to abiotic stress with a number of physiological, biochemical, and developmental alterations. These responses include changes in signaling components, gene transcription, non-coding RNAs, proteins, and metabolites that occur in a cell-type and tissue-specific manner. Recent advances in cell-type specifically isolating protoplasts and nuclei from plants, extracting mRNA from targeted cells, and whole-genome transcriptional profiling have enabled scientists to gain insight into how cells and tissues respond transcriptionally to abiotic stress. Continued technological advances in profiling the proteomes, metabolomes, and other biological components of specific cells will continue to broaden our understanding of plant stress responses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Fritschi C.,University of Illinois at Chicago
The Diabetes educator | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between fatigue and physiological, psychological, and lifestyle phenomena in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in order to establish the magnitude and correlates of fatigue in women with T2DM and explore the interrelationships between fatigue and specific diabetes-related factors that may be associated with increased levels of fatigue. These factors included physiological factors (glucose control, diabetes symptoms), psychological factors (diabetes emotional distress, depressive symptoms in general), and lifestyle factors (body mass index, physical activity). A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used. Women who reported conditions known to cause fatigue were excluded. Physiological measures included fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1C (A1C), glucose variability, and body mass index (BMI). Women completed questionnaires about health, fatigue levels, diabetes symptoms, diabetes emotional distress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, and current diabetes self-care practices. A subset of the women wore a Medtronic Gold CGM sensor for 3 days for assessment of glucose variability. Eighty-three women aged 40 to 65 years with T2DM completed the study. Fatigue was significantly related to diabetes symptoms, diabetes emotional distress, depressive symptoms, higher BMI, and reduced physical activity. There was no relationship between fatigue and FBG or A1C. The strongest explanatory factors for fatigue were diabetes symptoms, depressive symptoms, and BMI, which accounted for 48% of the variance in fatigue scores. Glucose variability was not significantly associated with fatigue in these women. Fatigue is a persistent clinical complaint among women with T2DM and may signal the presence of physiological, psychological, and lifestyle-related phenomena that could undermine diabetes health outcomes.

Friedland S.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Gheorghiu V.,University of Calgary | Gheorghiu V.,University of Waterloo | Gour G.,University of Calgary
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Uncertainty relations are a distinctive characteristic of quantum theory that impose intrinsic limitations on the precision with which physical properties can be simultaneously determined. The modern work on uncertainty relations employs entropic measures to quantify the lack of knowledge associated with measuring noncommuting observables. However, there is no fundamental reason for using entropies as quantifiers; any functional relation that characterizes the uncertainty of the measurement outcomes defines an uncertainty relation. Starting from a very reasonable assumption of invariance under mere relabeling of the measurement outcomes, we show that Schur-concave functions are the most general uncertainty quantifiers. We then discover a fine-grained uncertainty relation that is given in terms of the majorization order between two probability vectors, significantly extending a majorization-based uncertainty relation first introduced in M. H. Partovi, Phys. Rev. A 84, 052117 (2011). Such a vector-type uncertainty relation generates an infinite family of distinct scalar uncertainty relations via the application of arbitrary uncertainty quantifiers. Our relation is therefore universal and captures the essence of uncertainty in quantum theory. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Pierce J.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene | Year: 2011

An exposure simulation study was conducted to characterize potential formaldehyde exposures of salon workers and clients during keratin hair smoothing treatments. Four different hair treatment brands (Brazilian Blowout, Coppola, Global Keratin, and La Brasiliana) were applied to separate human hair wigs mounted on mannequin heads. Short-term (6-16 min) and long-term (41-371 min) personal and area samples (at distances of 0.5 to 3.0 m from the source) were collected during each treatment for the 1-day simulation. A total of 88 personal, area, and clearance samples were collected. Results were analyzed based on task sampling (blow-dry, flat-iron), treatment sampling (per hair product), and time-weighted averages (per hair treatment, four consecutive treatments). Real-time monitoring of tracer gas levels, for determining the air exchange rate, and formaldehyde levels were logged throughout the simulation. Bulk samples of each hair treatment were collected to identify and quantify formaldehyde and other chemical components that may degrade to formaldehyde under excessive heat. Mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde ranged from 0.08-3.47 ppm during blow-dry and 0.08-1.05 ppm during flat-iron. During each treatment, the mean airborne concentrations ranged from 0.02-1.19 ppm throughout different zones of the salon. Estimated 8-hr time-weighted averages for one treatment per day ranged from 0.02 ppm for La Brasiliana to 0.08-0.16 ppm for Brazilian Blowout. For four treatments per day, means ranged from 0.04-0.05 ppm for La Brasiliana to 0.44-0.75 ppm for Brazilian Blowout. Using all four products in one day resulted in estimated 8-hr time-weighted averages ranging from 0.17-0.29 ppm. Results from bulk sampling reported formaldehyde concentrations of 11.5% in Brazilian Blowout, 8.3% in Global Keratin, 3% in Coppola, and 0% in La Brasiliana. Other products that degrade into formaldehyde were detected in Global Keratin, Coppola, and La Brasiliana. The results of this study show that professional hair smoothing treatments--even those labeled "formaldehyde-free"--have the potential to produce formaldehyde concentrations that meet or exceed current occupational exposure limits.

Aktipis C.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Aktipis C.A.,Arizona State University | Boddy A.M.,University of California at San Francisco | Gatenby R.A.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2013

Somatic evolution during cancer progression and therapy results in tumour cells that show a wide range of phenotypes, which include rapid proliferation and quiescence. Evolutionary life history theory may help us to understand the diversity of these phenotypes. Fast life history organisms reproduce rapidly, whereas those with slow life histories show less fecundity and invest more resources in survival. Life history theory also provides an evolutionary framework for phenotypic plasticity, which has potential implications for understanding 'cancer stem cells'. Life history theory suggests that different therapy dosing schedules might select for fast or slow life history cell phenotypes, with important clinical consequences. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the literature describing use of oral vitamin K1 (phytonadione) to prevent late vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in neonates when injectable vitamin K preparations are not available. DATA SOURCES: Articles were retrieved through MEDLINE (1946-February 2012) using the terms vitamin K, vitamin K deficiency bleeding, newborn, neonate, and prophylaxis. Reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All articles published in English on the use of prophylactic oral vitamin K in neonates were evaluated. The largest epidemiologic studies discussing the efficacy of continuous oral vitamin K prophylaxis were reviewed. Individual, smaller clinical trials were not reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: For prevention of early, classic, and late VKDB, use of intramuscular vitamin K 1 mg is preferred over oral administration because of superior efficacy. Single oral doses protect against early VKDB, but multiple oral doses are needed for late VKDB prophylaxis, especially in exclusively breast-fed neonates. Continuous oral dosing regimens used in the literature vary; European epidemiologic data suggest the lowest rates of late VKDB with oral vitamin K 1 mg at birth followed by 25 μg daily for 13 weeks, or 2 mg at birth followed by 1 mg weekly for 3 months. Limited data describe the use of oral prophylactic vitamin K in high-risk patients (eg, premature neonates, biliary abnormalities). CONCLUSIONS: While there are data supporting effective oral vitamin K dosing regimens for prevention of late VKBD in exclusively breast-fed neonates, lack of an appropriate oral dosage form prevents routine use of this technique in the US. In times of drug shortage, injectable vitamin K preparations should be reserved for use in neonates. If injectable vitamin K is not available, clinicians should choose the most practical method of administering oral vitamin K based on the oral products available.

Mancilla-Martinez J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Child Development | Year: 2011

This longitudinal study modeled growth rates, from ages 4.5 to 11, in English and Spanish oral language and word reading skills among 173 Spanish-speaking children from low-income households. Individual growth modeling was employed using scores from standardized measures of word reading, expressive vocabulary, and verbal short-term language memory. The trajectories demonstrate that students' rates of growth and overall ability in word reading were on par with national norms. In contrast, students' oral language skills started out below national norms and their rates of growth, although surpassing the national rates, were not sufficient to reach age-appropriate levels. The results underscore the need for increased and sustained attention to promoting this population's language development. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Sivaraman K.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
American journal of ophthalmology | Year: 2013

To evaluate whether retro-backplate retroprosthetic membrane is correlated with risk of melt in patients with a type I Boston Keratoprosthesis (KPro). Retrospective, observational case series. Study of 50 eyes of 47 patients with type I Boston KPro and postoperative anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT) imaging performed at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Main outcome measures were presence of retro-backplate membrane and development of melt requiring explantation. For eyes with melt, membrane thickness was measured using the AS OCT images obtained at the last visit before melt occurred. For eyes without melt, the last available AS OCT images were used for measurement. AS OCT evidence of a retro-backplate membrane was observed in 100% of eyes that melted and in 34.1% of eyes that did not (P = .0034; risk ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 4.4). Retro-backplate membrane thickness in the melt group was 278 μm versus 193 μm in the nonmelt group (P = .025). The retro-backplate portion of a retroprosthetic membrane is to be differentiated from the retro-optic portion seen at the slit lamp. The retro-backplate membrane as shown by AS OCT imaging is correlated with an increased risk of sterile keratolysis, possibly because of impedance of nutritional support from the aqueous humor. Further studies are needed to better standardize the AS OCT measurements of retro-backplate membranes as well as to identify early interventions to prevent progression of thin membranes once identified on AS OCT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Machado R.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Gladwin M.T.,University of Pittsburgh
Chest | Year: 2010

The inherited hemoglobin disorders sickle cell disease and thalassemia are the most common monogenetic disorders worldwide. Pulmonary hypertension is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in adult patients with sickle cell disease and thalassemia, and hemolytic disorders are potentially among the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in hemolytic disorders is likely multifactorial, including hemolysis, impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, chronic hypoxemia, chronic thromboembolic disease, chronic liver disease, and asplenia. In contrast to patients with traditional forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, patients with hemolytic disorders have a mild-to-moderate degree of elevation in mean pulmonary pressures, with mild elevations in pulmonary vascular resistance. The hemodynamic etiology of pulmonary hypertension in these patients is multifactorial and includes pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary venous hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension secondary to a hyperdynamic state. Currently, there are limited data on the effects of any specific treatment modality for pulmonary hypertension in patients with hemolytic disorders. It is likely that maximization of treatment of the primary hemoglobinopathy in all patients and treatment with selective pulmonary vasodilators and antiproliferative agents in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension would be beneficial. However, there is still a major need for large multinational trials of novel therapies for this patient population. © 2010 American College of Chest Physicians.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the findings of recent reports of short-term and sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) rise associated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections and to guide the management of this infrequent complication. RECENT FINDINGS: Short-term increases in IOP are common immediately after intravitreal anti-VEGF injection. IOP takes longer to reach a safe level in patients with a history of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Preinjection medicinal therapy and ocular decompression therapy may blunt this short-term IOP rise. Sustained increases in IOP are relatively infrequent, but are likely to necessitate intervention for IOP-lowering. A 'pro re nata' (PRN) injection protocol may obviate the need for intervention. The pathophysiology of sustained IOP rise is poorly understood, but may relate to repackaging processes undertaken by the pharmacies that compound these agents. SUMMARY: Treating physicians should be aware of the potential for short-term and sustained IOP rise associated with intravitreal anti-VEGF injection therapy. Considerations for management include prophylactic IOP-lowering with medicinal therapy and/or preinjection ocular decompression for patients with a history of glaucoma or ocular hypertension and switching to a 'PRN' injection protocol in patients suffering a sustained rise in IOP. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Akers B.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation | Year: 2012

A weakly nonlinear model is used to study capillary-gravity waves generated by a traveling localized surface pressure distribution. The weakly nonlinear model is a truncation of the potential flow equations in deep water, and includes cubic nonlinear terms. Numerically, solitary waves are shown to be generated by a near-monochromatic, subcritical forcing. The presence of these solitary waves is predicted using a forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation. © 2010 IMACS. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pinna G.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Rasmusson A.M.,National University of Health Sciences
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2012

Benzodiazepines remain the most frequently used psychotropic drugs for the treatment of anxiety spectrum disorders; however, their use is associated with the development of tolerance and dependence. Another major hindrance is represented by their lack of efficacy in many patients, including patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). For these nonresponders, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been the therapy of choice. In the past decade, clinical studies have suggested that the pharmacological action of SSRIs may include the ability of these drugs to normalise decreased brain levels of neurosteroids in patients with depression and PTSD; in particular, the progesterone derivative allopregnanolone, which potently, positively and allosterically modulates the action of GABA at GABA A receptors. Preclinical studies using the socially-isolated mouse as an animal model of PTSD have demonstrated that fluoxetine and congeners ameliorate anxiety-like behaviour, fear responses and aggressive behaviour expressed by such mice by increasing corticolimbic levels of allopregnanolone. This is a novel and more selective mechanism than serotonin reuptake inhibition, which, for half a century, has been considered to be the main molecular mechanism for the therapeutic action of SSRIs. Importantly, this finding may shed light on the high rates of SSRI resistance among patients with PTSD and depression, comprising disorders in which there appears to be a block in allopregnanolone synthesis. There are several different mechanisms by which such a block may occur, and SSRIs may only be corrective under some conditions. Thus, the up-regulation of allopregnanolone biosynthesis in corticolimbic neurones may offer a novel nontraditional pharmacological target for a new generation of potent nonsedating, anxiolytic medications for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and PTSD: selective brain steroidogenic stimulants. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Slavin K.V.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2014

With continuous progress and rapid technological advancement of neuromodulation it is conceivable that within next decade or so, our approach to the electrical stimulation of the spinal cord used in treatment of chronic pain will change radically. The currently used spinal cord stimulation (SCS), with its procedural invasiveness, bulky devices, simplistic stimulation paradigms, and frustrating decline in effectiveness over time will be replaced by much more refined and individually tailored modality. Better understanding of underlying mechanism of action will allow us to use SCS in a more rational way, selecting patient-specific targets and techniques that properly fit each patient with chronic pain based on pain characteristics, distribution, and cause. Based on the information available today, this article will summarize emerging applications of SCS in the treatment of pain and theorize on further developments that may be introduced in the foreseeable future. An overview of clinical and technological innovations will serve as a basis for better understanding of SCS landscape for the next several years. © 2014 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.

Nakata C.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2012

Companies are recognizing and pursuing the opportunity to serve the market known as the base of the pyramid (BOP), i.e., consumers who live in poverty in developing countries. The BOP constitutes the largest remaining global market frontier for businesses. Until recently, it has been ignored because of its seeming unattractiveness and insurmountable challenges compared with middle- and high-income markets. However, BOP consumers desire and are able to pay for quality products tailored to their needs. In response, firms are developing new products specific to the demands and conditions of this low-income population. To innovate effectively, ensuring new products are well received, firms need to know how to enhance new product adoption among these consumers despite the barriers of poverty. We address this need by developing a model of adoption contextualized to the BOP. Based on theories of innovation and poverty, and drawing on the emergent subsistence market literature, we propose that certain new product characteristics, social context dynamics, and marketing environment approaches moderate or counter some of the limits of poverty, making adoption possible. We then discuss the managerial and theoretical implications of our model for innovation practitioners and researchers. © 2011 Product Development & Management Association.

Page A.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2012

Managerial ties, the personal networks of senior managers, have been found to be facilitators of firm performance because of their network benefits. However, social network theory suggests that managerial ties only play a "conduit" role by providing possibilities and opportunities to approach external resources. How can firms turn these possibilities and opportunities into internal knowledge assets and further transform them into firm innovation? Extant research constructs a direct mechanism for the managerial ties-firm innovation link. The research reported here, however, provides and investigates an indirect ties-innovation argument where organizational knowledge creation processes, including knowledge exchange and knowledge combination, are mediators. And managerial ties are examined through two traditional dimensions, business ties and political ties. This study employs empirical data from 270 firms in China and uses structural equation modeling techniques to reveal interesting findings. First, the results support the key argument that the influence of managerial ties on firm innovation is indirect. Second, knowledge exchange and knowledge combination are different constructs and the former positively influences the latter. More interestingly, business ties can exert a significant direct impact on both knowledge exchange and knowledge combination, while political ties can only influence knowledge exchange directly. Although both knowledge exchange and knowledge combination impact product innovation directly, only knowledge combination can directly influence process innovation. These findings indicate that the role of political ties is declining, but business ties still have substantial influence on firm innovation in transitional China. Different processes of organizational knowledge creation, such as knowledge exchange and knowledge combination, make distinct contributions to firm innovation. Product innovation, as opposed to process innovation, is more externally oriented and needs more organizational level knowledge creation activities. This article extends the understanding of the ties-innovation link, organizational knowledge creation theory, and firm innovation in a transitional economy by providing a more complete understanding of how firms can access and internalize external resources and then transform them into product innovation and process innovation. © 2011 Product Development & Management Association.

Murphy T.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Bioethics | Year: 2012

Some commentators speak freely about genetics being poised to change human nature. Contrary to such rhetoric, Norman Daniels believes no such thing is plausible since 'nature' describes characteristic traits of human beings as a whole. Genetic interventions that do their work one individual at a time are unlikely to change the traits of human beings as a class. Even so, one can speculate about ways in which human beings as a whole could be genetically altered, and there is nothing about that venture that could not be deliberated in the way other high-impact questions can be evaluated. There might well come a time when it would be defensible to use genetics to change human beings as a class, in order to protect people in the face of changed environmental circumstances or to enhance existing capacities. Moreover, if one understands human nature not in an empirically descriptive way but in a metaphysical way having implications about human behavior, it can make sense to talk about de-naturing individuals through genetic changes. Even under a metaphysical conception of human nature, however, one can still imagine that people in the future might want to alter their traits in pursuit of another normative idea of a good and valuable life, and genetic modifications might function as a pathway to that change. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd..

Yao Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2012

The problem of decentralized detection in a large wireless sensor network is considered. An adaptive decentralized detection scheme, group-ordered sequential probability ratio test (GO-SPRT), is proposed. This scheme groups sensors according to the informativeness of their data. Fusion center collects sensor data sequentially, starting from the most informative data and terminates the process when the target performance is reached. Wald's approximations are shown to be applicable even though the problem setting deviates from that of the traditional sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). To analyze the efficiency of GO-SPRT, the asymptotic equivalence between the average sample number of GO-SPRT, which is a function of a multinomial random variable, and a function of a normal random variable, is established. Closed-form approximations for the average sample number are then obtained. Compared with fixed sample size test and traditional SPRT, the proposed scheme achieves significant savings in the cost of data fusion. © 2012 IEEE.

Powell L.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Harris J.L.,Yale University | Fox T.,Food Nutrition and Policy Consultants LLC
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

In response to concerns about childhood obesity, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released two reports documenting food and beverage marketing expenditures to children and adolescents. The recently released 2012 report found an inflation-adjusted 19.5% reduction in marketing expenditures targeted to youth from $2.1 billion in 2006 to $1.8 billion in 2009. The current article highlights features of the FTC's analysis, examines how expenditures relate to youth exposure to food marketing, and assesses changes in the nutritional content of marketed products. Of the $304.0 million decline in expenditures, $117.8 million (38.7%) was from a decline in premium (i.e., restaurant children's meal toys) expenditures rather than direct marketing. Although inflation-adjusted TV expenditures fell by 19.4%, children and teens still see 12-16 TV advertisements (ads)/day for products generally high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium. In addition, newer digital forms of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to youths are increasing; the FTC reported an inflation-adjusted 50.7% increase in new media marketing expenditures. The self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) is limited in scope and effectiveness: expenditures increased for many noncovered marketing techniques (i.e., product placement, movie/video, cross-promotion licenses, athletic sponsorship, celebrity fees, events, philanthropy, and other); only two restaurants are members of CFBAI, and nonpremium restaurant marketing expenditures were up by $86.0 million (22.5% inflation-adjusted increase); industry pledges do not protect children aged >11 years, and some marketing appears to have shifted to older children; and, nutritional content remains poor. Continued monitoring of and improvements to food marketing to youth are needed. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Cirigliano M.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Medical Teacher | Year: 2013

Song, with its memory enhancement potential and ability to engage, has been employed as a learning tool in some academic settings. Of the countless learning environments, health science may seem the most atypical setting for the musical mnemonic, and yet it may be the most suitable for its application. With medicine's robust history of student-made mnemonics, it only seems natural that learners and instructors alike have begun to experiment with song meant to educate and entertain, primarily imparting them through popular media-sharing sites. This initial assessment of song in health science is meant to highlight notions of efficacy, audience, and use through an informal survey of 10 user-made YouTube musical mnemonics. Two of these mnemonics were co-created by the author, while the remaining eight were identified via select search terms and significant viewer numbers. Resulting YouTube data infers that instructors play a major role in the use of musical mnemonics in health science education. User comments indicate that some students have found value in mnemonic songs, helping them recall information during assessments. More robust research methods, like Q-method, meta-analysis, and opinion mining, can further confirm the value and role of musical mnemonics as they pertain to medicine and healthcare. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

Kamp D.W.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) | Year: 2011

Accumulating evidence shows that chronic inflammation can promote all stages of tumorigenesis, including DNA damage, limitless replication, apoptosis evasion, sustained angiogenesis, self-sufficiency in growth signaling, insensitivity to anti-growth signaling, and tissue invasion/metastasis. Chronic inflammation is triggered by environmental (extrinsic) factors (eg, infection, tobacco, asbestos) and host mutations (intrinsic) factors (eg, Ras, Myc, p53). Extensive investigations over the past decade have uncovered many of the important mechanistic pathways underlying cancer-related inflammation. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved and the interconnecting crosstalk between pathways remain incompletely understood. We review the evidence implicating a strong association between chronic inflammation and cancer, with an emphasis on colorectal and lung cancer. We summarize the current knowledge of the important molecular and cellular pathways linking chronic inflammation to tumorigenesis. Specifically, we focus on the role of the mitochondria in coordinating life- and death-signaling pathways crucial in cancer-related inflammation. Activation of Ras, Myc, and p53 cause mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and downstream signaling (eg, NFkappaB, STAT3, etc.) that promote inflammation-associated cancer. A recent murine transgenic study established that mitochondrial metabolism and ROS production are necessary for K-Ras-induced tumorigenicity. Collectively, inflammation-associated cancers resulting from signaling pathways coordinated at the mitochondrial level are being identified that may prove useful for developing innovative strategies for both cancer prevention and cancer treatment.

Lau L.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2011

CCN1 (CYR61) is a dynamically expressed, multifunctional matricellular protein that plays essential roles in cardiovascular development during embryogenesis, and regulates inflammation, wound healing and fibrogenesis in the adult. Aberrant CCN1 expression is associated with myriad pathologies, including various cancers and diseases associated with chronic inflammation. CCN1 promotes diverse and sometimes opposing cellular responses, which can be ascribed, as least in part, to disparate activities mediated through its direct binding to distinct integrins in different cell types and contexts. Accordingly, CCN1 promotes cell proliferation, survival and angiogenesis by binding to integrin αvβ 3, and induces apoptosis and senescence through integrin α6β1 and heparin sulfate proteoglycans. The ability of CCN1 to trigger the accumulation of a robust and sustained level of reactive oxygen species underlies some of its unique activities as a matrix cell-adhesion molecule. Emerging studies suggest that CCN1 might be useful as a biomarker or therapeutic target in certain diseases. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

Berger R.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Instructional course lectures | Year: 2010

Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) was introduced in the early 1970s but did not receive substantial support because total knee arthroplasty was flourishing. In the early 1990s, interest in UKA increased with the introduction of a minimally invasive surgical approach. It is important that the indications for this demanding but achievable surgical technique be strictly observed. The extension and flexion gaps for UKA can be addressed in a similar fashion to total knee arthroplasty and should be equalized. The femoral and tibial components must be properly sized so that the surfaces are well covered without overhang or impingement. UKA results at 10- to 15-year follow-ups are encouraging and are similar to many reported results of total knee arthroplasty.

Stayner L.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Welch L.S.,Center for Construction Research and Training | Lemen R.,Health-U
Annual Review of Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Asbestos-related diseases are still a major public health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that 107,000 people worldwide die each year from mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis. We review what is known about asbestos use, production, and exposure and asbestos-related diseases in the world today, and we offer predictions for the future. Although worldwide consumption of asbestos has decreased, consumption is increasing in many developing countries. The limited data available suggest that exposures may also be high in developing countries. Mesothelioma is still increasing in most European countries and in Japan but has peaked in the United States and Sweden. Although the epidemic of asbestos-related disease has plateaued or is expected to plateau in most of the developed world, little is known about the epidemic in developing countries. It is obvious that increased asbestos use by these countries will result in an increase in asbestos-related diseases in the future. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Schraufnagel D.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Pathophysiology | Year: 2010

The pulmonary lymphatics do much more than keep the lung dry. They defend the lungs from airborne particles and microbes and allow a local influx of liquid to clear and clean inflamed or damaged tissue. Lymphatic morphology, especially the three-dimensional structure, is best demonstrated by casting the lymphatics, corroding the tissue, and viewing the casts by scanning electron microscopy. With this technique, different lymphatic forms exist. On the pleural surface prelymphatics are simply tissue planes that connect with lymphatic channels. Reservoir lymphatics are another form of initial lymphatics that have blind-ending pouches. They empty into conduit lymphatics. Lymphatics around blood vessels and airways are generally tubular and saccular. In the last decade, lymphatic markers have been discovered that allow the study of lymphatic development in health and disease. Modulators of these pathways could be potential therapeutics for diverse pulmonary problems such as cancer and lung transplantation. The size of the lymphatic system expands manifold in response to an excess fluid load, cancer, or inflammation. Immune cells move through the lymphatics, mature, and become activated there. The lymphatics enable the immune defense system by allowing a sequestered place and close proximity for antigen presentation and lymphocyte maturation. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Grief S.N.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Primary Care - Clinics in Office Practice | Year: 2013

Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Leucht S.,TU Munich | Davis J.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011

The classification system of atypical and typical antipsychotics has created a lot of confusion and might be abandoned. Nevertheless, to say that all drugs are the same and that therefore it does not matter which drug is given is wrong. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics differ in side-effects, mechanisms of action, cost and efficacy. The available choice of antipsychotics should be adapted to individual patients in a shared decision-making process.

Fujiura G.T.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities | Year: 2012

Self-reported health is an important outcome in the evaluation of health care but is largely ignored in favor of proxy-based reporting for people with an intellectual disability. This study briefly reviews the role of self-report in health assessment of people with intellectual disability and the challenges and recommendations that have emerged from the considerable body of research on interviewing and self-report. Limitations in current recommendations are addressed from the perspective of the cognition of self-report. The review describes conceptual directions for the reconciliation of the two contradictory themes in the treatment of self-report: the centrality given to personal perceptions and choices and the methodological concerns over the meaningfulness and validity of the selfreporting process. © AAIDD.

Jeong H.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: Medication use during pregnancy is prevalent, but pharmacokinetic information of most drugs used during pregnancy is lacking in spite of known effects of pregnancy on drug disposition. Accurate pharmacokinetic information is essential for optimal drug therapy in mother and fetus. Thus, understanding how pregnancy influences drug disposition is important for better prediction of pharmacokinetic changes of drugs in pregnant women. Areas covered in this review: Pregnancy is known to affect hepatic drug metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Physiological changes accompanying pregnancy are probably responsible for the reported alteration in drug metabolism during pregnancy. These include elevated concentrations of various hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, placental growth hormones and prolactin. This review covers how these hormones influence expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), thus potentially responsible for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy. What the reader will gain: The reader will gain a greater understanding of the altered drug metabolism in pregnant women and the regulatory effects of pregnancy hormones on expression of DMEs. Take home message: In-depth studies in hormonal regulatory mechanisms as well as confirmatory studies in pregnant women are warranted for systematic understanding and prediction of the changes in hepatic drug metabolism during pregnancy. © Informa UK Ltd.

Karpov E.G.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Nedrygailov I.,University of Duisburg - Essen
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

Nonadiabatic energy dissipation by electron subsystem of nanostructured solids unveil interesting opportunities for the solid-state energy conversion and sensor applications. We found that planar Pt/GaP and Pd/GaP Schottky structures with nanometer thickness metallization demonstrates a nonadiabatic channel for the conversion into electricity the energy of a catalytic hydrogen-to-water oxidation process on the metal layer surface. The observed above thermal current greatly complements the usual thermionic emission current and its magnitude is linearly proportional to the rate of formation and desorption of product water molecules from the nanostructure surface. The possibilities of utilizing the nonadiabatic functionality in chemical-to-electrical energy conversion devices are discussed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Clark N.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lynch J.P.,Critical Care Medicine
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2011

Influenza A and B are important causes of respiratory illness in all age groups. Influenza causes seasonal outbreaks globally and, less commonly, pandemics. In the United States, seasonal influenza epidemics account for >200,000 hospitalizations and >30,000 deaths annually. More than 90% of deaths occur in the elderly population. Interestingly, in the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, attack rates were highest among children and young adults. Fewer than 10% of cases occurred in adults >60 years old, likely because preexisting antibodies against other H1N1 viruses afforded protection. Despite concerns about a high lethality rate with the novel 2009 H1N1 strain, most illnesses caused by the 2009 H1N1 viruses were mild (overall case fatality rate <0.5%). Clinical features of influenza infection overlap with other respiratory pathogens (particularly viruses). The diagnosis is often delayed due to low suspicion and the limited use of specific diagnostic tests. Rapid diagnostic tests are widely available and allow detection of influenza antigen in respiratory secretions within 1 hour; however, sensitivity ranges from 50 to 90%. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) (eg, oseltamivir and zanamivir) are effective for treating influenza A or B and for prophylaxis in selected adults and children. Resistance to NAIs is rare, but influenza strains resistant to oseltamivir have been detected. Vaccines are the cornerstone of influenza control. Currently, trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) are available. These agents reduce mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients (i.e., the elderly or patients with comorbidities), and expanding the use of vaccines to healthy children and adults reduces the incidence of influenza, pneumonia, and hospitalizations due to respiratory illnesses in the community. Copyright © 2011 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Freitas A.,University of Pittsburgh | Schwaller P.,Argonne National Laboratory | Schwaller P.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

In this paper, we constrain CP violation in the Higgs sector using the measured signal strengths in the various Higgs search channels. To this end, we introduce a general parametrization for a resonance which is an admixture of a CP-even Higgs-like state and a CP-odd scalar. By performing a fit to the available data from the Tevatron and LHC experiments, one obtains constraints on the mixing angle and the couplings of the resonance to Standard Model fields. Depending on the couplings, sizable mixing angles are still compatible with the data, but small mixing is in general preferred by the fit. In particular, we find that a pure CP-odd state is disfavored by the current data at the 3σ level. Additionally, we consider a mixed fermiophobic resonance and a model with two degenerate mixed resonances and find that both scenarios can successfully fit the data within current errors. Finally, we estimate that the mixing angle can be constrained to α<1.1 (0.7) in the full 8 TeV (14 TeV) run of the LHC. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Yee H.-U.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Yee H.-U.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC on hard photon emission rates in heavy-ion collisions indicate a large azimuthal asymmetry of photon emission rate parametrized by the elliptic flow v2. Motivated by a recent proposal that the early magnetic field created by two colliding heavy ions may be responsible for this large azimuthal asymmetry of photon emission rate, we compute the azimuthal dependence of the photon emission rate from a strongly coupled finite temperature plasma with magnetic field in the framework of gauge/gravity correspondence. We also propose and compute a new observable, "in/out-plane polarization asymmetry," constructed from the polarization dependence of the photon emission rates. We observe that both the azimuthal and polarization asymmetry of photon emissions are strongly affected by the triangle anomaly (chiral anomaly) for the low frequency regime below 1 GeV. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Stocco C.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Steroids | Year: 2012

Aromatase is expressed in multiple tissues, indicating a crucial role for locally produced oestrogens in the differentiation, regulation and normal function of several organs and processes. This review is an overview of the role of aromatase in different tissues under normal physiological conditions and its contribution to the development of some oestrogen-related pathologies. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Carpenter W.T.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Davis J.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Chlorpromazine initiated effective pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia 60 years ago. This discovery initiated or stimulated key developments in the field of psychiatry. Nonetheless, advances in pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia have been modest. Psychosis remains the primary aspect of psychopathology addressed, and core pathologies such as cognition and negative symptom remain unmet therapeutic challenges. New clinical and basic neuroscience paradigms may guide the near future and provide a more heuristic construct for novel and innovative discovery. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Cahoon L.A.,Northwestern University | Cahoon L.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Seifert H.S.,Northwestern University
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2013

The strict human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae can utilize homologous recombination to generate antigenic variability in targets of immune surveillance. To evade the host immune response, N. gonorrhoeae promotes high frequency gene conversion events between many silent pilin copies and the expressed pilin locus (pilE), resulting in the production of variant pilin proteins. Previously, we identified a guanine quartet (G4) structure localized near pilE that is required for the homologous recombination reactions leading to pilin antigenic variation (Av). In this work, we demonstrate that inactivating the promoter of a small non-coding RNA (sRNA) that initiates within the G4 forming sequence blocks pilin Av. The sRNA promoter is conserved in all sequenced gonococcal strains, and mutations in the predicted transcript downstream of the G4 forming sequence do not alter pilin Av. A mutation that produces a stronger promoter or substitution of the pilE G4-associated sRNA promoter with a phage promoter (when the phage polymerase was expressed) produced wild-type levels of pilin Av. Altering the direction and orientation of the pilE G4-associated sRNA disrupted pilin Av. In addition, expression of the sRNA at a distal site on the gonococcal chromosome in the context of a promoter mutant did not support pilin Av. We conclude that the DNA containing the G-rich sequence can only form the G4 structure during transcription of this sRNA, thus providing a unique molecular step for the initiation of programmed recombination events. © 2013 Cahoon, Seifert.

Barger V.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Barger V.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Keung W.-Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We interpret the PeV shower events observed by the IceCube Collaboration as an s-channel enhancement of neutrino-quark scattering by a leptoquark that couples to the τ-flavor and light quarks. With a leptoquark mass around 0.6 TeV and a steep 1/E2.3 neutrino flux, charged-current scattering gives cascade events at ~1 PeV and neutral-current scattering gives cascade events at ~0.5 PeV. This mechanism is also consistent with the paucity of muon-track events above 100 TeV. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Rada R.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of the American Dental Association | Year: 2010

Background. The author conducted a literature review to investigate concerns that parents of a child with an autism spectrum disorder may have when oral health care is provided to the child. Types of Studies Reviewed. The author conducted a search of PubMed using the terms "mercury," "fluoride," "nitrous oxide," "antibiotics," "gluten," "casein," "acetaminophen" and "dentistry" each with the term "autism." He identified controlled studies and literature reviews in both medical and alternative medical literature that were related to areas of importance to oral health care workers. The use of mercury, fluoride, nitrous oxide, antibiotic agents and acetaminophen all are sources of controversy between dentistry and the parents of children who have autism. Results. The author found that patients who have autism frequently also have allergies, immune system problems, gastrointestinal disturbances and seizures. Dental health care workers must be aware of these . comorbid conditions so they can provide optimal care to the children with autism spectrum disorders. The author found two distinct theories as to what causes autism: one that focuses on genetic causes, and one that focuses on the impact of the environment. He found that the interpretation of these theories might affect parents' concerns about various dental treatments. Clinical Implications. Dentists treating patients who have autism may need to provide more than standard patient care, as the use of timetested dental treatment and prevention modalities may be questioned or refused by parents.

Maki P.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Henderson V.W.,Stanford University
Climacteric | Year: 2012

Principal findings on dementia from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) showed that conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA) increase dementia risk in women aged 65 years and above, but not risk of mild cognitive impairment. The dementia finding was unexpected, given consistent observational evidence that associates use of estrogen-containing hormone therapy with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease. It remains controversial whether hormone use by younger postmenopausal women near the time of menopause reduces dementia risk or whether WHIMS findings should be generalized to younger women. Given the challenges of conducting a primary prevention trial to address that question, it is helpful to consider the impact of hormone therapy on cognitive test performance, particularly verbal memory, for its own sake and as a proxy for dementia risk. The WHI Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA) showed that CEE/MPA worsened verbal memory, whereas CEE alone had no influence on cognition. These findings have been replicated in several randomized, clinical trials. The apparent negative effect of CEE/MPA on verbal memory does not appear to be age-dependent. Additional investigations are needed to understand the impact of other hormonally active compounds on dementia and cognitive outcomes. © 2012 International Menopause Society.

Mehta S.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) affects 10% to 30% of women and recurs in 15% to 30% within 3 months after treatment. BV is not considered an sexually transmitted infection, and treatment of the male sexual partner is not recommended. This recommendation is based on the results of 6 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of male partner treatment for reducing BV recurrence, which did not find a uniformly beneficial effect. These results are incongruous with epidemiologic and microbiologic data suggesting a sexually transmissible component of BV. In light of this disconnect, the 6 RCTs of male treatment were reviewed to assess validity. METHODS: Trials are summarized according to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines. Absolute differences and risk ratios with binomially obtained 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Post hoc power analyses determined the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis for observed relative effect sizes and for the smallest relative effect size detectable with ≥80% power. RESULTS: Each of the 6 RCTs had significant flaws: randomization methods were either overtly deficient or insufficiently reported; 5 RCTs used suboptimal treatment regimens in women; adherence to treatment in women was not reported in any trial, and adherence in men was reported in only 2 trials; all 6 trials had limited power. None assessed whether antibiotic treatment affected the penile microbiota. CONCLUSIONS: Although the RCT is the gold standard for assessing efficacy, biased results can mislead decision making. By current standards, it is unlikely that the results of any of these trials would be considered conclusive. Specific recommendations are made to examine whether BV-associated bacteria may be sexually transferred. Copyright © 2012 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association All rights reserved.

Pierce J.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene | Year: 2011

The clinical use of lasers in surgery began in 1973 with applications of the carbon dioxide laser in otolaryngology, and since then the use of lasers has become commonplace in many medical and surgical specialties. Nonetheless, when biological tissue is subjected to laser radiation, the target cells can be vaporized, resulting in the aerosolization of their contents and the subsequent exposure of health care workers to laser-generated air contaminants (LGACs). The purpose of our analysis was to summarize and present all of the published literature pertaining to the laser-induced plume chemical and physical composition, health effects, and methods of control. The objective was to identify knowledge gaps within exposure science to set a research agenda for the protection of health care personnel exposed to LGACs. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database using a variety of search strategies and keyword combinations. To locate additional studies, we systematically searched the reference lists of all studies identified by our search, as well as key review papers. To date, researchers have identified roughly 150 chemical constituents of plume, as well as fine and ultrafine particulate matter, which has been shown to include viable cellular material, viruses, and bacteria. However, very few studies have attempted to characterize the effects of laser system type, power, and tissue treated, as it relates to LGAC exposure. Furthermore, current control strategies do not appear to be adequate in preventing occupational exposure to LGACs.

Gartel A.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: The proteasome is responsible for ubiquitin-and ATPdependent proteolysis of cellular proteins. The latest advances in proteasomestudies led to the development of proteasome inhibitors as drugs against human cancer. It has been shown that proteasome inhibitors selectively kill cancer, but not normal cells. However, the exact mechanisms of the anticancer activity of proteasome inhibitors are not well understood. The oncogenic transcription factor Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1) is overexpressed in a majority of human carcinomas, while its expression is usually low in normal cells. In addition, FoxM1 may also drive tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. For these reasons, FoxM1 is an attractive target for anticancer drugs. Areas covered in this review: My aim is to discuss recent publications that point out novel mechanism of action of proteasome inhibitors. In addition, I describe the identification of new types of proteasome inhibitors, called thiazole antibiotics. Using a cell-based screening system, the thiazole antibiotics siomycin A and thiostrepton were isolated as inhibitors of FoxM1 transcriptional activity and expression. Paradoxically, it has been shown that these drugs also stabilize the expression of other proteins and act as proteasome inhibitors in vitro. Moreover, it was found that well-known proteasome inhibitors, such as MG115, MG132 and bortezomib, inhibit FoxM1 transcriptional activity and FoxM1 expression. What the reader will gain: It has been shown that proteasome inhibitors suppress FoxM1 expression and simultaneously induce apoptosis in human tumor cell lines. This review describes the correlation between negative regulation of FoxM1 by proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis, and suggests that negative regulation of FoxM1 is a universal feature of these drugs and may contribute to their anticancer activity. Take home message: Oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 is upregulated in a majority of human cancers, suggesting that growth of cancer cells may depend on FoxM1 activity. A short time ago, it has been shown that proteasome inhibitors simultaneously inhibit FoxM1 expression and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. This effect may explain specificity of proteasome inhibitors to induce apoptosis in cancer, but not in normal cells. Now, it is critical to determine the role of suppression of FoxM1 in apoptosis induced by proteasome inhibitors and to establish how significant the inhibition of FoxM1 is for the anticancer activity of proteasome inhibitors. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

The pathophysiological role of the neurosteroid 3α-hydroxy-5α- pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone) in neuropsychiatric disorders has been highlighted in several recent investigations. For instance, allopregnanolone levels are decreased in the CSF of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major unipolar depression. Neurosteroidogenic antidepressants, including fluoxetine and analogs, correct this decrease in a manner that correlates with improved depressive symptoms. PTSD-like behavioral dysfunctions, including heightened aggression, exaggerated fear, and anxiety-like behavior associated with a decrease in corticolimbic allopregnanolone content are modeled in mice by protracted social isolation stress. Allopregnanolone is not only synthesized by principal glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons, but also locally, potently, positively, and allosterically modulates GABA action at postsynaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. Hence, this paper will review preclinical studies, which show that in socially isolated mice, rather than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor mechanisms, allopregnanolone biosynthesis in glutamatergic corticolimbic neurons offers a nontraditional target for fluoxetine to decrease signs of aggression, normalize fear responses, and decrease anxiety-like behavior. At low selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-inactive doses, fluoxetine and related congeners potently increase allopregnanolone levels by acting as potent selective brain steroidogenic stimulants (SBSS), thereby facilitating GABAA receptor neurotransmission and improving behavioral dysfunctions. Although the precise molecular mechanisms that underlie the action of these drugs are not fully understood, findings from socially isolated mice may ultimately generate insights into novel drug targets for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and panic disorders, depression, and PTSD. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Da Fonseca M.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Pediatric Dentistry | Year: 2014

In 2011, there were 46.2 million people in the US in poverty (15 percent of the population). The rote for children under 18 years of age was 22 percent, the highest of all age groups. Poverty is strongly linked to adverse socio-emotional outcomes and poor health in children, which influence adult socioeconomic advancement. It affects specific neurocognitive processes disproportionately such as working memory, cognitive control, and especially language and memory. Poor children are freguently exposed to household chaos, maternal depression, neighborhood violence, food insecurity and housing instability. They also experience little social support and have parents who are less responsive, more authoritarian and less involved in school activities than those of higher socioeconomic levels. Their diet is rich in sugar, which may contribute to behavioral disturbances. Children from a disadvantaged background have a poor ability to cope with stress and tend to show aggressive, withdrawn and anxious/depressive behaviors as well as poor academic outcomes. Dental professionals who care for poor children must understand they live under stressful physical and emotional conditions, which will impact their behavior in the dental office.

Marquez D.X.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of physical activity & health | Year: 2011

To date, little is known about the physical activity (PA) levels and commonly reported modes of PA of older Latinos, and this information is critical to developing interventions for this population. The purpose of the current study was to examine PA assessed by self-report and accelerometer and to assess the influence of acculturation, gender, and age on the PA of urban community-dwelling older Latino adults. Participants were self-identified Latinos, primarily women (73%), and individuals aged 50 to 59 (31%), 60 to 69 (30%), and 70+ (39%). PA was measured with an accelerometer and the Community Healthy Activity Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) PA questionnaire. Men reported engaging in, and objectively participated in, significantly more minutes of moderate/vigorous PA than women, but women reported greater light intensity household PA. Latinos aged 50 to 59 engaged in significantly more accelerometer-assessed PA than Latinos aged 60 to 69 and 70+, respectively. The majority of participants did not meet the PA Guidelines for Americans. No differences in PA were demonstrated by acculturation level. Older Latino men and women reported walking and dancing as modes of leisure PA. These findings suggest PA interventions should be targeted toward older Latinos, taking into account gender and age.

Drucker J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Growth and Change | Year: 2013

The impacts of agglomeration and local industrial structure are examined through an analysis of establishment-level productivity. Using micro-level data, measures of regional industrial specialization, economic diversity, and industrial competitive structure are incorporated together into a production function system estimated cross-sectionally for three years and three manufacturing industries in the U.S. The findings demonstrate the importance of the influences of regional industrial competitive structure and diversity on performance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Aggarwal S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2014

Spray ignition represents a critical process in numerous propulsion and energy conversion devices. Compared to a gaseous mixture, ignition in a spray is significantly more complex, as the state of ignition in the latter case can be defined by three distinct ignition modes namely, droplet ignition, droplet cluster ignition, and spray ignition. Ignition for an individual droplet represents the appearance of a flame surrounding the droplet or in the wake region, with a dimension on the order of droplet diameter. The cluster or group ignition refers tothe ignition aroundor inside a droplet cloud, while the spray ignition implies the appearance of aglobal flame witha characteristic dimension few ordersof magnitude larger than adroplet. In all three modes, ignition is preceded by the evaporation of fuel droplets, formation of a combustible gaseous fuel-air mixture, and initiation of chemical reactions producing sufficient radical species. The identification of the dominant ignition mode for given two-phase properties represents a problem of significant fundamental and practical importance. Research dealing with laminar and turbulent spray ignition has been reviewed by Aggarwal [1] and Mastorakos [2], respectively, while Annamalai and Ryan [3] have provided a review of droplet group combustion/ignition. In the present review, we discuss experimental, theoretical, and computational research dealing with individual droplet ignition. Topics include the quasi-steady and unsteady models for the ignition of a fuel droplet in a stagnant environment, the droplet ignition in a high-pressure environment, the convective effects on droplet ignition, and multicomponent fuel droplet ignition. Studies dealing with the two-stage and NTC ignition behavior for a droplet are also discussed. Finally, relationship between the droplet ignition mode to droplet cluster and spray ignition modes is briefly described. Potential topics for further research are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

O'Donoghue C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Eklund M.,University of California at San Francisco | Ozanne E.M.,Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice | Esserman L.J.,University of California at San Francisco
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Controversy exists over how often and at what age mammography screening should be implemented. Given that evidence supports less frequent screening, the cost differences among advocated screening policies should be better understood. Objective: To estimate the aggregate cost of mammography screening in the United States in 2010 and compare the costs of policy recommendations by professional organizations. Design: A model was developed to estimate the cost of mammography screening in 2010 and 3 screening strategies: annual (ages 40 to 84 years), biennial (ages 50 to 69 years), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines (biennial for those aged 50 to 74 years and personalized based on risk for those younger than 50 years and based on comorbid conditions for those 75 years and older). Setting: United States. Patients: Women aged 40 to 85 years. Intervention: Mammography annually, biennially, or following USPSTF guidelines. Measurements: Cost of screening per year, using Medicare reimbursements. Results: The estimated cost of mammography screening in the United States in 2010 was $7.8 billion, with approximately 70% of women screened. The simulated cost of screening 85% of women was $10.1 billion, $2.6 billion, and $3.5 billion for annual, biennial, and USPSTF guidelines, respectively. The largest drivers of cost (in order) were screening frequency, percentage of women screened, cost of mammography, percentage of women screened with digital mammography, and percentage of mammography recalls. Limitation: Cost estimates and assumptions used in the model were conservative. Conclusion: The cost of mammography varies by at least $8 billion per year on the basis of screening strategy. The USPSTF guidelines are based on the scientific evidence to date to maximize patient benefit and minimize harm but also result in far more effective use of resources. © 2014 American College of Physicians.

Gihring T.M.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Green S.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Schadt C.W.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Technologies for massively parallel sequencing are revolutionizing microbial ecology and are vastly increasing the scale of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene studies. Although pyrosequencing has increased the breadth and depth of possible rRNA gene sampling, one drawback is that the number of reads obtained per sample is difficult to control. Pyrosequencing libraries typically vary widely in the number of sequences per sample, even within individual studies, and there is a need to revisit the behaviour of richness estimators and diversity indices with variable gene sequence library sizes. Multiple reports and review papers have demonstrated the bias in non-parametric richness estimators (e.g. Chao1 and ACE) and diversity indices when using clone libraries. However, we found that biased community comparisons are accumulating in the literature. Here we demonstrate the effects of sample size on Chao1, ACE, CatchAll, Shannon, Chao-Shen and Simpson's estimations specifically using pyrosequencing libraries. The need to equalize the number of reads being compared across libraries is reiterated, and investigators are directed towards available tools for making unbiased diversity comparisons. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sharma R.P.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Epigenomics | Year: 2012

This article constructs an argument for using blood chromatin (contained in nucleated blood cells) as a protein biosensor to integrate the ambient epigenetic influences in the internal milieu. An analogy is made to blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetes as an integrated proxy for glucose levels and body-wide protein glycation. Genome-wide chromatin can serve as an organizing principle that bridges the central and peripheral compartments by entraining commensurable gene networks. Chromatin deposition along these networks will be imposed by the totality of epigenetic influences, which incorporates significant contributions from biochemicals that readily traverse the blood-brain barrier. In a clinical trial, these influences would be dominated by pharmaceuticals designed to override pathophysiological signals. In practice, mRNA readouts would be limited to nonsynaptic gene networks whose critical nodes are occupied by a site-specific chromatin modification. Finally, chromatin measurements in peripheral tissue will retain the influences of a patients lifestyle and unique genomic background. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.

Thomas D.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Jourd'heuil D.,Albany Medical College
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2012

The S-nitrosation (also referred to as S-nitrosylation) of cysteine residues is an important post-translational protein modification that regulates protein function and cell signaling. The original research articles and reviews in this Forum cover important concepts in protein S-nitrosation and identify key developments and opportunities for progress in this area. Defining the mechanisms by which S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) may be formed and decomposed in cells and tissues, the integration of the biological chemistry associated with nitric oxide (NO) and other derivatives such as nitrite, and the development of new methodologies merging proteomics and direct quantitation are all key issues that we believe would require detailed attention. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Kay B.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago
FEBS Letters | Year: 2012

With the sequencing of an eukaryotic genome, it is possible to inventory the predicted proteome for proteins that carry one or more Src Homology 3 (SH3) domains. Due to the current ease of cloning and gene synthesis, these short domains can be readily overexpressed and manipulated for the purpose of characterizing their specificity and affinity for peptide ligands, as well as solving the three-dimensional structures of the domains. This information can be used to predict and confirm their cellular interacting partners, in the effort to understand the function of a eukaryotic protein by focusing on its SH3 domain. Finally, capitalizing on our mature understanding about protein-protein interacting modules, like the SH3 domain, it is possible to use directed evolution to enhance or change the specificity and affinity of an SH3 domain for the purpose of creating reagents to be used in biochemical purification or cell perturbation studies. © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lau L.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling | Year: 2012

CCN2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein essential for skeletal development during embryogenesis. In adulthood, aberrant CCN2 expression is associated with many malignancies and fibrosis of virtually every organ. Despite its prominent expression in endothelial cells in the vasculature, the role of CCN2 in vessel development was unknown. In a recent study, Hall- Glenn et al. (PLoS ONE 7:e30562) have revealed the role of CCN2 in developmental angiogenesis through a detailed analysis of how CCN2 mediates the interaction between vascular endothelial cells and pericytes. In addition, CCN2 also regulates endothelial basement membrane formation during vessel formation. Here I compare the angiogenic activities of CCN2 during embryogenesis to those of its homologous family member CCN1 (CYR61), which is essential for cardiovascular development. Understanding the angiogenic actions of CCN1 and CCN2 may have implication in the development of therapeutic strategies targeting these proteins for the treatment of diseases such as cancer and fibrosis. © The International CCN Society 2012.

Black A.R.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Peacock N.,University of Illinois at Chicago
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objectives: Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the "strong Black woman" (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Methods: Using the search term "strong Black woman," we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Results. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management ("please the masses"), emotional suppression ("game face"), and postponement of self-care ("last on the list") incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Conclusions. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources.

Mazumder S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Sarkar T.,Fairchild Semiconductor
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper outlines and demonstrates a novel optically activated gate control (OAGC) mechanism that can dynamically affect power-converter switching loss, dv/dt and di/dt stresses, and electromagnetic emission at the device level by controlling the switching dynamics of the power semiconductor device (PSD) via modulation of its excitation current using a GaAs-based optically triggered power transistor (OTPT). Further, due to conductivity modulation of the OTPT using direct photogeneration, the switching initiation delay using the OTPT-based OAGC approach is almost negligible, as compared to prevalent fiber-optics-based techniques for power electronics. Starting with a description of the basic mechanism of the OAGC and how it differs from other active-gate-control-based approaches, this paper outlines the implementation of the OAGC (including the design of the GaAs-based OTPT) and the mechanism for controlling the PSD turn-on an turn- off dynamics by varying the optical intensity of the OTPT. Subsequently, the fundamental parameter, linking the control of the OTPT and its impact on the performance parameters of the power converter, is identified and the correlation is experimentally demonstrated. Finally, to address the mutually opposing dependence of switching loss, and dv/dt and di/dt stresses on the optical intensity of the OTPT, a joint optimization mechanism is outlined and its outcome is experimentally demonstrated. © 2011 IEEE.

Devon H.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2014

Clinical symptoms are part of the risk stratification approaches used in the emergency department (ED) to evaluate patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of 13 symptoms for a discharge diagnosis of ACS in women and men. The sample included 736 patients admitted to 4 EDs with symptoms suggestive of ACS. Symptoms were assessed with the 13-item validated ACS Symptom Checklist. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to estimate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of each symptom for a diagnosis of ACS, adjusting for age, obesity, diabetes, and functional status. Patients were predominantly male (63%) and Caucasian (70.5%), with a mean age of 59.7±14.2 years. Chest pressure, chest discomfort, and chest pain demonstrated the highest sensitivity for ACS in both women (66%, 66%, and 67%) and men (63%, 69%, and 72%). Six symptoms were specific for a non-ACS diagnosis in both women and men. The predictive value of shoulder (odds ratio [OR]=2.53; 95% CI=1.29 to 4.96) and arm pain (OR 2.15; 95% CI=1.10 to 4.20) in women was nearly twice that of men (OR=1.11; 95% CI=0.67 to 1.85 and OR=1.21; 95% CI=0.74 to 1.99). Shortness of breath (OR=0.49; 95% CI=0.30 to 0.79) predicted a non-ACS diagnosis in men. There were more similarities than differences in symptom predictors of ACS for women and men.

Gheza F.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Surgical endoscopy | Year: 2013

Renal artery aneurysms (RAA) treatment includes both surgical repair and endovascular techniques, mostly depending on the location of aneurysm. For complex RAA located at renal artery bifurcation or distally, open surgical repair represents the gold standard of treatment. However, the transperitoneal open access to the renal artery requires a wide laparotomy--hence the attempt to be minimally invasive with the first reports of laparoscopic approach. Even if it represents a possibility, laparoscopy has not yet gained widespread acceptance for the technical difficulties in performing vascular anastomosis. We herein describe the repair of a complex RAA using the Da Vinci Surgical System. A 41-year-old woman had an accidentally discovered saccular aneurysm of the right renal artery with a maximum diameter of 20 mm, with one in and four out. A laparoscopic robot-assisted approach was planned. Intraoperatively, we confirm the strategy to group the four output branches in two different patches. Thus, a Y-shaped autologous saphenous graft was prepared and introduced through a trocar. For the three anastomoses, a polytetrafluoroethylene running suture was preferred. The total operation time was 350 min, and the estimated surgical blood loss was about 200 ml. Warm ischemia time was 58 min for the posterior branch and 24 min for the second declamping. The patient resumed a regular diet on postoperative day 2, and the hospital stay lasted 4 days. No intraoperative or postoperative morbidity was noted. A CT scan performed 2 months later revealed the patency of all the reconstructed branches. The experience of our group counts five other renal aneurysm repair performed with a robot-assisted technique. The presence of five different arterial branches involved in the reconstruction makes this procedure difficult. Robot-assisted laparoscopic technique represents a valid alternative to open surgery in complex cases.

Barger V.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Huang P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Ishida M.,Meisei University | Keung W.-Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We constrain the masses of scalar-tops (stop) by analyzing the new precision Tevatron measurement of the W-boson mass and the LHC/Tevatron indications of a Higgs boson of mass 125.5±1 GeV. Our study adopts Natural SUSY with low fine-tuning, which has multi-TeV first- and second-generation squarks and a light Higgsino mixing parameter μ=150 GeV. An effective Lagrangian calculation is made of mh to 3 loops using the H3m program with weak scale SUSY parameters obtained from RGE evolution from the GUT scale in the Natural SUSY scenario. The SUSY radiative corrections to the Higgs mass imply maximal off-diagonal elements of the stop mass matrix and a mass splitting of the two stops larger than 400 GeV. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Schechtman M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics | Year: 2010

Traditionally, it has been assumed that metaphysical and practical questions about personhood and personal identity are inherently linked. Neo-Lockean views that draw such a link have been problematic, leading to an opposing view that metaphysical and ethical questions about persons should be sharply distinguished. This paper argues that consideration of this issue suffers from an overly narrow conception of the practical concerns associated with persons that focuses on higher-order capacities and fails to appreciate basic practical concerns more directly connected to our animality. A more inclusive alternative is proposed. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kapusta J.I.,University of Minnesota | Muller B.,Duke University | Stephanov M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

We develop the relativistic theory of hydrodynamic fluctuations for application to high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In particular, we investigate their effect on the expanding boost-invariant (Bjorken) solution of the hydrodynamic equations. We discover that correlations over a long rapidity range are induced by the propagation of the sound modes. Due to the expansion, the dispersion law for these modes is nonlinear and attenuated even in the limit of zero viscosity. As a result, there is a nondissipative wake behind the sound front which is generated by any instantaneous pointlike fluctuation. We evaluate the two-particle correlators using the initial conditions and hydrodynamic parameters relevant for heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. In principle these correlators can be used to obtain information about the viscosities because the magnitudes of the fluctuations are directly proportional to them. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Jayaraman S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Discovery Medicine | Year: 2014

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by the cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing β-cells, leading to impaired glucose homeostasis, insulin insufficiency, and other complications. Although classic genetic studies have linked numerous genes to the susceptibility of developing diabetes, the mechanisms by which they influence the disease course remain poorly understood. Epigenetics, inheritable changes in gene expression that occur without accompanying genetic mutation, can both serve as a link between the environment and genetic causes of disease and help explain some of the observed vagaries of diabetes. Elucidation of the epigenetic landscape as it relates to putative treatment modalities is highly warranted. Drugs with histone deacetylase activity are in clinical trials for cancer and certain inflammatory diseases with high safety profiles and they hold similar promise for amelioration of type 1 diabetes with diminished secondary complications. Full-fledged studies on the epigenetics of type 1 diabetes are highly likely to provide novel tools for the manipulation of the disease in the years to come. In this review, epigenetic regulation mediated by small molecular inhibitors of histone deacetylases and their potential for preventing diabetes are discussed. Insights into the nature of the genetic mechanisms unraveled by these studies are also highlighted. © 2015, Discovery Medicine.

Forrestal S.G.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2011

While adults' energy intake misreporting is a well-documented phenomenon, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of misreporting among children and adolescents. Children's and adolescents' dietary reporting patterns are likely to be distinct because of their ongoing cognitive and social development. These developmental differences present unique challenges to aspects of dietary reporting, such as food knowledge, portion size estimation and response editing. This review of 28 articles describes energy intake misreporting among children and adolescents. Like adults, children and adolescents tended to underreport energy, with the largest biases observed with food records. Even when mean reported energy intake was close to its expected value, approximately half of all individuals were classified as misreporters, and overreporting appeared to be more common than it is among adults. Associations between numerous characteristics and misreporting were explored in the literature, with the most consistent findings for age and adiposity. Two predictors for adults, gender and social desirability, were not consistent factors among children and adolescents. The review concludes by highlighting knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research and practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Briones T.L.,Wayne State University | Woods J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Here we investigated whether changes in neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are possible mechanisms involved in the depression-like symptom during the withdrawal/abstinence period after chronic binge-pattern alcohol consumption given the limited number of studies addressing the link between these factors in the adolescent brain. Forty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study and the experimental protocol started when rats were 25-days old. Rats were assigned to either: (a) ethanol or (b) control group. Animals in each group were further randomized to receive either: BDNF receptor agonist or vehicle. Rats were trained to self-administer ethanol and the binge protocol consisted of daily 30-min experimental sessions 4. h into the dark period for 12. days. Two days after the last drinking session, rats were tested in the sucrose preference test to evaluate anhedonia and the open field test after habituation to evaluate behavioral despair. Our data showed that: (1) self-administration of alcohol in a binge-like pattern causes inebriation as defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and this pattern of alcohol exposure is associated with the development of a depression-like symptom; (2) no significant difference in blood alcohol levels between the two ethanol groups; and (3) chronic binge drinking resulted in the development of a depressive phenotype, decreased survival and neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus, and decreased BDNF effect during the withdrawal period. But the most important finding in our study is that augmenting BDNF actions through the use of tyrosine kinase B (TrkB, a BDNF receptor) agonist restored neurogenesis and abolished the alcohol-induced anhedonia and despair behaviors seen during the withdrawal/abstinence period. Our results suggest that BDNF might be a molecule that can be targeted for interventions in alcoholism-depression co-incidence. © 2013 The Authors.

Hou Z.-S.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Wang Z.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

This paper is a brief survey on the existing problems and challenges inherent in model-based control (MBC) theory, and some important issues in the analysis and design of data-driven control (DDC) methods are here reviewed and addressed. The necessity of data-driven control is discussed from the aspects of the history, the present, and the future of control theories and applications. The state of the art of the existing DDC methods and applications are presented with appropriate classifications and insights. The relationship between the MBC method and the DDC method, the differences among different DDC methods, and relevant topics in data-driven optimization and modeling are also highlighted. Finally, the perspective of DDC and associated research topics are briefly explored and discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Barger V.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Ishida M.,Meisei University | Keung W.-Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Stoponium, a bound state of the top squark and its antiparticle in a supersymmetric model, may be found in the ongoing Higgs searches at the LHC. Its WW and ZZ detection ratios relative to the standard model Higgs boson can be more than unity from the WW * threshold to the two Higgs threshold. The channel is equally promising. Some regions of the stoponium mass below 150°GeV are already being probed by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Barger V.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Ishida M.,Meisei University | Keung W.-Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

By using the LHC and Tevatron measurements of the cross sections to various decay channels relative to the standard model Higgs boson, the total width of the putative 125 GeV Higgs boson is determined as 6.1-2.9+7.7MeV. We describe a way to estimate the branching fraction for the Higgs-boson decay to dark matter. We also discuss a no-go theorem for the γγ signal of the Higgs boson at the LHC. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Fok C.C.T.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Henry D.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Prevention Science | Year: 2015

Little attention is paid in prevention research to the ability of measures to accurately assess change, termed “responsiveness” or “sensitivity to change.” This paper reviews definitions and measures of responsiveness, and suggests five strategies for increasing sensitivity to change, with central focus on prevention research with small samples: (a) improving understandability and cultural validity, (b) assuring that the measure covers the full range of the latent construct being measured, (c) eliminating redundant items, (d) maximizing sensitivity of the device used to collect responses; and (e) asking directly about change. Examples of the application of each strategy are provided. The discussion focuses on using the issues as a checklist for improving measures and the implications of sensitivity to change for prevention research with small samples. © 2015, Society for Prevention Research.

Barger V.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Ishida M.,Meisei University | Keung W.-Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The dilaton, a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson appearing in spontaneous scale symmetry breaking at a TeV scale f, may be found in Higgs boson searches. The dilaton couples to standard model fermions and weak bosons with the same structure as the Higgs boson except for the overall strength. Additionally, the dilaton couples to a Higgs boson pair. The couplings of the dilaton to a gluon pair and a photon pair, appearing at loop level, are largely enhanced compared to the corresponding Higgs couplings. We present regions of the mass and vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the dilaton allowed by WW, ZZ, and γγ limits from the LHC at 7TeV with 1.0-2.3fb -1 integrated luminosity. A scale of f less than 1TeV is nearly excluded. We discuss how the dilaton χ can be distinguished from the Higgs boson h0 by observation of the decays χ→γγ and χ→h0h0→(WW)(WW). © 2012 American Physical Society.

Uskokovic V.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Desai T.A.,University of California at San Francisco
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2014

Introduction: The ongoing surge of resistance of bacterial pathogens to antibiotic therapies and the consistently aging median member of the human race signal an impending increase in the incidence of chronic bone infection. Nanotechnological platforms for local and sustained delivery of therapeutics hold the greatest potential for providing minimally invasive and maximally regenerative therapies for this rare but persistent condition. Areas covered: Shortcomings of the clinically available treatment options, including poly(methyl methacrylate) beads and calcium sulfate cements, are discussed and their transcending using calcium-phosphate/polymeric nanoparticulate composites is foreseen. Bone is a composite wherein the weakness of each component alone is compensated for by the strength of its complement and an ideal bone substitute should be fundamentally the same. Expert opinion: Discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo bioactivity assessments is highlighted, alongside the inherent imperfectness of the former. Challenges entailing the cross-disciplinary nature of engineering a new generation of drug delivery vehicles are delineated and it is concluded that the future for the nanoparticulate therapeutic carriers belongs to multifunctional, synergistic and theranostic composites capable of simultaneously targeting, monitoring and treating internal organismic disturbances in a smart, feedback fashion and in direct response to the demands of the local environment. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Wing C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Marier A.,Abt Associates Inc.
Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2014

In the United States, occupational regulations influence the work tasks that may legally be performed by dentists and dental hygienists. Only a dentist may legally perform most dental procedures; however, a smaller list of basic procedures may be provided by either a dentist or a dental hygienist. Since dentists and hygienists possess different levels of training and skill and receive very different wages, it is plausible that these regulations could distort the optimal allocation of skills to work tasks. We present simple theoretical framework that shows different ways that such regulations might affect the way that dentists and dental hygienists are used in the production of dental services. We then use a large database of dental insurance claims to study the effects of the regulations on the prevailing prices of a set of basic dental services. Our empirical analysis exploits variation across states and over time in the list of services that may be provided by either type of worker. Our main results suggest that the task-specific occupational regulations increase prices by about 12%. We also examine the effects of related occupational regulations on the utilization of basic dental services. We find that allowing insurers to directly reimburse hygienists for their work increases one year utilization rates by 3-4 percentage points. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Theodore N.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Peck J.,University of British Columbia
European Urban and Regional Studies | Year: 2012

The paper explores the evolution of urban policy discourses among advanced industrial nations in the period since the early 1980s, by way of a case study of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). The OECD, it is argued, has provided an arena for the consolidation of a particular form of neoliberal urbanism, conceived here as a mutating policy frame. As a consensus-finding organization, the OECD is more of a mediator than a unilateral driver of policy conventions. It is not a site of hard-edged or radical policy innovation, but seeks to define a 'common ground' in the form of a positive policy consensus. As such, the OECD's coordinative discourse both reflects and refracts a particular reading of the 'soft center' of the urban policy consensus, revealing how (far) this has moved since the early 1980s. Hardly preordained, this transnational mode of neoliberal urbanism has been a constructed project, subject to significant adaption and evolution. © The Author(s) 2011.

Uskokovic V.,University of Illinois at Chicago
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

Mysteries surrounding the most important mineral for vertebrate biology, hydroxyapatite, are many. Perhaps the Greek root of its name, απαταo, meaning 'to deceive' and given to its mineral form by the early gem collectors who confused it with more precious stones, is still applicable today, though in a different connotation, descriptive of a number of physicochemical peculiarities exhibited by it. Comparable to water as the epitome of peculiarities in the realm of liquids, hydroxyapatite can serve as a paradigm of peculiarities in the world of solids. Ten of the peculiar properties of hydroxyapatite are sketched in this study, ranging from (i) the crystal lattice flexibility to (ii) notorious surface layer instability, (iii) finite piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and conductivity to protons, (iv) accelerated growth and improved osteoconductivity in electromagnetic fields, (v) a high nucleation rate at low supersaturation and low crystal growth rate at high supersaturation, (vi) higher bioactivity and resorbability of biological apatite compared to those of the synthetic ones, and beyond. An attempt has been made to explain this array of curious characteristics by referring to a particular element of the crystal structure of hydroxyapatite: the hydroxyl ion channel extending in the direction of the c-axis, through a crystallographic column created by the overlapping calcium ion triangles. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Shulman L.P.,Northwestern University | Shulman L.P.,University of Illinois at Chicago
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011

Discussion of effective birth control methods can be a challenging process for clinicians because the adoption and consistent use of contraception may be influenced by patients' fears, myths, and misperceptions. Over the years, new progestins have been included in combination contraceptives or are used alone to provide effective contraception as well as to decrease androgenic side effects and ameliorate the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Alternative delivery systems and regimens have also been introduced to improve tolerability and continuance and convenience of use. This is a review of estrogen and progestin combinations and their effects. © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Peck J.,University of British Columbia | Theodore N.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2012

The paper reflects on the methodological challenges involved in research on the movement and mutation of fast-moving policies, through globalizing networks and across translocal settings. Inspired by 'follow the thing' methods and by the global ethnography program, it outlines a distended case-study approach to the study of policy mobilities. © 2012 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.

Kiedrowski L.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2012

In neurons exposed to glutamate, Ca 2+ influx triggers intracellular Zn 2+ release via an as yet unclear mechanism. As glutamate induces a Ca 2+-dependent cytosolic acidification, the present work tested the relationships among intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+] i), intracellular pH (pH i), and [Zn 2+] i. Cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to glutamate and glycine (Glu/Gly), while [Zn 2+] i, [Ca 2+] i and pH i were monitored using FluoZin-3, Fura2-FF, and 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)- carboxyfluorescein, respectively. Glu/Gly applications decreased pH i to 6.1 and induced intracellular Zn 2+ release in a Ca 2+-dependent manner, as expected. The pH i drop reduced the affinity of FluoZin-3 and Fura-2-FF for Zn 2+. The rate of Glu/Gly-induced [Zn 2+] i increase was not correlated with the rate of [Ca 2+] i increase. Instead, the extent of [Zn 2+] i elevations corresponded well to the rate of pH i drop. Namely, [Zn 2+] i increased more in more highly acidified neurons. Inhibiting the mechanisms responsible for the Ca 2+-dependent pH i drop (plasmalemmal Ca 2+ pump and mitochondria) counteracted the Glu/Gly-induced intracellular Zn 2+ release. Alkaline pH (8.5) suppressed Glu/Gly-induced intracellular Zn 2+ release whereas acidic pH (6.0) enhanced it. A pH i drop to 6.0 (without any Ca 2+ influx or glutamate receptor activation) led to intracellular Zn 2+ release; the released Zn 2+ (free Zn 2+ plus Zn 2+ bound to Fura-2FF and FluoZin-3) reached 1 μM. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Chen H.Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Biometrika | Year: 2011

Based on the odds ratio representation of a joint density, we propose a unified framework to study parameter identifiability in biased sampling designs. It is shown that most of these designs encountered in practice can be reformulated within the proposed framework and, as a result, the question of parameter identifiability can be largely clarified. Estimation of the identifiable parameters is considered and traditional results on the equivalence of the prospective and retrospective likelihoods are extended. Information contained in data on certain identifiable parameters is often very limited. Such parameters can be poorly estimated by the likelihood approach with practically attainable sample sizes, which can substantially affect the estimates of parameters of primary interest. A partially penalized likelihood approach is proposed to address this. Simulation results suggest that the proposed approach has good performance. © 2011 Biometrika Trust.

Marmor M.F.,Stanford University | Kellner U.,AugenZentrum Siegburg | Lai T.Y.Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lyons J.S.,Georgetown University | Mieler W.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Ophthalmology | Year: 2011

Background The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations for screening of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy were published in 2002, but improved screening tools and new knowledge about the prevalence of toxicity have appeared in the ensuing years. No treatment exists as yet for this disorder, so it is imperative that patients and their physicians be aware of the best practices for minimizing toxic damage. Risk of Toxicity New data have shown that the risk of toxicity increases sharply toward 1% after 5 to 7 years of use, or a cumulative dose of 1000 g, of HCQ. The risk increases further with continued use of the drug. Dosage The prior recommendation emphasized dosing by weight. However, most patients are routinely given 400 mg of HCQ daily (or 250 mg CQ). This dose is now considered acceptable, except for individuals of short stature, for whom the dose should be determined on the basis of ideal body weight to avoid overdosage. Screening Schedule A baseline examination is advised for patients starting these drugs to serve as a reference point and to rule out maculopathy, which might be a contraindication to their use. Annual screening should begin after 5 years (or sooner if there are unusual risk factors). Screening Tests Newer objective tests, such as multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and fundus autofluorescence (FAF), can be more sensitive than visual fields. It is now recommended that along with 10-2 automated fields, at least one of these procedures be used for routine screening where available. When fields are performed independently, even the most subtle 10-2 field changes should be taken seriously and are an indication for evaluation by objective testing. Because mfERG testing is an objective test that evaluates function, it may be used in place of visual fields. Amsler grid testing is no longer recommended. Fundus examinations are advised for documentation, but visible bulls-eye maculopathy is a late change, and the goal of screening is to recognize toxicity at an earlier stage. Counseling Patients should be aware of the risk of toxicity and the rationale for screening (to detect early changes and minimize visual loss, not necessarily to prevent it). The drugs should be stopped if possible when toxicity is recognized or strongly suspected, but this is a decision to be made in conjunction with patients and their medical physicians. Financial Disclosure(s) Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Rodriguez R.W.,University of Illinois at Chicago
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Purpose. The delay in time from entry in the PubMed database to indexing with medical subject heading (MeSH) terms for articles published in three major pharmacy practice journals was evaluated. Methods. In April 2013, MEDLINE data were retrieved for articles published in the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (AJHP), the Annals of Pharmacotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2011. Data collected for each article included the PubMed entry date, MeSH indexing date, and publication type. The PubMed entry date was defined as the Entrez date, the date the citation was added to the PubMed database. Medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs) were calculated for the time to indexing of articles and for the age of unindexed articles. The proportion of unindexed articles was also calculated. Results. A total of 1626 publications were reviewed. Overall, the median time to indexing with MeSH terms was 114 days (IQR, 98-141 days): 107 days (IQR, 94-129 days) for AJHP, 131 days (IQR, 104-157 days) for Annals of Pharmacotherapy, and 114 days (IQR, 99-128 days) for Pharmacotherapy. The median age of unindexed articles was 807 days (IQR, 671-807 days). Conclusion. An analysis of three major pharmacy practice journals showed that the median time to indexing articles published in 2010 and 2011 was 114 days. While all articles from AJHP and Pharmacotherapy were indexed, 40 articles from Annals of Pharmacotherapy remained unindexed. Copyright © 2014, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

BACKGROUND: Serum infliximab trough levels correlate with efficacy; dose escalation is often beneficial in patients with Crohn's disease who stop responding to infliximab treatment.OBJECTIVE: To carry out a post hoc analysis of A Crohn's Disease Clinical Trial Evaluating Infliximab in a New Long-term Treatment Regimen I (ACCENT I) to evaluate the association between serum infliximab trough levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) after 14 weeks of induction treatment with durable sustained long-term response (Crohn's Disease Activity Index decrease ≥70 points and reduction ≥25% from baseline).DESIGN: ACCENT I was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Week 14 trough levels and CRP percentage decrease from baseline to week 14 were compared between patients with and without durable sustained response through week 54. Sensitivity and specificity were determined to predict durable sustained response. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified optimal cut-off points; logistic regression determined ORs.RESULTS: After induction with 5 mg/kg infliximab, 25% (37/147) and 33% (47/144) of patients sustained week 14 response to infliximab 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively, administered every 8 weeks without dose escalation, through week 54. Median week 14 trough levels of patients with and without durable sustained response to infliximab 5 mg/kg were 4.0 and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively (p=0.0331). Optimal predictors of durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg were week 14 trough level ≥3.5 µg/mL and ≥60% CRP decrease (ORs (95% CI), 3.5 (1.1 to 11.4) and 7.3 (1.4 to 36.7)), respectively, in patients with raised baseline CRP (>8.0 mg/L); area under the ROC curve was 0.75 for both predictors. A ≥3.5 µg/mL week 14 infliximab serum level did not predict durable sustained response to 10 mg/kg maintenance infliximab.CONCLUSIONS: Patients with durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg had higher postinduction trough levels than patients without durable sustained response. Serum infliximab trough levels ≥3.5 µg/mL and ≥60% CRP decrease were significantly associated with durable sustained response. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

Solaro R.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

This review focuses on recent developments in the molecular mechanisms by which Ca activates cardiac sarcomeres and how these mechanisms play out in the cardiac cycle. I emphasize the role of mechanisms intrinsic to the sarcomeres as significant determinants of systolic elastance and ventricular stiffening during ejection. Data are presented supporting the idea that processes intrinsic to the thin filaments may promote cooperative activation of the sarcomeres and be an important factor in maintaining and modifying systolic elastance. Application of these ideas to translational medicine and rationale drug design forms an important rationale for detailed understanding of these processes. © 2010 R. John Solaro.

Huang R.,International Rectifier | Mazumder S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2010

This paper outlines a switching scheme to improve the energy efficiency for an isolated high-frequency multiphase dc/pulsating-dc converter, which is the front end of a three-phase rectifier-type high-frequency-link inverter. Without using any auxiliary circuit, the proposed switching scheme achieves zero-current or zero-voltage switching for the power switches on the front-end multiphase dc/pulsating-dc converter. Moreover, on the back-end pulsating-dc/ac converter, the proposed soft-switching scheme reduces the switching frequency requirements for the associated switchers, which need high-frequency switching. In conjunction with the back-end pulsating-dc/ac converter, operating with a patent-filed hybrid modulation scheme, the proposed switching scheme leads to reduced overall switching loss as compared with other existing schemes. It is more suitable for isolated low-voltage dc to three-phase high-voltage ac applications from the standpoints of cost, efficiency, and footprint. © 2011 IEEE.

Sterling K.L.,Georgia State University | Mermelstein R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: Evidence suggests that hookah smoking is growing among adolescents, particularly among those with a history of cigarette smoking, and is an emerging public health concern. We examined hookah use and its correlates among a sample of adolescents who have ever smoked and may be considered high risk for hookah use. Methods: We examined differences between hookah users and nonusers among a cohort of 951 adolescents (75.3% of the baseline sample, mean age 17.6 years at 24 months), consisting exclusively of youth who reported ever smoking cigarettes who were participating in a longitudinal study of adolescent smoking predictors and patterns. Ever and 30-day hookah use were assessed at 24 months. Results: Of the 951 participants, 58.5% reported ever use and 30.2% reported smoking hookah at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that 30-day hookah use was associated with sex (p < .05); race (p < .001); current cigarette (p < .0001), cigar (p < .01), kretek (p <.05), and alcohol use (p < .01); and attending a hookah bar, lounge, or restaurant (p < .001). Participants who were male, White, and were concurrent users of multiple tobacco products and other substances had increased odds of 30-day hookah use. Conclusions: Prevalence of hookah use is high among youth who have already tried cigarette smoking and is associated with a variety of tobacco and other substance use behaviors. Evidence-based programs may be needed to prevent initiation of or reduce Hookah smoking, as well as address cooccurring problem behaviors, to lessen the health risks associated with use among adolescents. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.

Cook J.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Psychiatric rehabilitation journal | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a mental illness self-management intervention, called Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP), on the use of and need for mental health services over time compared with nutrition and wellness education. Participants were recruited from outpatient community mental health settings in Chicago, Illinois. Using a single-blind, randomized controlled trial design, 143 individuals were assigned to WRAP or to a nutrition education course and assessed at baseline and at 2-month and 8-month follow-up. The WRAP intervention was delivered by peers in recovery from serious mental illness who were certified WRAP educators over nine weekly sessions lasting 2.5 hrs. The nutrition education curriculum was taught by trained non-peer educators using the same schedule. Mixed-effects random regression analysis tested for differences between the two interventions in (a) self-reported use of 19 clinical, rehabilitation, peer, emergent, and ancillary services; and (b) self-reported need for these services. Results of mixed-effects random regression analysis indicated that, compared with controls, WRAP participants reported significantly greater reduction over time in service utilization (total, individual, and group), and service need (total and group services). Participants in both interventions improved significantly over time in symptoms and recovery outcomes. Training in mental illness self-management reduced the self-reported need for and use of formal mental health services over time. This confirms the importance of WRAP in an era of dwindling behavioral health service availability and access. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

Torrey E.F.,Stanley Medical Research Institute | Davis J.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses | Year: 2012

The pharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder leaves much to be desired. Repurposed drugs, which are approved for other medical conditions, represent an underutilized therapeutic resource for patients who have not responded to other drugs. Using experience gained from a decade of repurposed drug studies by the Stanley Medical Research Institute and search of the literature, we have identified nine such drugs for which there is some evidence of efficacy for schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder. These include: aspirin; celecoxib; estrogen/raloxifene; folate; minocycline; mirtazapine; omega-3 fatty acids; pramipexole; and, pregnenolone. The evidence of efficacy is reviewed for each drug. Because there is little or no financial incentive for pharmaceutical companies to promote such drugs, there is a paucity of definitive trials, and these drugs are less widely known than they deserve to be. Biomarker studies should also be carried out to identify subgroups of patients who do respond to these drugs.

Maeda J.L.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Cardiac Failure | Year: 2010

Background: Evidence-based performance measures for heart failure are increasingly being used to stimulate quality improvement efforts. Methods and Results: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Review, and a citation review. Research studies that assessed the association between the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) heart failure performance measures from the inpatient setting and patient outcomes were examined. Studies were restricted to those conducted within the United States from 2001 until the present and included at least 1 of the ACC/AHA performance measures for chronic heart failure and a clinical outcome as an endpoint. Eleven original studies and 1 literature review met the study inclusion criteria. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker and β-blocker use at discharge had the strongest association with improved patient outcomes, whereas discharge instructions had a weaker but positive effect. Conclusions: The findings from this systematic review suggest that an increase in compliance with the heart failure performance measures leads to a consistent positive impact on patient outcomes although the strength, magnitude, and significance of this effect is variable across the individual performance indicators. Further longitudinal studies and additional measure sets may yield deeper insights into the causal relationship between heart failure processes of care and clinical outcomes. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pan P.,Fujitsu Limited | Schonfeld D.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2011

In this paper, we develop a novel solution for particle filtering on general graphs. We provide an exact solution for particle filtering on directed cycle-free graphs. The proposed approach relies on a partial-order relation in an antichain decomposition that forms a high-order Markov chain over the partitioned graph. We subsequently derive a closed-form sequential updating scheme for conditional density propagation using particle filtering on directed cycle-free graphs. We also provide an approximate solution for particle filtering on general graphs by splitting graphs with cycles into multiple directed cycle-free subgraphs. We then use the sequential updating scheme by alternating among the directed cycle-free subgraphs to obtain an estimate of the density propagation. We rely on the proposed method for particle filtering on general graphs for two video tracking applications: 1) object tracking using high-order Markov chains; and 2) distributed multiple object tracking based on multi-object graphical interaction models. Experimental results demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed approach to particle filtering on graphs compared with existing methods for video tracking. © 2010 IEEE.

Kauffman L.H.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

In this paper we explore the boundary shared by biology and formal systems. © 2015 .

McCloskey D.N.,University of Illinois at Chicago | McCloskey D.N.,Gothenburg University
Research Policy | Year: 2013

The article reviews theoretical approaches and methods of conventional economics and economic history to address the fundamental question of why the world's economy has experienced unprecedented growth rates only after 1800, following millennial relative stagnation. The intellectual challenge put forward by economic historians and historians of technical change is to explain the role of technology broadly interpreted in affecting economic change, offering a richer picture than the mere accumulation of production factors. This includes the analysis of the processes leading to the accumulation of 'inventive people'.© 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Stieff M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2013

Mental-rotation ability modestly predicts chemistry achievement. As such, sex differences in mental-rotation ability have been implicated as a causal factor that can explain sex differences in chemistry achievement and degree attainment. Although there is a correlation between mental-rotation ability and chemistry achievement, laboratory and field studies indicate that students do not always use the same strategies on both measures of visuospatial ability and chemistry achievement assessments. Rather, students apply visuospatial strategies in isolation and in combination with analytical heuristics trained in the chemistry classroom. In this paper, sex differences in strategy use on canonical mental-rotation tasks and isomorphic organic chemistry assessment tasks are examined. Study 1 demonstrates that men and women employ both mental rotation and learned heuristics to compare both simple block shapes and molecular representations after classroom instruction. Study 2, however, demonstrates that practice using an analytical algorithm results in higher achievement than practice using mental rotation for both men and women. Given these findings, the reliability of mental-rotation ability as a predictor of sex differences in chemistry achievement is discussed. © 2013 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.

Tuninetti D.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2011

This paper studies the throughput performance of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) protocols over block fading Gaussian channels. It proposes new protocols that use the available feedback bit(s) not only to request a retransmission, but also to inform the transmitter about the instantaneous channel quality. An explicit protocol construction is given for any number of retransmissions and any number of feedback bits. The novel protocol is shown to simultaneously realize the gains of HARQ and of power control with partial channel state information. Remarkable throughput improvements are shown, especially at low and moderate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), with respect to protocols that use the feedback bits for retransmission request only. In particular, for the case of a single retransmission and a single feedback bit, it is shown that the repetition is not needed at low SNR where the throughput improvement is due to power control only. On the other hand, at high SNR, the repetition is useful and the performance gain comes from a combination of power control and ability to make up for deep fades. © 2011 IEEE.

Rosenhouse-Dantsker A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Channels (Austin, Tex.) | Year: 2010

Kir channels are important in setting the resting membrane potential and modulating membrane excitability. A common feature of Kir2 channels and several other ion channels that has emerged in recent years is that they are regulated by cholesterol, a major lipid component of the plasma membrane whose excess is associated with multiple pathological conditions. Yet, the mechanism by which cholesterol affects channel function is not clear. We have recently shown that the sensitivity of Kir2 channels to cholesterol depends on residues in the CD loop of the cytosolic domain of the channels with one of the mutations, L222I, abrogating cholesterol sensitivity of the channels completely. Here we show that in addition to Kir2 channels, members of other Kir subfamilies are also regulated by cholesterol. Interestingly, while similarly to Kir2 channels, several Kir channels, Kir1.1, Kir4.1 and Kir6.2Delta36 were suppressed by an increase in membrane cholesterol, the function of Kir3.4* and Kir7.1 was enhanced following cholesterol enrichment. Furthermore, we show that independent of the impact of cholesterol on channel function, mutating residues in the corresponding positions of the CD loop in Kir2.1 and Kir3.4*, inhibits cholesterol sensitivity of Kir channels, thus extending the critical role of the CD loop beyond Kir2 channels.

This paper presents an overview of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Commission (ICNIRP) and its role in setting guidelines for radio-frequency fields. While exposure guidelines have been promulgated for magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) operations, there are a number of challenges that warrant further consideration.

Lim J.I.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Current Opinion in Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose of Review: Recent developments in the diagnosis and management of sickle cell ocular manifestations are reviewed to enable the clinician to better manage the ophthalmic care of these patients. Recent Findings: Research over the past year has focused upon systemic and ocular clues to the presence of sickle cell retinopathy. In addition, newer imaging modalities, such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography and wide-field imaging, have resulted in the detection of subclinical retinopathy related to sickle cell disease. Decreased retinal function (via microperimetry testing) has also been detected in association with areas of retinal thinning. Identification of these ocular and systemic factors that are associated with sickle cell retinopathy will help identify those patients who most need to be screened for sickle cell retinopathy. Summary: The awareness of subclinical disease as well as the identification of systemic factors associated with higher prevalence of sickle cell retinopathy will aid the clinician in identifying those patients who are at higher risk of retinopathy. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Wang Z.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program | Year: 2010

Pain is a frequent complaint of people living with sickle cell disease (SCD); however, the neurobiology of pain in SCD remains poorly understood. Whereas this pain has been thought to be primarily related to visceral and somatic tissue injury subsequent to vaso-occlusion events, emerging evidence from human and animal studies has suggested that a component of SCD pain may be related to neuropathic processes. Significant knowledge has been obtained from studies of molecular and neurobiological mechanisms leading to and maintaining neuropathic pain. Some of the most promising evidence has implicated major roles of protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and their interaction with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor in the development of neuropathic pain. The latest evidence from our studies suggests that these pathways are important for SCD pain as well. Coupled with emerging animal models of SCD pain, we can now start to elucidate neurobiological mechanisms underlying pain in SCD, which may lead to better understanding and effective therapies.

Lieberthal W.,Stony Brook University Medical Center | Levine J.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2012

The mTOR pathway plays an important role in a number of common renal diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI), diabetic nephropathy (DN), and polycystic kidney diseases (PKD). The activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is necessary for renal regeneration and repair after AKI, and inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin has been shown to delay recovery from ischemic AKI in animal studies, and to prolong delayed graft function in humans who have received a kidney transplant. For this reason, administration of rapamycin should be delayed or discontinued in patients with AKI until full recovery of renal function has occurred. On the other hand, inappropriately high mTORC1 activity contributes to the progression of the metabolic syndrome, the development of type 2 diabetes, and the pathogenesis of DN. In addition, chronic hyperactivity of mTORC1, and possibly also mTORC2, contributes to cyst formation and enlargement in a number of forms of PKD. Inhibition of mTOR, using either rapamycin (which inhibits predominantly mTORC1) or "catalytic" inhibitors (which effectively inhibit both mTORC1 and mTORC2), provide exciting possibilities for novel forms of treatment of DN and PKD. In this second part of the review, we will examine the role of mTOR in the pathophysiology of DN and PKD, as well as the potential utility of currently available and newly developed inhibitors of mTOR to slow the progression of DN and/or PKD. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Lieberthal W.,Stony Brook University Medical Center | Levine J.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2012

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a fundamental role in regulating cellular homeostasis and metabolism. In a two-part review, we examine the complex molecular events involved in the regulation and downstream effects of mTOR, as well as the pivotal role played by this kinase in many renal diseases, particularly acute kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, and polycystic kidney diseases. Here, in the first part of the review, we provide an overview of the complex signaling events and pathways governing mTOR activity and action. mTOR is a key component of two multiprotein complexes, known as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). Some proteins are found in both mTORC1 and mTORC2, while others are unique to one or the other complex. Activation of mTORC1 promotes cell growth (increased cellular mass or size) and cell proliferation (increased cell number). mTORC1 acts as a metabolic "sensor," ensuring that conditions are optimal for both cell growth and proliferation. Its activity is tightly regulated by the availability of amino acids, growth factors, energy stores, and oxygen. The effects of mTORC2 activation are distinct from those of mTORC1. Cellular processes modulated by mTORC2 include cell survival, cell polarity, cytoskeletal organization, and activity of the aldosteronesensitive sodium channel. Upstream events controlling mTORC2 activity are less well understood than those controlling mTORC1, although growth factors appear to stimulate both complexes. Rapamycin and its analogs inhibit the activity of mTORC1 only, and not that of mTORC2, while the newer "catalytic" mTOR inhibitors affect both complexes. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Dierker L.,Wesleyan University | Mermelstein R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Objective: To evaluate the predictive validity of nicotine-dependence symptoms in 9th- and 10th-grade adolescents. Study design: A total of 594 adolescents who had not smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and 152 adolescents who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime were included in the analysis. The predictive validity of 10 nicotine-dependence items administered at baseline was evaluated at the 24-month follow-up assessment. Results: For those who smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes, higher levels of experienced nicotine-dependence symptoms at baseline, as well as individual symptoms, predicted current and daily smoking behavior at the 24-month follow-up, over and above baseline smoking. For adolescents who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes at baseline, the level of nicotine dependence and individual symptom endorsement did not predict smoking behavior at the 24-month follow-up. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that early emerging dependence symptoms reported at low levels of smoking exposure signal a greater propensity for continued smoking behavior not accounted for by current or past smoking exposure. Screening for these early emerging symptoms among novice adolescent smokers represents an important and unused tool in tobacco control efforts aimed at preventing the development of chronic smoking patterns. © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Kshemkalyani A.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems | Year: 2010

Large-scale distributed systems such as supercomputers and peer-to-peer systems typically have a fully connected logical topology over a large number of processors. Existing snapshot algorithms in such systems have high response time and/or require a large number of messages, typically O(n2), where n is the number of processes. In this paper, we present a suite of two algorithms: simple-tree, and hypercube, that are both fast and require a small number of messages. This makes the algorithms highly scalable. Simple-tree requires O(n) messages and has O(log n) response time. Hypercube requires O(n log n) messages and has O(log n) response time, in addition to having the property that the roles of all the processes are symmetrical. Process symmetry implies greater potential for balanced workload and congestion-freedom. All the algorithms assume non-FIFO channels. © 2010 IEEE.

Abt E.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Management of individuals presenting with partial loss of teeth is a common task for dentists. Outcomes important to the management of missing teeth in the partially absent dentition should be systematically summarized. This review recognizes both the challenges associated with such a summarization and the critical nature of the information for patients. To assess the effects of different prostheses for the treatment of partially absent dentition in terms of the following outcomes: long-term success, function, morbidity and patient satisfaction. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 21 March 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to March 2011) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to March 2011). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. We contacted several authors to identify non-published trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different methods (including the design and materials used) of treating partial edentulism, with clinically relevant outcomes, were included in this review. Trials reporting only surrogate outcomes, such as plaque accumulation or gingival volume, were excluded from this review. Two review authors independently carried out the screening of eligible studies, assessment of dimensions of quality of trials, and data extraction. Results were expressed as mean differences for continuous data, risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes, and hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for time-to-event data. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Twenty-four per cent of these were assessed as being at high risk of bias and the remainder were at unclear risk of bias. The clinical heterogeneity among the included studies precluded any attempt at meta-analysis. There was insufficient evidence to determine whether one type of removable dental prosthesis (RDP) was better or worse than another. With fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), there was no evidence that high gold alloys are better or worse than other alloys, nor that gold alloys or frameworks are better or worse than titanium. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether zirconia is better or worse that other FDP materials, that ceramic abutments are better or worse than titanium, or that one cement was better or worse than another in retaining FDPs. There is insufficient evidence to determine the relative effectiveness of FDPs and RDPs in patients with shortened dental arch or to determine the relative advantages of implant supported FDPs versus tooth/implant supported FDPs. Based on trials meeting the inclusion criteria for this review, there is insufficient evidence to recommend a particular method of tooth replacement for partially edentulous patients.

Tekian A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Medical Teacher | Year: 2014

The interest to pursue doctoral degrees in the health professions is increasing exponentially. Some reasons for this increase include innovations in curriculum and instructional strategies, competency-based assessment, particularly at the postgraduate level, and accreditation requirements. Through various electronic search methods, interviews, review of documents and site visits, 24 structured doctoral programs were identified worldwide that offer a PhD in health professions education (HPE) or medical education. A number of other programs were also identified that do not follow a structured curriculum; however, through supervision and guidance, candidates could complete a number of publishable projects thus meeting the requirements for a doctorate degree. Also, some institutions train fellows for doctoral degrees in HPE without necessarily advertising or labeling the programs as a PhD in medical or HPE. There are also discipline-specific PhDs, such as medicine and dentistry, which focus on education. For example, a student interested in studying surgical technical skills could be directed to take a PhD in kinesiology. It is time for institutions and individuals to start thinking about disciplinary diversity and not focus exclusively on studies of medical education. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

The grass tribe Triticeae (=Hordeeae) comprises only about 300 species, but it is well known for the economically important crop plants wheat, barley, and rye. The group is also recognized as a fascinating example of evolutionary complexity, with a history shaped by numerous events of auto- and allopolyploidy and apparent introgression involving diploids and polyploids. The genus Elymus comprises a heterogeneous collection of allopolyploid genome combinations, all of which include at least one set of homoeologs, designated St, derived from Pseudoroegneria. The current analysis includes a geographically and genomically diverse collection of 21 tetraploid Elymus species, and a single hexaploid species. Diploid and polyploid relationships were estimated using four molecular data sets, including one that combines two regions of the chloroplast genome, and three from unlinked nuclear genes: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, β-amylase, and granule-bound starch synthase I. Four gene trees were generated using maximum likelihood, and the phylogenetic placement of the polyploid sequences reveals extensive reticulation beyond allopolyploidy alone. The trees were interpreted with reference to numerous phenomena known to complicate allopolyploid phylogenies, and introgression was identified as a major factor in their history. The work illustrates the interpretation of complicated phylogenetic results through the sequential consideration of numerous possible explanations, and the results highlight the value of careful inspection of multiple independent molecular phylogenetic estimates, with particular focus on the differences among them. © 2013 Roberta J. Mason-Gamer.

Gourineni P.,Advocate Hope Childrens Hospital |