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Reykjavik, Iceland

The University of Iceland is a public research university in Reykjavík, Iceland, and the country's oldest and largest institution of higher education. Founded in 1911, it has grown steadily from a small civil servants' school to a modern comprehensive university, providing instruction for about 14,000 students in twenty-five faculties. Teaching and research is conducted within social science, humanities, medicine, natural science, engineering and teacher education. It has a campus concentrated around Suðurgata street in central Reykjavík, with additional facilities located in nearby areas as well as in the countryside. Wikipedia.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-23-2014 | Award Amount: 6.96M | Year: 2015

Childrens health affects the future of Europe children are citizens, future workers, parents and carers. Children are dependent on society to provide effective health services (UN Convention on the Rights of the Child). Models of child primary health care vary widely across Europe based on two broad alternatives (primary care paediatricians or generic family doctors), and a variety of models of school health and adolescent direct access services. There is little research to show which model(s) are best, implying that some are inefficient or ineffective, with sub-optimal outcomes. MOCHA will draw on networks, earlier child health projects and local agents to model and evaluate child primary care in all 30 EU/EEA countries. Scientific partners from 11 European countries, plus partners from Australia and USA, encompassing medicine, nursing, economics, informatics, sociology and policy management, will: Categorise the models, and school health and adolescent services Develop innovative measures of quality, outcome, cost, and workforce of each, and apply them using policy documents, routine statistics, and available electronic data sets Assess effects on equality, and on continuity of care with secondary care. Systematically obtain stakeholder views. Indicate optimal future patterns of electronic records and big data to optimise operation of the model(s). The results will demonstrate the optimal model(s) of childrens primary care with a prevention and wellness focus, with an analysis of factors (including cultural) which might facilitate adoption, and indications for policy makers of both the health and economic gains possible. The project will have a strong dissemination programme throughout to ensure dialogue with public, professionals, policy makers, and politicians. The project will take 42 months (36 of scientific work plus start up and close), and deliver major awareness and potential benefit for European childrens health and healthy society.

Cano Z.,University of Iceland
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

The bolometric properties (nickel mass, ejecta mass and kinetic energies) of 61 Ibc supernovae (SNe), including 20 gamma-ray burst and X-ray flash (GRB/XRF), 19 Ib, 13 Ic and nine Ic-BL (broad-lined) SNe are presented. All of the available BVRI photometry in the literature have been collected and used in a new method that utilizes a template supernova (SN 1998bw) and an analytical model to accurately estimate the bolometric properties of each SN. A statistical analysis of the bolometric properties is then performed, where it is found that GRB/XRF SNe are the most energetic, and eject more mass (including nickel content) than Ib, Ic and Ic-BL SNe. The results are then compared to the existing progenitor models of Ibc SNe, where it is concluded that it is highly likely that at least two progenitor channels exist for producing a Ibc SN: most Ibc SNe arise via binary interactions, where the mass of the stellar progenitor is less than what is attributed to a Wolf-Rayet star. Conversely, the progenitors of Ic-BL and GRB/XRF are more massive than those of Ib and Ic SNe, and a key difference between GRB/XRF SNe and Ic-BL SNe is progenitor metallicity, where it is observed that the latter arise from more metal-rich progenitors. As mass loss in massive stars is influenced by metal content, the progenitors of Ic-BL SNe lose more mass, and thereforemore angular momentum, before exploding. It is expected that the explosion mechanism in Ic-BL and GRB/XRF SNe is 'engine-driven' (i.e. an accreting black hole, or amillisecond magnetar), but the increased mass loss of Ic-BL SNe means the central engine is less powerful than in GRB/XRF SNe. Finally, it is found that the SNe that accompany GRBs and XRFs are statistically indistinguishable, and some mechanism other than metallicity is needed to explain the differences in the high-energy components in these events. ©2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Jakobsson S.,University of Iceland
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2012

The main goal of this study was to develop and test a capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments where oxygen fugacity could be controlled in the vicinity of the QFM buffer without H 2O loss or carbon contamination of the sample material. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) plus H 2O and an inner AuPd-capsule, containing the sample, H 2O and a Pt-wire. No H 2O loss is observed from the sample, even after 48 h, but a slight increase in H 2O content is found in longer runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO (NNO) and Co-CoO (CoCO) buffers was measured by analyzing Fe dissolved in the Pt-wire and in the AuPd-capsule. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer values, whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Arnason R.,University of Iceland
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy | Year: 2012

Individual transferable quotas (ITQs) are one of the property rights instruments that have been employed to improve economic efficiency in fisheries. ITQs are not high-quality property rights in the basic fundamental marine resources on which fisheries are based. As a result ITQs cannot be expected to generate full efficiency in the use of these resources. This article examines to what extent ITQs are capable of generating economic efficiency in fisheries. It is shown that ITQs can greatly improve efficiency in fishing. Moreover, by including recreational fishers in the system, ITQs can strike an efficient balance between commercial and recreational fishing. On the negative side, it is shown that on their own, ITQs are not capable of generating full efficiency in fisheries. In particular, ITQs are not sufficient for setting the socially optimal total allowable catch, ensuring the optimal use of the ecosystem, or harmonizing fishing with conflicting uses of marine resources such as marine tourism, mining, and conservation. Potentially counteracting these limitations, ITQ holders as a group have an incentive to manage overall ecosystem use for the long-term benefit of their fishery and negotiate the adjustment of their fishing activity toward the interests of conflicting uses of the marine resources.(JEL: Q2, Q22, Q26, Q3). © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. All rights reserved.

Magnadottir B.,University of Iceland
Marine Biotechnology | Year: 2010

All metazoans possess innate immune defence system whereas parameters of the adaptive immune system make their first appearance in the gnathostomata, the jawed vertebrates. Fish are therefore the first animal phyla to possess both an innate and adaptive immune system making them very interesting as regards developmental studies of the immune system. The massive increase in aquaculture in recent decades has also put greater emphasis on studies of the fish immune system and defence against diseases commonly associated with intensive fish rearing. Some of the main components of the innate and adaptive immune system of fish are described. The innate parameters are at the forefront of immune defence in fish and are a crucial factor in disease resistance. The adaptive response of fish is commonly delayed but is essential for lasting immunity and a key factor in successful vaccination. Some of the inherent and external factors that can manipulate the immune system of fish are discussed, the main fish diseases are listed and the pathogenicity and host defence discussed. The main prophylactic measures are covered, including vaccination, probiotics and immunostimulation. A key element in the immunological control of fish diseases is the great variation in disease susceptibility and immune defence of different fish species, a reflection of the extended time the present day teleosts have been separated in evolution. Future research will probably make use of molecular and proteomic tools both to study important elements in immune defence and prophylactic measures and to assist with breeding programmes for disease resistance. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

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