Chicago, IL, United States
Chicago, IL, United States

The University of Illinois at Chicago, or UIC, is a state-funded public research university located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Its campus is in the Near West Side community area, adjacent to the Chicago Loop. The second campus established under the University of Illinois system, UIC is also the largest university in the Chicago area, having approximately 28,000 students enrolled in 15 colleges.UIC operates the largest medical school in the United States, and serves as the principal educator for Illinois’ physicians, dentists, pharmacists, physical therapists, nurses and other healthcare professionals. UIC's medical school has research expenditures exceeding $412 million and consistently ranks in the top 50 U.S. institutions for research expenditures.In the 2015 U.S. News & World Report's ranking of colleges and universities, UIC ranked as the 149th best in the "national universities" category. The 2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked UIC as the 13th best in the world among universities less than 50 years old.UIC competes in NCAA Division I Horizon League as the UIC Flames in sports. The UIC Pavilion is home to all UIC basketball games. It also serves as a venue for concerts. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Johns Hopkins University and University of Illinois at Chicago | Date: 2015-04-22

The present invention provides novel indoleamide compounds for treating tuberculosis, including drug-resistant M-tuberculosis, compositions comprising the indoleamides and methods of using the indoleamides in conjunction with other biologically active agents for the treatment of tuberculosis in a subject in need thereof.


Mazumder S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Rathore A.K.,National University of Singapore
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

Emerging trends of high-power-density power-electronics interfaces for renewable- and alternative-energy sources have led to the need for high-frequency-inverter designs without compromising energy-conversion efficiency. In that context, a zero-voltage-switching (ZVS)-based scheme is described in this letter, for a cycloconverter-type high-frequency-link inverter, which is applicable for renewable- and alternative-energy sources as well as other commercial applications. The proposed scheme achieves the primary-side-converter-assisted switching of the ac/ac converter switches under ZVS condition. The modes of operation of the ac/ac converter are explained to outline the behavioral response. The results on the efficacy of the ZVS-based inverter and its performance show satisfactory performances. © 2010 IEEE.


Mancilla-Martinez J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Child Development | Year: 2011

This longitudinal study modeled growth rates, from ages 4.5 to 11, in English and Spanish oral language and word reading skills among 173 Spanish-speaking children from low-income households. Individual growth modeling was employed using scores from standardized measures of word reading, expressive vocabulary, and verbal short-term language memory. The trajectories demonstrate that students' rates of growth and overall ability in word reading were on par with national norms. In contrast, students' oral language skills started out below national norms and their rates of growth, although surpassing the national rates, were not sufficient to reach age-appropriate levels. The results underscore the need for increased and sustained attention to promoting this population's language development. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.


King A.C.,University of Chicago | McNamara P.J.,University of Chicago | Hasin D.S.,Columbia University | Cao D.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background Propensity for alcohol misuse may be linked to an individuals' response to alcohol. This study examined the role of alcohol response phenotypes to future drinking problems. Methods One hundred four young heavy social drinkers participated in a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory alcohol challenge study with 6-year follow-up. Participants were examined for subjective responses before and after receiving an intoxicating dose of alcohol (.8 g/kg) or a placebo beverage, given in random order. Follow-up was conducted in 5 waves over 6 years after the sessions to assess drinking behaviors and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Retention was high with 98% (509 of 520) of possible follow-ups completed. Results Greater sensitivity to alcohol, in terms of stimulation and rewarding effects (like, want more) and lower sensitivity to alcohol sedation predicted greater number of AUD symptoms through 6 years of follow-up. Cluster analyses revealed that for half the sample, increasing levels of stimulation and liking were predictors of more AUD symptoms with the other half divided between those showing like and want more and want more alone as significant predictors. Conclusions The findings extend previous findings and offer new empirical insights into the propensity for excessive drinking and alcohol problems. Heightened alcohol stimulation and reward sensitivity robustly predicted more alcohol use disorder symptoms over time associated with greater binge-drinking frequency. These drinking problems were maintained and progressed as these participants were entering their third decade of life, a developmental interval when continued alcohol misuse becomes more deviant. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry.


Hay N.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Hay N.,Jesse Brown Medical Center
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2016

In recent years there has been a growing interest among cancer biologists in cancer metabolism. This Review summarizes past and recent advances in our understanding of the reprogramming of glucose metabolism in cancer cells, which is mediated by oncogenic drivers and by the undifferentiated character of cancer cells. The reprogrammed glucose metabolism in cancer cells is required to fulfil anabolic demands. This Review discusses the possibility of exploiting the reprogrammed glucose metabolism for therapeutic approaches that selectively target cancer cells. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Louch W.E.,University of Oslo | Sheehan K.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Wolska B.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology | Year: 2011

Since techniques for cardiomyocyte isolation were first developed 35 years ago, experiments on single myocytes have yielded great insight into their cellular and sub-cellular physiology. These studies have employed a broad range of techniques including electrophysiology, calcium imaging, cell mechanics, immunohistochemistry and protein biochemistry. More recently, techniques for cardiomyocyte culture have gained additional importance with the advent of gene transfer technology. While such studies require a high quality cardiomyocyte population, successful cell isolation and maintenance during culture remain challenging. In this review, we describe methods for the isolation of adult and neonatal ventricular myocytes from rat and mouse heart. This discussion outlines general principles for the beginner, but also provides detailed specific protocols and advice for common caveats. We additionally review methods for short-term myocyte culture, with particular attention given to the importance of substrate and media selection, and describe time-dependent alterations in myocyte physiology that should be anticipated. Gene transfer techniques for neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes are also reviewed, including methods for transfection (liposome, electroporation) and viral-based gene delivery. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Merkel O.M.,Wayne State University | Rubinstein I.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Rubinstein I.,Jesse Brown Medical Center | Kissel T.,University of Marburg
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2014

RNA interference (RNAi) has been thought of as the general answer to many unmet medical needs. After the first success stories, it soon became obvious that short interfering RNA (siRNA) is not suitable for systemic administration due to its poor pharmacokinetics. Therefore local administration routes have been adopted for more successful in vivo RNAi. This paper reviews nucleic acid modifications, nanocarrier chemistry, animal models used in successful pulmonary siRNA delivery, as well as clinical translation approaches. We summarize what has been published recently and conclude with the potential problems that may still hamper the efficient clinical application of RNAi in the lung. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Patra K.C.,Harvard University | Hay N.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Hay N.,Jesse Brown Medical Center
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2014

The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which branches from glycolysis at the first committed step of glucose metabolism, is required for the synthesis of ribonucleotides and is a major source of NADPH. NADPH is required for and consumed during fatty acid synthesis and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the PPP plays a pivotal role in helping glycolytic cancer cells to meet their anabolic demands and combat oxidative stress. Recently, several neoplastic lesions were shown to have evolved to facilitate the flux of glucose into the PPP. This review summarizes the fundamental functions of the PPP, its regulation in cancer cells, and its importance in cancer cell metabolism and survival. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

What can’t graphene do? You can scratch “detect cancer” off of that list. By interfacing brain cells onto graphene, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) researchers have shown they can differentiate a single hyperactive cancerous cell from a normal cell, pointing the way to developing a simple, noninvasive tool for early cancer diagnosis. “This graphene system is able to detect the level of activity of an interfaced cell,” says Vikas Berry, associate professor and head of chemical engineering, who led the research along with Ankit Mehta, assistant professor of clinical neurosurgery in the UIC College of Medicine. “Graphene is the thinnest known material and is very sensitive to whatever happens on its surface,” Berry says. The nanomaterial is composed of a single layer of carbon atoms linked in a hexagonal chicken-wire pattern, and all the atoms share a cloud of electrons moving freely about the surface. “The cell’s interface with graphene rearranges the charge distribution in graphene, which modifies the energy of atomic vibration as detected by Raman spectroscopy,” Berry says, referring to a powerful workhorse technique that is routinely used to study graphene. The atomic vibration energy in graphene’s crystal lattice differs depending on whether it’s in contact with a cancer cell or a normal cell, Berry says, because the cancer cell’s hyperactivity leads to a higher negative charge on its surface and the release of more protons. “The electric field around the cell pushes away electrons in graphene’s electron cloud,” he says, which changes the vibration energy of the carbon atoms. The change in vibration energy can be pinpointed by Raman mapping with a resolution of 300 nanometers, he says, allowing characterization of the activity of a single cell. The study, reported in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, looked at cultured human brain cells, comparing normal astrocytes to their cancerous counterpart, the highly malignant brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme. The technique is being studied in a mouse model of cancer, with results that are “very promising,” Berry says. Experiments with patient biopsies would be further down the road. “Once a patient has brain tumor surgery, we could use this technique to see if the tumor relapses,” Berry says. “For this, we would need a cell sample we could interface with graphene and look to see if cancer cells are still present.” The same technique may also work to differentiate between other types of cells or the activity of cells. “We may be able to use it with bacteria to quickly see if the strain is Gram-positive or Gram-negative,” Berry says. “We may be able to use it to detect sickle cells.” Last year, Berry and other coworkers introduced nanoscale ripples in graphene, causing it to conduct differently in perpendicular directions, useful for electronics. They wrinkled the graphene by draping it over a string of rod-shaped bacteria, then vacuum-shrinking the germs. “We took the earlier work and sort of flipped it over,” Berry says. “Instead of laying graphene on cells, we laid cells on graphene and studied graphene’s atomic vibrations.” Co-authors on the study are Bijentimala Keisham and Phong Nguyen of UIC chemical engineering and Arron Cole of UIC neurosurgery.


News Article | December 5, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

David H. Yang, a senior at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the recipient of the 2017 AMS-MAA-SIAM Frank and Brennie Morgan Prize for Outstanding Research in Mathematics by an Undergraduate Student. Yang is honored for his outstanding research in algebraic geometry and geometric representation theory. Although he is still an undergraduate student, Yang is already an author of five research papers, with two more in preparation. Three of his papers have appeared or will appear in the Memoirs of the AMS, Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik, and Research in the Mathematical Sciences. His joint paper with two senior collaborators --- Professor Lawrence Ein of the University of Illinois at Chicago and Professor Robert Lazarsfeld of Stony Brook University --- builds on Yang's earlier single-author work. The letters supporting Yang's nomination for the Morgan Prize describe his work as truly exceptional. In addition to doing outstanding research, he has excelled in contest math. He was a Putnam Competition Fellow for the last three consecutive years, and he won two gold medals in the International Mathematical Olympiad. David H. Yang was born in California, where he spent most of his early childhood. He moved to New Hampshire to attend Phillips Exeter Academy, where he was first exposed to algebraic geometry. Starting in his freshman year at MIT, Yang's research was guided by Professors Joe Harris at Harvard and Roman Bezrukavnikov at MIT. It was at MIT that Yang started pursuing research in algebraic geometry. He plans to continue his research after graduating from MIT. Presented annually, the Morgan Prize recognizes an undergraduate student who has done outstanding research in mathematics; the student must be in a college or university in Canada, Mexico, or the United States or its possessions. It is sponsored by the AMS, the Mathematical Association of America, and the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. The prize will be awarded Thursday, January 5, 2017, at the Joint Mathematics Meetings in Atlanta. Find out more about AMS prizes and awards at http://www. . Founded in 1888 to further mathematical research and scholarship, today the American Mathematical Society fulfills its mission through programs and services that promote mathematical research and its uses, strengthen mathematical education, and foster awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and to everyday life.


News Article | November 18, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Several anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and specific phobias, share a common underlying trait: increased sensitivity to uncertain threat, or fear of the unknown, report researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago. The finding could help steer treatment of these disorders away from diagnosis-based therapies to treating their common characteristics. "We may, one day, open up clinics that focus on treating the underlying common neurobiology of the patient's symptoms instead of individual diagnoses," says Stephanie Gorka, research assistant professor of psychiatry and a clinical psychologist in the UIC College of Medicine. "A treatment, or set of treatments, focused on sensitivity to uncertain threat could result in a more impactful and efficient way of treating a variety of anxiety disorders and symptoms." Uncertain threat is unpredictable in its timing, intensity, frequency or duration and elicits a generalized feeling of apprehension and hypervigilance. "It's what we call anticipatory anxiety," says Gorka, who is corresponding author on the study, published in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. "It could be something like not knowing exactly when your doctor will call with test results." When a person is sensitive to uncertain threat, they can spend the entire day anxious and concerned that something bad could happen to them, Gorka said. Panic disorder is one example -- patients are constantly anxious over the fact that they could have a panic attack at any moment, she said. Predictable threat, on the other hand, produces a discrete fight-or-flight response that has a clear trigger, like a hungry bear coming at you, and it abates once the threat has resolved. Previous research by Gorka and colleagues suggests that heightened sensitivity to uncertain threat may be an important factor that characterizes the fear-based internalizing psychopathologies, but most research focuses on panic disorder, so its role in the other fear-based disorders -- particularly social anxiety disorder and specific phobias -- remains unclear. Gorka and her colleagues looked at data from participants who underwent a startle task in two different studies performed at UIC. The two studies, of participants ages 18 to 65, included 25 participants with major depressive disorder; 29 with generalized anxiety disorder; 41 with social anxiety disorder; and 24 with a specific phobia. Forty-one control subjects had no current or prior diagnoses of psychopathology. The researchers measured the participants' eye-blink responses to predictable and unpredictable mild electric shocks to the wrist. To elicit blinking during the shock-task, the participants heard short, acoustic tones via headphones. "No matter who you are or what your mental health status, you are going to blink in response to the tone," Gorka said. "It's a natural reflex, so everyone does it, without exception." The researchers measured the strength of the blinks using an electrode under the participants' eyes. They compared the strength of the blinks in response to tones delivered during the predictable shock to the blinks during the unpredictable shock. They found that participants with social anxiety disorder or a specific phobia blinked much more strongly during the unpredictable shocks, when compared to participants without a mental health diagnosis or to participants with major depressive disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. "We classify so many different mood and anxiety disorders, and each has its own set of guidelines for treatment, but if we spend time treating their shared characteristics, we might make better progress," said Dr. K. Luan Phan, professor of psychiatry and director of the mood and anxiety disorders research program and senior author on the study. "Knowing that sensitivity to uncertain threat underlies all of the fear-based anxiety disorders also suggests that drugs that help specifically target this sensitivity could be used or developed to treat these disorders." Lynne Lieberman and Stewart Shankman of UIC are co-authors on the study. This research was funded by grants R01MH101497 and R01MH098093 from the National Institute of Mental Health. Other support was provided by the UIC Center for Clinical and Translational Science award number UL1RR029879 from the National Center for Research Resources.


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and the University of Chicago have received a three-year, $900,000 Defense Department grant to investigate how the gut microbiome - the trillions of bacteria, viruses and other bugs that make our digestive systems their home - influences breast cancer.gut microbiome Jun Sun, associate professor of gastroenterology and hepatology in the UIC College of Medicine, and Tao Pan, professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of Chicago, will look at how a molecule called queuine made by gut bacteria is related to breast cancer. "Gut microbiota represents a complex ecosystem that develops in close parallel with hosts," says Sun. "Perturbations or abnormalities in the mixture of microbes that make up the microbiome can lead to altered host responses that increase the risk of diseases." Queuine is produced by certain gut bacteria and is taken up through the intestine as a micronutrient and circulated in the blood. Cells use queuine to modify tRNAs -- a set of molecules used by cells to translate the genetic message of DNA into proteins. Queuine-modified tRNAs are more accurate and efficient in making proteins. Previous research has shown that abnormal levels of tRNAs are associated with increased risk for breast cancer. But researchers have not yet pinned down if and how queuine may play a role. It is possible that levels of queuine or of queuine-modified tRNAs could serve as "biomarkers" for breast cancer risk, Sun said, "and as such, we need to know how different levels of queuine influence the risk of and development of breast cancer." Different kinds of cancer cells are known to have different levels of queuine-modified tRNAs, Sun said. In some cultured cancer cells, increasing the levels of queuine-modified tRNAs can reduce cell proliferation. "But we don't know exactly how queuine-modified tRNA levels affect breast cancer cells, especially in physiologically relevant models," she said. The researchers think that breast tumors may have high levels of queuine-modified tRNAs that speed up protein production as "If we know that a certain level of queuine produced by the gut microbiome increases risk for breast cancer, we may be able to design therapies to alter the amount of queuine, as part of a therapeutic approach to preventing or treating breast cancer in patients." The researchers will look at how queuine affects tRNA function and breast cancer growth in mouse models of breast cancer and in breast tumor tissue.


News Article | April 28, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

An effective vaccine against the virus that causes genital herpes has evaded researchers for decades. But now, researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago working with scientists from Germany have shown that zinc-oxide nanoparticles shaped like jacks can prevent the virus from entering cells, and help natural immunity to develop. Results of the study are published in The Journal of Immunology. "We call the virus-trapping nanoparticle a microbivac, because it possesses both microbicidal and vaccine-like properties," says corresponding author Deepak Shukla, professor of ophthalmology and microbiology & immunology in the UIC College of Medicine. "It is a totally novel approach to developing a vaccine against herpes, and it could potentially also work for HIV and other viruses," he said. The particles could serve as a powerful active ingredient in a topically-applied vaginal cream that provides immediate protection against herpes virus infection while simultaneously helping stimulate immunity to the virus for long-term protection, explained Shukla. Herpes simplex virus-2, which causes serious eye infections in newborns and immunocompromised patients as well as genital herpes, is one of the most common human viruses. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 15 percent of people from ages 14-49 carry HSV-2, which can hide out for long periods of time in the nervous system. The genital lesions caused by the virus increase the risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. "Your chances of getting HIV are three to four times higher if you already have genital herpes, which is a very strong motivation for developing new ways of preventing herpes infection," Shukla said. Treatments for HSV-2 include daily topical medications to suppress the virus and shorten the duration of outbreaks, when the virus is active and genital lesions are present. However, drug resistance is common, and little protection is provided against further infections. Efforts to develop a vaccine have been unsuccessful because the virus does not spend much time in the bloodstream, where most traditional vaccines do their work. The tetrapod-shaped zinc-oxide nanoparticles, called ZOTEN, have negatively charged surfaces that attract the HSV-2 virus, which has positively charged proteins on its outer envelope. ZOTEN nanoparticles were synthesized using technology developed by material scientists at Germany's Kiel University and protected under a joint patent with UIC. When bound to the nanoparticles, HSV-2 cannot infect cells. But the bound virus remains susceptible to processing by immune cells called dendritic cells that patrol the vaginal lining. The dendritic cells "present" the virus to other immune cells that produce antibodies. The antibodies cripple the virus and trigger the production of customized killer cells that identify infected cells and destroy them before the virus can take over and spread. The researchers showed that female mice swabbed with HSV-2 and an ointment containing ZOTEN had significantly fewer genital lesions than mice treated with a cream lacking ZOTEN. Mice treated with ZOTEN also had less inflammation in the central nervous system, where the virus can hide out. The researchers were able to watch immune cells pry the virus off the nanoparticles for immune processing, using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy. "It's very clear that ZOTEN facilitates the development of immunity by holding the virus and letting the dendritic cells get to it," Shukla said. If found safe and effective in humans, a ZOTEN-containing cream ideally would be applied vaginally just prior to intercourse, Shukla said. But if a woman who had been using it regularly missed an application, he said, she may have already developed some immunity and still have some protection. Shukla hopes to further develop the nanoparticles to work against HIV, which like HSV-2 also has positively charged proteins embedded in its outer envelope. ZOTEN particles are uniform in size and shape, making them attractive for use in other biomedical applications. The novel flame transport synthesis technology used to make them allows large-scale production, said Rainer Adelung, professor of nanomaterials at Kiel University. And, because no chemicals are used, the production process is green. Adelung hopes to begin commercial production of ZOTEN through a startup company that will be run jointly with his colleagues at UIC.


News Article | December 19, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Structured tools can reduce "end-of-round time compression" during multidisciplinary morning rounds in the hospital, according to a new study. Previous studies on multidisciplinary rounds, or MDRs, have demonstrated that the daily meeting of doctors, nurses, and other clinicians-used to coordinate patient care across disciplines and shifts-has positive effects on patient care and outcomes. But those studies have also shown that clinical staff spend less time discussing patients at the end of rounds compared to those presented at the beginning of rounds. In addition, data from the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality show that approximately 70 percent of deaths caused by medical errors are related to communication breakdowns during handoffs. To see if structured rounding tools might lessen these communications problems, University of Illinois at Chicago researchers tracked MDRs in a medical intensive care unit for two months to study two different paper-based communication rounding tools. Their results are reported in JMIR Human Factors, a spin-off of the Journal of Medical Internet Research. The goal was to test structured rounding tools and "evaluate if they improved equality in time allocation across patients and quality of patient care team communication," said Joanna Abraham, assistant professor of biomedical and health information sciences in the UIC College of Applied Health Sciences. "We audio-recorded rounding for a total of 82 patient cases and observed the sessions," Abraham said. The patients were presented using one of two rounding tools -- either one called SOAP, for Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan, or HAND-IT, a systems-oriented Handoff Intervention Tool. Both were used to gather patient information before rounds and to support communication during rounds. The researchers calculated the time spent discussing each patient and coded the recordings for communication breakdowns during rounds, which were defined as any failure in information transfer between the outgoing team to the on-coming team. Breakdowns were classified as missing or incomplete information; incorrect or conflicting information; or irrelevant or ambiguous information. Results showed that time allocation per patient improved with use of either tool when compared to no tool, and that the difference between the two tools was not significant. Abraham and her colleagues also found that communication breakdowns increased with the amount of time spent discussing each patient--on average there were 1.04 additional breakdowns per every 120 seconds in discussion. "This study shows that the use of structured rounding tools mitigates disproportionate time allocation and communication breakdowns during rounds," Abraham said. "With the more structured HAND-IT tool, these effects were almost completely eliminated. "Our results help to demonstrate the benefits of using structured rounding tools for reducing communication errors and improving patient care quality and safety. Although our results are preliminary, they present a strong case for further research into rounding communication," she said. Co-authors on the paper include Thomas Kannampallil of UIC, Vimla Patel of the New York Academy of Medicine, Dr. Bela Patel of the University of Texas Health Science Center, and Dr. Khalid Almoosa of Memorial Hermann Katy Hospital. This research was supported in part by a Grant No. 220020152 from the James S McDonnell Foundation and by Grant No. 1 T32 HS017586-02 from the Keck Center AHRQ Training Program in Patient Safety and Quality on the Gulf Coast Consortia.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

What can’t graphene do? You can scratch “detect cancer” off of that list. By interfacing brain cells onto graphene, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) researchers have shown they can differentiate a single hyperactive cancerous cell from a normal cell, pointing the way to developing a simple, noninvasive tool for early cancer diagnosis. “This graphene system is able to detect the level of activity of an interfaced cell,” says Vikas Berry, associate professor and head of chemical engineering, who led the research along with Ankit Mehta, assistant professor of clinical neurosurgery in the UIC College of Medicine. “Graphene is the thinnest known material and is very sensitive to whatever happens on its surface,” Berry says. The nanomaterial is composed of a single layer of carbon atoms linked in a hexagonal chicken-wire pattern, and all the atoms share a cloud of electrons moving freely about the surface. “The cell’s interface with graphene rearranges the charge distribution in graphene, which modifies the energy of atomic vibration as detected by Raman spectroscopy,” Berry says, referring to a powerful workhorse technique that is routinely used to study graphene. The atomic vibration energy in graphene’s crystal lattice differs depending on whether it’s in contact with a cancer cell or a normal cell, Berry says, because the cancer cell’s hyperactivity leads to a higher negative charge on its surface and the release of more protons. “The electric field around the cell pushes away electrons in graphene’s electron cloud,” he says, which changes the vibration energy of the carbon atoms. The change in vibration energy can be pinpointed by Raman mapping with a resolution of 300 nanometers, he says, allowing characterization of the activity of a single cell. The study, reported in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, looked at cultured human brain cells, comparing normal astrocytes to their cancerous counterpart, the highly malignant brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme. The technique is being studied in a mouse model of cancer, with results that are “very promising,” Berry says. Experiments with patient biopsies would be further down the road. “Once a patient has brain tumor surgery, we could use this technique to see if the tumor relapses,” Berry says. “For this, we would need a cell sample we could interface with graphene and look to see if cancer cells are still present.” The same technique may also work to differentiate between other types of cells or the activity of cells. “We may be able to use it with bacteria to quickly see if the strain is Gram-positive or Gram-negative,” Berry says. “We may be able to use it to detect sickle cells.” Last year, Berry and other coworkers introduced nanoscale ripples in graphene, causing it to conduct differently in perpendicular directions, useful for electronics. They wrinkled the graphene by draping it over a string of rod-shaped bacteria, then vacuum-shrinking the germs. “We took the earlier work and sort of flipped it over,” Berry says. “Instead of laying graphene on cells, we laid cells on graphene and studied graphene’s atomic vibrations.” Co-authors on the study are Bijentimala Keisham and Phong Nguyen of UIC chemical engineering and Arron Cole of UIC neurosurgery.


News Article | November 1, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Two widely prescribed antibiotics -- chloramphenicol and linezolid -- may fight bacteria in a different way from what scientists and doctors thought for years, University of Illinois at Chicago researchers have found. Instead of indiscriminately stopping protein synthesis, the drugs put the brakes on the protein synthesis machinery only at specific locations in the gene. Ribosomes are among the most complex components in the cell, responsible for churning out all the proteins a cell needs for survival. In bacteria, ribosomes are the target of many important antibiotics. The team of Alexander Mankin and Nora Vazquez-Laslop has conducted groundbreaking research on the ribosome and antibiotics. In their latest study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they found that while chloramphenicol and linezolid attack the catalytic center of the ribosome, they stop protein synthesis only at specific checkpoints. "Many antibiotics interfere with the growth of pathogenic bacteria by inhibiting protein synthesis," says Mankin, director of the UIC Center for Biomolecular Sciences and professor of medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy. "This is done by targeting the catalytic center of the bacterial ribosome, where proteins are being made. It is commonly assumed that these drugs are universal inhibitors of protein synthesis and should readily block the formation of every peptide bond." "But -- we have shown that this is not necessarily the case," said Vazquez-Laslop, research associate professor of medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy. A natural product, chloramphenicol is one of the oldest antibiotics on the market. For decades it has been useful for many bacterial infections, including meningitis, plague, cholera and typhoid fever. Linezolid, a synthetic drug, is a newer antibiotic used to treat serious infections -- streptococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), among others -- caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. Mankin's previous research established the site of action and mechanism of resistance to linezolid. While the antibiotics are very different, they each bind to the ribosome's catalytic center, where they were expected to inhibit formation of any peptide bond that links the components of the protein chain into a long biopolymer. In simple enzymes, an inhibitor that invades the catalytic center simply stops the enzyme from doing its job. This, Mankin said, had been what scientists had believed was also true for antibiotics that target the ribosome. "Contrary to this view, the activity of chloramphenicol and linezolid critically depends on the nature of specific amino acids of the nascent chain carried by the ribosome and by the identity of the next amino acid to be connected to a growing protein," Vazquez-Laslop said. "These findings indicate that the nascent protein modulates the properties of the ribosomal catalytic center and affects binding of its ligands, including antibiotics." Combining genomics and biochemistry has allowed the UIC researchers to better understand how the antibiotics work. "If you know how these inhibitors work, you can make better drugs and make them better tools for research," said Mankin. "You can also use them more efficiently to treat human and animal diseases." James Marks, Krishna Kannan, Emily Roncase, Dorota Klepacki, Amira Kefi and Cedric Orelle, all of UIC, are co-authors on the publication. The research was funded by National Institutes of Health grant AI 125518.


News Article | April 20, 2016
Site: phys.org

Bacteria possess the ability to take up DNA from their environment, a skill that enables them to acquire new genes for antibiotic resistance or to escape the immune response. Scientists have now mapped the core set of genes that are consistently controlled during DNA uptake in strep bacteria, and they hope the finding will allow them to cut off the microbes' ability to survive what doctors and nature can throw at them. The findings, by a team of researchers from the University of Oslo, the Forsyth Institute, and the University of Illinois at Chicago, appeared last week in the American Society for Microbiology's new open-access journal, mSystems. The researchers wanted to know precisely which metabolic pathways in the bacterial cell must be activated for the bacteria to become "competent," or able to acquire genes from DNA in the environment. They focused on Streptococcus mutans, a strain involved in tooth decay. Earlier studies of competence had pointed to more than 300 active genes. The new study identifies only 83 genes in 29 regions of the strep chromosome that are specific to the competence pathway, with 27 of these genes lying within an interconnected network controlled by one of three key regulator molecules. When the researchers compared the new results to earlier studies in five other strep species, they found that in all those species a core set of only 27 activated competence genes was required for DNA uptake. "Streptococcus is a diverse group of species that evolved from a common ancestor to adapt to diverse hosts and sugar-rich niches," says study co-author Donald Morrison, professor of biological sciences at UIC. "Our findings—that two-thirds of the core activated genes in streptococcus have transformation functions—suggest that this is an ancient response, maintained because of its value in promoting ready access to external DNA." The question now, says Morrison, is what is the function of the remaining one-third of the core genes? "We know that gene transfer can occur in their absence," the authors write, "suggesting that new aspects of competence are just waiting to be discovered." New insights in this field may pave the way to new strategies to avoid unwanted gene transfers, such as those enabling the spread of antibiotic resistance.


News Article | October 28, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The University of Illinois at Chicago College of Liberal Arts and Sciences is seeking a select group of students for a historic summer expedition that will send them from city to sea under the banner of the National Science Foundation. The one-time Northwest Passage Project, a climate and marine research and education program aimed at engaging diverse participants and audiences, is funded by a three-year, $3 million NSF grant. Set to begin in August 2017, students will join ocean scientists aboard the SSV Oliver Hazard Perry, a 200-foot sailing vessel, for an excursion across the Canadian Arctic's remote Northwest Passage. The initiative is led by researchers from the University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography's Inner Space Center, in collaboration with UIC and five other minority-serving institutions: California State University Channel Islands; City College of New York; Florida International University; Texas State University; and Virginia Commonwealth University. Other partners include the film company David Clark, Inc.; the SSV Oliver Hazard Perry; three science museums; and PBS NewsHour Reporting Labs. Scientists from the departments of biological sciences and earth and environmental sciences will select 15 - 20 UIC undergraduates -- about half from science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines, and the other half from any major -- to participate in the expedition and on-shore support activities. UIC will be represented on the vessel by at least three undergraduates and one graduate student on two crews, each on a 17-day journey. At least four undergraduate student internships will be supported by NSF funds, the rest being supported by UIC College of Liberal Arts and Sciences programs. Students will learn about the changing Arctic as the ship travels; gain navigation and sailing skills; retrace lost expeditions to the passage; and work alongside the scientists as they conduct Arctic research. Participants will also contribute to 30 live broadcasts from the Arctic that will stream from the ship via satellite to the Inner Space Center, which will then send the transmissions to the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, the Exploratorium in San Francisco, the Alaska Sea Life Center and UIC. Audiences will be able to interact in real time with the scientists and students aboard the ship during these broadcasts. This is a once in a lifetime opportunity for UIC students, says Miquel Gonzalez-Meler, the faculty representative involved with the project. "Students will not only be part of pioneering research in the Arctic, but will also be able to place the science in the social context of a globalized world," said Gonzalez-Meler, professor of biological sciences and the college's associate dean for student academic affairs. "We've built a program where adventurous and highly motivated students will be able to observe the climate sensitivity of the Arctic and the social and climate repercussions of these changes to Chicago, Illinois, and the nation. And best of all, no experience is necessary." Max Berkelhammer, assistant professor of earth and environmental sciences, and other faculty mentors will also work with the UIC students. Some students not aboard the ship will participate in science telepresence or in the media production while based at the University of Rhode Island's oceanography institute. Other students will participate from UIC in support of onboard science activities, science communication and social media. All UIC students selected for the project will take a college-required course during the spring semester before their summer internships. An onboard film crew will capture the science discoveries and follow the students for a two-hour documentary, "Frozen Obsession," that will describe the history and implications - from climate to commerce - of the changing Arctic. In 2018, UIC's student team will host a screening of the film and other events related to the expedition. UIC undergraduates - seniors are excluded - interested in applying to the program can find more information and an application online. The deadline to apply is Nov. 18 at 5 p.m. ET. Selected students will be notified by the end of November to enroll in the mandatory topic course. Call (312) 413-7563 or email mmeler@uic.edu for further details.


News Article | November 23, 2015
Site: phys.org

Using relatively low-energy X-rays, the IEX beamline at the APS will help illuminate electronic ordering and emergent phenomena in ordered materials to better understand the origins of distinct electronic properties. Another important feature for users is a greater ability to adjust X-ray parameters to meet experimental needs. Currently in commissioning phase, the IEX beamline begins its first user runs in January 2016. With its state-of-the-art electromagnetic insertion device, highly adaptive X-ray optics, and compatible endstation techniques for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scattering, it opens a new era for X-ray research in sciences ranging from condensed matter physics and materials science to molecular chemistry. "The nice thing about having both spectroscopy and scattering techniques available here is that there are different communities addressing the same science questions with different approaches," said Jessica McChesney, an assistant physicist and beamline scientist at the APS who is responsible for operating the beamline and starting the user program. "We hope people will actually work together and talk to each other, and drive the science that way." "The idea is, we're going to look at electronic order in materials that may one day end up in your cell phone, either as battery materials, interconnects, or in the logic," McChesney added. "Possibly one day, when we have spintronic devices, the materials may be something we studied here." Conventional electronics use current, or the flow of electrons, while spintronics relies on the flow of the electrons' spins, not just their charges. Other materials that can be studied at the IEX beamline include high-temperature superconductors, magnetic materials, and polymer self-assemblies. The new beamline was built to meet the specific requirements of its two shared scientific endstations that offer users varied but complementary techniques. Using Einstein's discovery of the photoelectric effect, the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) endstation measures the energy and angle of emitted electrons and, by using conservation of energy and momentum, can reveal what the properties of these photoemitted electrons were before they left the material. The resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSXS) uses resonance, the tuning of the X-ray beam to a specific electronic excitation, to scatter off of an ordered electronic state to determine electron density. How it all started Like the formation of a new particle in a collider, it was the research trajectory of two scientists that forged the foundations for IEX beamline. Physicists Juan Carlos Campuzano of the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) and Peter Abbamonte of the University of Illinois in Urbana Champaign (UIUC) both studied the complicated dynamics of high-temperature superconducting materials. By 1985, Campuzano had already proposed a similar, but less advanced, beamline at the Swiss Light Source, in Villingen, Switzerland, while Abbamonte, as a postdoc, had been on the team that pioneered the RSXS endstation, at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. Eventually, both took jobs within the University of Illinois system and were seeking an intermediate energy X-ray source in the Midwest to conduct their research. Given the challenges presented by these superconducting materials, they decided a better, brighter beamline was in order. They wrote a proposal that garnered funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), which suggested they build the instrument at the newly established APS at Argonne, where Campuzano held a joint appointment. They reached out to APS beamline scientist George Srajer, now deputy associate laboratory director for Photon Sciences, to forge a partnership with DOE to fine-tune the concept and secure the remaining funding. A beamline was born. "So there was this freak convergence of a lot of different things: the right combination of science, geography, and technology all at the same time," said Abbamonte, now professor of physics at UIUC. With several similar beamlines in Japan and Europe already operating, the toughest challenge in requesting funds for and building the new IEX beamline at the APS was to create something unique, noted Campuzano. "And it doesn't seem like a big deal, but deciding what not to do was very important," added Abbamonte. "You build a $15 million machine and people want to make it do everything. But that ends up costing more and the experiment that is supposed to do everything ends up doing nothing, because the more versatile an instrument is the more difficult it is to make it work. So we decided to focus and pick a few really important things." A key feature unique to IEX at the APS is the beamline's insertion device (ID), the magnetic system responsible for shaping the properties of X-rays provided to the beamline. According to Srajer, there is no other like it in the world. The ID is an electromagnetic variable polarizing undulator (EMVPU), operating in a range of 250 to 2,500 electron volts (eV). Like a fixed magnet device, users can change the energy of the X-rays and polarization at the sample. But the new ID also allows the source to run in quasi-periodic mode, which suppresses the higher harmonics in the X-ray beamline, resulting in a much higher signal-to-noise ratio that is ideal for detecting small signals in a large background. One advantage to developing a lower-energy beamline at a high-energy storage ring is that the intensity produced by the undulator is rather flat across the whole 250- to 2500-eV energy range. This minimizes the need for normalization, unlike at lower-energy storage rings where users must switch between the different undulator harmonics. To accurately deliver the X-rays produced by the ID to the endstations required the complicated design and manufacturing of X-ray optics that precisely adjust X-ray parameters, such as focus, energy resolution, and coherence fraction. Users can further tailor the X-ray beam for a given experiment by selecting between one of three gratings in the monochromator, optimizing the total intensity or flux (109–1012 photons per second) and energy resolution (5–300 milli-electron volts [meV]). Superconductors with transition temperatures above the temperature of liquid nitrogen hold the promise of practical applications, such as the efficient production and transport of electricity. However, how those moderate- to high-temperature superconductors function is not well understood. When Campuzano and Abbamonte joined forces to develop the IEX beamline, their shared interest in high-temperature superconductivity became the focal point for the design of its two scientific endstations. Years of collective work in photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray scattering, respectively, would culminate in a powerful combination of tools located in one place. Campuzano was already using ultraviolet ARPES and was considered one of the leading experts in the field when he set his sights to building a new APS beamline. "We already knew that low-energy photons released electrons mostly from the surface of a material, which is not necessarily representative of what's going on inside it," said Campuzano. "The way to get around that was to build a beamline that had much higher-energy photons, soft X-rays." The IEX ARPES experimental station, designed and built by Campuzano's team at UIC, uses photons in a relatively high-energy range of 1000 eV to probe electrons deeper within a solid. As electrons absorb incoming photons, they are ejected from the structure. This lets users better analyze the dynamics of electron, the electronic excitations, in a sample. By understanding what happens to the electronic structure when macroscopic properties are changed, scientists get a better idea of how they can manipulate those properties to their advantage, whether it's finding the best remnant magnetic fields for spintronics or determining transition temperatures in superconductors. Where ARPES lets researchers know how electrons propagate in a material, the RSXS endstation lets them know where those electrons are located. Designed and built by Abbamonte's team at UIUC, resonant soft X-ray scattering is a photon-in-photon-out technique that yields real-space information about electronic ordering and information about correlation lengths. For Abbamonte, the technique is central to his research in determining whether heterogeneity is relevant for optimizing superconductivity. "Set the beam energies to the right resonance value, and when the photons hit the sample, they'll scatter in all different directions because of this heterogeneity that we're interested in," he explained. "Then you use an angle-resolving detector to scan and measure the angle dependence of the light to back out what the form of that heterogeneity is." In addition to the traditional microchannel plate angle-resolving detector, the RSXS endstation is equipped with a two-dimensional energy-resolving detector, another of the highly unique applications on this beamline. Considered among the most sensitive energy-resolving detectors in the world, it is based on transition-edge sensor (TES) technology pioneered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for cosmology applications, such as research in cosmic microwave background radiation. This is the first time TES technology has been used for scattering, and could prove 1000 times more sensitive to heterogeneity than any previous technology.


News Article | February 25, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The Community for Accredited Online Schools, a leading resource provider for higher education information, has ranked the best colleges and universities with online programs in the state of Illinois. Of the four-year schools that were ranked, 35 made the list with Northwestern University, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Loyola University Chicago, Southern Illinois University Carbondale and DePaul University positioned as the top five. Illinois’ top 19 two-year schools were also included on the list, with Illinois Central College, Richland Community College, Kaskaskia College, Harper College and Waubonsee Community College coming in as the top five. “As online programs become more readily available at Illinois schools, the options for students who want to earn a degree on their own schedule become more difficult to choose from,” said Doug Jones, CEO and founder of AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org. “The schools on our list have proven themselves to be the most high-quality options for an online education in Illinois.” To earn a spot on the Best Online Schools list, Illinois colleges and universities must be institutionally accredited, public or private not-for-profit entities. Each college is also scored based on more than a dozen unique data points that include graduation rates, total online program offerings and financial aid availability. For more details on where each school falls in the rankings and the data and methodology used to determine the lists, visit: The Best Online Four-Year Schools in Illinois for 2017 include the following: Aurora University Benedictine University Chicago State University Concordia University-Chicago DePaul University Dominican University Eastern Illinois University Elmhurst College Governors State University Greenville College Illinois Institute of Technology Illinois State University Judson University Lewis University Lincoln Christian University Loyola University Chicago MacMurray College McKendree University Moody Bible Institute National Louis University North Park University Northwestern University Olivet Nazarene University Quincy University Roosevelt University Rush University Saint Xavier University Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville University of Chicago University of Illinois at Chicago University of Illinois at Springfield University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of St Francis Western Illinois University Illinois’ Best Online Two-Year Schools for 2017 include the following: Frontier Community College Harper College Illinois Central College John A. Logan College John Wood Community College Joliet Junior College Kaskaskia College Lincoln Trail College McHenry County College Moraine Valley Community College Olney Central College Richland Community College Shawnee Community College Southeastern Illinois College Wabash Valley College Waubonsee Community College ### About Us: AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org was founded in 2011 to provide students and parents with quality data and information about pursuing an affordable, quality education that has been certified by an accrediting agency. Our community resource materials and tools span topics such as college accreditation, financial aid, opportunities available to veterans, people with disabilities, as well as online learning resources. We feature higher education institutions that have developed online learning programs that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational success.


News Article | November 3, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Two widely prescribed antibiotics -- chloramphenicol and linezolid -- may fight bacteria in a different way from what scientists and doctors thought for years, University of Illinois at Chicago researchers have found. Instead of indiscriminately stopping protein synthesis, the drugs put the brakes on the protein synthesis machinery only at specific locations in the gene. Ribosomes are among the most complex components in the cell, responsible for churning out all the proteins a cell needs for survival. In bacteria, ribosomes are the target of many important antibiotics. The team of Alexander Mankin and Nora Vazquez-Laslop has conducted groundbreaking research on the ribosome and antibiotics. In their latest study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they found that while chloramphenicol and linezolid attack the catalytic center of the ribosome, they stop protein synthesis only at specific checkpoints. "Many antibiotics interfere with the growth of pathogenic bacteria by inhibiting protein synthesis," says Mankin, director of the UIC Center for Biomolecular Sciences and professor of medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy. "This is done by targeting the catalytic center of the bacterial ribosome, where proteins are being made. It is commonly assumed that these drugs are universal inhibitors of protein synthesis and should readily block the formation of every peptide bond." "But -- we have shown that this is not necessarily the case," said Vazquez-Laslop, research associate professor of medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy. A natural product, chloramphenicol is one of the oldest antibiotics on the market. For decades it has been useful for many bacterial infections, including meningitis, plague, cholera and typhoid fever. Linezolid, a synthetic drug, is a newer antibiotic used to treat serious infections -- streptococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), among others -- caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. Mankin's previous research established the site of action and mechanism of resistance to linezolid. While the antibiotics are very different, they each bind to the ribosome's catalytic center, where they were expected to inhibit formation of any peptide bond that links the components of the protein chain into a long biopolymer. In simple enzymes, an inhibitor that invades the catalytic center simply stops the enzyme from doing its job. This, Mankin said, had been what scientists had believed was also true for antibiotics that target the ribosome. "Contrary to this view, the activity of chloramphenicol and linezolid critically depends on the nature of specific amino acids of the nascent chain carried by the ribosome and by the identity of the next amino acid to be connected to a growing protein," Vazquez-Laslop said. "These findings indicate that the nascent protein modulates the properties of the ribosomal catalytic center and affects binding of its ligands, including antibiotics." Combining genomics and biochemistry has allowed the UIC researchers to better understand how the antibiotics work. "If you know how these inhibitors work, you can make better drugs and make them better tools for research," said Mankin. "You can also use them more efficiently to treat human and animal diseases."


News Article | November 18, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Several anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and specific phobias, share a common underlying trait: increased sensitivity to uncertain threat, or fear of the unknown, report researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago. The finding could help steer treatment of these disorders away from diagnosis-based therapies to treating their common characteristics. "We may, one day, open up clinics that focus on treating the underlying common neurobiology of the patient's symptoms instead of individual diagnoses," says Stephanie Gorka, research assistant professor of psychiatry and a clinical psychologist in the UIC College of Medicine. "A treatment, or set of treatments, focused on sensitivity to uncertain threat could result in a more impactful and efficient way of treating a variety of anxiety disorders and symptoms." Uncertain threat is unpredictable in its timing, intensity, frequency or duration and elicits a generalized feeling of apprehension and hypervigilance. "It's what we call anticipatory anxiety," says Gorka, who is corresponding author on the study, published in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. "It could be something like not knowing exactly when your doctor will call with test results." When a person is sensitive to uncertain threat, they can spend the entire day anxious and concerned that something bad could happen to them, Gorka said. Panic disorder is one example -- patients are constantly anxious over the fact that they could have a panic attack at any moment, she said. Predictable threat, on the other hand, produces a discrete fight-or-flight response that has a clear trigger, like a hungry bear coming at you, and it abates once the threat has resolved. Previous research by Gorka and colleagues suggests that heightened sensitivity to uncertain threat may be an important factor that characterizes the fear-based internalizing psychopathologies, but most research focuses on panic disorder, so its role in the other fear-based disorders -- particularly social anxiety disorder and specific phobias -- remains unclear. Gorka and her colleagues looked at data from participants who underwent a startle task in two different studies performed at UIC. The two studies, of participants ages 18 to 65, included 25 participants with major depressive disorder; 29 with generalized anxiety disorder; 41 with social anxiety disorder; and 24 with a specific phobia. Forty-one control subjects had no current or prior diagnoses of psychopathology. The researchers measured the participants' eye-blink responses to predictable and unpredictable mild electric shocks to the wrist. To elicit blinking during the shock-task, the participants heard short, acoustic tones via headphones. "No matter who you are or what your mental health status, you are going to blink in response to the tone," Gorka said. "It's a natural reflex, so everyone does it, without exception." The researchers measured the strength of the blinks using an electrode under the participants' eyes. They compared the strength of the blinks in response to tones delivered during the predictable shock to the blinks during the unpredictable shock. They found that participants with social anxiety disorder or a specific phobia blinked much more strongly during the unpredictable shocks, when compared to participants without a mental health diagnosis or to participants with major depressive disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. "We classify so many different mood and anxiety disorders, and each has its own set of guidelines for treatment, but if we spend time treating their shared characteristics, we might make better progress," said Dr. K. Luan Phan, professor of psychiatry and director of the mood and anxiety disorders research program and senior author on the study. "Knowing that sensitivity to uncertain threat underlies all of the fear-based anxiety disorders also suggests that drugs that help specifically target this sensitivity could be used or developed to treat these disorders."


News Article | December 1, 2016
Site: www.materialstoday.com

A new, ultrathin film that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current can be produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) and Korea University. The film is also bendable and stretchable, offering potential applications in roll-up touchscreen displays, wearable electronics, flexible solar cells and electronic skin. The film is reported in a paper in Advanced Functional Materials. The new film is made of fused silver nanowires, and is produced by spraying the nanowire particles through a tiny jet nozzle at supersonic speed. The resultant film possesses nearly the electrical conductivity of silver plate and the transparency of glass, says senior author Alexander Yarin, professor of mechanical engineering at UIC. "The silver nanowire is a particle, but very long and thin," Yarin said. The nanowire is around 20µm long, so four laid end-to-end would span the width of a human hair. But their diameter is a thousand times smaller – and significantly smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which minimizes light scattering. To produce the film, the researchers suspend these nanowire particles in water and then propel them by air through a de Laval nozzle, which has the same geometry as a jet engine but is only a few millimeters in diameter. "The liquid needs to be atomized so it evaporates in flight," Yarin explained. When the nanowires strike a surface at this supersonic speed, they fuse together, as their kinetic energy is converted into heat. "The ideal speed is 400 meters per second," Yarin said. "If the energy is too high, say 600 meters per second, it cuts the wires. If too low, as at 200 meters per second, there's not enough heat to fuse the wires." The researchers applied the nanowires to flexible plastic films and to three-dimensional objects. "The surface shape doesn't matter," Yarin said. The transparent flexible film can be bent repeatedly and stretched to seven times its original length and still work, said Sam Yoon, corresponding author of the study and a professor of mechanical engineering at Korea University. Earlier this year, Yarin, Yoon and their colleagues produced a transparent conducting film by electroplating a mat of tangled nanofiber with copper. Compared to that film, this self-fused silver nanowire film offers better scalability and production rate, Yoon said. "It should be easier and cheaper to fabricate, as it's a one-step versus a two-step process," said Yarin. "You can do it roll-to-roll on an industrial line, continuously." This story is adapted from material from the University of Illinois at Chicago, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Probiotics may hold part of the key to treating ALS. New research led by Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences(KCU) scientist Jingsong Zhou, PhD and Jun Sun, PhD of University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) found an imbalance of bacteria in the digestive tract may contribute to the progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Their preliminary research suggests probiotics could be a potential therapy for the disease. The study which appears in the journal Clinical Therapies, found evidence that targeting gut microbiota with natural bacteria products was successful in alleviating ALS progression in animal models. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28129947 ALS is a fatal disease with progressive loss of motor neurons. The only current treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration extends life by just a few months. “Due to the severe and rapidly progressing neuromuscular symptoms, the majority of study on ALS has focused on neurodegeneration,” said Zhou. “We hope that our published studies will draw attention from the research field, encouraging more investigators to consider ALS as a systemic disorder by evaluating the potential contributors outside of the nervous system.” While Zhou and her colleagues are encouraged by what they believe is a solid step forward, Zhou says the work is still in the preliminary stages. “There is a lot to do before we can translate the basic research to finally treat ALS patients,” Zhou said. Robert White, PhD, dean of the KCU College of Biosciences said Zhou and her colleagues are contributing crucial knowledge about the devastating disease. “This research represents a significant and innovative approach to understanding and treating ALS,” said White. “Dr. Zhou is a nationally recognized researcher in this field, and we are delighted to have her at KCU.” Funding for the research came from one of 58 ALS Association grants totaling $11.6 million, which was raised through the international Ice Bucket challenge. About Kansas City University The Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences (KCU), founded in 1916, is a fully accredited, private not-for-profit university with a College of Biosciences and a College of Osteopathic Medicine. The College of Osteopathic Medicine is the oldest medical school in Kansas City, Mo., and the largest in the state. KCU is the second-leading producer of physicians for both the states of Missouri and Kansas. KCU will open a second medical school in Joplin, Mo., in 2017 to help address the growing need for primary care physicians in the region’s rural communities.


News Article | December 12, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Drs. Allen Huang and Jeffrey Wang are pleased to announce that they recently attended a continuing education course focused on new techniques for implant dentistry titled, "The Changing World of Implant Dentistry: The Latest Patient Specific Overdenture Solutions." Drs. Huang, Wang, and the entire Significance Dental Implant Specialists team, are happy to provide patients with the experience, knowledge and skills they require for this important procedure. Patients in need of a skilled periodontist in Las Vegas, NV, to replace their missing teeth and restore oral function, are able to receive cutting-edge dental implant care at Significance Dental Specialists. The field of dentistry is always evolving to improve patient care as new research and technology is developed. During this course held by Dentsply Implants, Drs. Huang and Wang learned the latest, patient-focused techniques by utilizing state-of-the-art technology in implant placement and overdenture solutions. A large focus of the course covered advanced overdenture solutions including All-on-4® dental implants. The Significance Dental Specialists team strive to take numerous continuing education courses to stay up-to-date on new advancements in dentistry and integrate innovative technology into every procedure including the All-on-4® dental implant tooth replacement solution. This treatment option is increasingly popular for patients with multiple missing teeth because of its comfortable, convenient and aesthetically appealing nature. The All-on-4® treatment concept offers immediate function and the stability of dental implants by using four strategically placed implants as the foundation of a customized bridge of new teeth. Patients with some degree of bone loss are also able to receive this technique without a bone graft. Other instructional elements of this course enhanced dental implant treatment planning, overdenture fabrication, attachment system options for the overdenture, and detailed instructions for the entire clinical team to improve patient care. Drs. Huang and Wang are pleased to offer some of the most preferred and effective overdenture solutions, including All-on-4®. Patients who want to receive treatment for their missing teeth from a skilled, knowledgeable and dependable periodontist in Las Vegas, NV, can contact Significance Dental Specialists for more information. To schedule an appointment, call 844-801-3177. Dr. Allen Huang is a Board Certified Periodontist and Implant Specialist, offering personalized dental care for patients in Las Vegas, NV. Dr. Huang received his degree in Bio-Chemical Engineering from the University of California at Los Angeles. He went on to earn his DMD degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine. Following his general dental training, Dr. Huang received a full 3-year scholarship to train in Periodontics and Implant Dentistry at University of Illinois at Chicago. During his training, Dr. Huang received many academic honors, and was named as the first Chief-Resident in program history. In addition to his specialty training, Dr. Huang also obtained a Master of Science (MS) degree in oral biology from the University of Illinois where he conducted clinical and histological research in bone regeneration in furcation defects in baboons. Dr. Huang was also involved in clinical and histological study of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in sinus lift bone regeneration project. Dr. Huang is a Diplomate of the American Academy of Periodontology and a member of the America Academy of Periodontology, American Academy of Osseointegration, Academy of Dental Association and Southern Nevada Dental Society. In addition, Dr. Huang recently started his own dental implant company and is the CEO of Altosbiotech, LLC. Dr. Jeffrey Wang is a Board Certified Periodontist and Implant Specialist, and is committed to the maintenance, restoration health and aesthetics of the mouth. Dr. Wang attended the University of Michigan for his undergraduate education. He completed his dental training in the University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine. He went on to pursue his post-doctoral training and certification in periodontics and implantology in the University of California, San Francisco, where he also received his master’s degree. To learn more about the services Dr. Huang and Dr. Wang provide please visit their website at http://www.sdsdental.com or call (844) 801-3177.


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Drs. Allen Huang and Jeffery Wang, board certified periodontists with Significance Dental Specialists, are excited to announce their upcoming continuing education (CE) course dedicated to All-on-4® dental implants. This course will take place on November, 17, 2016 at The Range 702 in Las Vegas, NV. During the course, skilled dental professionals will be able to discuss current and past cases as well as cutting-edge research in order to provide their patients with state-of-the-art treatment for dental implants in Las Vegas, NV. The Significance Dental Specialists team will facilitate an open forum discussion dedicated to the All-on-4® full-arch tooth replacement treatment with a focus on advancing their community’s understanding of this technique. Dental professionals can bring lower case complications and new findings to further All-on-4® care. The All-on-4® technique uses implant supported dentures that combine the advantages of dentures with those of implants to create a full arch that is fully supported and fixed. This solution is a cost effective form of dental implants in Las Vegas, NV, and are more minimally invasive than traditional implant care. Many patients do not qualify for traditional implants, as a result of low bone mass or a variety of other issues, however All-on-4® is the reliable alternative that offers a completely new arch of teeth. Traditional dentures require messy, ineffective pastes and adhesives and frequently cause embarrassment from clicking and slipping during eating or while talking. The All-on-4® treatment is permanently fixed in place offering a long-term, dependable solution. There is also little need for bone grafting in this procedure, and patients often report a shorter recovery period than if they had received traditional implants. Bone growth is also stimulated from the titanium dental implant posts placed in the jaw bone, preventing future bone loss and maintaining proper oral health. The Significance Dental Specialists team hopes that by hosting this forum other dental professionals will expand their All-on-4® implant treatment, and more patients will receive the cutting-edge care they need. Those interested in attending the CE course are invited to call 702-239-8178. Patients interested in receiving dental implants in Las Vegas, NV, from an experienced periodontist are encouraged to contact Significance Dental Specialists at 844-801-3177. Dr. Allen Huang is a Board Certified Periodontist and Implant Specialist, offering personalized dental care for patients in Las Vegas, NV. Dr. Huang received his degree in Bio-Chemical Engineering from the University of California at Los Angeles. He went on to earn his DMD degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine. Following his general dental training, Dr. Huang received a full 3-year scholarship to train in Periodontics and Implant Dentistry at University of Illinois at Chicago. During his training, Dr. Huang received many academic honors, and was named as the first Chief-Resident in program history. In addition to his specialty training, Dr. Huang also obtained a Master of Science (MS) degree in oral biology from the University of Illinois where he conducted clinical and histological research in bone regeneration in furcation defects in baboons. Dr. Huang was also involved in clinical and histological study of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in sinus lift bone regeneration project. Dr. Huang is a Diplomate of the American Academy of Periodontology and a member of the America Academy of Periodontology, American Academy of Osseointegration, Academy of Dental Association and Southern Nevada Dental Society. In addition, Dr. Huang recently started his own dental implant company and is the CEO of Altosbiotech, LLC. Dr. Jeffrey Wang is a Board Certified Periodontist and Implant Specialist, and is committed to the maintenance, restoration health and aesthetics of the mouth. Dr. Wang attended the University of Michigan for his undergraduate education. He completed his dental training in the University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine. He went on to pursue his post-doctoral training and certification in periodontics and implantology in the University of California, San Francisco, where he also received his master’s degree. To learn more about the services Dr. Huang and Dr. Wang provide please visit their website at http://www.sdsdental.com or call (844) 801-3177.


News Article | April 29, 2016
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Abstract: An effective vaccine against the virus that causes genital herpes has evaded researchers for decades. But now, researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago working with scientists from Germany have shown that zinc-oxide nanoparticles shaped like jacks can prevent the virus from entering cells, and help natural immunity to develop. Results of the study are published in The Journal of Immunology. "We call the virus-trapping nanoparticle a microbivac, because it possesses both microbicidal and vaccine-like properties," says corresponding author Deepak Shukla, professor of ophthalmology and microbiology & immunology in the UIC College of Medicine. "It is a totally novel approach to developing a vaccine against herpes, and it could potentially also work for HIV and other viruses," he said. The particles could serve as a powerful active ingredient in a topically-applied vaginal cream that provides immediate protection against herpes virus infection while simultaneously helping stimulate immunity to the virus for long-term protection, explained Shukla. Herpes simplex virus-2, which causes serious eye infections in newborns and immunocompromised patients as well as genital herpes, is one of the most common human viruses. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 15 percent of people from ages 14-49 carry HSV-2, which can hide out for long periods of time in the nervous system. The genital lesions caused by the virus increase the risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. "Your chances of getting HIV are three to four times higher if you already have genital herpes, which is a very strong motivation for developing new ways of preventing herpes infection," Shukla said. Treatments for HSV-2 include daily topical medications to suppress the virus and shorten the duration of outbreaks, when the virus is active and genital lesions are present. However, drug resistance is common, and little protection is provided against further infections. Efforts to develop a vaccine have been unsuccessful because the virus does not spend much time in the bloodstream, where most traditional vaccines do their work. The tetrapod-shaped zinc-oxide nanoparticles, called ZOTEN, have negatively charged surfaces that attract the HSV-2 virus, which has positively charged proteins on its outer envelope. ZOTEN nanoparticles were synthesized using technology developed by material scientists at Germany's Kiel University and protected under a joint patent with UIC. When bound to the nanoparticles, HSV-2 cannot infect cells. But the bound virus remains susceptible to processing by immune cells called dendritic cells that patrol the vaginal lining. The dendritic cells "present" the virus to other immune cells that produce antibodies. The antibodies cripple the virus and trigger the production of customized killer cells that identify infected cells and destroy them before the virus can take over and spread. The researchers showed that female mice swabbed with HSV-2 and an ointment containing ZOTEN had significantly fewer genital lesions than mice treated with a cream lacking ZOTEN. Mice treated with ZOTEN also had less inflammation in the central nervous system, where the virus can hide out. The researchers were able to watch immune cells pry the virus off the nanoparticles for immune processing, using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy. "It's very clear that ZOTEN facilitates the development of immunity by holding the virus and letting the dendritic cells get to it," Shukla said. If found safe and effective in humans, a ZOTEN-containing cream ideally would be applied vaginally just prior to intercourse, Shukla said. But if a woman who had been using it regularly missed an application, he said, she may have already developed some immunity and still have some protection. Shukla hopes to further develop the nanoparticles to work against HIV, which like HSV-2 also has positively charged proteins embedded in its outer envelope. ZOTEN particles are uniform in size and shape, making them attractive for use in other biomedical applications. The novel flame transport synthesis technology used to make them allows large-scale production, said Rainer Adelung, professor of nanomaterials at Kiel University. And, because no chemicals are used, the production process is green. Adelung hopes to begin commercial production of ZOTEN through a startup company that will be run jointly with his colleagues at UIC. ### Co-authors on the study are Bellur Prabhakar, Tibor Valyi-Nagy, Thessicar Antoine, Satvik Hadigal, Abraam Yakoub, Palash Bhattacharya, and Christine Haddad of UIC and Yogendra Kumar Mishra of Kiel University. The research was supported by National Institutes of Health grants AI103754 and EY001792 and German Research Foundation grant Ad/183/10-1. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | November 22, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new, ultrathin film that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current has been produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Korea University. The film is also bendable and stretchable, offering potential applications in roll-up touchscreen displays, wearable electronics, flexible solar cells and electronic skin. The results are reported in Advanced Functional Materials. The new film is made of fused silver nanowires, and is produced by spraying the nanowire particles through a tiny jet nozzle at supersonic speed. The result is a film with nearly the electrical conductivity of silver-plate -- and the transparency of glass, says senior author Alexander Yarin, UIC Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering. "The silver nanowire is a particle, but very long and thin," Yarin said. The nanowires measure about 20 microns long, so four laid end-to-end would span the width of a human hair. But their diameter is a thousand times smaller -- and significantly smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which minimizes light scattering. The researchers suspended the nanowire particles in water and propelled them by air through a de Laval nozzle, which has the same geometry as a jet engine, but is only a few millimeters in diameter. "The liquid needs to be atomized so it evaporates in flight," Yarin said. When the nanowires strike the surface they are being applied to at supersonic speed, they fuse together, as their kinetic energy is converted to heat. "The ideal speed is 400 meters per second," Yarin said. "If the energy is too high, say 600 meters per second, it cuts the wires. If too low, as at 200 meters per second, there's not enough heat to fuse the wires." The researchers applied the nanowires to flexible plastic films and to three-dimensional objects. "The surface shape doesn't matter," Yarin said. The transparent flexible film can be bent repeatedly and stretched to seven times its original length and still work, said Sam Yoon, the corresponding author of the study and a professor of mechanical engineering at Korea University. Earlier this year, Yarin and Yoon and their colleagues produced a transparent conducting film by electroplating a mat of tangled nanofiber with copper. Compared to that film, the self-fused silver nanowire film offers better scalability and production rate, Yoon said. "It should be easier and cheaper to fabricate, as it's a one-step versus a two-step process," said Yarin. "You can do it roll-to-roll on an industrial line, continuously." Co-authors with Yarin and Yoon are Jong-Gun Lee, Do-Yeon Kim, Jong-Hyuk Lee and Donghwan Kim of Korea University; Suman Sinha-Ray of the Indian Institute of Technology in Indore, India; and Mark T. Swihart of the State University of New York at Buffalo. The research was supported by the National Research Foundation, GFHIM-2013M3A6B1078879, and the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program, 10045221, funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea.


News Article | December 20, 2016
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Battery researchers seeking improved electrode materials have focused on ‘tunneled’ structures that make it easier for charge-carrying ions to move in and out of the electrode. Now a team led by a researcher at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) has used a special electron microscope with atomic-level resolution to show that certain large ions can hold the tunnels open so that the charge-carrying ions can enter and exit the electrode easily and quickly. This finding is reported in a paper in Nature Communications. "Significant research has been done to increase the energy density and power density of lithium ion (Li-ion) battery systems," says Reza Shahbazian-Yassar, associate professor of mechanical and industrial engineering at UIC. The current generation of Li-ion batteries is useful enough for portable devices, but the maximum energy and power that can be extracted is limiting. "So for an electric car, we need to increase the energy and power of the battery – and decrease the cost as well." His team, which includes co-workers at Argonne National Laboratory, Michigan Technological University and the University of Bath in the UK, has focused on developing a cathode based on manganese dioxide, a very low cost and environmentally-friendly material with high storage capacity. Manganese dioxide has a lattice structure with regularly-spaced tunnels that allow charge carriers – like lithium ions – to move in and out freely. "But for the tunnels to survive for long-lasting function, they need support structures at the atomic scale," Shahbazian-Yassar said. "We call them tunnel stabilizers, and they are generally big, positive ions, like potassium or barium." The potential problem, however, is that as the tunnel stabilizers and lithium ions are both positively charged they should repel each other. "If lithium goes in, will the tunnel stabilizer come out?" questions Shahbazian-Yassar. "The research community was in disagreement about the role of tunnel stabilizers during the transfer of lithium into tunnels. Does it help, or hurt?" This new study represents the first use of electron microscopy to visualize the atomic structure of tunnels in a one-dimensional electrode material, which the researchers say had not previously been possible due to the difficulty of preparing samples. It took them two years to establish the procedure to look for tunnels in potassium-doped nanowires of manganese dioxide down to the single-atom level. Yifei Yuan, a postdoctoral researcher working jointly at Argonne National Laboratory and UIC and the lead author on the study, used a powerful technique called aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy to image the tunnels at sub-angstrom resolution. This allowed him to see inside the tunnels – and he saw that they do change in the presence of a stabilizer ion. "It's a direct way to see the tunnels," Yuan said. "And we saw that when you add a tunnel stabilizer, the tunnels expand, their electronic structures also change, and such changes allow the lithium ions to move in and out, around the stabilizer." According to Shahbazian-Yassar, this finding shows that tunnel stabilizers can help in the transfer of ions into tunnels and the rate of charge and discharge. The presence of potassium ions in the tunnels improves the electronic conductivity of manganese dioxide and the ability of lithium ions to diffuse quickly in and out of the nanowires. "With potassium ions staying in the center of the tunnels, the capacity retention improves by half under high cycling current, which means the battery can hold on to its capacity for a longer time," he says. This story is adapted from material from the University of Illinois at Chicago, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.


News Article | December 14, 2016
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

CHICAGO, IL, December 14, 2016-- Dr. Carl Bell has been included in Marquis Who's Who. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.A native of Chicago, Dr. Bell has established himself as a respected psychiatrist and researcher over the course of his career. Dr. Bell, who has worked as a psychiatrist in private practice in Chicago since 1974, has also held a number of positions utilizing his expertise. After graduating from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1967 with a Bachelor of Science in biology, he obtained an MD from Meharry Medical College in 1971. He then completed an internship and residency at Illinois State Psychiatric Institute. By 1976, Dr. Bell was the director of psychiatric emergency services at Jackson Park Hospital in Chicago. He later served as associate director of the division of behavioral and psychodynamic medicine at the hospital, and has remained a member of the staff since 1972. From 1977 to 1979, he held staff psychiatrist roles at the Human Correctional Services Institute, the Chatham Avalon Mental Health Center, the Community Mental Health Council and the Chicago Board of Education.Dr. Bell served as medical director of the Community Mental Health Council and Foundation from 1983 to 1987, when he became executive director of the organization. In 1993, he earned the titles of president and chief executive officer of the Community Mental Health Council and Foundation, a position in which he served until 2012. Also in 1993, Dr. Bell assumed the role of professor of public health at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He initially joined the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1983 as an associate professor, and went on to become a full professor of clinical psychiatry. From 2009 to 2013, he was the director of the department of psychiatry at the Institute for Juvenile Research at the University of Illinois at Chicago. On June 25, 2014, Dr. Bell was appointed Clinical Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago by the Board of Trustees. Dr. Bell has also been a researcher for the National Research Council and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Committee on Law and Justice since 2009.In addition to these roles, Dr. Bell has remained involved in the mental health community through affiliations and leadership positions with several professional associations and institutions. He is a fellow of the American College of Psychiatrists and a diplomate of the American Board Psychiatry and Neurology, as well as an active member of the American Psychiatric Association, National Medical Association, and Black Psychiatrists of America. His further affiliations include, but are not limited to, the Cook County Physicians Association, and the Illinois Psychiatric Society.Dr. Bell's achievements have been highlighted with numerous formal honors and awards over the years. Recent recognitions include a Distinguished Service Award from the American Psychiatric Association in 2013, the Abraham Halpern Humanism Psychiatry Award from the American Association for Social Psychiatry, and the Agnes Purcell McGavin Award from the American Psychiatric Foundation in 2012. He has been named a Top Doctor in Chicago Magazine and listed in the Guide to America's Top Psychiatrists as well. Dr. Bell's multitude of accomplishments were taken into consideration when he was chosen to be featured in the 56th through 70th editions of Who's Who in America, the 5th through 8th editions of Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare, the 20th through 23rd editions of Who's Who in the World, and the 1st through 4th editions of Who's Who of Emerging Leaders in America. He has also appeared in several editions of Who's Who in the Midwest and Who's Who in Science and Engineering.About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis now publishes many Who's Who titles, including Who's Who in America , Who's Who in the World , Who's Who in American Law , Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare , Who's Who in Science and Engineering , and Who's Who in Asia . Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

A new, ultrathin film that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current has been produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Korea University. The film is also bendable and stretchable, offering potential applications in roll-up touchscreen displays, wearable electronics, flexible solar cells, and electronic skin. The results are reported in Advanced Functional Materials. The new film is made of fused silver nanowires, and is produced by spraying the nanowire particles through a tiny jet nozzle at supersonic speed. The result is a film with nearly the electrical conductivity of silver-plate — and the transparency of glass, says senior author Alexander Yarin, UIC Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering. “The silver nanowire is a particle, but very long and thin,” Yarin says. The nanowires measure about 20 microns long, so four laid end-to-end would span the width of a human hair. But their diameter is a thousand times smaller — and significantly smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which minimizes light scattering. The researchers suspended the nanowire particles in water and propelled them by air through a de Laval nozzle, which has the same geometry as a jet engine, but is only a few millimeters in diameter. “The liquid needs to be atomized so it evaporates in flight,” Yarin says. When the nanowires strike the surface they are being applied to at supersonic speed, they fuse together, as their kinetic energy is converted to heat. “The ideal speed is 400 meters per second,” Yarin says. “If the energy is too high, say 600 meters per second, it cuts the wires. If too low, as at 200 meters per second, there’s not enough heat to fuse the wires.” The researchers applied the nanowires to flexible plastic films and to three-dimensional objects. “The surface shape doesn’t matter,” Yarin says. The transparent flexible film can be bent repeatedly and stretched to seven times its original length and still work, says Sam Yoon, the corresponding author of the study and a professor of mechanical engineering at Korea University. Earlier this year, Yarin and Yoon and their colleagues produced a transparent conducting film by electroplating a mat of tangled nanofiber with copper. Compared to that film, the self-fused silver nanowire film offers better scalability and production rate, Yoon says. “It should be easier and cheaper to fabricate, as it’s a one-step versus a two-step process,” says Yarin. “You can do it roll-to-roll on an industrial line, continuously.” Co-authors with Yarin and Yoon are Jong-Gun Lee, Do-Yeon Kim, Jong-Hyuk Lee, and Donghwan Kim of Korea University; Suman Sinha-Ray of the Indian Institute of Technology in Indore, India; and Mark T. Swihart of the State University of New York at Buffalo. The research was supported by the National Research Foundation, GFHIM-2013M3A6B1078879, and the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program, 10045221, funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea.


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

A new, ultrathin film that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current has been produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Korea University. The film is also bendable and stretchable, offering potential applications in roll-up touchscreen displays, wearable electronics, flexible solar cells and electronic skin. The results are reported in Advanced Functional Materials. The new film is made of fused silver nanowires, and is produced by spraying the nanowire particles through a tiny jet nozzle at supersonic speed. The result is a film with nearly the electrical conductivity of silver-plate—and the transparency of glass, says senior author Alexander Yarin, UIC Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering. "The silver nanowire is a particle, but very long and thin," Yarin said. The nanowires measure about 20 microns long, so four laid end-to-end would span the width of a human hair. But their diameter is a thousand times smaller—and significantly smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which minimizes light scattering. The researchers suspended the nanowire particles in water and propelled them by air through a de Laval nozzle, which has the same geometry as a jet engine, but is only a few millimeters in diameter. "The liquid needs to be atomized so it evaporates in flight," Yarin said. When the nanowires strike the surface they are being applied to at supersonic speed, they fuse together, as their kinetic energy is converted to heat. "The ideal speed is 400 meters per second," Yarin said. "If the energy is too high, say 600 meters per second, it cuts the wires. If too low, as at 200 meters per second, there's not enough heat to fuse the wires." The researchers applied the nanowires to flexible plastic films and to three-dimensional objects. "The surface shape doesn't matter," Yarin said. The transparent flexible film can be bent repeatedly and stretched to seven times its original length and still work, said Sam Yoon, the corresponding author of the study and a professor of mechanical engineering at Korea University. Earlier this year, Yarin and Yoon and their colleagues produced a transparent conducting film by electroplating a mat of tangled nanofiber with copper. Compared to that film, the self-fused silver nanowire film offers better scalability and production rate, Yoon said. "It should be easier and cheaper to fabricate, as it's a one-step versus a two-step process," said Yarin. "You can do it roll-to-roll on an industrial line, continuously."


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

A new, ultrathin film that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current has been produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Korea University. The film is also bendable and stretchable, offering potential applications in roll-up touchscreen displays, wearable electronics, flexible solar cells, and electronic skin. The results are reported in Advanced Functional Materials. The new film is made of fused silver nanowires, and is produced by spraying the nanowire particles through a tiny jet nozzle at supersonic speed. The result is a film with nearly the electrical conductivity of silver-plate — and the transparency of glass, says senior author Alexander Yarin, UIC Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering. “The silver nanowire is a particle, but very long and thin,” Yarin says. The nanowires measure about 20 microns long, so four laid end-to-end would span the width of a human hair. But their diameter is a thousand times smaller — and significantly smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which minimizes light scattering. The researchers suspended the nanowire particles in water and propelled them by air through a de Laval nozzle, which has the same geometry as a jet engine, but is only a few millimeters in diameter. “The liquid needs to be atomized so it evaporates in flight,” Yarin says. When the nanowires strike the surface they are being applied to at supersonic speed, they fuse together, as their kinetic energy is converted to heat. “The ideal speed is 400 meters per second,” Yarin says. “If the energy is too high, say 600 meters per second, it cuts the wires. If too low, as at 200 meters per second, there’s not enough heat to fuse the wires.” The researchers applied the nanowires to flexible plastic films and to three-dimensional objects. “The surface shape doesn’t matter,” Yarin says. The transparent flexible film can be bent repeatedly and stretched to seven times its original length and still work, says Sam Yoon, the corresponding author of the study and a professor of mechanical engineering at Korea University. Earlier this year, Yarin and Yoon and their colleagues produced a transparent conducting film by electroplating a mat of tangled nanofiber with copper. Compared to that film, the self-fused silver nanowire film offers better scalability and production rate, Yoon says. “It should be easier and cheaper to fabricate, as it’s a one-step versus a two-step process,” says Yarin. “You can do it roll-to-roll on an industrial line, continuously.” Co-authors with Yarin and Yoon are Jong-Gun Lee, Do-Yeon Kim, Jong-Hyuk Lee, and Donghwan Kim of Korea University; Suman Sinha-Ray of the Indian Institute of Technology in Indore, India; and Mark T. Swihart of the State University of New York at Buffalo. The research was supported by the National Research Foundation, GFHIM-2013M3A6B1078879, and the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program, 10045221, funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea.


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

A new, ultrathin film that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current has been produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Korea University. The film is also bendable and stretchable, offering potential applications in roll-up touchscreen displays, wearable electronics, flexible solar cells and electronic skin. The results are reported in Advanced Functional Materials. The new film is made of fused silver nanowires, and is produced by spraying the nanowire particles through a tiny jet nozzle at supersonic speed. The result is a film with nearly the electrical conductivity of silver-plate—and the transparency of glass, says senior author Alexander Yarin, UIC Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering. "The silver nanowire is a particle, but very long and thin," Yarin said. The nanowires measure about 20 microns long, so four laid end-to-end would span the width of a human hair. But their diameter is a thousand times smaller—and significantly smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which minimizes light scattering. The researchers suspended the nanowire particles in water and propelled them by air through a de Laval nozzle, which has the same geometry as a jet engine, but is only a few millimeters in diameter. "The liquid needs to be atomized so it evaporates in flight," Yarin said. When the nanowires strike the surface they are being applied to at supersonic speed, they fuse together, as their kinetic energy is converted to heat. "The ideal speed is 400 meters per second," Yarin said. "If the energy is too high, say 600 meters per second, it cuts the wires. If too low, as at 200 meters per second, there's not enough heat to fuse the wires." The researchers applied the nanowires to flexible plastic films and to three-dimensional objects. "The surface shape doesn't matter," Yarin said. The transparent flexible film can be bent repeatedly and stretched to seven times its original length and still work, said Sam Yoon, the corresponding author of the study and a professor of mechanical engineering at Korea University. Earlier this year, Yarin and Yoon and their colleagues produced a transparent conducting film by electroplating a mat of tangled nanofiber with copper. Compared to that film, the self-fused silver nanowire film offers better scalability and production rate, Yoon said. "It should be easier and cheaper to fabricate, as it's a one-step versus a two-step process," said Yarin. "You can do it roll-to-roll on an industrial line, continuously."


News Article | October 28, 2016
Site: www.prfire.com

New Film “Microbirth” Reveals the Microscopic Secrets of Childbirth [http://microbirth.com] – A new documentary “MICROBIRTH” warns how our children are born could have serious repercussions for their lifelong health. “Microbirth” looks at childbirth in a whole new way; through the lens of a microscope. Featuring Ivy League scientists, the film investigates the latest research that is starting to indicate modern birth practices could be interfering with critical biological processes. This could be making our children more susceptible to disease later in life. Recent population studies have shown babies born by Caesarean Section have approximately: 20% increased risk of developing asthma 20% increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes 20% increased risk of obesity slightly smaller increases with gastro-intestinal conditions like Crohn’s disease or coeliac disease. These conditions are all linked to the immune system. In the film, scientists hypothesise that Caesarean Section could be interfering with “the seeding of the baby’s microbiome”. This is an important microbiological process where bacteria is transferred from mother to baby in the birth canal. As a consequence, the baby’s immune system may not develop to its full potential. Another hypothesis is that the stresses and hormones associated with natural birth could switch on or off certain genes related to the immune system and metabolism. If a baby is born by C-Section, this might affect these epigenetic processes. Dr Rodney R Dietert, Professor of Immunotoxicology at Cornell University, says, “Over the past 20-30 years, we’ve seen dramatic increases in childhood asthma, type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease, childhood obesity. We’ve also seen increases in Caesarean delivery. Does Caesarean cause these conditions? No. What Caesarean does is not allow the baby to be seeded with the microbes. The immune system doesn’t mature. And the metabolism changes. It’s the immune dysfunction and the changes in metabolism that we now know contribute to those diseases and conditions.” Dr Matthew Hyde, Research Associate of Neonatal Medicine, Imperial College London says, ”We are increasingly seeing a world out there with what is really a public health time-bomb waiting to go off. And the research we are doing suggests it is only going to get worse, generation on generation. So tomorrow’s generation really is on the edge of the precipice unless we can begin to do something about it.” The film’s co-Director Toni Harman says, “The very latest scientific research is starting to indicate that the microscopic processes happening during childbirth could be critical for the life-long health of the baby. We are hoping “Microbirth” raises awareness of the importance of “seeding the microbiome” for all babies, whether born naturally or by C-Section, to give all children the best chance of a healthy life. This could be an exciting opportunity to improve health across populations. And it all starts at birth”. “MICROBIRTH” is premiering with hundreds of simultaneous grass-roots public screenings around the world on Saturday 20th September 2014. http://microbirth.com/events – High-res images and academics available for interview upon request. – Short synopsis of “Microbirth”: “Microbirth” is a new sixty minute documentary looking at birth in a whole new way: through the lens of a microscope. Investigating the latest scientific research, the film reveals how we give birth could impact the lifelong health of our children. http://microbirth.com – “Microbirth” is an independent production by Alto Films Ltd. The film has been produced and directed by British filmmaking couple, Toni Harman and Alex Wakeford. Their previous film “Freedom For Birth” premiered in over 1,100 public screenings in 50 countries in September 2012. – “Microbirth” will premiere at grass-roots public screenings around the world on Saturday 20th September 2014. The film will then be represented for international broadcast sales as well as being available via online platforms. For a full list of screenings, please visit: http://microbirth.com/events – For more information about the film, please visit http://microbirth.com – “Microbirth” includes the following scientists and academics: RODNEY DIETERT, Professor of Immunotoxicology, Cornell University MARTIN BLASER, Director of the Human Microbiome Program & Professor of Translational Medicine, New York University MARIA GLORIA DOMINGUEZ BELLO, Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, New York University PHILIP STEER, Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics, Imperial College, London NEENA MODI, Professor of Neonatal Medicine, Imperial College, London MATTHEW HYDE, Research Associate in the Section of Neonatal Medicine, Imperial College, London SUE CARTER, Professor, Behavioral Neurobiologist, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill ALEECA BELL, Assistant Professor, Dept of Women, Children and Family Health Science, University of Illinois at Chicago STEFAN ELBE, Professor of International Relations, University of Sussex and Director of Centre for Global Health Policy ANITA KOZYRSKYJ, Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta and Co-Principal Investigator, Synergy in Microbiota Research (SyMBIOTA) JACQUELYN TAYLOR, Associate Professor of Nursing, University of Yale HANNAH DAHLEN, Professor of Midwifery, University of Western Sydney LESLEY PAGE, Professor of Midwifery, King’s College London and President, Royal College of Midwives


Home > Press > Supersonic spray yields new nanomaterial for bendable, wearable electronics: Film of self-fused nanowires clear as glass, conducts like metal Abstract: A new, ultrathin film that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current has been produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Korea University. The film is also bendable and stretchable, offering potential applications in roll-up touchscreen displays, wearable electronics, flexible solar cells and electronic skin. The results are reported in Advanced Functional Materials. The new film is made of fused silver nanowires, and is produced by spraying the nanowire particles through a tiny jet nozzle at supersonic speed. The result is a film with nearly the electrical conductivity of silver-plate -- and the transparency of glass, says senior author Alexander Yarin, UIC Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering. "The silver nanowire is a particle, but very long and thin," Yarin said. The nanowires measure about 20 microns long, so four laid end-to-end would span the width of a human hair. But their diameter is a thousand times smaller -- and significantly smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which minimizes light scattering. The researchers suspended the nanowire particles in water and propelled them by air through a de Laval nozzle, which has the same geometry as a jet engine, but is only a few millimeters in diameter. "The liquid needs to be atomized so it evaporates in flight," Yarin said. When the nanowires strike the surface they are being applied to at supersonic speed, they fuse together, as their kinetic energy is converted to heat. "The ideal speed is 400 meters per second," Yarin said. "If the energy is too high, say 600 meters per second, it cuts the wires. If too low, as at 200 meters per second, there's not enough heat to fuse the wires." The researchers applied the nanowires to flexible plastic films and to three-dimensional objects. "The surface shape doesn't matter," Yarin said. The transparent flexible film can be bent repeatedly and stretched to seven times its original length and still work, said Sam Yoon, the corresponding author of the study and a professor of mechanical engineering at Korea University. Earlier this year, Yarin and Yoon and their colleagues produced a transparent conducting film by electroplating a mat of tangled nanofiber with copper. Compared to that film, the self-fused silver nanowire film offers better scalability and production rate, Yoon said. "It should be easier and cheaper to fabricate, as it's a one-step versus a two-step process," said Yarin. "You can do it roll-to-roll on an industrial line, continuously." ### Co-authors with Yarin and Yoon are Jong-Gun Lee, Do-Yeon Kim, Jong-Hyuk Lee and Donghwan Kim of Korea University; Suman Sinha-Ray of the Indian Institute of Technology in Indore, India; and Mark T. Swihart of the State University of New York at Buffalo. The research was supported by the National Research Foundation, GFHIM-2013M3A6B1078879, and the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program, 10045221, funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


Aktipis C.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Aktipis C.A.,Arizona State University | Boddy A.M.,University of California at San Francisco | Gatenby R.A.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2013

Somatic evolution during cancer progression and therapy results in tumour cells that show a wide range of phenotypes, which include rapid proliferation and quiescence. Evolutionary life history theory may help us to understand the diversity of these phenotypes. Fast life history organisms reproduce rapidly, whereas those with slow life histories show less fecundity and invest more resources in survival. Life history theory also provides an evolutionary framework for phenotypic plasticity, which has potential implications for understanding 'cancer stem cells'. Life history theory suggests that different therapy dosing schedules might select for fast or slow life history cell phenotypes, with important clinical consequences. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Liu L.,University of Notre Dame | Das A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Megaridis C.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Carbon | Year: 2014

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding reduces coupling between signals, crosstalk among electrical components, noise in cables and communication systems, etc. With the increasing speed of terahertz (THz) electronic circuits and systems, THz EMI shielding is becoming increasingly more important. We review recent and pioneering studies on shielding property-structure characterization and applications of carbon nanocomposite materials in the THz frequency domain. The theory of EMI shielding by nanocomposite materials is summarized first. A description of relevant fabrication methods follows, along with structural characterization details. THz probing and characterization of carbon nanofillers and their composites as EMI shielding and attenuation materials is presented next. Finally, the application of these materials in quasi-optical THz components, including polarizers and potentially mesh filters, as well as related manufacturing techniques are reviewed and discussed. Specific examples are presented in some detail to introduce the reader to this exciting and rapidly evolving technological area. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Coughlin M.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Prabhakar B.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2012

The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) led to a rapid response not only to contain the outbreak but also to identify possible therapeutic interventions, including the generation of human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs). hmAbs may be used therapeutically without the drawbacks of chimeric or animal Abs. Several different methods have been used to generate SARS-CoV specific neutralizing hmAbs including the immunization of transgenic mice, cloning of small chain variable regions from naïve and convalescent patients, and the immortalization of convalescent B cells. Irrespective of the techniques used, the majority of hmAbs specifically reacted with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein and likely prevented receptor binding. However, several hmAbs that can bind to epitopes either within the RBD, located N terminal of the RBD or in the S2 domain, and neutralize the virus with or without inhibiting receptor binding have been identified. Therapeutic utility of hmAbs has been further elucidated through the identification of potential combinations of hmAbs that could neutralize viral variants including escape mutants selected using hmAbs. These results suggest that a cocktail of hmAbs that can bind to unique epitopes and have different mechanisms of action might be of clinical utility against SARS-CoV infection, and indicate that a similar approach may be applied to treat other viral infections. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


O'Donoghue C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Eklund M.,University of California at San Francisco | Ozanne E.M.,Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice | Esserman L.J.,University of California at San Francisco
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Controversy exists over how often and at what age mammography screening should be implemented. Given that evidence supports less frequent screening, the cost differences among advocated screening policies should be better understood. Objective: To estimate the aggregate cost of mammography screening in the United States in 2010 and compare the costs of policy recommendations by professional organizations. Design: A model was developed to estimate the cost of mammography screening in 2010 and 3 screening strategies: annual (ages 40 to 84 years), biennial (ages 50 to 69 years), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines (biennial for those aged 50 to 74 years and personalized based on risk for those younger than 50 years and based on comorbid conditions for those 75 years and older). Setting: United States. Patients: Women aged 40 to 85 years. Intervention: Mammography annually, biennially, or following USPSTF guidelines. Measurements: Cost of screening per year, using Medicare reimbursements. Results: The estimated cost of mammography screening in the United States in 2010 was $7.8 billion, with approximately 70% of women screened. The simulated cost of screening 85% of women was $10.1 billion, $2.6 billion, and $3.5 billion for annual, biennial, and USPSTF guidelines, respectively. The largest drivers of cost (in order) were screening frequency, percentage of women screened, cost of mammography, percentage of women screened with digital mammography, and percentage of mammography recalls. Limitation: Cost estimates and assumptions used in the model were conservative. Conclusion: The cost of mammography varies by at least $8 billion per year on the basis of screening strategy. The USPSTF guidelines are based on the scientific evidence to date to maximize patient benefit and minimize harm but also result in far more effective use of resources. © 2014 American College of Physicians.


Yarin A.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Yarin A.L.,TU Darmstadt
Polymers for Advanced Technologies | Year: 2011

The mini-review is devoted to coaxial electrospinning (co-electrospinning, emulsion electrospinning), a group of novel methods for making core-shell nanofibers and hollow nanotubes. The physical aspects of the process are described in brief, in particular, its modeling and possible drawbacks of the process resulting in formation of fibers without a long intact core. After that the main applications of co-electrospinning are considered. They include drug release, encapsulation of different biologically active compounds, cell scaffolds, formation of nanotubes, and nanofluidics. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Powell L.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Harris J.L.,Yale University | Fox T.,Food Nutrition and Policy Consultants LLC
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

In response to concerns about childhood obesity, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released two reports documenting food and beverage marketing expenditures to children and adolescents. The recently released 2012 report found an inflation-adjusted 19.5% reduction in marketing expenditures targeted to youth from $2.1 billion in 2006 to $1.8 billion in 2009. The current article highlights features of the FTC's analysis, examines how expenditures relate to youth exposure to food marketing, and assesses changes in the nutritional content of marketed products. Of the $304.0 million decline in expenditures, $117.8 million (38.7%) was from a decline in premium (i.e., restaurant children's meal toys) expenditures rather than direct marketing. Although inflation-adjusted TV expenditures fell by 19.4%, children and teens still see 12-16 TV advertisements (ads)/day for products generally high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium. In addition, newer digital forms of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to youths are increasing; the FTC reported an inflation-adjusted 50.7% increase in new media marketing expenditures. The self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) is limited in scope and effectiveness: expenditures increased for many noncovered marketing techniques (i.e., product placement, movie/video, cross-promotion licenses, athletic sponsorship, celebrity fees, events, philanthropy, and other); only two restaurants are members of CFBAI, and nonpremium restaurant marketing expenditures were up by $86.0 million (22.5% inflation-adjusted increase); industry pledges do not protect children aged >11 years, and some marketing appears to have shifted to older children; and, nutritional content remains poor. Continued monitoring of and improvements to food marketing to youth are needed. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.


Yee H.-U.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Yee H.-U.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC on hard photon emission rates in heavy-ion collisions indicate a large azimuthal asymmetry of photon emission rate parametrized by the elliptic flow v2. Motivated by a recent proposal that the early magnetic field created by two colliding heavy ions may be responsible for this large azimuthal asymmetry of photon emission rate, we compute the azimuthal dependence of the photon emission rate from a strongly coupled finite temperature plasma with magnetic field in the framework of gauge/gravity correspondence. We also propose and compute a new observable, "in/out-plane polarization asymmetry," constructed from the polarization dependence of the photon emission rates. We observe that both the azimuthal and polarization asymmetry of photon emissions are strongly affected by the triangle anomaly (chiral anomaly) for the low frequency regime below 1 GeV. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Missile Defense Agency | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1000.00K | Year: 2013

The potential threat of directed energy weapons (DEW) and other high peak power electromagnetic transient signals require radar systems to implement front door protection against high power signals. Fast ultra wideband (UWB) and high power microwave (HPM) signals are not successfully blocked by most current protection technologies. The Phase I work demonstrated a quasi-passive, solid state electro-optic terminal protection system (EOTPS) to effectively block UWB and HPM signals from the front end of radar systems. The device uses power from the incoming transient to switch the signal line to ground. Because the system as a whole requires no external power other than the transient, it can be considered a passive device. Inherent delay in the system permits the switch to become fully conductive before the transient arrives, effectively creating a system with a negative switching time. This allows the entire transient to be reflected, in contrast to other high power terminal protection techniques which allow part of the transient to reach the LNA. The Phase II proposal presents a plan to further develop the performance of the EOTPS for higher frequencies and to coordinate with two prime contractors in developing test validation procedures to integrate this technology into BMDS architectures.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Missile Defense Agency | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2011

Current state-of-the-art infrared focal plane arrays are based on HgCdTe grown on bulk CdZnTe substrates. The use of Si-based substrates would eliminate a number of drawbacks related to the HgCdTe/CdZnTe system and permit larger formats. We have developed growth protocols that produce material with good crystal quality for such a highly mismatched heteroepitaxial system. Double crystal rocking curves (DCRC), a typical benchmark for crystal quality, are measured with full widths as low as 50 arc seconds. We believe that by transferring this growth process to appropriate compliant substrates, material quality can be significantly improved. The enhanced compliance can significantly alter the forces acting on threading dislocations, facilitating the reduction of dislocations in HgCdTe device layers. Our recent data on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of thin CdTe layers on compliant substrates shows drastically improved DCRC values are achieved at early stages of growth. We plan to grow optimized material below the 50 arc second DCRC value, while reducing the concentration of macroscopic defects by reduction in the total layer thickness. Other material characteristics such as carrier mobility, lifetime, and etch pit density are typically poorer in HgCdTe/CdTe/Si compared to HgCdTe/CdZnTe, and will be used as diagnostics for optimization.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Missile Defense Agency | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.96K | Year: 2011

Hydrogen isotopes have been shown to reduce the electrical effects of various semiconductor defects. Specifically, monoatomic hydrogen and deuterium passivate the electrical activity of defects such as dislocations in long-wavelength HgCdTe grown on Si. We propose a novel method of controlling the intake of hydrogen in HgCdTe IRFPAs by using the H2/He plasma afterglow formed by flowing plasma-generated species outside the discharge area. The reduced reactivity of the afterglow plasma will maintain the IRFPA integrity while a nozzle specially designed to generate a supersonic flow and used to extract the hydrogen species increases the static pressure and axial velocity, thereby enhancing the uptake of passivants.


Yee H.-U.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Yee H.-U.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

Chiral magnetic effect and chiral vortical effect are parity odd transport phenomena originating from chiral anomaly, and have generalizations to all even dimensional space-time higher than four dimensions. We attempt to compute the associated P-odd retarded response functions in the weak coupling limit of chiral fermion theory in all even dimensions, using the diagrammatic technique of real-time perturbation theory. We also clarify the necessary Kubo formula relating the computed P-odd retarded correlation functions and the associated anomalous transport coefficients. We speculate on the 8-fold classification of topological phases. © 2014 American Physical Society.


News Article | October 29, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Leading online higher education information provider AffordableCollegesOnline.org has announced it’s ranking of the 2016-2017 Best Online Colleges in Illinois. A total of 21 schools were selected for excellence in online education, with the University of Illinois at Springfield, Lincoln Christian University, Aurora University, National Louis University and Governors State University on top for four-year programs and Shawnee Community College and Southeastern Illinois College ranking highest for two-year programs. "Illinois has seen a steady increase in college enrollment since the mid-1990’s,” said Dan Schuessler, CEO and Founder of AffordableCollegesOnline.org. "These colleges are taking learning to the next level by offering online education options that are affordable and high quality. The flexibility online classes provide is paramount when it comes to helping a growing number of students earn college degrees.” To qualify for a place on the Best Online Colleges in Illinois list, AffordableCollegesOnline.org requires schools to hold public or private not-for-profit status. They must also carry accreditation and maintain specific in-state tuition standards; only two-year schools offering in-state tuition under $5,000 annually and four-year schools offering in-state tuition under $25,000 annually are considered. Rankings are assigned based on analysis of a dozen different data points, including variety of online offerings, graduation rates and financial aid statistics. A complete list of schools featured on the 2016-2017 Best Online Colleges in Illinois ranking are included below. Details on each school’s rank, specific data points and methodology used for the comparison can be found at: Aurora University Eastern Illinois University Governors State University Greenville College Illinois State University Lincoln Christian University MacMurray College Methodist College Moody Bible Institute National Louis University National University of Health Sciences North Park University Saint Francis Medical Center College of Nursing Shawnee Community College Southeastern Illinois College Southern Illinois University - Edwardsville St. John's College of Nursing University of Illinois at Chicago University of Illinois at Springfield University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign Western Illinois University AffordableCollegesOnline.org began in 2011 to provide quality data and information about pursuing an affordable higher education. Our free community resource materials and tools span topics such as financial aid and college savings, opportunities for veterans and people with disabilities, and online learning resources. We feature higher education institutions that have developed online learning environments that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational and career success. We have been featured by nearly 1,100 postsecondary institutions and nearly 120 government organizations.


News Article | December 23, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The Biophysical Society has announced the winners of its annual CPOW Travel Awards to attend the Biophysical Society's 61st Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, February 11-15, 2017. CPOW, the Society's Committee for Professional Opportunities for Women, has initiated these travel fellowships to increase the number of women biophysicists and encourage their participation at the Meeting. The recipients of this competitive award must be female postdoctoral fellows or mid-career scientists presenting a poster or oral presentation at the conference. Each awardee receives a travel grant and will be recognized at a reception on Saturday, February 11, at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center. Teresa Aman, University of Washington, HCN CHANNEL GATING STUDIED WITH TMFRET AND A FLUORESCENT NONCANONICAL AMINO ACID. Anna Blice-Baum, Sam Houston State University, CARDIAC-SPECIFIC EXPRESSION OF VCP/TER94 RNAI OR DISEASE ALLELES DISRUPTS DROSOPHILA HEART STRUCTURE AND IMPAIRS FUNCTION. Lusine Demirkhanyan, University of Illinois at Chicago, ASSESSMENT OF ENDOGENOUS AND EXOGENOUS MODULATORS OF THE TRPM7 CHANNEL IN PLANAR LIPID BILAYERS. Maria Hoernke, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, GUV AND LUV LEAKAGE: HOW ALL-OR-NONE AND GRADED LEAKAGE SCALE WITH VESICLE SIZE. Pooja Jadiya, Temple University, GENETIC RESCUE OF MITOCHONDRIAL CALCIUM EFFLUX IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE PRESERVES MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION AND PROTECTS AGAINST NEURONAL CELL DEATH. Marthe Ludtmann, UCL, Institute of Neurology, DIRECT MODULATION OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL PERMEABILITY TRANSITION PORE BY OLIGOMERIC ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN CAUSES TOXICITY IN PD. Yoojin Oh, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, CURLI MEDIATE BACTERIAL ADHESION TO FIBRONECTIN VIA A TENSILE COLLECTIVE BINDING NETWORK. Laura Orellana, Science for Life Laboratory, TRAPPING ON-PATHWAY INTERMEDIATES FOR LARGE SCALE CONFORMATIONAL CHANGES WITH COARSE-GRAINED SIMULATIONS. Hagit Peretz Soroka, University of Manitoba, NOVEL MECHANISM FOR DRIVING AMOEBOIDLIKE MOTILITY OF HUMAN NEUTROPHILS UNDER AN ELECTRIC FIELD, BASED ON INTRACELLULAR PROTON CURRENTS AND CYTOPLASM STREAMING. Sarah Rouse, Imperial College London, STRUCTURAL AND MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS INTO TRANSPORT OF FUNCTIONAL AMYLOID SUBUNITS ACROSS THE PSEUDOMONAS OUTER MEMBRANE. Siobhan Toal, University of Pennsylvania, DETERMINING THE ROLE OF N-TERMINAL ACETYLATION ON α-SYNUCLEIN FUNCTION. Shelli Frey, Gettysburg College, THE ROLE OF SPHINGOMYELIN AND GANGLIOSIDE GM1 IN THE INTERACTION OF POLYGLUTAMINE PEPTIDES WITH LIPID MEMBRANES. Rebecca Howard, Stockholm University, TRANSMEMBRANE STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS OF ALCOHOL BINDING AND MODULATION IN A MODEL LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL. Sabina Mate, INIBIOLP-CONICET-UNLP, ORIENTATIONAL PROPERTIES OF DOPC/SM/CHOLESTEROL MIXTURES: A PM-IRRAS STUDY. Ekaterina Nestorovich, The Catholic University of America, LIPID DYNAMICS AND THE ANTHRAX TOXIN INTRACELLULAR JOURNEY. The Biophysical Society, founded in 1958, is a professional, scientific Society established to encourage development and dissemination of knowledge in biophysics. The Society promotes growth in this expanding field through its annual meeting, monthly journal, and committee and outreach activities. Its 9000 members are located throughout the U.S. and the world, where they teach and conduct research in colleges, universities, laboratories, government agencies, and industry. For more information on these awards, the Society, or the 2017 Annual Meeting, visit http://www.


News Article | October 11, 2016
Site: www.medicalnewstoday.com

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) have demonstrated how Rad4, a protein involved in DNA repair, scans the DNA in a unique pattern of movement called 'constrained motion' to efficiently find structural faults in DNA. The findings, reported in the journal Molecular Cell, could lead to therapies that boost existing drug treatments and counter drug-resistance. "Rad4 is like the cop who is the first responder at an accident," said senior author Bennett Van Houten, Ph.D., Richard M. Cyert Professor of Molecular Oncology, Pitt School of Medicine, and co-leader of UPCI's Molecular and Cellular Cancer Biology Program. "The cop can move quickly to recognize where the incident is, and regulate traffic while directing the paramedics arriving in an ambulance." Constrained motion allows Rad4 to be fast enough to scan large lengths of DNA quickly, yet slow enough that it does not miss structural errors in DNA that could be caused by chemicals or ultraviolet (UV) light. Mutations in Rad4, called XPC in humans, and other proteins in the DNA repair machinery are known to cause a genetic condition called xeroderma pigmentosum, where individuals have sensitivity to sunlight and are at an extremely high risk for developing skin cancer. Muwen Kong, a graduate student in Dr. Van Houten's laboratory, along with his collaborators, tagged normal and mutant Rad4 molecules with light-emitting quantum dots. They then watched them move across strands of DNA suspended between beads using a fluorescence microscope. The results obtained suggest that the first responder, consisting of Rad4 and another protein, Rad23, quickly scans the DNA for accidents by attempting to bend it. Alterations in the structure of DNA, such as those caused by chemicals or UV light, change the ease with which DNA can be bent. Once a potential accident is recognized, the Rad4-Rad23 first-responder team slows down to a 'constrained motion' pattern to more carefully examine a smaller region of 500-1,000 base pairs in the DNA. When structural damage is confirmed, Rad4-Rad23 stays near the scene and flags down the 'paramedics,' comprised of the rest of the DNA repair machinery, to fix the damage. This mechanism, which Dr. Van Houten calls 'recognition-at-a-distance,' allows Rad4 to be near the error without impeding the rest of the DNA repair crew. Though much work is needed before these results can be translated to the clinic, the results provide new avenues to improve treatment methods, especially in cancer. Resistance is a major problem with current treatments, such as the drug cisplatin, which kills cancer cells by introducing DNA crosslinks similar to UV light. By developing drugs that target Rad4/XPC or other repair proteins, it could be possible to enhance the effects of current treatments when they are used together, and also reduce the chances of tumor cells developing resistance, Dr. Van Houten said. Co-investigators include Lili Liu Ph.D., Stefanie Böhm, Ph.D., Simon C. Watkins, Ph.D., and Kara A. Bernstein, Ph.D., all of the Pitt School of Medicine; Xuejing Chen, Ph.D., and Jung-Hyun Min, Ph.D., both of the University of Illinois at Chicago; Peng Mao, Ph.D., and John J. Wyrick, Ph.D., both of Washington State University; and Neil M. Kad, Ph.D., of the University of Kent, U.K. The research was funded by National Institutes of Health grants 5R01ES019566, 5R01ES024872, 5R01ES002614 and 2P30CA047904; and National Science Foundation grant MCB-1412692.


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

PITTSBURGH (October 25, 2016) ... Although cerebral aneurysms affect a substantial portion of the adult population, the risk of treatment including open brain surgery often outweighs the risks associated with rupture. With increasing numbers of unruptured aneurysms detected using noninvasive imaging techniques, there is an urgent need for a reliable method to distinguish aneurysms vulnerable to impending rupture from those that are presently robust and can be safely monitored. An international research team led by the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering recently received a grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to improve risk assessment and treatment of this devastating disease. Principle investigator of the five-year, $2,950,622 grant, "Improving cerebral aneurysm risk assessment through understanding wall vulnerability and failure modes," is Anne M. Robertson, PhD, the William Kepler Whiteford Professor of Engineering at the Swanson School. The R01 grant is funded through the NIH National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. "The cells in our blood vessels have a remarkable capacity for rebuilding and maintaining the collagen fibers that give the artery walls their strength. Unfortunately, this natural process can be derailed by the abnormal fluid flow in brain aneurysms, leading to vulnerable walls and rupture," explained Dr. Robertson. "Understanding the factors that discriminate between robust aneurysm walls with well-organized collagen fibers, and fragile aneurysm walls with diverse changes to the collagen architecture, is essential for improving risk assessment and developing new treatments to prevent rupture." To support their work, Dr. Robertson and a multi-disciplinary team of world leaders in aneurysm research from Pitt, Allegheny General Hospital in Pittsburgh, George Mason University in Virginia, University of Illinois at Chicago, and Helsinki University Central Hospital and Kuopio University Hospital in Finland, will analyze brain tissue donated from patients with cerebral aneurysms. Using state of the art facilities for biomechanical analysis and bioimaging, the investigators will specifically look at how and why some patients are naturally able to maintain a healthy aneurysm wall while the walls in other patients weaken, leaving the vulnerable to rupture. They will use computational mechanics to explore the possible multiple mechanisms by which hemodynamics alters the wall and study the mechanisms of structural failure. "The diverse expertise in our team and our access to an unprecedented number of aneurysm tissue samples enables us to study this disease in an entirely new way," Dr. Robertson said. "We are also able to leverage computational and experimental tools developed during our prior NIH supported program." "Because of the critical importance and delicate nature of the brain, surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms is avoided unless absolutely necessary. That's why doctors and surgeons need a more effective way to determine whether a patient with a cerebral aneurysm is at risk for rupture," Dr. Robertson said. "We expect that by understanding the differences in the vulnerable and robust aneurysm wall, we will be able to improve risk assessment, identify biomarkers of wall fragility, and provide essential knowledge for developing pharmacological treatments to harness and augment the natural repair process of the aneurysm wall."


The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome Claudia P. Piccolo, DDS, FAAID, Dentist, to their prestigious organization with her upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. She is a highly trained and qualified dentist with an extensive expertise in all facets of her work, especially Invisalign, general dentistry, facial pain and aesthetics. Dr. Piccolo has been in practice for over 22 years and is currently serving patients at Family Dental Care in Chicago, Illinois. With her fellow dentists at Family Dental Care, she treats her patients with personalized and state of the art care and technology. Dr. Piccolo graduated with her Doctor of Dental Surgery Degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry. She subsequently completed a three-year fellowship in dental implants and became certified in facial pain and esthetics. Dr. Piccolo has earned the coveted title of Fellow of the American Academy of Implant Dentistry, and keeps up with the latest advances in her field through her professional memberships with the American Dental Association, the Illinois State Dental Association, the Chicago Dental Society, and the American Academy of Facial Esthetics. Dr. Piccolo attributes her success to always striving for excellence, caring for her patients, and providing care that will give her patient’s a smile to last a lifetime. Dr. Piccolo also volunteers her work for several National and International Organizations providing resources and expertise to underserved communities. When she is not practicing, Dr. Piccolo enjoys crafts and yoga. Learn more about Dr. Piccolo here: http://chicagofamilydentalcare.com/our-staff/ and be sure to read her upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. FindaTopDoc.com is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics.  Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review.  FindaTopDoc.com features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews, and areas of expertise.  A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life.  For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit:http://www.findatopdoc.com


News Article | September 2, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

Cancer thrives when mutated cells undergo frequent division. Most anti-cancer drugs work by inserting themselves in between the DNA base pairs that encode our genetic information. This process is known as intercalation, and it can result in subtle changes to the DNA molecule’s geometric shape or tertiary structure. These structural changes interfere with the DNA’s transcription and a cell’s replication process, ultimately resulting in cell death. While intercalating agents used in chemotherapy drugs are highly effective in fighting cancer, they also may kill important cells in the body and lead to other complications such as heart failure. Therefore, researchers are always searching for faster, cheaper and more accurate tools to aid in the design of next-generation anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects. A paper published in ACS Nano, one of the top nanotechnology journals in the world, explores this topic. “Modeling and Analysis of Intercalant Effects on Circular DNA Conformation,” focuses on the effect of the intercalating agent ethidium bromide (a mimic for many chemotherapy drugs) on the tertiary structure of DNA. Lead researchers on the project were Daniel Fologea, assistant professor in the Department of Physics, and David Estrada, assistant professor and graduate program coordinator, Micron School of Materials Science and Engineering. “The second dogma of biology states that structure determines function. Any structural change may be translated into a change of function,” says Fologea. “So we devised a simple method to allow us to ‘see’ how an intercalating agent is changing the shape of DNA at the single molecule level.” To achieve this, the team created a nanopore — a nanoscale sized opening in an ultrathin membrane — through which a single DNA molecule can pass when an electric field is applied to the microfluidics containing the device. When the DNA goes through this nanoscale aperture, it generates an electrical signal that provides information about its physical properties such as its shape, elasticity and even interactions with other biomolecules. “Our measurements revealed unique current blockades correlated to branched structures in the DNA molecule that resulted from ethidium bromide intercalation,” says lead author Eric Krueger, who was a postdoctoral researcher working jointly in Estrada and Fologea’s laboratories. “These results show that nanopores can be a scalable, efficient and cost effective way to measure DNA interactions with emerging anti-cancer drugs.” The team involved collaborations with the University of Illinois at Chicago and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Using a combination of nanofabrication techniques, nanopore electrical measurements, atomic force microscopy imaging and all-atom simulations carried out on XSEDE supercomputer resources, the team’s interdisciplinary approach has extended the practical use of solid-state nanopores to a new area of cancer research. XSEDE (Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment) provides researchers with access to several advanced computing resources across the country. “The new simulation capabilities developed by Dr. Khalili-Araghi’s group at the University of Illinois at Chicago have opened up a new computational space for the rapid screening of intercalating molecules as potential cancer therapies,” says Estrada. “We are now working on coupling such simulations with atomically thin materials, such as graphene and two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide, in order to increase the sensitivity of our approach.” This project highlights the capabilities of two of Boise State University’s newest Ph.D. programs, in biomolecular sciences and materials science and engineering, that have helped the university become designated as a doctoral research university by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, the nation’s premier college classification system. The research was supported by the Division of Research and Economic Development and the Biomolecular Research Center at Boise State University.


GLEN ROCK, NJ--(Marketwired - Dec 23, 2016) - RespireRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. ( : RSPI) ("RespireRx" or the "Company"), is pleased to announce positive results of the PACE (Pharmacotherapy of Apnea by Cannabimimetic Enhancement) trial conducted by Dr. David Carley and colleagues at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University. The PACE trial, a Phase 2B study of dronabinol for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea ("OSA"), clearly demonstrates that dronabinol significantly improves the primary outcome measures of Apnea Hypopnea Index ("AHI"), daytime sleepiness as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale ("ESS") and overall patient satisfaction as measured by the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medications ("TSQM"). In a dose dependent fashion, treatment with 2.5 mg and 10 mg dronabinol once a day at night significantly reduces the Apnea Hypopnea Index ("AHI"), a measure of breathing abnormalities during sleep, in 56 patients with moderate to severe OSA who completed the study. Of these, 17 received placebo, 19 received the 2.5 mg dose and 20 received the 10 mg dose. Compared to average baseline AHI values of 26 + 12, six weeks of dronabinol administration to moderate to severe OSA patients reduced AHI values, compared to placebo, by 9.7 + 4 for the 2.5 mg dose and 13.2 + 4 for the 10 mg dose (p=.02 and p=.001, respectively, compared to control). Furthermore, treatment with 10 mg dronabinol significantly improved daytime sleepiness as measured by the ESS (p = 0.0001, compared to placebo) and achieved the greatest overall patient satisfaction with treatment (p=.02) as measured by the TSQM. Arnold Lippa, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer and Executive Chairman commented, "We congratulate Dr. Carley and his colleagues at both the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University for the successful completion of the PACE trial. These positive results clearly demonstrate the potential for dronabinol to treat OSA, a serious condition affecting millions of people with very few viable treatment options. We plan to move forward with the development of dronabinol in OSA, and plan to meet with the FDA for a Special Protocol Assessment ("SPA") to finalize the Phase 3 study required for approval using both fast track and breakthrough designations from the FDA to facilitate the development path." James S. Manuso, Ph.D., President, Chief Executive Officer and Vice Chairman stated, "We are very excited with the possibility of bringing to market the first drug treatment for OSA. We can now envision a small molecule, easy to use, oral medicine for OSA patients as an alternative to CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) devices, surgery and other methods used to treat this underappreciated disease, which has such enourmous costs to society." "We look forward to discussing with investors the results of this trial at upcoming conferences." Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the most common form of sleep apnea and affects 29.4 million Americans according to Frost & Sullivan. 5.9 million adults are diagnosed (23.5 million are undiagnosed). OSA, besides causing next day sleepiness which is a major cause of motor vehicle and industrial accidents, is also co-morbid with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and other conditions. Treatment options are limited and the most effective treatment, the CPAP device has an extremely high non-compliance rate. The overall cost to the U.S. economy of the diagnosed and undiagnosed portions of the OSA market are estimated to be $12.4 billion and $149.6 billion respectively for a total cost of $162.0 billion in 2015. There is no drug therapy approved for OSA. While certain stimulants such as modafinil and methylphenidate are FDA approved for next day sleepiness in certain OSA patients, they do not treat OSA itself. Dronabinol, currently formulated as a capsule, is believed to be much more user friendly than the current devices, should have a higher patient compliance rate, should work well in the moderate to mild patient segment, which represents approximately 50% of the overall OSA patient population, and may result in more of the currently undiagnosed patient population getting diagnosed. Dronabinol is synthetic ∆9-THC (delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), one of the active cannabinoids found in marijuana. It is approved in the United States in 2.5mg, 5mg and 10mg capsules for the treatment of anorexia associated with AIDS and chemo-therapy induced nausea and vomiting. It is a schedule III drug meaning there is a low abuse potential, but it is monitored by the United States DEA (drug enforcement agency). It is Medicare part B reimbursed for its current approved indications. Use of dronabinol for the treatment of OSA is novel. About RespireRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. RespireRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. is a leader in the development of medicines for respiratory disorders, with a focus on sleep apneas and drug-induced respiratory depression. The Company holds exclusive licenses and owns patents and patent applications or rights thereto for certain families of chemical compounds that claim the chemical structures and their uses in the treatment of a variety of disorders, as well as claims for novel uses of known drugs. RespireRx has a pipeline of medicines in Phase 2 clinical development focused on pharmaceutical treatments for a variety of breathing disorders. Clinical development in the area of respiratory disorders, particularly drug-induced respiratory depression and sleep apnea, has created opportunities for the development and commercialization of the Company's compounds. Cannabinoids. One platform being developed by RespireRx is the class of compounds known as cannabinoids, including dronabinol. Under a license agreement with the University of Illinois, the Company has rights to patents claiming the use of cannabinoids for the treatment of sleep-related breathing disorders. Ampakines. The other platform of proprietary medicines being developed by RespireRx are ampakines, which act to enhance the actions of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate at AMPA glutamate receptors. Several ampakines, in both oral and injectable forms, are being developed by the Company for the treatment of a variety of breathing disorders. In clinical studies, select ampakines have shown preliminary efficacy in central sleep apnea and in the control of respiratory depression produced by opioids, without altering the opioid analgesic effects. In animal models of orphan disorders, such as Pompe Disease, spinal cord injury and perinatal respiratory distress, it has been demonstrated that certain ampakines improve breathing function. The Company's compounds belong to a new class that does not display the undesirable side effects previously reported for other ampakines. Additional information about the Company and the matters discussed herein can be obtained on the Company's web-site at www.RespireRx.com or in the Company's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission at www.sec.gov. This press release contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Company intends that such forward-looking statements be subject to the safe harbor created thereby. These might include statements regarding the Company's financial position, business strategy and other plans and objectives for future operations, and assumptions and predictions about research and development efforts, including, but not limited to, preclinical and clinical research, design, execution, timing, costs and results, future product demand, supply, manufacturing, costs, marketing and pricing factors are all forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements may be identified by words including "anticipates," "believes," "intends," "estimates," "expects," "plans," and similar expressions include, but are not limited to, statements regarding (i) future research plans, expenditures and results, (ii) potential collaborative arrangements, (iii) the potential utility of the Company's proposed products, and (iv) the need for, and availability of, additional financing. The forward-looking statements included herein are based on current expectations that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements are based on assumptions regarding the Company's business and technology, which involve judgments with respect to, among other things, future scientific, economic and competitive conditions, and future business decisions, all of which are difficult or impossible to predict accurately and many of which are beyond the Company's control. Although the Company believes that the assumptions underlying the forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results may differ materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. In light of the significant uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking information included herein, the inclusion of such information should not be regarded as a representation by the Company or any other person that the Company's objectives or plans will be achieved. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, regulatory policies or changes thereto, available cash, research and development results, competition from other similar businesses, and market and general economic factors. This press release should be read in conjunction with the condensed consolidated financial statements (unaudited) and notes thereto included in Item 1 of the Company's recently filed Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015, including the section entitled "Item 1A. Risk Factors." The Company does not intend to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information, future events or otherwise.


News Article | January 26, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

In patients suffering from Type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the pancreas, eventually leaving patients without the ability to naturally control blood sugar. These patients must carefully monitor the amount of sugar in their blood, measuring it several times a day and then injecting themselves with insulin to keep their blood sugar levels within a healthy range. However, precise control of blood sugar is difficult to achieve, and patients face a range of long-term medical problems as a result. A better diabetes treatment, many researchers believe, would be to replace patients’ destroyed pancreatic islet cells with healthy cells that could take over glucose monitoring and insulin release. This approach has been used in hundreds of patients, but it has one major drawback — the patients’ immune systems attack the transplanted cells, requiring patients to take immunosuppressant drugs for the rest of their lives. Now, a new advance from MIT, Boston Children’s Hospital, and several other institutions may offer a way to fulfill the promise of islet cell transplantation. The researchers have designed a material that can be used to encapsulate human islet cells before transplanting them. In tests on mice, they showed that these encapsulated human cells could cure diabetes for up to six months, without provoking an immune response. Although more studies are needed, this approach “has the potential to provide diabetics with a new pancreas that is protected from the immune system, which would allow them to control their blood sugar without taking drugs. That’s the dream,” says Daniel Anderson, the Samuel A. Goldblith Associate Professor in MIT’s Department of Chemical Engineering, a member of MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES), and a research fellow in the Department of Anesthesiology at Boston Children’s Hospital. Anderson is the senior author of two studies describing this method in the Jan. 25 issues of Nature Medicine and Nature Biotechnology. Researchers from Harvard University, the University of Illinois at Chicago, the Joslin Diabetes Center, and the University of Massachusetts Medical School also contributed to the research. Since the 1980s, a standard treatment for diabetic patients has been injections of insulin produced by genetically engineered bacteria. While effective, this type of treatment requires great effort by the patient and can generate large swings in blood sugar levels. At the urging of JDRF director Julia Greenstein, Anderson, Langer, and colleagues set out several years ago to come up with a way to make encapsulated islet cell transplantation a viable therapeutic approach. They began by exploring chemical derivatives of alginate, a material originally isolated from brown algae. Alginate gels can be made to encapsulate cells without harming them, and also allow molecules such as sugar and proteins to move through, making it possible for cells inside to sense and respond to biological signals. However, previous research has shown that when alginate capsules are implanted in primates and humans, scar tissue eventually builds up around the capsules, making the devices ineffective. The MIT/Children’s Hospital team decided to try to modify alginate to make it less likely to provoke this kind of immune response. “We decided to take an approach where you cast a very wide net and see what you can catch,” said Arturo Vegas, a former MIT and Boston Children’s Hospital postdoc who is now an assistant professor at Boston University. Vegas is the first author of the Nature Biotechnology paper and co-first author of the Nature Medicine paper. “We made all these derivatives of alginate by attaching different small molecules to the polymer chain, in hopes that these small molecule modifications would somehow give it the ability to prevent recognition by the immune system.” After creating a library of nearly 800 alginate derivatives, the researchers performed several rounds of tests in mice and nonhuman primates. One of the best of those, known as triazole-thiomorpholine dioxide (TMTD), they decided to study further in tests of diabetic mice. They chose a strain of mice with a strong immune system and implanted human islet cells encapsulated in TMTD into a region of the abdominal cavity known as the intraperitoneal space. The pancreatic islet cells used in this study were generated from human stem cells using a technique recently developed by Douglas Melton, a professor at Harvard University who is an author of the Nature Medicine paper. Following implantation, the cells immediately began producing insulin in response to blood sugar levels and were able to keep blood sugar under control for the length of the study, 174 days. “The really exciting part of this was being able to show, in an immune-competent mouse, that when encapsulated these cells do survive for a long period of time, at least six months,” said Omid Veiseh, a senior postdoc at the Koch Institute and Boston Children’s hospital, co-first author of the Nature Medicine paper, and an author of the Nature Biotechnology paper. “The cells can sense glucose and secrete insulin in a controlled manner, alleviating the mice’s need for injected insulin.” The researchers also found that 1.5-millimeter diameter capsules made from their best materials (but not carrying islet cells) could be implanted into the intraperitoneal space of nonhuman primates for at least six months without scar tissue building up. “The combined results from these two papers suggests that these capsules have real potential to protect transplanted cells in human patients,” said Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor at MIT, a senior research associate at Boston’s Children Hospital, and co-author on both papers.  “We are so pleased to see this research in cell transplantation reach these important milestones.” Cherie Stabler, an associate professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Florida, said this approach is impressive because it tackles all aspects of the problem of islet cell delivery, including finding a source of cells, preventing an immune response, and developing a suitable delivery material. “It’s such a complex, multipronged problem that it’s important to get people from different disciplines to address it,” said Stabler, who was not involved in the research. “This is a great first step towards a clinically relevant, cell-based therapy for Type I diabetes.” The researchers now plan to further test their new materials in nonhuman primates, with the goal of eventually performing clinical trials in diabetic patients. If successful, this approach could provide long-term blood sugar control for such patients. “Our goal is to continue to work hard to translate these promising results into a therapy that can help people,” Anderson said. “Being insulin-independent is the goal,” Vegas said. “This would be a state-of-the-art way of doing that, better than any other technology could. Cells are able to detect glucose and release insulin far better than any piece of technology we’ve been able to develop.” The researchers are also investigating why their new material works so well. They found that the best-performing materials were all modified with molecules containing a triazole group — a ring containing two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms. They suspect this class of molecules may interfere with the immune system’s ability to recognize the material as foreign. The work was supported, in part, by the JDRF, the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, the National Institutes of Health, and the Tayebati Family Foundation. Other authors of the papers include MIT postdoc Joshua Doloff; former MIT postdocs Minglin Ma and Kaitlin Bratlie; MIT graduate students Hok Hei Tam and Andrew Bader; Jeffrey Millman, an associate professor at Washington University School of Medicine; Mads Gürtler, a former Harvard graduate student; Matt Bochenek, a graduate student at the University of Illinois at Chicago; Dale Greiner, a professor of medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical School; Jose Oberholzer, an associate professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago; and Gordon Weir, a professor of medicine at the Joslin Diabetes Center.


News Article | January 27, 2016
Site: news.mit.edu

In patients suffering from Type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the pancreas, eventually leaving patients without the ability to naturally control blood sugar. These patients must carefully monitor the amount of sugar in their blood, measuring it several times a day and then injecting themselves with insulin to keep their blood sugar levels within a healthy range. However, precise control of blood sugar is difficult to achieve, and patients face a range of long-term medical problems as a result. A better diabetes treatment, many researchers believe, would be to replace patients’ destroyed pancreatic islet cells with healthy cells that could take over glucose monitoring and insulin release. This approach has been used in hundreds of patients, but it has one major drawback — the patients’ immune systems attack the transplanted cells, requiring patients to take immunosuppressant drugs for the rest of their lives. Now, a new advance from MIT, Boston Children’s Hospital, and several other institutions may offer a way to fulfill the promise of islet cell transplantation. The researchers have designed a material that can be used to encapsulate human islet cells before transplanting them. In tests on mice, they showed that these encapsulated human cells could cure diabetes for up to six months, without provoking an immune response. Although more studies are needed, this approach “has the potential to provide diabetics with a new pancreas that is protected from the immune system, which would allow them to control their blood sugar without taking drugs. That’s the dream,” says Daniel Anderson, the Samuel A. Goldblith Associate Professor in MIT’s Department of Chemical Engineering, a member of MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES), and a research fellow in the Department of Anesthesiology at Boston Children’s Hospital. Anderson is the senior author of two studies describing this method in the Jan. 25 issues of Nature Medicine and Nature Biotechnology. Researchers from Harvard University, the University of Illinois at Chicago, the Joslin Diabetes Center, and the University of Massachusetts Medical School also contributed to the research. Since the 1980s, a standard treatment for diabetic patients has been injections of insulin produced by genetically engineered bacteria. While effective, this type of treatment requires great effort by the patient and can generate large swings in blood sugar levels. At the urging of JDRF director Julia Greenstein, Anderson, Langer, and colleagues set out several years ago to come up with a way to make encapsulated islet cell transplantation a viable therapeutic approach. They began by exploring chemical derivatives of alginate, a material originally isolated from brown algae. Alginate gels can be made to encapsulate cells without harming them, and also allow molecules such as sugar and proteins to move through, making it possible for cells inside to sense and respond to biological signals. However, previous research has shown that when alginate capsules are implanted in primates and humans, scar tissue eventually builds up around the capsules, making the devices ineffective. The MIT/Children’s Hospital team decided to try to modify alginate to make it less likely to provoke this kind of immune response. “We decided to take an approach where you cast a very wide net and see what you can catch,” says Arturo Vegas, a former MIT and Boston Children’s Hospital postdoc who is now an assistant professor at Boston University. Vegas is the first author of the Nature Biotechnology paper and co-first author of the Nature Medicine paper. “We made all these derivatives of alginate by attaching different small molecules to the polymer chain, in hopes that these small molecule modifications would somehow give it the ability to prevent recognition by the immune system.” After creating a library of nearly 800 alginate derivatives, the researchers performed several rounds of tests in mice and nonhuman primates. One of the best of those, known as triazole-thiomorpholine dioxide (TMTD), they decided to study further in tests of diabetic mice. They chose a strain of mice with a strong immune system and implanted human islet cells encapsulated in TMTD into a region of the abdominal cavity known as the intraperitoneal space. The pancreatic islet cells used in this study were generated from human stem cells using a technique recently developed by Douglas Melton, a professor at Harvard University who is an author of the Nature Medicine paper. Following implantation, the cells immediately began producing insulin in response to blood sugar levels and were able to keep blood sugar under control for the length of the study, 174 days. “The really exciting part of this was being able to show, in an immune-competent mouse, that when encapsulated these cells do survive for a long period of time, at least six months,” says Omid Veiseh, a senior postdoc at the Koch Institute and Boston Children’s hospital, co-first author of the Nature Medicine paper, and an author of the Nature Biotechnology paper. “The cells can sense glucose and secrete insulin in a controlled manner, alleviating the mice’s need for injected insulin.” The researchers also found that 1.5-millimeter diameter capsules made from their best materials (but not carrying islet cells) could be implanted into the intraperitoneal space of nonhuman primates for at least six months without scar tissue building up. “The combined results from these two papers suggests that these capsules have real potential to protect transplanted cells in human patients,” says Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor at MIT, a senior research associate at Boston’s Children Hospital, and co-author on both papers.  “We are so pleased to see this research in cell transplantation reach these important milestones.” Cherie Stabler, an associate professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Florida, says this approach is impressive because it tackles all aspects of the problem of islet cell delivery, including finding a source of cells, preventing an immune response, and developing a suitable delivery material. “It’s such a complex, multipronged problem that it’s important to get people from different disciplines to address it,” says Stabler, who was not involved in the research. “This is a great first step towards a clinically relevant, cell-based therapy for Type I diabetes.” The researchers now plan to further test their new materials in nonhuman primates, with the goal of eventually performing clinical trials in diabetic patients. If successful, this approach could provide long-term blood sugar control for such patients. “Our goal is to continue to work hard to translate these promising results into a therapy that can help people,” Anderson says. “Being insulin-independent is the goal,” Vegas says. “This would be a state-of-the-art way of doing that, better than any other technology could. Cells are able to detect glucose and release insulin far better than any piece of technology we’ve been able to develop.” The researchers are also investigating why their new material works so well. They found that the best-performing materials were all modified with molecules containing a triazole group — a ring containing two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms. They suspect this class of molecules may interfere with the immune system’s ability to recognize the material as foreign. The work was supported, in part, by the JDRF, the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, the National Institutes of Health, and the Tayebati Family Foundation. Other authors of the papers include MIT postdoc Joshua Doloff; former MIT postdocs Minglin Ma and Kaitlin Bratlie; MIT graduate students Hok Hei Tam and Andrew Bader; Jeffrey Millman, an associate professor at Washington University School of Medicine; Mads Gürtler, a former Harvard graduate student; Matt Bochenek, a graduate student at the University of Illinois at Chicago; Dale Greiner, a professor of medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical School; Jose Oberholzer, an associate professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago; and Gordon Weir, a professor of medicine at the Joslin Diabetes Center.


Zheng Y.,Microsoft | Capra L.,University College London | Wolfson O.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Yang H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology | Year: 2014

Urbanization's rapid progress has modernized many people's lives but also engendered big issues, such as traffic congestion, energy consumption, and pollution. Urban computing aims to tackle these issues by using the data that has been generated in cities (e.g., traffic flow, human mobility, and geographical data). Urban computing connects urban sensing, data management, data analytics, and service providing into a recurrent process for an unobtrusive and continuous improvement of people's lives, city operation systems, and the environment. Urban computing is an interdisciplinary field where computer sciences meet conventional city-related fields, like transportation, civil engineering, environment, economy, ecology, and sociology in the context of urban spaces. This article first introduces the concept of urban computing, discussing its general framework and key challenges from the perspective of computer sciences. Second, we classify the applications of urban computing into seven categories, consisting of urban planning, transportation, the environment, energy, social, economy, and public safety and security, presenting representative scenarios in each category. Third, we summarize the typical technologies that are needed in urban computing into four folds, which are about urban sensing, urban data management, knowledge fusion across heterogeneous data, and urban data visualization. Finally, we give an outlook on the future of urban computing, suggesting a few research topics that are somehow missing in the community. © 2014 ACM 2157-6904/2014/09-ART38 $15.00.


Kaestner R.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Silber J.H.,University of Pennsylvania
Milbank Quarterly | Year: 2010

Context: It is widely believed that a significant amount, perhaps as much as 20 to 30 percent, of health care spending in the United States is wasted, despite market forces such as managed care organizations and large, self-insured firms with a financial incentive to eliminate waste of this magnitude. Methods: This article uses Medicare claims data to study the association between inpatient spending and the thirty-day mortality of Medicare patients admitted to hospitals between 2001 and 2005 for surgery (general, orthopedic, vascular) and medical conditions (acute myocardial infarction [AMI], congestive heart failure [CHF], stroke, and gastrointestinal bleeding). Findings: Estimates from the analysis indicated that except for AMI patients, a 10 percent increase in inpatient spending was associated with a decrease of between 3.1 and 11.3 percent in thirty-day mortality, depending on the type of patient. Conclusions: Although some spending may be inefficient, the results suggest that the amount of waste is less than conventionally believed, at least for inpatient care. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.


El-Orbany M.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Salem M.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2013

The consequences of endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff leak may range from a bubbling noise to a life-threatening ventilatory failure. Although the definitive solution is ETT replacement, this is often neither needed nor safe to perform. Frequently, the leak is not caused by a structural defect in the ETT. Cuff underinflation, cephalad migration of the ETT (partial tracheal extubation), misplaced orogastric or nasogastric tubes, wide discrepancy between ETT and tracheal diameters, or increased peak airway pressure can cause leaks around intact cuffs. Correction of these problems will stop the leak without ETT replacement. Alternatively, ETT cuff, pilot balloon, and inflation system damage due to inadvertent trauma or manufacturing defects may be responsible. Conservative management ideas (management without ETT replacement) were previously published to solve the problem. However, when a large structural defect is identified or conservative measures fail, ETT replacement becomes necessary. This can be performed with direct laryngoscopy if laryngeal visualization is adequate. A difficult exchange with possible airway loss should be anticipated, and prepared for, when there are signs and/or history of difficult intubation. A risk/benefit analysis of each individual situation is warranted before decisions are made on how best to proceed. Alternative back-up ventilation plans should be preformulated and the necessary equipment ready before the exchange. In this review, various management concerns and plans are discussed, and a simple algorithm to manage leaky ETT cuff situations is presented. Copyright © 2013 International Anesthesia Research Society.


Xu D.,Litepoint | Yao Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2012

In this work, we propose a contention-based protocol for general decentralized detection problem in the context of wireless sensor networks. In this scheme, fusion task is implemented in a multi-stage fashion: sensors are first grouped according to the informativeness of their data; fusion center then polls the sensor sets sequentially in the order of their informativeness until a target performance is reached. Within one stage, all polled sensors compete for a common channel medium where exists near-far effect, Raleigh fading, and shadowing. To determine the optimal transmission probability, we propose a novel Bayesian update algorithm utilizing both sensing information and channel feedback. The proposed dynamic protocol is applied to signal detection in Gaussian noise. As shown by our simulations, incorporating sensing information greatly improves efficiency over a generic Bayesian update scheme relying only on channel feedback. Our results also show that exploiting capture effect can significantly improve communication and energy efficiency. Comparison with fixed sample size test and sequential probability ratio test shows that the proposed scheme achieves significant efficiency gain over existing fusion strategies. © 2012 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2015

Kyma will develop and model a modular high rep rate (>100kHz) photoconductive switch using GaN and commercial-off-the-shelf laser diodes. The switch will be designed to switch >1.5kV at >150A in 5-10ns.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2014

This Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) Phase I project will focus on oral cancer (OC), a disease that strikes over 30,000 new patients each year in the US resulting in about 8,000 deaths and even more disfigurements. This costs hundreds of millions of dollars in medical fees. A surgical biopsy with histopathology diagnosis is routine for oral tumor assessment and about one million oral biopsies are done each year in the US. Currently a dentist will detect a discoloration or spot in the patient?s mouth and advise the patient to see an oral surgeon to have the lesion surgically biopsied if it remains 2 weeks later. However, many patients wish to avoid the biopsy, choose to ignore the lesion, and if it is early cancer it goes undetected. There is a clear need for a noninvasive method to detect early OC. The study proposes to use a small brush to obtain cells from oral discolorations that may be early cancers and then analyze the RNA. If done properly this analysis may allow the detection of a developing cancer This provides a means to detect oral cancer early when it can be cured, that does not rely on a surgical biopsy. The broader impact/commercial potential of this project is to make the detection and diagnosis of early oral cancer one-step, noninvasive, and accurate. This would make the detection of this cancer easier, increase the percentage of oral cancers that are detected early and result in improved cure rates. These patient are treated just with surgery require no chemotherapy or radiation and usually do very well. The goal of this project is create the first non-invasive oral cancer cell based detection kits involving RNA or DNA analysis to be used in the clinic. The technology, gene expression based classification, could be adapted to diagnose other oral diseases often misdiagnosed and inaccurately linked to oral cancer such as lichen planus, papilloma, severe gingivitis, etc.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 148.53K | Year: 2014

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Arphion is a company established to develop noninvasive products that will be used to diagnose, prevent, and treat head and neck and other cancers. 41,000 people are diagnosed with head and neck cancer (HNC) every yearin the United States, with 8,000 deaths. Tens of millions of people in the US are at increased risk for HNC due to exposure to the polycyclic aryl hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in tobacco and some foods. Other risk factors are involved, because although many millions of people in the US are exposed to high levels of tobacco PAHs and a second risk factor, ethanol, only a small minority will get the disease. Curiously, the changes in oral bacteria that occur with tobacco-induced periodontal disease somehow also increase the risk for HNC. Dr. Joel Schwartz's team has recent evidence that may explain the connection between oral bacteria and cancer. They showed that tobacco users have excess numbers of 8 different oral microbial species that can metabolize PAHs, and


News Article | November 1, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Alginate hydrogels -- which are derived from the polysaccharide found in brown seaweed -- have emerged as an effective material for manipulating cells and tissues due to their biocompatibility and the ability to tune their mechanical and biochemical properties to match physiological conditions found inside the body. Already they have been demonstrated to influence the differentiation of stem cells, incite immune attacks on cancer cells, and weaken tumors' resistance to chemotherapy, but as of yet, hydrogels have mostly been useful for controlling groups of cells at large rather than individual cells. For example, alginate capsules filled with hundreds of pancreatic islet cells can be implanted in diabetic patients. However, these capsules are millimeters in size and eventually become surrounded by thick scar tissue that blocks the biological signals of islet cells and renders the implant ineffective. Now, thanks to the joint efforts of a team from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University and the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), a new and highly effective microfluidic method for encapsulating single cells in microscale hydrogels sets the stage for a dramatic increase in the specificity of control that can be exerted upon cells and their ability to survive implantation. The research was reported October 31 in the scientific journal Nature Materials. "There's been a tremendous amount of work to try and understand how biomaterials can determine cell function and fate, but the majority of that work has been done in populations of cells," said David Mooney, Ph.D., a Wyss Core Faculty member and the Robert P. Pinkas Family Professor of Bioengineering at SEAS, who is the corresponding author on the new study. "With this work, we take everything we have learned and take it down to the single cell level, enabling us to influence cell behavior on a whole different scale." Mooney teamed with fellow Wyss Core Faculty member David Weitz, Ph.D., who is the Mallingkrodt Professor of Physics and Applied Sciences at Harvard University and SEAS and who is co-author on the study, to achieve the novel microfluidic-based method for encapsulating single cells within microgel capsules. The co-first authors on the study are Angelo Mao, a graduate researcher at Wyss and SEAS, and Jae-Won Shin, Ph.D., who was formerly a Wyss Institute Postdoctoral Fellow and is currently Assistant Professor of Pharmacology and Bioengineering at University of Illinois at Chicago. "This is an exciting and important extension of cell-based biomaterials to the level of single cells, which can then serve both as a precise building block for larger cell structures and as a means of investigating the behavior at the level of single cells, providing unprecedented insight into cell function and properties," said Weitz. Pre-existing single cell encapsulation methods result in relatively large gel capsules -- consisting of a very thick hydrogel layer around encapsulated cells -- in proportion to the size of the cell captured inside. On average, encapsulated cells take up a mere four percent of the volume of these larger capsules, meaning there is an extremely excessive hydrogel layer. And these pre-existing methods often fail to capture cells at all, resulting in many, many empty capsules and therefore an inefficient process. In contrast, the microfluidic-based method described by the Mooney and Weitz team achieves a much thinner hydrogel layer around encapsulated cells. These aptly-called "microgels" have a volume, on average, that consists 40 percent of a single cell and 60 percent hydrogel layer, resulting in a much smaller capsule size. What's more, the method results in formation of far fewer, if any at all, empty capsules. At that small size, microgel-encapsulated cells can be delivered intravenously, opening new pathways for therapeutic interventions to treat cancers, tissue injuries, and a wide variety of immune disorders. With a thinner hydrogel layer between encapsulated cells and the body's environment, cell therapies can exert influence on the body faster, kicking their disease-fighting effects into action sooner. Microgel-encapsulated cells also stand a better chance of thriving inside the body after injection; currently stem cell therapeutics are challenged by how quickly the body clears cells that are injected 'naked'. Yet microgels infused with growth and anti-inflammatory factors could act as life-sustaining rafts for injected cells, ensuring their survival and ability to carry out their therapeutic purpose. As done in pre-existing techniques, the team first coated cells in calcium carbonate nanoparticles, a step that facilitates cell encapsulation when mixed with an alginate polymer solution. But for the first time, before mixing with a polymer solution, the team washed away the nanoparticles that had not adhered to cells using a water and oil emulsion inside a microfluidic device. What remained were predominantly microgel-encapsulated single cells. "Even though each cell is encapsulated in its own individual thin hydrogel layer, the process is extremely fast and can encapsulate one thousand cells per second inside one microfluidic channel," said Mao. The researchers envision that their method can improve cell-based therapies, help explore heterogeneity between cell populations that underlie tumors and other abnormalities, and even enable a paradigm shift in precision tissue engineering. "Mini tissues could plausibly be formed from meticulous cell-by-cell construction, giving us scrupulous control over the composition of engineered tissues that has not been yet been possible," said Shin. The promising development would not have happened without collaboration between Mooney, who is an expert in tissue engineering and biocompatible hydrogels, and Weitz, who is an expert in using 'designer' emulsions inside microfluidic devices to encapsulate active materials drop by drop. "It's really a great example of what can happen at the Wyss when people can ally with colleagues of different expertise and really rally around a shared goal," Mooney said. "Enabling microgel encapsulation of single cells should allow much better integration and vascularization of implanted cellular therapies, for example in treatment of diabetes or Parkinson's disease, and provide new ways to study and control behavior of individual cells both inside and outside our bodies," said Wyss Institute Founding Director Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., who is also the Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School and the Vascular Biology Program at Boston Children's Hospital, as well as Professor of Bioengineering at Harvard SEAS.


News Article | November 19, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Chicago, IL (November 19, 2016) -- Not getting enough quality sleep was linked with worsening kidney function in a study of patients with chronic kidney disease. The findings will be presented at ASN Kidney Week 2016 November 15¬-20 at McCormick Place in Chicago, IL. Although there is increasing evidence that sleep disorders are common in individuals with CKD, its link with CKD progression is unknown. To investigate, Ana C. Ricardo, MD (University of Illinois at Chicago) and her colleagues examined the sleep patterns of 432 adults with CKD. Participants wore a wrist monitor for 5 to 7 days to measure sleep duration and quality, and their health was followed for a median of 5 years. Participants slept an average of 6.5 hours/night, and during follow-up, 70 individuals developed kidney failure and 48 individuals died. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and baseline kidney function, each additional hour of nighttime sleep was linked with a 19% lower risk of developing kidney failure. There was also a significant association between sleep quality and kidney failure risk: each 1% increase in sleep fragmentation was linked with a 4% increase in the risk of developing kidney failure. Also, patients who experienced daytime sleepiness were 10% more likely to die during follow-up than those who were not sleepy during the day. "Short sleep and fragmented sleep are significant, yet unappreciated risk factors for CKD progression," said Dr. Ricardo. "Our research adds to the accumulating knowledge regarding the importance of sleep on kidney function, and underscores the need to design and test clinical interventions to improve sleep habits in individuals with CKD." ASN Kidney Week 2016, the largest nephrology meeting of its kind, will provide a forum for more than 13,000 professionals to discuss the latest findings in kidney health research and engage in educational sessions related to advances in the care of patients with kidney and related disorders. Kidney Week 2016 will take place November 15-20, 2016 in Chicago, IL. The content of this article does not reflect the views or opinions of The American Society of Nephrology (ASN). Responsibility for the information and views expressed therein lies entirely with the author(s). ASN does not offer medical advice. All content in ASN publications is for informational purposes only, and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions, or adverse effects. This content should not be used during a medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Please consult your doctor or other qualified health care provider if you have any questions about a medical condition, or before taking any drug, changing your diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of treatment. Do not ignore or delay obtaining professional medical advice because of information accessed through ASN. Call 911 or your doctor for all medical emergencies. Since 1966, ASN has been leading the fight to prevent, treat, and cure kidney diseases throughout the world by educating health professionals and scientists, advancing research and innovation, communicating new knowledge, and advocating for the highest quality care for patients. ASN has nearly 16,000 members representing 112 countries. For more information, please visit http://www. or contact us at (202) 640-4660.


News Article | August 22, 2016
Site: www.treehugger.com

Carbon dioxide is one of the main culprits of climate change, dramatically warming the Earth as it accumulates in the planet’s atmosphere. Fortunately, scientists have now found a new, beneficial use for carbon dioxide. As part of a new study from Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Illinois at Chicago, researchers developed an artificial leaf that uses solar power to transform CO2 into a fuel source. The leaf mimics the process of photosynthesis that occurs naturally in plants. While plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose (sugar) and oxygen, the artificial leaf converts CO2 into syngas. Syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is a fuel source with 50% of the energy density of natural gas. It can be converted into hydrocarbon fuels like diesel. "In photosynthesis, trees need energy from light, water and carbon dioxide in order to make their fuel," explained Larry Curtiss, one of the authors of the study. "In our experiment, the ingredients are the same, but the product is different." Carbon dioxide is not very chemically reactive, so the reactions that convert CO2 into burnable forms of carbon, known as reduction reactions, require a strong catalyst, a substance that speeds up the reaction rate. “On its own, it is quite difficult to convert carbon dioxide into something else," Curtiss noted. The researchers couldn’t use the same catalysts that plants use during photosynthesis since the reactions are different. Instead, they utilized a compound known as tungsten diselenide (WSe2). WSe2 is about 1,000 times faster and 20 times cheaper than other common catalysts derived from gold or silver, and it lasts for over 100 hours, making it much more durable than many other catalysts used for reduction reactions. This is not the first time that scientists have tried to convert carbon dioxide into fuel. Researchers at the USC Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute previously developed a process for converting the CO2 from air into methanol. After bubbling air through an aqueous solution of a substance known as pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) and adding a catalyst, the researchers heated the solution, ultimately converting 79% of the CO2 from the air into methanol, which could then be used for fuel. Furthermore, last year, scientists at University of California, Berkeley developed a system that utilized nanowires and E. coli bacteria to convert CO2 into chemicals that could be used for biofuel. The process was also used to create biodegradable plastic and amorphadiene, which is a major component of anti-malaria drugs. The process for carbon dioxide reduction that is utilized by the new artificial leaf is more efficient and less expensive than previous processes. “We burn so many different kinds of hydrocarbons — like coal, oil or gasoline — that finding an economical way to make chemical fuels more reusable with the help of sunlight might have a big impact,” explained Peter Zapol, one of the authors of the study. “Instead of producing energy in an unsustainable one-way route from fossil fuels to greenhouse gas, we can now reverse the process and recycle atmospheric carbon into fuel using sunlight,” Amin Salehi-Khojin, another author of the study, explained. If the process proves to be cost effective, fuel created from CO2 may become a major source of energy. Combined with other renewable energy sources like wind power, this solar powered leaf could render fossil fuels obsolete.


News Article | February 27, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Prior to joining Momkus McCluskey Roberts LLC, Ms. McCullough was the principal attorney at The Law Office of Stacey A. McCullough, Ltd. which she founded in 2005. Ms. McCullough has successfully defended the criminally accused in Illinois for over 20 years. She has successfully tried, argued and resolved hundreds of hearings and trials for matters ranging from traffic violations to felonies. Stacey graduated with a B.A. in Criminal Justice with High Honors from the University of Illinois at Chicago. She earned her Juris Doctor degree from Loyola University of Chicago School of Law. Stacey is also a Certified Illinois Municipal Administrative Hearing Officer. She will focus on criminal, juvenile and traffic defense, continue to handle administrative law matters, and bring her litigation skills to the area of family law at Momkus McCluskey Roberts LLC. Stacey’s long-standing dedication to the legal profession has led her to hold numerous leadership roles within the local legal community. She currently serves as the Third Vice President of the DuPage County Bar Association. She has also served on the Association’s Board of Directors, and has chaired the Local Government Committee, Media Committee, and Criminal Law and Practice Committee. Additionally, McCullough has served as President and Treasurer of the DuPage County Criminal Defense Lawyers Association. She is an active member of the Illinois State Bar Association, the DuPage Association of Women Lawyers, and The Illinois Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. Momkus McCluskey Roberts LLC, is a full service law firm providing litigation and business solutions for clients throughout the Chicagoland area and nationwide. The top-rated attorneys at Momkus McCluskey Roberts LLC offer a comprehensive range of legal services for individuals and large and small businesses, including: commercial and civil litigation, business law, real estate, appellate practice, family law, criminal defense, and estate planning. For more information please call 630-434-0400 or visit http://www.momlaw.com/ to speak with a qualified member of our legal team.


CHICAGO, IL--(Marketwired - March 02, 2017) - The John Marshall Law School's Fair Housing Legal Support Center will educate undergraduates during the fall 2017 semester about fair housing and fair lending laws under a grant titled Fair Housing & Fair Lending: The Next Generation from the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.* This is the seventh time John Marshall will offer the course. The grant provides scholarships to students to take the course, which may be counted toward the student's undergraduate degree. The Center is proactively preparing the next generation of advocates to fight the rampant discrimination that continues to exist in housing and in educating citizens about fair-housing laws. Last year, the Center recruited and selected 19 students from the following colleges and universities: Concordia University Chicago, River Forest; Dominican University, River Forest; Elmhurst College, Elmhurst; Northeastern University, Chicago; North Park University, Chicago; Robert Morris University, Chicago; Roosevelt University, Chicago; Triton College, River Grove; and the University of Illinois at Chicago. As a required part of their course work, students will assist the Center staff in making presentations at local schools and to community groups and senior organizations. These presentations are designed to educate other students, professors and community members about housing rights. This program aspect also affords the students opportunities to develop public-speaking skills and to share their knowledge with others. At the end of the course, the Fair Housing Legal Support Center will host a career night for program students and alumni to explore job and career opportunities in civil rights and fair housing. Previous career events included panelists from the U.S. Department of HUD Region V FHEO Office, Illinois Department of Human Rights, Access Living, Chicago Commission on Human Relations, HOPE Fair Housing Center, The John Marshall Law School Fair Housing Legal Clinic, The University of Illinois at Chicago-Department of Urban Planning and Development and the law firm of Gartner & Bondavalli. The Center also assists interested students in obtaining internships with organizations that promote fair housing. Interested students must submit applications by March 31, 2017. To learn more about the Fair Housing & Fair Lending Course, please call Professor Michael Seng at (312) 987-1446, or visit www.jmls.edu/fairhousing *The work that provided the basis for this publication was supported by funding under a grant with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The substance and findings of the work are dedicated to the public. The author and publisher are solely responsible for the accuracy of the statements and interpretations contained in this publication. Such interpretations do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal government.


News Article | October 31, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

(CAMBRIDGE, Massachusetts) - Alginate hydrogels - which are derived from the polysaccharide found in brown seaweed - have emerged as an effective material for manipulating cells and tissues due to their biocompatibility and the ability to tune their mechanical and biochemical properties to match physiological conditions found inside the body. Already they have been demonstrated to influence the differentiation of stem cells, incite immune attacks on cancer cells, and weaken tumors' resistance to chemotherapy, but as of yet, hydrogels have mostly been useful for controlling groups of cells at large rather than individual cells. For example, alginate capsules filled with hundreds of pancreatic islet cells can be implanted in diabetic patients. However, these capsules are millimeters in size and eventually become surrounded by thick scar tissue that blocks the biological signals of islet cells and renders the implant ineffective. Now, thanks to the joint efforts of a team from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University and the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), a new and highly effective microfluidic method for encapsulating single cells in microscale hydrogels sets the stage for a dramatic increase in the specificity of control that can be exerted upon cells and their ability to survive implantation. The research was reported October 31 in the scientific journal Nature Materials. "There's been a tremendous amount of work to try and understand how biomaterials can determine cell function and fate, but the majority of that work has been done in populations of cells," said David Mooney, Ph.D., a Wyss Core Faculty member and the Robert P. Pinkas Family Professor of Bioengineering at SEAS, who is the corresponding author on the new study. "With this work, we take everything we have learned and take it down to the single cell level, enabling us to influence cell behavior on a whole different scale." Mooney teamed with fellow Wyss Core Faculty member David Weitz, Ph.D., who is the Mallingkrodt Professor of Physics and Applied Sciences at Harvard University and SEAS and who is co-author on the study, to achieve the novel microfluidic-based method for encapsulating single cells within microgel capsules. The co-first authors on the study are Angelo Mao, a graduate researcher at Wyss and SEAS, and Jae-Won Shin, Ph.D., who was formerly a Wyss Institute Postdoctoral Fellow and is currently Assistant Professor of Pharmacology and Bioengineering at University of Illinois at Chicago. "This is an exciting and important extension of cell-based biomaterials to the level of single cells, which can then serve both as a precise building block for larger cell structures and as a means of investigating the behavior at the level of single cells, providing unprecedented insight into cell function and properties," said Weitz. Pre-existing single cell encapsulation methods result in relatively large gel capsules - consisting of a very thick hydrogel layer around encapsulated cells - in proportion to the size of the cell captured inside. On average, encapsulated cells take up a mere four percent of the volume of these larger capsules, meaning there is an extremely excessive hydrogel layer. And these pre-existing methods often fail to capture cells at all, resulting in many, many empty capsules and therefore an inefficient process. In contrast, the microfluidic-based method described by the Mooney and Weitz team achieves a much thinner hydrogel layer around encapsulated cells. These aptly-called "microgels" have a volume, on average, that consists 40 percent of a single cell and 60 percent hydrogel layer, resulting in a much smaller capsule size. What's more, the method results in formation of far fewer, if any at all, empty capsules. At that small size, microgel-encapsulated cells can be delivered intravenously, opening new pathways for therapeutic interventions to treat cancers, tissue injuries, and a wide variety of immune disorders. With a thinner hydrogel layer between encapsulated cells and the body's environment, cell therapies can exert influence on the body faster, kicking their disease-fighting effects into action sooner. Microgel-encapsulated cells also stand a better chance of thriving inside the body after injection; currently stem cell therapeutics are challenged by how quickly the body clears cells that are injected 'naked'. Yet microgels infused with growth and anti-inflammatory factors could act as life-sustaining rafts for injected cells, ensuring their survival and ability to carry out their therapeutic purpose. As done in pre-existing techniques, the team first coated cells in calcium carbonate nanoparticles, a step that facilitates cell encapsulation when mixed with an alginate polymer solution. But for the first time, before mixing with a polymer solution, the team washed away the nanoparticles that had not adhered to cells using a water and oil emulsion inside a microfluidic device. What remained were predominantly microgel-encapsulated single cells. "Even though each cell is encapsulated in its own individual thin hydrogel layer, the process is extremely fast and can encapsulate one thousand cells per second inside one microfluidic channel," said Mao. The researchers envision that their method can improve cell-based therapies, help explore heterogeneity between cell populations that underlie tumors and other abnormalities, and even enable a paradigm shift in precision tissue engineering. "Mini tissues could plausibly be formed from meticulous cell-by-cell construction, giving us scrupulous control over the composition of engineered tissues that has not been yet been possible," said Shin. The promising development would not have happened without collaboration between Mooney, who is an expert in tissue engineering and biocompatible hydrogels, and Weitz, who is an expert in using 'designer' emulsions inside microfluidic devices to encapsulate active materials drop by drop. "It's really a great example of what can happen at the Wyss when people can ally with colleagues of different expertise and really rally around a shared goal," Mooney said. "Enabling microgel encapsulation of single cells should allow much better integration and vascularization of implanted cellular therapies, for example in treatment of diabetes or Parkinson's disease, and provide new ways to study and control behavior of individual cells both inside and outside our bodies," said Wyss Institute Founding Director Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., who is also the Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School and the Vascular Biology Program at Boston Children's Hospital, as well as Professor of Bioengineering at Harvard SEAS. The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University uses Nature's design principles to develop bioinspired materials and devices that will transform medicine and create a more sustainable world. Wyss researchers are developing innovative new engineering solutions for healthcare, energy, architecture, robotics, and manufacturing that are translated into commercial products and therapies through collaborations with clinical investigators, corporate alliances, and formation of new startups. The Wyss Institute creates transformative technological breakthroughs by engaging in high risk research, and crosses disciplinary and institutional barriers, working as an alliance that includes Harvard's Schools of Medicine, Engineering, Arts & Sciences and Design, and in partnership with Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston Children's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston University, Tufts University, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, University of Zurich and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences serves as the connector and integrator of Harvard's teaching and research efforts in engineering, applied sciences, and technology. Through collaboration with researchers from all parts of Harvard, other universities, and corporate and foundational partners, we bring discovery and innovation directly to bear on improving human life and society.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Dr Johnson participated in the Salvation Army’s Angel Tree Program in which staff and patients “adopted” children in need over Christmas and purchased a gift for them. In addition, staff decorated christmas trees in various themes and raffled them off to raise money for A Spring of Hope. She opened her doors to the community for free photos with Santa. The event raised funds for A Spring of Hope which brings running water to underprivileged schools in South Africa. A Spring of Hope partners with rural schools in South Africa to deliver fresh, clean water to school children and sustainable permaculture programs. Their goal is to provide them the resources they need to promote learning and promising futures for their students. They begin by drilling boreholes (water wells) at schools, ensuring that each of their schools has access to a clean, sustainable source of water for drinking, sanitation, irrigation, and food preparation. They are supported by House of Mandela; WESSA (people caring for the earth), Rand Water Foundation, ERM Group foundation, South African Airways and Irie Foundation. “2,402 schools in South Africa have no water supply” - Equaleducation.org.za. The world water crisis poses a serious threat to all of our futures, especially those living in poverty. In Sub-Saharan Africa, both the poverty rate and proportion of rural houses not using improved water sources are over 50%. (Source: UN MDG) The availability of clean water dramatically improves health and, hence, productivity. The lack of water in schools and homes is one of the main reasons children in developing areas do not attend school. Water is an investment in the future. Dr Johnson believes that children are our future. In the words of Dr Johnson: “Premier Smile Center is committed to giving back to local and international causes. I believe we can all make a difference in our own way.” She had challenged her patients to donate towards a borehole in one of these schools, this year. She would match every donation, dollar for dollar. The Christmas event topped off the year-long fundraising efforts and Premier Smile Center and its patients were able to raise enough money to drill a borehole in an underprivileged school in rural South Africa. Drilling for water has already started! This is just the beginning for Dr Johnson. A Spring of Hope also teaches these schools to plant vegetable gardens to supplement school meals. Their 3rd effort is sanitation. 11,450 schools still use pit latrine toilets. Combined with a lack of water to wash their hands, disease amongst the children is a major concern. Premier Smile Center is committed to fighting poverty and disease and challenges everyone to help them. About Premier Smile Center: Dr Johnson is originally from South Africa and received her dental degree in 1995. She completed a General Practice Residency at University of Illinois at Chicago. She enjoys working with people and is committed to their comfort and satisfaction. At Premier Smile Center their mission is to provide their patients with excellence in general, cosmetic and specialty dentistry. They emphasize gentle and preventative care so as to help achieve healthy teeth and gums for life. They want everyone to have a healthy, clean and white smile.


Already they have been demonstrated to influence the differentiation of stem cells, incite immune attacks on cancer cells, and weaken tumors' resistance to chemotherapy, but as of yet, hydrogels have mostly been useful for controlling groups of cells at large rather than individual cells. For example, alginate capsules filled with hundreds of pancreatic islet cells can be implanted in diabetic patients. However, these capsules are millimeters in size and eventually become surrounded by thick scar tissue that blocks the biological signals of islet cells and renders the implant ineffective. Now, thanks to the joint efforts of a team from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University and the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), a new and highly effective microfluidic method for encapsulating single cells in microscale hydrogels sets the stage for a dramatic increase in the specificity of control that can be exerted upon cells and their ability to survive implantation. The research was reported October 31 in the scientific journal Nature Materials. "There's been a tremendous amount of work to try and understand how biomaterials can determine cell function and fate, but the majority of that work has been done in populations of cells," said David Mooney, Ph.D., a Wyss Core Faculty member and the Robert P. Pinkas Family Professor of Bioengineering at SEAS, who is the corresponding author on the new study. "With this work, we take everything we have learned and take it down to the single cell level, enabling us to influence cell behavior on a whole different scale." Mooney teamed with fellow Wyss Core Faculty member David Weitz, Ph.D., who is the Mallingkrodt Professor of Physics and Applied Sciences at Harvard University and SEAS and who is co-author on the study, to achieve the novel microfluidic-based method for encapsulating single cells within microgel capsules. The co-first authors on the study are Angelo Mao, a graduate researcher at Wyss and SEAS, and Jae-Won Shin, Ph.D., who was formerly a Wyss Institute Postdoctoral Fellow and is currently Assistant Professor of Pharmacology and Bioengineering at University of Illinois at Chicago. "This is an exciting and important extension of cell-based biomaterials to the level of single cells, which can then serve both as a precise building block for larger cell structures and as a means of investigating the behavior at the level of single cells, providing unprecedented insight into cell function and properties," said Weitz. Pre-existing single cell encapsulation methods result in relatively large gel capsules - consisting of a very thick hydrogel layer around encapsulated cells - in proportion to the size of the cell captured inside. On average, encapsulated cells take up a mere four percent of the volume of these larger capsules, meaning there is an extremely excessive hydrogel layer. And these pre-existing methods often fail to capture cells at all, resulting in many, many empty capsules and therefore an inefficient process. In contrast, the microfluidic-based method described by the Mooney and Weitz team achieves a much thinner hydrogel layer around encapsulated cells. These aptly-called "microgels" have a volume, on average, that consists 40 percent of a single cell and 60 percent hydrogel layer, resulting in a much smaller capsule size. What's more, the method results in formation of far fewer, if any at all, empty capsules. At that small size, microgel-encapsulated cells can be delivered intravenously, opening new pathways for therapeutic interventions to treat cancers, tissue injuries, and a wide variety of immune disorders. With a thinner hydrogel layer between encapsulated cells and the body's environment, cell therapies can exert influence on the body faster, kicking their disease-fighting effects into action sooner. Microgel-encapsulated cells also stand a better chance of thriving inside the body after injection; currently stem cell therapeutics are challenged by how quickly the body clears cells that are injected 'naked'. Yet microgels infused with growth and anti-inflammatory factors could act as life-sustaining rafts for injected cells, ensuring their survival and ability to carry out their therapeutic purpose. As done in pre-existing techniques, the team first coated cells in calcium carbonate nanoparticles, a step that facilitates cell encapsulation when mixed with an alginate polymer solution. But for the first time, before mixing with a polymer solution, the team washed away the nanoparticles that had not adhered to cells using a water and oil emulsion inside a microfluidic device. What remained were predominantly microgel-encapsulated single cells. "Even though each cell is encapsulated in its own individual thin hydrogel layer, the process is extremely fast and can encapsulate one thousand cells per second inside one microfluidic channel," said Mao. The researchers envision that their method can improve cell-based therapies, help explore heterogeneity between cell populations that underlie tumors and other abnormalities, and even enable a paradigm shift in precision tissue engineering. "Mini tissues could plausibly be formed from meticulous cell-by-cell construction, giving us scrupulous control over the composition of engineered tissues that has not been yet been possible," said Shin. The promising development would not have happened without collaboration between Mooney, who is an expert in tissue engineering and biocompatible hydrogels, and Weitz, who is an expert in using 'designer' emulsions inside microfluidic devices to encapsulate active materials drop by drop. "It's really a great example of what can happen at the Wyss when people can ally with colleagues of different expertise and really rally around a shared goal," Mooney said. "Enabling microgel encapsulation of single cells should allow much better integration and vascularization of implanted cellular therapies, for example in treatment of diabetes or Parkinson's disease, and provide new ways to study and control behavior of individual cells both inside and outside our bodies," said Wyss Institute Founding Director Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., who is also the Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School and the Vascular Biology Program at Boston Children's Hospital, as well as Professor of Bioengineering at Harvard SEAS. Explore further: Researchers develop a way to predict how a tumor tissue's physical properties affect its response to chemotherapy drugs More information: Deterministic encapsulation of single cells in thin tunable microgels for niche modelling and therapeutic delivery, Nature Materials (2016) DOI: 10.1038/nmat4781


Lazarov O.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Marr R.A.,Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Neural stem cells are maintained in the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone in the adult mammalian brain throughout life. Neurogenesis is continuous, but its extent is tightly regulated by environmental factors, behavior, hormonal state, age, and brain health. Increasing evidence supports a role for new neurons in cognitive function in rodents. Recent evidence delineates significant similarities and differences between adult neurogenesis in rodents and humans. Being context-dependent, neurogenesis in the human brain might be manifested differently than in the rodent brain. Decline in neurogenesis may play a role in cognitive deterioration, leading to the development of progressive learning and memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses the different observations concerning neurogenesis in the rodent and human brain, and their functional implications for the healthy and diseased brain. © 2013 Lazarov and Marr.


Briones T.L.,Wayne State University | Woods J.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Here we investigated whether changes in neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are possible mechanisms involved in the depression-like symptom during the withdrawal/abstinence period after chronic binge-pattern alcohol consumption given the limited number of studies addressing the link between these factors in the adolescent brain. Forty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study and the experimental protocol started when rats were 25-days old. Rats were assigned to either: (a) ethanol or (b) control group. Animals in each group were further randomized to receive either: BDNF receptor agonist or vehicle. Rats were trained to self-administer ethanol and the binge protocol consisted of daily 30-min experimental sessions 4. h into the dark period for 12. days. Two days after the last drinking session, rats were tested in the sucrose preference test to evaluate anhedonia and the open field test after habituation to evaluate behavioral despair. Our data showed that: (1) self-administration of alcohol in a binge-like pattern causes inebriation as defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and this pattern of alcohol exposure is associated with the development of a depression-like symptom; (2) no significant difference in blood alcohol levels between the two ethanol groups; and (3) chronic binge drinking resulted in the development of a depressive phenotype, decreased survival and neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus, and decreased BDNF effect during the withdrawal period. But the most important finding in our study is that augmenting BDNF actions through the use of tyrosine kinase B (TrkB, a BDNF receptor) agonist restored neurogenesis and abolished the alcohol-induced anhedonia and despair behaviors seen during the withdrawal/abstinence period. Our results suggest that BDNF might be a molecule that can be targeted for interventions in alcoholism-depression co-incidence. © 2013 The Authors.


Stayner L.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Welch L.S.,Center for Construction Research and Training | Lemen R.,Health-U
Annual Review of Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Asbestos-related diseases are still a major public health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that 107,000 people worldwide die each year from mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis. We review what is known about asbestos use, production, and exposure and asbestos-related diseases in the world today, and we offer predictions for the future. Although worldwide consumption of asbestos has decreased, consumption is increasing in many developing countries. The limited data available suggest that exposures may also be high in developing countries. Mesothelioma is still increasing in most European countries and in Japan but has peaked in the United States and Sweden. Although the epidemic of asbestos-related disease has plateaued or is expected to plateau in most of the developed world, little is known about the epidemic in developing countries. It is obvious that increased asbestos use by these countries will result in an increase in asbestos-related diseases in the future. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Thomas D.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Jourd'heuil D.,Albany Medical College
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2012

The S-nitrosation (also referred to as S-nitrosylation) of cysteine residues is an important post-translational protein modification that regulates protein function and cell signaling. The original research articles and reviews in this Forum cover important concepts in protein S-nitrosation and identify key developments and opportunities for progress in this area. Defining the mechanisms by which S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) may be formed and decomposed in cells and tissues, the integration of the biological chemistry associated with nitric oxide (NO) and other derivatives such as nitrite, and the development of new methodologies merging proteomics and direct quantitation are all key issues that we believe would require detailed attention. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


BACKGROUND: Serum infliximab trough levels correlate with efficacy; dose escalation is often beneficial in patients with Crohn's disease who stop responding to infliximab treatment.OBJECTIVE: To carry out a post hoc analysis of A Crohn's Disease Clinical Trial Evaluating Infliximab in a New Long-term Treatment Regimen I (ACCENT I) to evaluate the association between serum infliximab trough levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) after 14 weeks of induction treatment with durable sustained long-term response (Crohn's Disease Activity Index decrease ≥70 points and reduction ≥25% from baseline).DESIGN: ACCENT I was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Week 14 trough levels and CRP percentage decrease from baseline to week 14 were compared between patients with and without durable sustained response through week 54. Sensitivity and specificity were determined to predict durable sustained response. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified optimal cut-off points; logistic regression determined ORs.RESULTS: After induction with 5 mg/kg infliximab, 25% (37/147) and 33% (47/144) of patients sustained week 14 response to infliximab 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively, administered every 8 weeks without dose escalation, through week 54. Median week 14 trough levels of patients with and without durable sustained response to infliximab 5 mg/kg were 4.0 and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively (p=0.0331). Optimal predictors of durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg were week 14 trough level ≥3.5 µg/mL and ≥60% CRP decrease (ORs (95% CI), 3.5 (1.1 to 11.4) and 7.3 (1.4 to 36.7)), respectively, in patients with raised baseline CRP (>8.0 mg/L); area under the ROC curve was 0.75 for both predictors. A ≥3.5 µg/mL week 14 infliximab serum level did not predict durable sustained response to 10 mg/kg maintenance infliximab.CONCLUSIONS: Patients with durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg had higher postinduction trough levels than patients without durable sustained response. Serum infliximab trough levels ≥3.5 µg/mL and ≥60% CRP decrease were significantly associated with durable sustained response. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.


Mishra V.,Argonne National Laboratory | Chatterjee U.,University of Virginia | Campuzano J.C.,Argonne National Laboratory | Campuzano J.C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Norman M.R.,Argonne National Laboratory
Nature Physics | Year: 2014

Cuprates possess a large pseudogap that spans much of their phase diagram1,2. The origin of this pseudogap is as debated as the mechanism for high-temperature superconductivity. In one class of theories, the pseudogap arises from some instability not related to pairing, typically charge, spin or orbital current ordering. Evidence of this has come from a variety of measurements indicating symmetry breaking3-6. On the other side are theories where the pseudogap is associated with pairing. This ranges from preformed pairs7 to resonating valence bond theories where spin singlets become charge coherent. Here, we study pairing in the cuprates by constructing the pair vertex using spectral functions derived from angle-resolved photoemission data. Assuming that the pseudogap is not due to pairing, we find that the superconducting instability is strongly suppressed, in stark contrast to what is actually observed. We trace this suppression to the destruction of the BCS logarithmic singularity from a combination of the pseudogap and lifetime broadening. Our findings strongly support those theories of the cuprates where the pseudogap is instead due to pairing. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Ho R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Papp B.,University of California at Los Angeles | Hoffman J.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Merrill B.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Plath K.,University of California at Los Angeles
Cell Reports | Year: 2013

Wnt signaling is intrinsic to mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Therefore, it is surprising that reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is not strongly enhanced by Wnt signaling. Here, we demonstrate that active Wnt signaling inhibits the early stage of reprogramming to iPSCs, whereas it is required and even stimulating during the late stage. Mechanistically, this biphasic effect of Wnt signaling is accompanied by a change in the requirement of all four of its transcriptional effectors: Tcell factor 1 (Tcf1), Lef1, Tcf3, and Tcf4. For example, Tcf3 and Tcf4 are stimulatory early but inhibitory late in the reprogramming process. Accordingly, ectopic expression of Tcf3 early in reprogramming combined with its loss of function late enables efficient reprogramming in the absence of ectopic Sox2. Together, our data indicate that the stepwise process of reprogramming to iPSCs is critically dependent on the stage-specific control and action of all four Tcfs and Wnt signaling. © 2013 The Authors.


The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome Gale A. Sisney, MD, FACR, Diagnostic Radiologist, to their prestigious organization with her upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. Dr. Gale A. Sisney is a highly trained and qualified radiologist with an extensive expertise in all facets of her work, especially breast imaging. Dr. Sisney has been in practice for more than 23 years and is currently serving patients within Global Radiology Outreach in Madison, Wisconsin. She is also serving patients within Radiology Mammography International. Dr. Sisney attended the University of Illinois at Chicago, graduating with her Medical Degree in 1988. Following her graduation, she subsequently completed her Diagnostic Radiology residency at Northwestern University Medical School, before undertaking her fellowship training in Breast Imaging and Intervention at the Swedish Medical Center: Radiology Imaging Associates. She has earned the coveted title of Fellow of the American College of Radiology. In addition to her clinical practice, Dr. Sisney is a lecturer for Herzing University, providing education and training for medical imaging and radiation therapy professionals. To keep up to date with the latest advances in her field, Dr. Sisney maintains professional memberships with the American College of Radiology, the Radiological Society of North America, the Association for American Women Radiologists, the Society of Breast Imaging, the American Roentgen Ray Society, and the Wisconsin Radiological Society. With her wealth of experience and knowledge, Dr. Sisney has been published extensively, and has appeared on several media, radio, and television broadcasts. Dr. Sisney attributes her success to her persistence. Learn more about Dr. Sisney by reading her upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. FindaTopDoc.com is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics.  Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review.  FindaTopDoc.com features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews and areas of expertise.  A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life.  For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit http://www.findatopdoc.com


News Article | October 31, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

While positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbians have increased over recent decades, a new study led by researchers at IU's Center for Sexual Health Promotion shows attitudes toward bisexual men and women are relatively neutral, if not ambivalent. The study, led by Brian Dodge, associate professor in the Department of Applied Health Science and associate director of the Center for Sexual Health Promotion at Indiana University's School of Public Health-Bloomington, was recently published in PLOS ONE, an open-access, peer-reviewed online journal. Dodge and his colleagues are presenting the data today at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association in Denver, Colorado. The study is only the second to explore attitudes toward bisexual men and women -- those with the capacity for physical, romantic and/or sexual attraction to more than one sex or gender -- in a nationally representative sample. It is also the first to do so with a sample of gay, lesbian and other-identified individuals (pansexual, queer and other identity labels), in addition to those who identify as heterosexuals. The nationally representative sample was taken from the Center for Sexual Health Promotion's 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, one wave of data from an ongoing population-based survey of adults and adolescents in the U.S. "While recent data demonstrates dramatic shifts in attitude (from negative to positive) toward homosexuality, gay/lesbian individuals and same-sex marriage in the U.S., most of these surveys do not ask about attitudes toward bisexuality or bisexual individuals," Dodge said. "And many rely on convenience sampling strategies that are not representative of the general population of the U.S." The study looked at five negative connotations, found in previous studies, associated with bisexual men and women, including the idea that they are confused or in transition regarding their sexual orientation, that they are hypersexual and that they are vectors of sexually transmitted diseases. The research showed that a majority of male and female respondents, more than one-third, were most likely to "neither agree nor disagree" with the attitudinal statements. In regard to bisexual men and women having the capability to be faithful in a relationship, nearly 40 percent neither agreed nor disagreed. Those who identified as "other" had the most positive attitudes toward bisexuality, followed by gay/lesbian respondents and then heterosexuals. Age played a factor in the results, with participants under the age of 25 indicating more positive attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Income and education also played a role: Higher-income participants were more likely to report more positive attitudes toward bisexual men and women, in addition to participants with higher levels of education. Overall, attitudes toward bisexual women were more positive than attitudes toward bisexual men. "While our society has seen marked shifts in more positive attitudes toward homosexuality in recent decades, our data suggest that attitudes toward bisexual men and women have shifted only slightly from very negative to neutral," Dodge said. "That nearly one-third of participants reported moderately to extremely negative attitudes toward bisexual individuals is of great concern given the dramatic health disparities faced by bisexual men and women in our country, even relative to gay and lesbian individuals." Bisexual men and women face a disproportionate rate of physical, mental and other health disparities in comparison to monosexuals -- those who identify as exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual, Dodge said. Although research has not determined the cause, Dodge said that negative attitudes and stigma associated with bisexuality could play a role. Data from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior shows that approximately 2.6 percent of adult men and 3.6 percent of adult women in the U.S. identify as bisexual. For females, that number is more than double the number of women who identify as lesbian, 0.9 percent. When it comes to adolescents, 1.5 percent of male adolescents (age 14 to 17) and 8.4 percent of female adolescents identify as bisexual. Dodge said he hopes the results emphasize the need for efforts to decrease negative stereotypes and increase acceptance of bisexual individuals as a component of broader initiatives aimed at tolerance of sexual and gender minority individuals. "After documenting the absence of positive attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the general U.S. population, we encourage future research, intervention and practice opportunities focused on assessing, understanding and eliminating biphobia -- for example, among clinicians and other service providers -- and determining how health disparities among bisexual men and women can be alleviated," he said. Study collaborators were Debby Herbenick, associate professor in the Department of Applied Health Science and director of the Center for Sexual Health Promotion; Tsung-Chieh (Jane) Fu, Michael Reece, Elizabeth Bartelt and David Pletta from the IU Center for Sexual Health Promotion; M. Reuel Friedman from the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health; Vanessa Schick from the University of Texas Health Science Center; Wendy Bostwick from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Nursing; Miguel Muñoz-Laboy from Temple University School of Social Work; and Theo Sandfort from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. The National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior is funded by an ongoing partnership with Church & Dwight Co. Inc., and supplemental funding for this study was provided by a grant from the IU School of Public Health-Bloomington. The Center for Sexual Health Promotion is a collaborative of sexual health scholars from across the campuses of Indiana University and strategic partner academic institutions around the globe who, in partnership with practitioners from community-based health organizations, government and industry, work toward advancing the field of sexual health through our research, education and training initiatives.


New findings from researchers at Rice University, the University of Illinois at Chicago and the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) suggest that condensed-matter physicists need to rethink how magnetic fluctuations arise in both unconventional and high-temperature superconductors.


News Article | January 20, 2016
Site: www.sciencenews.org

Along the edge of a dried-out lagoon in East Africa, researchers have discovered skeletal relics of the oldest known instance of small-scale warfare. In a planned assault, attackers killed 12 hunter-gatherers between around 9,500 and 10,500 years ago, say biological anthropologist Marta Mirazón Lahr of the University of Cambridge and her colleagues. The skeletons unearthed at Nataruk, a site located near Kenya’s Lake Turkana, show that ancient hunter-gatherers were capable of deadly group raids, a precursor of the more complex forms of war launched by societies and nations, the scientists report online January 20 in Nature. “Lethal raids by competing groups were part of life for hunter-gatherer communities at the time of the Nataruk attack,” Lahr says. The new report adds to the debate over whether war originated tens of thousands of years ago or relatively recently (SN: 8/10/13, p. 10). Lahr’s report “is another nail in the coffin of the false idea that mobile hunter-gatherer bands are pacifists,” says anthropologist Lawrence Keeley of the University of Illinois at Chicago. Evidence of lethal raiding by many modern hunter-gatherers, along with the Nataruk evidence, supports the view that warfare occurred among similarly nomadic bands of Stone Age people, perhaps by around 60,000 years ago, Keeley contends. Biological anthropologist Christian Meyer of the University of Mainz says the new findings “support the notion that serious intergroup conflict might be as ancient as group identity itself.” Group identity, or a shared sense of belonging to a group, is tough to glean from ancient stones and bones. Some researchers suspect that marriages between men and women from neighboring bands of hunter-gatherers fostered alliances and group identities among human ancestors as early as 2 million years ago (SN: 4/9/11, p. 13). If so, small-scale warfare originated long before the Nataruk attack, says Meyer, who has studied a 7,000-year-old massacre at a farming village (SN: 9/19/15, p. 8). Anthropologist Douglas Fry of the University of Alabama at Birmingham disagrees. Group conflicts arose approximately 10,000 years ago as some hunter-gatherers established long-term camps in areas with abundant food and water, he argues. Population growth ensued, as did competition for resources, in his view. That’s probably what inspired the Nataruk attack, Fry says. At the time of the attack, Nataruk was located in a lush, lake-studded part of East Africa. Excavations by Lahr’s team at Nataruk and more than a dozen nearby sites indicate that the region was an attractive place to live between about 11,500 and 8,000 years ago. Back then, Lake Turkana extended about 30 kilometers southwest of its current boundary. Nataruk was probably situated a few kilometers from the lake, near a lagoon where the ancient attack victims were found. Fossil finds by Lahr’s team show that a wide variety of animals once lived in and around Lake Turkana, including elephants, antelopes, fish and lions. At a site called Kalakoel 4, located about three kilometers from Nataruk, Lahr’s team has found human bones and pottery fragments from around the time of the ancient attack. Kalakoel 4 was a temporary camp where people returned with some of what they had hunted and gathered in places such as Nataruk, Lahr speculates. A local Turkana man first noticed broken human bones on the surface of the former lagoon. He led Lahr to the site in August 2012. Age estimates for 12 excavated human skeletons came from radiocarbon analyses of soil, shells and burned wood at Nataruk and nearby sites, as well two other bone and soil dating methods. Ten skeletons contained evidence of lethal wounds. Five, and possibly six, individuals displayed probable arrow wounds to the head and neck. Five people had been hit with a clublike implement, three between the face and left ear. Clubs of at least two sizes were used, a sign that there were multiple attackers. Two of three stone arrow points found among the skeletons were made of obsidian. Obsidian is rare in the Nataruk vicinity, Lahr says, so the attackers probably came from elsewhere. Both undamaged skeletons were found with their hands crossed. These individuals were probably bound and killed along with their comrades, Lahr says.


The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome George E. Barsa, DDS, Dentist to their prestigious organization with his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. Dr. George E. Barsa is a highly trained and qualified dentist with an extensive expertise in all facets of his work, especially cosmetic dentistry. Dr. Barsa has 11 years of experience in his field and is currently serving patients within his own private practice, Confident Smiles, located in Chicago, Illinois. Dr. George E. Barsa has a previous DMD from Damascus University from 2006 and graduated with his Doctor of Dental Surgery Degree in 2012 from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry with honor and is a member of OKU(Omicron Kappa Upsilon). Since his graduation, he has completed many advanced training courses to stay up to date with the latest advancements in dental techniques, practices, and technologies and with time he became the President Elect of The Chicago Dental Society West Side Branch. Furthermore, Dr. Barsa has attended and participated in a number of conferences. He maintains professional memberships with the American Dental Association, the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry, the Illinois State Dental Society, and the Chicago Dental Society. He is dedicated to ensuring that his patients are free of pain and discomfort, providing the highest level of quality care to create a smile that will improve their overall health, self esteem, and confidence. In his free time, Dr. Barsa enjoys hiking, biking, reading, watching movies, and spending time with his wife. Learn more about Dr. Barsa here: http://confidentsmileschicago.com/ and be sure to read his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. FindaTopDoc.com is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics.  Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review.  FindaTopDoc.com features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews and areas of expertise.  A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life.  For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit http://www.findatopdoc.com


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

BIRMINGHAM, Ala.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--DirectPath, the industry leader in employee engagement, health care transparency and compliance, today announced two strategic appointments to its transparency and advocacy division, underscoring its ongoing commitment to enabling employee engagement around open enrollment while advocating for employees with transparent costs information year-round. The new appointments include Bridget Lipezker, who will serve as senior vice president and general manager, and Jane Cooper, who will serve as senior vice president of strategy. Leveraging their deep health care industry expertise, Lipezker and Cooper will together offer employer customers and broker partners the insights and tools needed to control health care costs, from plan options to treatment comparisons. In the face of rising health care costs and complex, rapidly-evolving regulatory conditions, employers are searching for transparency and advocacy services that empower their employees to make more informed decisions about their health care spending. DirectPath acquired Patient Care, a leading provider of health care transparency and advocacy, in January 2017 to deliver on this demand and offer employers a complete solution for reducing health care costs by adding to its strategic employee engagement and compliance services. Cooper, who was founder, president and CEO of Patient Care, brings to DirectPath invaluable knowledge about the health care transparency and advocacy market, as well as unparalleled insights into how employers can glean the most value from these services. Lipezker's proven track record implementing best-in-class health care solutions for large employers is indispensable in operationalizing DirectPath's new business unit. "Under Bridget and Jane's leadership, we're confident our transparency and advocacy division will grow substantially in 2017," said Michael Byers, executive chairman, DirectPath. "The demand for health care transparency and advocacy is very real–and growing. By tapping individuals who are engrained in both employer and employee health care challenges, we are well-positioned to deliver even greater value to our customers in the months and years ahead." Prior to DirectPath, Lipezker led the professional services team at HighRoads. Before that, she was a senior manager in the Deloitte Consulting Human Capital service area, where she provided strategic solutions to global and national clients facing transformational change and complex business opportunities related to globalization, intense regulatory environments and health care reform. Lipezker holds a Master's of Science in Business Administration from the University of Illinois at Chicago and a Bachelor of Science in Public Administration from Indiana University Bloomington. "Health care is extremely complicated," said Lipezker. "At a time when health care literacy is at an all time low, it's imperative that employers offer their employees services to help them better understand their options so they choose plans and treatments that deliver quality care at affordable costs. With its new transparency and advocacy unit, DirectPath has a huge market opportunity – one that I'm eager to help spearhead." Cooper joined DirectPath in January 2017 through its acquisition of Patient Care. At Patient Care, she drove the company's growth to more than one million members and helped it become an industry leader in health care transparency and advocacy. She has more than 25 years of experience in the health care industry, and has started and led five health care companies since the early 1980s. Cooper is a graduate of the Augustana College and holds a Master's of Speech and Communication from Western Illinois University. "I am passionate about making sure employees have the information they need to make smart decisions about health care plan options and treatment," said Cooper. "DirectPath's commitment to educating and engaging employees on their health care options is inspiring, and I'm grateful for the opportunity to bring greater transparency and advocacy to employees across North America." About DirectPath: DirectPath is an industry leader in strategic employee engagement, health care transparency and compliance for Fortune 1000 employers. Its customers experience significant ROI on their benefits investments through increased employee participation, management of the evolving regulatory environment and reduced cost through efficient benefits plan management technology. DirectPath is headquartered in Birmingham with offices throughout the country. For more information, visit the DirectPath website and follow the company on Twitter.


Goldberg E.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lancaster L.T.,National Center for Ecological Analysis And Synthesis | Ree R.H.,Field Museum of Natural History
Systematic Biology | Year: 2011

Geographic characters-traits describing the spatial distribution of a species-may both affect and be affected by processes associated with lineage birth and death. This is potentially confounding to comparative analyses of species distributions because current models do not allow reciprocal interactions between the evolution of ranges and the growth of phylogenetic trees. Here, we introduce a likelihood-based approach to estimating region-dependent rates of speciation, extinction, and range evolution from a phylogeny, using a new model in which these processes are interdependent. We demonstrate the method with simulation tests that accurately recover parameters relating to the mode of speciation and source-sink dynamics. We then apply it to the evolution of habitat occupancy in Californian plant communities, where we find higher rates of speciation in chaparral than in forests and evidence for expanding habitat tolerances. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved.


Karpov E.G.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Nedrygailov I.,University of Duisburg - Essen
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

Nonadiabatic energy dissipation by electron subsystem of nanostructured solids unveil interesting opportunities for the solid-state energy conversion and sensor applications. We found that planar Pt/GaP and Pd/GaP Schottky structures with nanometer thickness metallization demonstrates a nonadiabatic channel for the conversion into electricity the energy of a catalytic hydrogen-to-water oxidation process on the metal layer surface. The observed above thermal current greatly complements the usual thermionic emission current and its magnitude is linearly proportional to the rate of formation and desorption of product water molecules from the nanostructure surface. The possibilities of utilizing the nonadiabatic functionality in chemical-to-electrical energy conversion devices are discussed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Mazumder S.K.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Sarkar T.,Fairchild Semiconductor
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper outlines and demonstrates a novel optically activated gate control (OAGC) mechanism that can dynamically affect power-converter switching loss, dv/dt and di/dt stresses, and electromagnetic emission at the device level by controlling the switching dynamics of the power semiconductor device (PSD) via modulation of its excitation current using a GaAs-based optically triggered power transistor (OTPT). Further, due to conductivity modulation of the OTPT using direct photogeneration, the switching initiation delay using the OTPT-based OAGC approach is almost negligible, as compared to prevalent fiber-optics-based techniques for power electronics. Starting with a description of the basic mechanism of the OAGC and how it differs from other active-gate-control-based approaches, this paper outlines the implementation of the OAGC (including the design of the GaAs-based OTPT) and the mechanism for controlling the PSD turn-on an turn- off dynamics by varying the optical intensity of the OTPT. Subsequently, the fundamental parameter, linking the control of the OTPT and its impact on the performance parameters of the power converter, is identified and the correlation is experimentally demonstrated. Finally, to address the mutually opposing dependence of switching loss, and dv/dt and di/dt stresses on the optical intensity of the OTPT, a joint optimization mechanism is outlined and its outcome is experimentally demonstrated. © 2011 IEEE.


Parashar V.,Rutgers University | Aggarwal C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Federle M.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Neiditch M.B.,Rutgers University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Peptide pheromone cell - cell signaling (quorum sensing) regulates the expression of diverse developmental phenotypes (including virulence) in Firmicutes, which includes common human pathogens, e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cytoplasmic transcription factors known as "Rgg proteins" are peptide pheromone receptors ubiquitous in Firmicutes. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of a Streptococcus Rgg protein alone and in complex with a tight-binding signaling antagonist, the cyclic undecapeptide cyclosporin A. To our knowledge, these represent the first Rgg protein X-ray crystal structures. Based on the results of extensive structure - function analysis, we reveal the peptide pheromone-binding site and the mechanism by which cyclosporin A inhibits activation of the peptide pheromone receptor. Guided by the Rgg - cyclosporin A complex structure, we predicted that the non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin A analog valspodar would inhibit Rgg activation. Indeed, we found that, like cyclosporin A, valspodar inhibits peptide pheromone activation of conserved Rgg proteins in medically relevant Streptococcus species. Finally, the crystal structures presented here revealed that the Rgg protein DNA-binding domains are covalently linked across their dimerization interface by a disulfide bond formed by a highly conserved cysteine. The DNA-binding domain dimerization interface observed in our structures is essentially identical to the interfaces previously described for other members of the XRE DNA-binding domain family, but the presence of an intermolecular disulfide bond buried in this interface appears to be unique. We hypothesize that this disulfide bond may, under the right conditions, affect Rgg monomer - dimer equilibrium, stabilize Rgg conformation, or serve as a redox-sensitive switch. ©2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.


Johnson J.A.,University of Florida | Cavallari L.H.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2013

The past decade has seen tremendous advances in our understanding of the genetic factors influencing response to a variety of drugs, including those targeted at treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the case of clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins, the literature has become sufficiently strong that guidelines are now available describing the use of genetic information to guide treatment with these therapies, and some health centers are using this information in the care of their patients. There are many challenges in moving from research data to translation to practice; we discuss some of these barriers and the approaches some health systems are taking to overcome them. The body of literature that has led to the clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotyping for clopidogrel, VKORC1, CYP2C9; and CYP4F2 for warfarin; and SLCO1B1 for statins is comprehensively described. We also provide clarity for other genes that have been extensively studied relative to these drugs, but for which the data are conflicting. Finally, we comment briefly on pharmacogenetics of other cardiovascular drugs and highlight β-blockers as the drug class with strong data that has not yet seen clinical implementation. It is anticipated that genetic information will increasingly be available on patients, and it is important to identify those examples where the evidence is sufficiently robust and predictive to use genetic information to guide clinical decisions. The reviewherein provides several examples of the accumulation of evidence and eventual clinical translation in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics. © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Dasgupta B.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Desai D.,Rutgers University
Journal of Computer and System Sciences | Year: 2013

Given a graph of interactions, a module (also called a community or cluster) is a subset of nodes whose fitness is a function of the statistical significance of the pairwise interactions of nodes in the module. The topic of this paper is a model-based community finding approach, commonly referred to as modularity clustering, that was originally proposed by Newman (Leicht and Newman, 2008 [25]) and has subsequently been extremely popular in practice (e.g., see Agarwal and Kempe, 2008 [1], Guimer'a et al., 2007 [20], Newman, 2006 [28], Newman and Girvan, 2004 [30], Ravasz et al., 2002 [32]). Various heuristic methods are currently employed for finding the optimal solution. However, as observed in Agarwal and Kempe (2008) [1], the exact computational complexity of this approach is still largely unknown. To this end, we initiate a systematic study of the computational complexity of modularity clustering. Due to the specific quadratic nature of the modularity function, it is necessary to study its value on sparse graphs and dense graphs separately. Our main results include a (1+ε)-inapproximability for dense graphs and a logarithmic approximation for sparse graphs. We make use of several combinatorial properties of modularity to get these results. These are the first non-trivial approximability results beyond the NP-hardness results in Brandes et al. (2007) [10]. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 69.95K | Year: 2010

The goal of the proposed research is the development of a high-volume, low-cost manufacturing along with a novel deposition process that enables fabrication of a structural-state electronic system-on film. This hybrid electronic system contains a multifunctional sensor suite that can measure a structure's static (such as deformation, stress and strain) and dynamic state (such as slow or under acceleration). This electronic system consists of SSM patches that have been populated with sensors that have been solution-processed onto a flexible substrate. During the 7-month base Phase I effort, NextGen and UIC will develop (1) a high-volume manufacturing process, (2) a novel deposition approach for fabricated high-performance sensors, and (3) an electronic system on film. During Phase II, the design, fabrication, and testing of an array of organic strain sensors will be accomplished. Whereas in Phase I, the structural state sensing device or strain sensor was a laboratory test article, the Phase II product will be a strain sensor prototype array with more specific application performance requirements. The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) during Phase I will be elevated from a 2 to a 3. A Phase II effort would increase all three technologies to a TRL of 5.


News Article | December 11, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

The St. Charles family law firm of Goostree Law Group, P.C. is pleased to announce that the Leading Lawyers Network has recognized Attorneys Jeffrey D. Muntz and Robin Zandri for their professional excellence and customer service. Muntz was named a 2016 Emerging Lawyer, and Zandri has earned the title of Leading Lawyer. They join Partner Tricia D. Goostree, who was also named a Leading Lawyer, and Attorney Anthony J. Giudice, who was recognized as an Emerging Lawyer earlier this year. The Leading Lawyers Network is a division of the Law Bulletin Publishing Company. The “Leading Lawyers” distinction places attorneys among the top family law practitioners in the state of Illinois. On an annual basis, five percent of attorneys in each state are selected as Leading Lawyers based on peer surveys and a formal review process conducted by the organization’s Advisory Board. St. Charles Attorney Jeffrey D. Muntz is an equity partner at Goostree Law Group, P.C. He graduated from Saint Ambrose University with a B.A. in Business Management and Organizations, and went on to obtain his J.D. from Valparaiso University School of Law. He primarily concentrates his practice in family law matters including divorce and complex divorce, spousal maintenance, child custody and visitation, child support, paternity, and litigation. Prior to joining Goostree Law Group, P.C., Muntz worked as a prosecutor at the DuPage County State’s Attorney’s Office. In 2006, he was named the county’s “Outstanding Misdemeanor Prosecutor.” Muntz is a certified Guardian ad Litem, and is an active member of the Illinois State Bar Association, the Kane County Bar Association, and the DuPage County Bar Association. Muntz was named a 2016 “10 Best Attorney” in the practice areas of criminal law and family law. St. Charles Lawyer Robin Zandri is a partner at Goostree Law Group, P.C. She brings over 20 years of family law experience to the firm. She graduated with a B.S. degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago, and went onto attend Northern Illinois University College of Law, where she graduated Magna Cum Laude with her Juris Doctorate. Zandri focuses her legal practice in family law, more specifically, on matters pertaining to spousal maintenance, child custody, visitation, paternity, and adoption. She is also a veteran litigator with extensive experience in handling complex divorce matters. Zandri is a member of the Kane County Bar Association, and the DuPage County Bar Association. This year she was named a “10 Best Attorney” by the American Institute of Family Law Attorneys, and is rated as a “Top Divorce and Family Law Attorney on AVVO. Goostree Law Group, P.C. is located in St. Charles, Illinois. The premier Northern Illinois family law firm represents individuals and families located throughout the suburbs of Chicago including the cities of: St. Charles, Batavia, Geneva, Oswego, Aurora, and Wheaton. The experienced litigators at Goostree Law Group, P.C. handle a wide-range of legal matters including: divorce, child custody, child support, property division, adoption, paternity, spousal maintenance, and domestic violence. If you are seeking compassionate and effective family law representation contact Goostree Law Group, P.C. today. Call 630-584-4800 or visit the firm’s website at http://www.familydivorcelaw.com to schedule a free initial consultation.


News Article | December 1, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

ROOTSTOWN, OH--Researchers at NEOMED have just identified a major connection between areas of the brainstem - the ancient area that controls mood, sleep and metabolism - and detrimental changes to bone in a preclinical model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study, titled "Early Evidence of Low Bone Density and Decreased Serotonergic Synthesis in the Dorsal Raphe of a Tauopathy Model of Alzheimer's Disease," is led by Christine Dengler-Crish, Ph.D., assistant professor of pharmaceutical sciences, and anatomy and neurobiology, and will be published in the upcoming issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, an international multidisciplinary journal that reports progress in understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment of Alzheimer's. More than five million Americans are living with Alzheimer's disease. Along with being the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S., Alzheimer's has major social, emotional and financial consequences for patients and their families. Incurable and seemingly unstoppable, less than 5 percent of AD cases are due to a clear genetic reason, so it is hard to predict who will be at risk for acquiring this devastating disease. Dr. Dengler-Crish and her research team that included graduate students Matthew Smith (NEOMED) and Gina Wilson (Kent State University) report that early reductions in bone mineral density (BMD) that occur in a preclinical model of AD are due to degeneration in an area of the brainstem that produces the majority of the brain's serotonin -- a neurochemical that controls mood and sleep, which are two processes that are also affected early in AD. One's bones may be one of the earliest indicators of brain degeneration in Alzheimer's disease Reduced BMD, which sometimes leads to osteoporosis, translates to increased bone fracture risk, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality for AD patients. Furthermore, Dr. Dengler-Crish's research suggests that early bone loss and serotonin deficiency in AD may tell us something very important about how we approach diagnosing and treating this disease. "Measurement of bone density, which is routinely performed in the clinic, could serve as a useful biomarker for assessing AD risk in our aging population," notes Dr. Dengler-Crish. "The findings of this study motivate us to explore the serotonin system as a potential new therapeutic target for this devastating disease." Dengler-Crish, who received her bachelor's degree from Baldwin Wallace University, her master's in psychology from the University of Illinois at Chicago and her Ph.D. in neuroscience from Vanderbilt University, has now been named an associate editor for the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. She is excited to facilitate the work of other scientists in this important area. "I am thrilled to be able to assist the publication of researchers' innovative work, here and across the world, that is desperately needed to combat these currently incurable chronic diseases. Now more than ever, there is hope that we soon will be able to slow, stop or reverse the progression of these destructive neurodegenerative conditions." "This is extremely exciting and has significant translational potential and relevance to early detection of the disease," noted Jason R Richardson, Ph.D., DABT, director for Neurodegenerative Disease and Aging Research at NEOMED. NEOMED's research focuses on five major areas: Auditory Neuroscience; Community-Based Mental Health; Metabolic and Cardiovascular Disease; Musculoskeletal Biology; and the recently launched Neurodegenerative Disease and Aging, which focuses on Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and glaucoma. Dr. Dengler-Crish's research bridges two of these areas, Musculoskeletal Biology and Neurodegenerative Disease and Aging, highlighting the unique collaborative nature of work at NEOMED. For more on Dr. Dengler-Crish's work, see http://www. or http://loop. For more than 40 years, Northeast Ohio Medical University (NEOMED) has worked in collaboration with its educational, clinical and research partners to successfully train health professionals and medical researchers who serve and impact the region and beyond. The University trains students in a team-based, interprofessional environment and offers Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.), and graduate research degrees in biomedical sciences. http://www. .


CHICAGO, IL, December 01, 2016-- Dick Weldon Simpson has been included in Marquis Who's Who. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.Dr. Simpson has been a prominent member of the faculty at the University of Illinois at Chicago since 1967. He initially joined the school as an instructor, teaching in the area of political science. After advancing to the roles of assistant professor and associate professor of political science, Dr. Simpson has served as a full professor since 1996. He was also the head of the school's Department of Political Science from 2006 to 2012. Prior to beginning his tenure at the University of Illinois at Chicago, Dr. Simpson was a foreign area fellow for the Ford Foundation in Africa.In addition to his roles in academia, Dr. Simpson is a past executive director of the Institute of Church and Urban-Industrial Society and was an elected Alderman on the Chicago City Council from 1971-1979, leading the opposition bloc to Mayors Richard J. Daley and Michael Bilandic. He was also a candidate for Congress in 1992 and 1994. He is also widely published in the areas of urban politics, elections, state and local politics, neighborhood empowerment, and public corruption. His most recent work is "Winning Elections in the 21st Century," co-authored with Betty O'Shaughnessy and published in 2016. Further, he has two books slated for publication in 2017: "To Change the World" and "Teaching Civic Engagement across the Disciplines." Dr. Simpson's previous publications include "African Democracy and Development," published in 2012, "Struggle for Power in Cities and States," published in 2009, and "Inside Urban Politics," published in 2004. Moreover, he has served as producer and political adviser to eight documentary films, including 2006's "Teaching Politics."Over the course of his career, Dr. Simpson has also remained active with a number of professional organizations such as the American Political Science Association, the Midwest Political Science Association, and the Society of Midland Authors. He is a past president of the Illinois Political Science Association. Dr. Simpson has parlayed his expertise to a number of civic organizations and causes over the years as well. His experience in public service in government has translated well to his work on the page and in the classroom.After earning a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Texas in 1963, Dr. Simpson continued his education at Indiana University Bloomington. There, he received a Master of Arts in 1964 and a Ph.D. in 1968. Later in his career, Dr. Simpson obtained a Master of Divinity from McCormick Theological Seminary in 1984.Dr. Simpson has received several awards and formal honors for his professional efforts and endeavors, including a Lifetime Achievement Award from Marquis Who's Who for excellence in political science education, and an Excellence in Teaching Award from the American Political Science Association in 2002. He also received Excellence in Teaching Awards from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1971, 1997, 2002 and 2004. His accomplishments were taken into consideration when he was chosen to be featured in the 55th through 70th editions of Who's Who in America, the 6th edition of Who's Who in American Education, the 26th edition of Who's Who in American Politics, the 23rd edition of Who's Who in the Midwest, and the 27th edition of Who's Who in the World.Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America', Marquis Who's Who' has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America' remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis' now publishes many Who's Who titles, including Who's Who in America', Who's Who in the World', Who's Who in American Law', Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare', Who's Who in Science and Engineering', and Who's Who in Asia'. Marquis' publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who' website at www.marquiswhoswho.com


Clark N.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lynch J.P.,Critical Care Medicine
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2011

Influenza A and B are important causes of respiratory illness in all age groups. Influenza causes seasonal outbreaks globally and, less commonly, pandemics. In the United States, seasonal influenza epidemics account for >200,000 hospitalizations and >30,000 deaths annually. More than 90% of deaths occur in the elderly population. Interestingly, in the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, attack rates were highest among children and young adults. Fewer than 10% of cases occurred in adults >60 years old, likely because preexisting antibodies against other H1N1 viruses afforded protection. Despite concerns about a high lethality rate with the novel 2009 H1N1 strain, most illnesses caused by the 2009 H1N1 viruses were mild (overall case fatality rate <0.5%). Clinical features of influenza infection overlap with other respiratory pathogens (particularly viruses). The diagnosis is often delayed due to low suspicion and the limited use of specific diagnostic tests. Rapid diagnostic tests are widely available and allow detection of influenza antigen in respiratory secretions within 1 hour; however, sensitivity ranges from 50 to 90%. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) (eg, oseltamivir and zanamivir) are effective for treating influenza A or B and for prophylaxis in selected adults and children. Resistance to NAIs is rare, but influenza strains resistant to oseltamivir have been detected. Vaccines are the cornerstone of influenza control. Currently, trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) are available. These agents reduce mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients (i.e., the elderly or patients with comorbidities), and expanding the use of vaccines to healthy children and adults reduces the incidence of influenza, pneumonia, and hospitalizations due to respiratory illnesses in the community. Copyright © 2011 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.


Friedland S.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Gheorghiu V.,University of Calgary | Gheorghiu V.,University of Waterloo | Gour G.,University of Calgary
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Uncertainty relations are a distinctive characteristic of quantum theory that impose intrinsic limitations on the precision with which physical properties can be simultaneously determined. The modern work on uncertainty relations employs entropic measures to quantify the lack of knowledge associated with measuring noncommuting observables. However, there is no fundamental reason for using entropies as quantifiers; any functional relation that characterizes the uncertainty of the measurement outcomes defines an uncertainty relation. Starting from a very reasonable assumption of invariance under mere relabeling of the measurement outcomes, we show that Schur-concave functions are the most general uncertainty quantifiers. We then discover a fine-grained uncertainty relation that is given in terms of the majorization order between two probability vectors, significantly extending a majorization-based uncertainty relation first introduced in M. H. Partovi, Phys. Rev. A 84, 052117 (2011). Such a vector-type uncertainty relation generates an infinite family of distinct scalar uncertainty relations via the application of arbitrary uncertainty quantifiers. Our relation is therefore universal and captures the essence of uncertainty in quantum theory. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Orelle C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Orelle C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Carlson E.D.,Northwestern University | Szal T.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 3 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

The ribosome is a ribonucleoprotein machine responsible for protein synthesis. In all kingdoms of life it is composed of two subunits, each built on its own ribosomal RNA (rRNA) scaffold. The independent but coordinated functions of the subunits, including their ability to associate at initiation, rotate during elongation, and dissociate after protein release, are an established model of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the bipartite nature of the ribosome is presumed to be essential for biogenesis, since dedicated assembly factors keep immature ribosomal subunits apart and prevent them from translation initiation. Free exchange of the subunits limits the development of specialized orthogonal genetic systems that could be evolved for novel functions without interfering with native translation. Here we show that ribosomes with tethered and thus inseparable subunits (termed Ribo-T) are capable of successfully carrying out protein synthesis. By engineering a hybrid rRNA composed of both small and large subunit rRNA sequences, we produced a functional ribosome in which the subunits are covalently linked into a single entity by short RNA linkers. Notably, Ribo-T was not only functional in vitro, but was also able to support the growth of Escherichia coli cells even in the absence of wild-type ribosomes. We used Ribo-T to create the first fully orthogonal ribosome-messenger RNA system, and demonstrate its evolvability by selecting otherwise dominantly lethal rRNA mutations in the peptidyl transferase centre that facilitate the translation of a problematic protein sequence. Ribo-T can be used for exploring poorly understood functions of the ribosome, enabling orthogonal genetic systems, and engineering ribosomes with new functions. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Chauhan N.B.,Neuroscience Research | Chauhan N.B.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health concern and a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Each year, an estimated 1.7 million Americans sustain TBI of which ∼52,000 people die, ∼275,000 people are hospitalized and 1,365,000 people are treated as emergency outpatients. Currently there are ∼5.3 million Americans living with TBI. TBI is more of a disease process than of an event that is associated with immediate and long-term sensomotor, psychological and cognitive impairments. TBI is the best known established epigenetic risk factor for later development of neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. People sustaining TBI are ∼4 times more likely to develop dementia at a later stage than people without TBI. Single brain injury is linked to later development of symptoms resembling Alzheimer's disease while repetitive brain injuries are linked to later development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and/or Dementia Pugilistica (DP). Furthermore, genetic background of ß-amyloid precursor protein (APP), Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), presenilin (PS) and neprilysin (NEP) genes is associated with exacerbation of neurodegenerative process after TBI. This review encompasses acute effects and chronic neurodegenerative consequences after TBI. © 2014 - IOS Press.


Vajaranant T.S.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Pasquale L.R.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
Menopause | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive review on hormone-based pathophysiology of aging of the optic nerve and glaucoma, including a literature review and expert opinions. Glaucoma, a group of intraocular pressure-related optic neuropathies, is characterized by the slow progressive neurodegeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons, resulting in irreversible visual sensitivity loss and blindness. Increasing evidence suggests that glaucoma represents the accelerated aging of the optic nerve and is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. This review highlights the high burden of glaucoma in older women and the importance of understanding the hormone-related pathophysiology of optic nerve aging and glaucoma in women. Strong epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence supports the proposed hypothesis that early loss of estrogen leads to premature aging and increased susceptibility of the optic nerve to glaucomatous damage. Future investigations into the hormone-related mechanisms of aging and glaucoma will support the development of novel sex-specific preventive and therapeutic strategies in glaucoma. © 2012 by The North American Menopause Society.


Chronis-Tuscano A.,University of Maryland University College | Stein M.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
CNS Drugs | Year: 2012

Given the high heritability of the disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common among parents of children with ADHD. Parental ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting, negative parent-child interaction patterns and a diminished response to behavioural parent training. We describe our previous research demonstrating that stimulant medications for mothers with ADHD are associated with reductions in maternal ADHD symptoms. Although limited beneficial effects on self-reported parenting were also found in our study, the impact of ADHD medications on functional outcomes related to parenting and family interactions may not be sufficient for many families. Many questions remain with regard to how best to treat multiplex ADHD families in which a parent and child have ADHD. In particular, future studies are needed: (1) to evaluate how best to sequence pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment for adult ADHD and behavioural parenting interventions; (2) to determine the best approach to maintaining treatment effects over the long term for both parents and children; and (3) to identify individual predictors of treatment response. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved.


Chaloupka F.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Yurekli A.,World Health Organization | Fong G.T.,University of Waterloo
Tobacco Control | Year: 2012

Background Increases in tobacco taxes are widely regarded as a highly effective strategy for reducing tobacco use and its consequences. Methods The voluminous literature on tobacco taxes is assessed, drawing heavily from seminal and recent publications reviewing the evidence on the impact of tobacco taxes on tobacco use and related outcomes, as well as that on tobacco tax administration. Results Well over 100 studies, including a growing number from low-income and middle-income countries, clearly demonstrate that tobacco excise taxes are a powerful tool for reducing tobacco use while at the same time providing a reliable source of government revenues. Significant increases in tobacco taxes that increase tobacco product prices encourage current tobacco users to stop using, prevent potential users from taking up tobacco use, and reduce consumption among those that continue to use, with the greatest impact on the young and the poor. Global experiences with tobacco taxation and tax administration have been used by WHO to develop a set of 'best practices' for maximising the effectiveness of tobacco taxation. Conclusions Significant increases in tobacco taxes are a highly effective tobacco control strategy and lead to significant improvements in public health. The positive health impact is even greater when some of the revenues generated by tobacco tax increases are used to support tobacco control, health promotion and/or other health-related activities and programmes. In general, oppositional arguments that higher taxes will have harmful economic effects are false or overstated.


Sterling K.L.,Georgia State University | Mermelstein R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: Evidence suggests that hookah smoking is growing among adolescents, particularly among those with a history of cigarette smoking, and is an emerging public health concern. We examined hookah use and its correlates among a sample of adolescents who have ever smoked and may be considered high risk for hookah use. Methods: We examined differences between hookah users and nonusers among a cohort of 951 adolescents (75.3% of the baseline sample, mean age 17.6 years at 24 months), consisting exclusively of youth who reported ever smoking cigarettes who were participating in a longitudinal study of adolescent smoking predictors and patterns. Ever and 30-day hookah use were assessed at 24 months. Results: Of the 951 participants, 58.5% reported ever use and 30.2% reported smoking hookah at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that 30-day hookah use was associated with sex (p < .05); race (p < .001); current cigarette (p < .0001), cigar (p < .01), kretek (p <.05), and alcohol use (p < .01); and attending a hookah bar, lounge, or restaurant (p < .001). Participants who were male, White, and were concurrent users of multiple tobacco products and other substances had increased odds of 30-day hookah use. Conclusions: Prevalence of hookah use is high among youth who have already tried cigarette smoking and is associated with a variety of tobacco and other substance use behaviors. Evidence-based programs may be needed to prevent initiation of or reduce Hookah smoking, as well as address cooccurring problem behaviors, to lessen the health risks associated with use among adolescents. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.


Mittal M.,Illinois College | Siddiqui M.R.,Illinois College | Tran K.,Illinois College | Reddy S.P.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Malik A.B.,Illinois College
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2014

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key signaling molecules that play an important role in the progression of inflammatory disorders. An enhanced ROS generation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) at the site of inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction and tissue injury. The vascular endothelium plays an important role in passage of macromolecules and inflammatory cells from the blood to tissue. Under the inflammatory conditions, oxidative stress produced by PMNs leads to the opening of inter-endothelial junctions and promotes the migration of inflammatory cells across the endothelial barrier. The migrated inflammatory cells not only help in the clearance of pathogens and foreign particles but also lead to tissue injury. The current review compiles the past and current research in the area of inflammation with particular emphasis on oxidative stress-mediated signaling mechanisms that are involved in inflammation and tissue injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1126-1167. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


News Article | February 20, 2017
Site: www.techtimes.com

Many individuals jump into the gluten-free lifestyle bandwagon with the idea that consuming food stripped of gluten is healthier. Findings of a new study, however, show that gluten-free food may have higher levels of toxic metals, hinting that the health trend may not be that healthy at all. In a new study published in the journal Epidemiology, researchers found that people who eat gluten-free food may be at increased risk of exposing themselves to high levels of arsenic and mercury, toxic metals known to contribute to the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurological conditions. People with celiac disease need to avoid food with gluten, proteins present in wheat, barley, grain, and rye, which can damage the lining of their small intestine and prevent nutrients from being absorbed by their body. Less than 1 percent of Americans have celiac disease, but in recent years, many people who do not suffer from the autoimmune disorder have also turned to gluten-free food, thinking that this is a healthier option. In 2015, a quarter of Americans claim eating gluten-free food marking a 67 percent increase from numbers recorded in 2013. Gluten-free diet has become so popular food chains started to offer gluten-free products for their customers. Some claim they prefer to eat gluten-free diet because this helps reduce inflammation, which to date has not been proven by scientific studies. Some individuals shun gluten from their diet, believing that this can help them lose weight. Gluten-free products usually use rice flour as a substitute for wheat. Rice tends to bioaccumulate certain toxic metals such as mercury and arsenic from fertilizers, water, or soil. Maria Argos, from University of Illinois at Chicago, and colleagues used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to search for a link between gluten-free diet and the biomarkers of toxic metals in urine and blood. They eventually found 73 individuals who ate a gluten-free diet among nearly 7,500 participants who completed the survey. The researchers found that the participants who ate gluten-free food were likely to have higher concentrations of arsenic in their urine as well as higher level of mercury in their blood compared with those who were not into gluten-free lifestyle. Mercury levels in those who consumed gluten-free food were 70 percent higher than those with normal diet. The arsenic levels in those who avoid gluten were likewise twice as high compared with those with normal diet. "These results indicate that there could be unintended consequences of eating a gluten-free diet," Argos said. The researchers, however, noted that further studies are still needed to determine if the diet indeed poses significant health risk. The study, though, is not the first time that researchers raised concern about the health impact of following a gluten-free diet. Despite claimed benefits of gluten-free diet, experts do not recommend it for healthy individuals, particularly kids, who may become vitamin deficient and suffer from lack of fiber in their diet as a result of eating gluten-free food. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

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