The University of Idaho is the U.S. state of Idaho's oldest public university, located in the city of Moscow in Latah County in the northern portion of the state. UI is the state's land-grant and primary research university, and enrolls more national merit scholars than all other institutions in the state combined. In January 2012, the university enrolled the highest number of National Merit Scholars of any school in the Northwest; more than the other institutions in the region with significantly larger enrollments. The University of Idaho was the state's sole university for 71 years, until 1963, and hosts the University of Idaho College of Law, which was established 106 years ago in 1909, accredited by the ABA in 1925, and remained until 2012 the only law school in the state. Formed 126 years ago by the territorial legislature on January 30, 1889, the university opened its doors in 1892 on October 3, with an initial class of 40 students. The first graduating class in 1896 contained two men and two women. It presently has an enrollment exceeding 12,000, with over 11,000 on the Moscow campus. The university offers 142 degree programs, from accountancy to wildlife resources, including bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and specialists' degrees. Certificates of completion are offered in 30 areas of study. At 25% and 53%, its 4 and 6 year graduation rates are the highest of any public university in Idaho, and it generates 74 percent of all research money in the state, with research expenditures of $100 million in 2010 alone.As a land-grant university and the primary research university in the state, UI has the largest campus in the state at 1,585 acres , located in the rolling hills of the Palouse region at an elevation of 2,600 feet above sea level. The school is home to the Idaho Vandals, who compete on the Division I FBS level. The land-grant institution for the state of Washington, WSU, is located eight miles west in Pullman and the two campuses educate a total of approximately 40,000 students. In addition to the main campus in Moscow, the UI has branch campuses in Coeur d'Alene, Boise, Twin Falls, and Idaho Falls. It also operates a research park in Post Falls and dozens of extension offices statewide. Wikipedia.
Gao H.,China Agricultural University |
Shreeve J.M.,University of Idaho
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011
An energetic material is a compound or a mixture of compounds that, when subjected controllably to friction, impact, spark, or shock, undergoes rapid, heat-producing decomposition. Modification of azoles with either a mono- or multifunctional energy group builds molecules which may be transformed into salts through neutralization or quaterization reactions combined with subsequent metathesis. The enthalpies of formation of azoles are dependent on their ring structures. They can be adjusted by substitution of the hydrogen atoms with various energetic functional groups. Tetrazoles are an important core of energetic materials because of the practical and theoretical significance of these unique compounds and the diversity of their properties. Most tetrazolate salts are highly endothermic compounds. The reaction of 5-Nitroimino-tetrazoles which are five-membered aromatic heterocycles with a nitroimine functional group, with heterocyclic bases yield 5-nitroimino-1H-tetrazolate monohydrate salts.
Zhang Q.,China Academy of Engineering Physics |
Shreeve J.M.,University of Idaho
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014
The paper presents a review of energetic ionic liquids (EILs) including history, syntheses, properties, and applications in the fields of energetic materials. The main aim of this work is to present the latest advances of EILs as new energetic materials and to emphasize the new possibilities and the future challenges in this field. A new research field of utilizing the reactivity of EILs for bipropellant applications has opened up with the discovery of the IL hypergols. It has been observed that different substituents and energy-containing groups can significantly influence the properties and performance of EILs such as melting point, energy density, thermal stability, detonation properties, and sensitivity. The dual-functional strategy can also allow the independent design of the structures of both cation and anion, making the energetic performance and safety issues of the final EILs reasonably predictable.
Machleidt R.,University of Idaho |
Entem D.R.,University of Salamanca
Physics Reports | Year: 2011
We review how nuclear forces emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory. The presentation is accessible to the non-specialist. At the same time, we also provide considerable detailed information (mostly in appendices) for the benefit of researchers who wish to start working in this field. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Johnson J.L.,University of Idaho
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2012
Members of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone family are found in the cytosol, ER, mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. These diverse family members cooperate with other proteins, such as the molecular chaperone Hsp70, to mediate protein folding, activation and assembly into multiprotein complexes. All examined Hsp90 homologs exhibit similar ATPase rates and undergo similar conformational changes. One of the key differences is that cytosolic Hsp90 interacts with a large number of cochaperones that regulate the ATPase activity of Hsp90 or have other functions, such as targeting clients to Hsp90. Diverse Hsp90 homologs appear to chaperone different types of client proteins. This difference may reflect either the pool of clients requiring Hsp90 function or the requirement for cochaperones to target clients to Hsp90. This review discusses known functions, similarities and differences between Hsp90 family members and how cochaperones are known to affect these functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES | Award Amount: 558.03K | Year: 2016
In-channel vegetation, IAV, is ubiquitous in watercourse as plants or algae. It provides many vital ecological and hydromorphological functions and is becoming a major tool in river restoration. Research on IAV has chiefly focused on sediment transport and flow resistance, while its role in inducing hyporheic exchange has been neglected. Hyporheic exchange is the main process connecting streams with streambeds by moving in-stream water in and out of the streambed sediment through the hyporheic zone, HZ, which serves as an interface between surface and ground waters. The HZ promotes important biological and chemical processes, which affect the quality of both stream and streambed waters. Consequently, modeling hyporheic fluxes due to IAV will provide key information for river restoration practices in which planting has been advocated, a $1B per year industry. Additionally, predictions of hyporheic exchange and processes are essential to quantify solute transport and transformation along streams and rivers. Thus the goal of this research is to model hyporheic flow due to IAV. This will provide a fundamental and predictive understanding of the processes that control hyporheic exchange due to flow and IAV interaction. It will advance knowledge on hyporheic flow field near the rhizosphere, the region of sediment directly influenced by root secretions and associated soil microorganisms and the ability to model solute, nutrient, contaminant, and pathogen transport along stream networks by including the effect of IAV. The models developed in this project will be used to predict hyporheic processes in streams with vegetation and will be incorporated into basin-scale transport models of solute and nutrients. A new transformative after school program will be developed to introduce 5th-6th grade students to STEM disciplines through hands-on activities and lessons with a mobile educational flume. In addition undergraduate and graduate Civil Engineering students will be trained.
The scientific goal of this project is to mechanistically understand, quantify, and model the effects of IAV on hyporheic exchange as a function of IAV density, patch size, and patch distribution under different flow conditions. IAVs will be considered with three schematizations: 1) interaction between flow and an individual emergent and submerged vegetation stem, 2) interaction between flow and one single submerged vegetation patch, and 3) interaction between flow and multiple submerged vegetation patches. This will be addressed with novel tracer test flume experiments, coupling Matching Index Reflectometry, Particle Image Velocimetry, and analytical and numerical modeling, and by testing three specific hypotheses: hyporheic exchange has an inverse U-shaped (increases to a maximum and then decreases with increasing value of the independent variable) relationship with: (1) IAV density; (2) IAV patch size; and (3) the percent of streambed covered by multiple dense IAV patches.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ITEST | Award Amount: 1.10M | Year: 2016
The project is designed to develop, implement and assess an educational model intended to improve Native American student science identity through culturally relevant use of technology that can directly improve the well being of their communities. The project will engage 90 low-income, high school Native American students from the rural Nez Perce Reservation in Idaho through a program of educational activities centered on the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensing. The students will be trained in UAV use focused on remote sensing of Tribal ecosystems, as well as in science communication and leadership, as part of an enhanced curriculum during an immersive residential summer program at the University of Idaho (McCall) Outdoor Science School campus, located on ancestral Nez Perce Tribal lands. During the academic year, the students at will take part in learning activities focused upon UAV and remote sensing technologies, including virtual field trips, guest speakers, and other instruction delivered via videoconference. Students will take part in hands-on remote sensing and mapping activities of ecosystems that are integral to their culture such as riparian ecosystems (which support traditional and current Tribal fisheries) and forest ecosystems. Each school year will culminate in a large-scale mapping project that will be chosen and designed, based on student and Nez Perce community member input.
The project will investigate two central research hypotheses: that science identity is increased in Native American students when they engage in technology-based projects that directly relate to their community/cultural interests, and that interest and achievement by students in STEM education is sustained when community involvement is central to the approach. The project will collect data related to three constructs of science identity theory: competence, performance and recognition. Methods will include pre- and post-program surveys, assessment of STEM concepts, reflective journaling, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, observations, and longitudinal data collection. Data generation will focus on the three constructs of science identity theory: competence, performance and recognition. Through this work, we will contribute to a model of culturally-connected science identity that expands and enhances existing understanding about science identity. This project is funded by the Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program that supports projects that build understandings of best practices, program elements, contexts and processes contributing to engaging students in learning and developing interest in STEM, information and communications technology (ICT), computer science, and related STEM content and careers.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 2.60M | Year: 2016
In a changing world the systems we have traditionally relied on to deliver food, energy and water are now challenged by increasing risks of disruption from climate, extreme events and deteriorating infrastructure. However, advances in our ability to re-use materials and improve the efficiency of their transformation now allow us to develop innovative solutions toward an integrated production landscape for the food, energy and water system (FEWS). This project uses the coupled agricultural landscapes and communities of the Upper Snake River in the American West to measure the use of energy inputs, internal flows, and outputs of the FEWS (including industrial and urban systems) to determine how best to re-claim and re-use matter and energy flows (ReFEWS). Working closely with a Stakeholder Advisory Group (SAG), consisting of community, industry and agency mangers, the research team downscales food, energy and water dynamics so as to apply the best reclamation technologies in right place at the right time. The team then models the costs and trade-offs of applying these technologies at the landscape scale. The ReFEWS project is in direct response to national policy goals that seek to create resilient communities and landscapes as a way to promote sustainable food and energy production, and ultimately security. To ensure that the research advances basic science while ensuring translatable products, the research team uses a three tiered system of academic research, stakeholder engagement and coordinated education and outreach.
The research characterizes the efficiency of the socio-metabolism of the Upper Snake FEWS by modeling three components: 1. the optimization parameters of nutrient, energy, and water use and reuse; 2. robustness, or the capacity to modify the FEWS through technological intervention under a range of environmental conditions; 3. and resilience, the ability to sustain configurations of FEWS use and reuse in a watershed over time and in changing social and environmental conditions. Using a systems approach, the research incorporates several key components that must be considered concurrently: a. Human behaviors for acquiring matter and energy; i.e., food, energy, and water resources; b. Infrastructure and systems that support those behaviors, including technological interventions; c. thermodynamic principles governing food, energy, and water use and waste (i.e., entropy); d. The flows of nutrients, energy, or water to minimize system entropy; e. The flow of nutrients and energy out of bounded systems in the form of waste streams and, f. The social controls to encourage or enforce behaviors that minimize system entropy. Research question 1 tests the hypothesis that waste and resource streams from food and agricultural production are greater than waste and resource streams for domestic household consumption, and changes to the agro-ecological sector can have the largest influence on the resilience of the overall FEW system. Research question 2 tests the hypothesis that no single technology is appropriate or sufficient for managing a given waste stream, and integrated recovery systems that account for secondary and tertiary waste products are the most useful for optimizing a FEWS. Research question 3 tests the hypothesis that constraints on minimizing system entropy and waste are not primarily at the technological interface (i.e., a lack of engineering solutions) but at the adoption/social interface.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: EXP PROG TO STIM COMP RES | Award Amount: 500.00K | Year: 2016
Movement through their environments is a fundamental characteristic of most animals, (e.g., running, swimming, flying) and the mechanics of how animals perform this task have direct implications for evolutionary success because locomotion is involved with defense, finding mates, and foraging for food in efficient ways. For centuries, biomechanics research has provided a foundation for developing and testing hypotheses ranging from general governing principles of terrestrial locomotion to specific relationships between form and function of limbs and muscles. However, the vast majority of these studies have been conducted in laboratories on treadmills and tracks that bear little resemblance to the environments in which animals actually live. To truly understand the relationship between an animals muscular and skeletal anatomy and locomotor performance, it is necessary to understand the mechanical demands of the tasks performed in the animals natural environment. Understanding these relationships in natural habitats remains an important challenge. Therefore, the goal of this study is to examine the relationships between anatomy and locomotor performance through a series of experiments aimed at understanding in detail how different muscles contribute to movement tasks. Experiments will reveal how specific features of muscles and skeletons impact the function of particular muscles during locomotion in mechanically challenging natural environments. The outcomes of this research will advance knowledge about the functional roles of individual muscles, a topic that is rare in comparative biomechanics studies, and lay the groundwork for a better understanding of how mechanical energy is transferred through complex musculoskeletal systems. Application of this knowledge can lead to improvements in the design of autonomous robots, lower limb prosthetics, and other human locomotor enhancement devices.
The purpose of this research is to elucidate the relationships between musculoskeletal morphology and bipedal hopping dynamics in desert environments using desert kangaroo rats (D. deserti) as an animal model. It is generally believed that bipedal hopping has evolved because it provides a locomotor performance advantage (e.g., faster top speed, higher endurance, acceleration capacity) related to exaggerated hind limb morphology; however a specific advantage has not been identified for all hopping species. To achieve the proposed objectives, this study will incorporate analyses of habitat use in the field, gait dynamics in the lab, in-vivo muscle dynamics and detailed computer modeling and simulations. This will be the first study to combine all of these methods to provide a comprehensive understanding of the relationships between musculoskeletal morphology and performance. This powerful, integrated approach will be used to pursue two specific research objectives: 1) Quantify the mechanical demands of bipedal hopping on substrates and terrain utilized by D. deserti in their natural environment and, 2) Elucidate the relationship between musculoskeletal morphology and habitat use. The outcomes of the proposed research will establish direct links between locomotor performance under natural conditions and musculoskeletal morphology and muscle function in a way that has not been previously possible. An enhanced understanding of how and why animals hop will advance the fields of evolutionary biology, comparative anatomy, and biomechanics, and lead to improvements in the design of autonomous robots, lower limb prosthetics, and other locomotor enhancement devices. This proposal supports an Educational Plan to develop a field course to provide an opportunity for students to integrate what they have learned about ecology and evolution through research-driven, field-based analyses of habitat use, functional morphology, and behavior. Data for behavior and habitat use from multiple years of this course will provide a broader context for interpreting morphological and biomechanical results.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: DISCOVERY RESEARCH K-12 | Award Amount: 1.40M | Year: 2016
The project will examine learning in eighth grade mathematics with a specific focus on students learning of reasoning and proof. The intervention builds on a prior study in algebra that demonstrated increases in students knowledge of argumentation and their performance on mathematics assessments. This project will extend the use of the argumentation intervention into all eighth grade content areas. The investigators will also address support for teachers in the form of teacher materials that link the argumentation content with mathematics standards and state-wide assessments, and a learning progression to engage students in proving tasks. The project will use assessments of mathematics learning and additional data from teachers and students to understand the impact of the argumentation intervention on teachers and students. The project contributes to understanding how students can learn about mathematical practices, such as proving, that can help them learn mathematics better. A significant contribution will be the definition of aspects of proving and descriptions of student outcomes that can be used to measure how well students have achieved these components of proving. The Discovery Research PreK-12 program (DRK-12) seeks to significantly enhance the learning and teaching of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) by preK-12 students and teachers, through research and development of innovative resources, models and tools (RMTs). Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed projects. This project is also supported by NSFs EHR Core Research (ECR) program. The ECR program emphasizes fundamental STEM education research that generates foundational knowledge in the field.
The project suggests twelve conceptual pillars that are combined with classroom processes and assessable outcomes to examine the use of argumentation practices in the teaching of eighth grade mathematics content. The investigation of classroom support for argumentation includes research questions that focus on improvement on state-level assessments, students ability to construct mathematical arguments, and the conceptual progression that supports students understanding of argumentation and proof. In addition, the study will examine teachers role in argumentation in the classroom and their perception of potential challenges for classroom implementation. The study will use an experimental design to examine an intervention for mathematical reasoning and proof in eighth grade. The project includes a treatment group of teachers that will participate in professional development including a summer institute followed by instructional coaching over a two year period.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Integrative Ecologi Physiology | Award Amount: 146.34K | Year: 2017
Conifers are globally important, both ecologically and economically. Many conifer species have recently experienced extreme mortality events due to drought, fire and insect outbreaks. There is an urgent need to understand conifer physiology, and especially conifer needles - the organs responsible for carbon uptake and regulation of water loss. Conifers have an intriguing paradox in the link between their leaf anatomy and physiology: with such a simplistic, single-vein vascular system, how can they compete with broadleaf species or inhabit extreme environments? This project aims to understand how conifer leaf anatomy influences water transport and photosynthesis, and how needle water transport declines during drought. This information will then be used to develop a mechanistic model to help predict forest productivity and mortality in response to drought and other environmental challenges. The project will provide training for a postdoctoral researcher, a graduate student, and multiple undergraduate students. Also, in collaboration with the McCall Outdoor Science School, 5th and 6th grade students, their parents and teachers will participate in a workshop called What happens inside a leaf? To illustrate how cellular-level modifications can influence landscape processes, 3D-printed conifer needle models generated from X-ray imaging will be used. Anatomical models will be freely available through a website for teachers and students to 3D print hand-held models at schools, or as teaching kits for schools without access to 3D printing technology.
Conifers inhabit some of the driest and coldest habitats where trees are found. Many conifer species are threatened by heat waves and droughts that induce physiological stress that can make them more vulnerable to pests and pathogens. Although most conifer leaves have only a single vein supplying water to the leaf, the internal anatomy outside the vein is incredibly diverse across the conifer phylogeny. The impact of this diversity on water transport and carbon uptake is unknown. The primary goal of this project is to develop a mechanistic framework to understand the influence of conifer leaf anatomy on leaf hydraulic conductance and photosynthetic capacity. This mechanistic understanding will be used to illuminate how conifers have adapted to arid and cold environments and have also been able to successfully compete with angiosperm species over evolutionary history. The project will combine state-of the art 3-dimensional imaging methods (high-resolution X-ray computed micro-tomography) with a hydraulic model and measurement of leaf hydraulic conductance to clarify the impact of conifer leaf internal anatomy on hydraulic function.