Macomb, IL, United States
Macomb, IL, United States

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Shabana Y.,University of Florida | Singh D.,Monsanto Corporation | Ortiz-Ribbing L.M.,University of Illinois Extension | Hallett S.G.,Purdue University
Biological Control | Year: 2010

The fungal pathogen, Microsphaeropsis amaranthi, is under consideration as a bioherbicide for the control of weeds in the genus Amaranthus. This organism has been shown to be virulent against a number of important Amaranthus species but has not yet demonstrated sufficient aggressiveness or reliability in the field to be commercially developed. We report a sequence of experiments evaluating a range of solid media for the production of high quality inoculum, methodologies for the enhancement of aggressiveness in culture, and the effects of a variety of spray adjuvants. Additionally, we report preliminary results testing the efficacy of the bioherbicide applied as granules, prior to weed emergence. The fungus grew well and sporulated profusely on a range of different solid substrates. Conidia produced on corn stover were larger than those produced on other substrates, had thicker cell walls, and exhibited particularly high aggressiveness. Repeated inoculation and re-isolation of the fungus from Amaranthus tuberculatus plants increased its aggressiveness. In addition, application in Sunspray oils resulted in improved disease impact under low moisture conditions. Preemergence application of granular formulations, especially where the fungus was grown and applied in ground barley grains, resulted in good control of emerging A. tuberculatus. Further progress has been made in improving the M. amaranthi bioherbicide by refining the conditions for the production and deployment of quality inoculum. © 2010.


Alan Walters S.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Wahle E.A.,University of Illinois Extension
HortTechnology | Year: 2010

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a hardy perennial that is grown for its white, fleshy, and pungent roots. Illinois leads the United States in production of horseradish, with ≈1500 acres and an annual farm-gate value of about $10 million, with most processed and added as an ingredient to various commercially produced condiments. Horseradish in Illinois is primarily grown in the Mississippi River Valley region adjacent to St. Louis due to the well-drained, deep friable, high organic matter, moist loam soils that are present in this area. Most of the production is located in Madison and St. Claire counties. This region of southwestern Illinois has been producing horseradish commercially for over 150 years. This review provides an overview of the basics of horseradish production in Illinois, including propagation, cultivars, planting, cultivation, fertilization, pest management, harvest, grading, storage, and marketing. Horseradish is one of the most important specialty crops grown in Illinois, and current and future production concerns are also discussed.


Kedem L.E.,University of Illinois Extension | Evans E.M.,University of Georgia | Chapman-Novakofski K.,Urbana University
Behavior Modification | Year: 2014

Lifestyle interventions commonly measure psychosocial beliefs as precursors to positive behavior change, but often overlook questionnaire validation. This can affect measurement accuracy if the survey has been developed for a different population, as differing behavioral influences may affect instrument validity. The present study aimed to explore psychometric properties of self-efficacy and outcome expectation scales—originally developed for younger children—in a population of female college freshmen (N = 268). Exploratory principal component analysis was used to investigate underlying data patterns and assess validity of previously published subscales. Composite scores for reliable subscales (Cronbach’s α ≥.70) were calculated to help characterize self-efficacy and outcome expectation beliefs in this population. The outcome expectation factor structure clearly comprised of positive (α =.81-.90) and negative outcomes (α =.63-.67). The self-efficacy factor structure included themes of motivation and effort (α =.75-.94), but items pertaining to hunger and availability cross-loaded often. Based on cross-loading patterns and low Cronbach’s alpha values, respectively, self-efficacy items regarding barriers to healthy eating and negative outcome expectation items should be refined to improve reliability. Composite scores suggested that eating healthfully was associated with positive outcomes, but self-efficacy to do so was lower. Thus, dietary interventions for college students may be more successful by including skill-building activities to enhance self-efficacy and increase the likelihood of behavior change. © The Author(s) 2014.


PubMed | University of Illinois Extension, Urbana University and University of Georgia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Behavior modification | Year: 2014

Lifestyle interventions commonly measure psychosocial beliefs as precursors to positive behavior change, but often overlook questionnaire validation. This can affect measurement accuracy if the survey has been developed for a different population, as differing behavioral influences may affect instrument validity. The present study aimed to explore psychometric properties of self-efficacy and outcome expectation scales-originally developed for younger children-in a population of female college freshmen (N = 268). Exploratory principal component analysis was used to investigate underlying data patterns and assess validity of previously published subscales. Composite scores for reliable subscales (Cronbachs .70) were calculated to help characterize self-efficacy and outcome expectation beliefs in this population. The outcome expectation factor structure clearly comprised of positive ( = .81-.90) and negative outcomes ( = .63-.67). The self-efficacy factor structure included themes of motivation and effort ( = .75-.94), but items pertaining to hunger and availability cross-loaded often. Based on cross-loading patterns and low Cronbachs alpha values, respectively, self-efficacy items regarding barriers to healthy eating and negative outcome expectation items should be refined to improve reliability. Composite scores suggested that eating healthfully was associated with positive outcomes, but self-efficacy to do so was lower. Thus, dietary interventions for college students may be more successful by including skill-building activities to enhance self-efficacy and increase the likelihood of behavior change.

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