Ibadan, Nigeria

University of Ibadan

Ibadan, Nigeria

The University of Ibadan is the oldest and one of the most prestigious Nigerian universities, and is located five miles from the centre of the major city of Ibadan in Western Nigeria.Besides the College of Medicine, there are now ten other faculties: Arts, Science, Agriculture and Forestry, Social science, Education, Veterinary Medicine, Technology, Law, Public Health and Dentistry.The University has residential and sports facilities for staff and students on campus, as well as separate botanical and zoological gardens. Wikipedia.

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Successful clinical trials to create drugs and vaccines for next pandemic disease will rely on building capacity, community engagement, and international collaboration before and during outbreak WASHINGTON - Mobilization of a rapid and robust clinical research program that explores whether investigational therapeutics and vaccines are safe and effective to combat the next infectious disease epidemic will depend on strengthening capacity in low-income countries for response and research, engaging people living in affected communities, and conducting safety trials before an epidemic hits, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Using key lessons learned from the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the report outlines how to improve the speed and effectiveness of clinical trial research while an epidemic is occurring, especially in settings where there is limited health care and research infrastructure. The research and development of therapeutics and vaccines is a long, complex, and expensive process and cannot be compressed into the course of a rapidly progressing outbreak. The development of a drug "from bench to bedside" is estimated, on average, to take at least 10 years and cost $2.6 billion, with less than 12 percent likelihood of eventual licensing. Therefore, making progress on the research and development of products - such as therapeutics and vaccines - before an epidemic breaks is the only way to ensure that promising candidates are ready for trials once an outbreak occurs, said the committee that carried out the study and wrote the report. In addition, clinical trials could be more rapidly planned, approved, and implemented during an outbreak if promising products are studied through Phase 1 or Phase 2 safety trials in advance of an outbreak and if emergency response planning includes clinical research considerations and clinical researchers in the discussions from the beginning. The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic was the longest and most deadly Ebola outbreak since the virus was first discovered in 1976, resulting in 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. In August 2014, the World Health Organization declared the epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. Researchers discussed how to conduct clinical trials on potential Ebola therapeutics and vaccines in West Africa, and ultimately, several teams conducted formal clinical trials in the Ebola-affected countries during the outbreak. The clinical trial teams overcame immense logistical obstacles encountered while trying to design and implement trials in West Africa in the midst of a rapidly spreading epidemic of a highly dangerous contagious disease. However, none of the therapeutic trials ended with conclusive results on product efficacy, although limited evidence from the trial for the ZMapp treatment did trend toward a possible benefit. Given the resources, time, and effort put into these trials, they were not as successful as they could have been. The results of the vaccine trials were more fruitful. Two Ebola vaccine candidates have data that suggest they may be safe and produce an immune response, and one is most likely protective, but further data are needed. Planning and conducting clinical research during the Ebola epidemic also required confronting a number of ethical issues, such as whether it was ethical to conduct clinical trials at all in the midst of a public health emergency and whether the research activities drew effort away from providing clinical care to the most people possible. There was also disagreement among researchers over how clinical trials should be designed during the Ebola epidemic, particularly whether trials should use randomization and concurrent control groups. Randomized controlled trials are generally the preferred research design, because they allow researchers to directly compare the outcomes of similar groups of people who differ only in the presence or absence of the investigational agent. However, many argued that randomized controlled trials would be unethical during the Ebola epidemic, as this trial design would deprive patients of an agent that could potentially prevent or treat Ebola, given the high mortality rate and lack of known and available treatment options. The committee concluded that randomized controlled trials are both ethical and the fastest and most reliable way to identify the relative benefits and risks of investigational products, and except in rare circumstances, every effort should be made to implement them during epidemics. The issues that influenced choices about trial design during the Ebola epidemic - such as community mistrust, the feasibility of a standard-of-care-only arm, the high and variable mortality rate, limited product availability, and the potential conflicts between research and care - are likely to recur in future epidemics. Nevertheless, the perceived ethical or logistical hurdles that these issues present are not sufficiently compelling to override the benefits of randomized trials. Rather, randomized trials may be the most ethical trial design, because they offer the fastest route to identifying beneficial treatments while minimizing the risks of exposure to potentially harmful investigational agents. To improve the national and international clinical trial response to the next epidemic, the committee focused on three main areas - strengthening capacity, engaging communities, and facilitating international coordination and collaboration - both in the period of time before an outbreak strikes and during the epidemic itself. The committee found major capacity challenges that hindered and slowed the research response to the Ebola epidemic, and recommended developing sustainable health systems and research capabilities, improving capacity to collect and share clinical and epidemiological data, facilitating the mechanisms for rapid ethics reviews and legal agreements before an epidemic occurs, and incorporating research systems into emergency preparedness and response systems for epidemics. Affected communities had considerable fear, mistrust, and misunderstanding of national and international response and research staff. Community members feared going to health care facilities for the treatment of Ebola, rumors spread that Ebola was deliberately brought to the region by foreigners, and initial response efforts did not take into account community traditions and beliefs. For example, mandatory cremation policies countered deeply held religious beliefs. Successful clinical research is dependent on a community's understanding of, engagement in, and sense of involvement and respect in the process of planning and conducting research, the committee found. Community engagement should be prioritized during epidemic responses and be a continuous and evolving effort, starting at the onset of the epidemic. Research and response efforts were also greatly affected by the relationships among international stakeholders and their ability to coordinate and collaborate. For example, there were a few Ebola-specific therapeutic candidates with suggestive efficacy available at the beginning of the outbreak that could have been investigated in clinical trials, but the mechanism to prioritize which should be studied first was limited. The committee recommended the establishment of an international coalition of stakeholders to work between epidemics that would advise and prioritize pathogens to target for research and development, develop generic clinical trial design templates, and identify teams of clinical research experts who could be deployed to assist with research during an outbreak. The committee also highlighted seven critical steps to launching successful clinical trials when the next epidemic first strikes and before it peaks. The steps are to collect and share patient information and establish standards of care, engage communities and establish mutual trust, integrate research efforts into response and facilitate stakeholder coordination, prioritize vaccines and therapies and select trial designs, negotiate contracts, consult with regulators, and perform independent ethics reviews. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, National Institutes of Health, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are private, nonprofit institutions that provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions related to science, technology, and medicine. The National Academies operate under an 1863 congressional charter to the National Academy of Sciences, signed by President Lincoln. For more information, visit http://national-academies. . A roster follows. Copies of Integrating Clinical Research Into Epidemic Response: The Ebola Experience are available from the National Academies Press at http://www. or by calling 1-800-624-6242. Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above). Gerald T. Keusch, M.D.* (co-chair) Professor of Medicine and Global Health Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health Boston Keith McAdam, M.D. (co-chair) Emeritus Professor of Clinical and Tropical Medicine London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London Abdel Babiker, Ph.D. Professor of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London London Susan S. Ellenberg, Ph.D. Professor of Biostatistics Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia Roger J. Lewis, M.D., Ph.D.* Professor and Chair of the Department of Emergency Medicine Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Los Angeles Alex London, Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy, and Director of the Center for Ethics and Policy Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh Michelle M. Mello, Ph.D.* Professor of Law Stanford University School of Medicine and School of Law Stanford, Calif. Olayemi Omotade, M.D. Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health Institute of Child Health University College Hospital University of Ibadan Ibadan, Nigeria Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health Makerere University School of Public Health Kampala, Uganda

Adaramoye O.A.,University of Ibadan
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2010

This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against γ -radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) - an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in g -irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. γ -Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against γ -radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. © 2010 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH-2009-4.3.1-3 | Award Amount: 13.73M | Year: 2010

Worm infections are receiving increased attention due to: the wide geographic overlap in occurrence between worms and HIV, TB and malaria; the large proportion of individuals (minimal estimates around 25%) co-infected with worms and HIV/TB/ malaria; the potential risk of increasing disease burden; the very limited understanding of the impact by worm infections on HIV-, TB- and malaria-specific immune responses and on their clinical outcome; the lack of established intervention guidelines for treatment of worm infections; and the scarce information on the impact by worm infections on vaccination and vaccine-induced immune responses. In order to address these complex and challenging scientific issues, IDEA project will focus its efforts on four primary objectives: a) the worm-induced modulation of the functional and molecular profile of HIV-, TB- and malaria-specific immune responses, b) the impact by worm co-infections on measures of disease activity of PRDs, c) the immunologic markers of worm-, HIV-, TB- and malaria-specific immune responses associated with better control of pathogen replication and disease, and d) the modulation by worm co-infections of vaccine-induced immune responses. To achieve these objectives, IDEA project has developed a global and innovative strategy which includes: a) the alliance between African and European leading scientists in the field of worms, HIV, TB and malaria, b) the multidisciplinary expertise involving immunologists, parasitologists, epidemiologists, clinicians, and experts in vaccines, c) cutting edge immunology and the most innovative technologies to profile immune response, d) the access to large cohort studies bringing a number of centres working on worms and PRDs in Africa together, and e) the access to experimental HIV, TB and malaria vaccine candidates under clinical development in Africa.

Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 5.75M | Year: 2013

We propose an End Use Energy Demand (EUED) Centre focused on Energy Epidemiology to be located at the multidisciplinary UCL Energy Institute (UCL-Energy), which undertakes research on energy demand and energy systems. Energy Epidemiology uses data and modelling to study energy use in the real world, with the aim of understanding the interactions of policy, technology, infrastructure, people and culture. The Centre for Energy Epidemiology (CEE) will: undertake primary data collection; advise on data collection; provide secure and ethical curation of a wealth of administrative, commercial and research data; link, develop and use innovative research methods; and support a structured research programme on energy demand intended to achieve a major reduction in UK carbon emissions. CEE will provide key research and policy insights at city, regional, national and international levels. It will support UK academics, policymakers and industry to research energy demand, by providing a cost-effective, secure and ethical bureau service for energy and related data. It will work closely with the new cross-government Energy Efficiency Deployment Office (EEDO) of DECC, the Energy Saving Trust, UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) and the new Open Data Institute (ODI) to marshal and maximise the value of existing and very large future sources of energy-related data (big data), ensuring the greatest impact for evidence-based energy demand research. The Centre will initiate and be a key player in an international network of energy epidemiologists, sharing research methods and undertaking cross-cultural comparisons of policies and technologies to reduce energy demand and to help the UK to meet its carbon targets. UCL-Energy: - has a clear focus on energy demand and its interaction with energy supply systems - this has been the core focus of UCL-Energy since its launch, with full UCL support, 35 months ago. - is multi- and interdisciplinary with lawyers, economists, social scientists, engineers, physicists, psychologists, architects, mathematicians and policy analysts co-located in open plan offices facilitating collaborative work. It has successfully worked with researchers from anthropology, English literature and history on energy demand problems. - makes an impact by supporting policy makers and industry to both set and achieve UK carbon targets. Examples of such support include the Green Deal, CCC budgets, smart meter rollout, and the development of products for reducing energy demand. UCL-Energy is the only university centre that has officially advised DECCs new EEDO, whose focus is squarely on EUED. - undertakes research of the highest quality; its staff were recognised as world leading by two successive EPSRC Platform Grant reviews. Roughly half its staff were submitted in the Built Environment UoA (30), for which UCL received the highest percentage (35%) of internationally leading staff (4*) in the UK. It holds the grant for the only Centre for Doctoral Training in energy demand. - is not sector-specific; it covers all energy uses and applies methods across sectors e.g. transport and buildings. - is managed as a coherent centre - this is facilitated by placing all staff under a single budget centre with a clear management structure. UCL-Energy is advised and guided by a prestigious International Advisory Board with CEOs and directors from leading companies around the world. - has leveraged a wide range of funding. From an initial UCL investment of £680k, it has so far raised £10m of external funding, including £2m from industry. - has strong leadership - its Director, Professor Tadj Oreszczyn has established a new academic department at UCL in less than 3 years, advises government at senior level, is on the boards of key organisations and has written several strategic papers on the future direction of energy demand research. - has critical mass and sustainability: UCL-Energy has 80 staff and PhD students

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2012.3.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.26M | Year: 2012

The objective of the EMERALD Project is to improve mental health outcomes by enhancing health system performance. The key issues addressed are: (i) adequate, fair & sustainable resourcing: using human, infrastructural, informational & financial resource inputs to effectively deliver better mental health services; (ii) integrated service provision: enhancing access to integrated community care; and (iii) improved coverage & goal attainment: scaled-up, appropriate and cost-effective care in the community & reduction of disease burden & economic impacts. We are innovative in: (i) our track record to work collaboratively across health system boundaries; (ii) excellent ability to deliver on agreed work packages; (iii) delivering high quality & precisely relevant capacity development materials to our key target groups; & (iv) key leadership roles eg in developing the WHO mhGAP Implementation Guide. We are committed to taking the health system strengthening steps necessary for its realization in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa & Uganda.

Owolabi M.O.,University of Ibadan
Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: In order to improve post-stroke health-related quality of life (HRQOL), it is crucial to focus scarce health care and research resources towards its consistent determinants. Disparities in reported determinants of post-stroke HRQOL may be due to the use of different instruments (generic or specific) in different populations. This is the first study to identify factors which consistently influenced both generic and specific post-stroke HRQOL in the same study population. Methods: One hundred consecutive consenting stroke survivors were assessed using the stroke levity scale (SLS), modified Rankin scale (mRS), SF-36 and HRQOL in stroke patients (HRQOLISP) measure. Employing multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.63), potential predictors were sought among age, gender, socioeconomic class (SEC), aphasia, post-stroke duration, side, type and number of strokes, SLS, mRS, social support and Likert scale-graded responses to laughter and negative-feeling frequency. Results: Gender, SEC and stroke type had no significant impact on HRQOL. The consistent independent statistical predictors of several facets of generic and stroke-specific HRQOL were stroke severity, disability, laughter and negative-feeling frequencies. Conclusions: While stroke severity, a component of physical health, impaired psychological health, psychological dysfunction in turn negatively influenced physical and other domains of health, thereby creating a vicious cycle. These multidirectional interactions may involve neural, social and existential mechanisms which remain to be confirmed, elucidated and exploited. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Modelling and prediction of wind speed are essential prerequisites in the sitting and sizing of wind power applications. The profile of wind speed in Nigeria is modelled using artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN model consists of 3-layered, feed-forward, back-propagation network with different configurations, designed using the Neural Toolbox for MATLAB. The monthly mean daily wind speed data monitored at 10 m above ground level for a period of 20 years (1983-2003) for 28 ground stations operated by the Nigeria Meteorological Services (NIMET) were used as training (18 stations) and testing (10 stations) dataset. The geographical parameters (latitude, longitude and altitude) and the month of the year were used as input data, while the monthly mean wind speed was used as the output of the network. The optimum network architecture with minimum Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of 8.9% and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and the measured wind speed values of 0.9380 was obtained. The predicted monthly wind speed ranged from 0.9-13.1 m/s with an annual mean of 4.7 m/s. The model predicted wind speed values are given in the form of monthly maps, which can be easily used for assessment of wind energy potential for different locations within Nigeria. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ashaye A.,University of Ibadan
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2013

To determine the prevalence and identify the types of glaucoma in the Akinyele district of Oyo State in southwestern Nigeria. Residents of Akinyele district of Oyo State in southwestern Nigeria aged 40 years and older were randomly selected in a stratified manner. All participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity assessment, anterior segment biomicroscopy, IOP measurement, gonioscopy, optic nerve head and disc evaluation, and central visual field assessment. Glaucoma was diagnosed using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO) classification scheme. A sample of 811 subjects (90% response rate) was examined. The crude prevalence of all forms of glaucoma was 7.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5%-9.1%) with an age and sex standardized rate of 6.9% (95% CI 6.88%-6.92%). Primary open angle glaucoma was found in 6.2% (95% CI 4.5%-7.8%) and primary angle closure glaucoma in 0.2% (95% CI 0.0%-0.6%). Secondary glaucoma accounted for 0.9% of the cases, with couching and neovascular process being the main causes (0.2% each). Prevalence of glaucoma increased significantly with increasing age (P for trend < 0.05). The high prevalence of glaucoma (7.3%) in the Akinyele district in southwestern Nigeria is comparable with those in predominantly black populations in the Akwapim-South district of Ghana and Barbados. Primary open angle glaucoma remains the most prevalent form of glaucoma.

Oluwole O.S.A.,University of Ibadan
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2015

Konzo epidemics have occurred during droughts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for >70 years, but also in Mozambique, Tanzania, and the Central African Republic. The illness is attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava foods, on which the population depends almost exclusively during droughts. Production of cassava, a droughtresistant crop, has been shown to correlate with cyclical changes in precipitation in konzo-affected countries. Here we review the epidemiology of konzo as well as models of its pathogenesis. A spectral analysis of precipitation and konzo is performed to determine whether konzo epidemics are cyclical and whether there is spectral coherence. Time series of environmental temperature, precipitation, and konzo show cyclical changes. Periodicities of dominant frequencies in the spectra of precipitation and konzo range from 3 to 6 years in DR Congo. There is coherence of the spectra of precipitation and konzo. The magnitude squared coherence of 0.9 indicates a strong relationship between variability of climate and konzo epidemics. Thus, it appears that low precipitation phases of climate variability reduce the yield of food crops except cassava, upon which the population depends for supply of calories during droughts. Presence of very high concentrations of thiocyanate (SCN-), the major metabolite of cyanide, in the bodily fluids of konzo subjects is a consequence of dietary exposure to cyanide, which follows intake of poorly processed cassava roots. Because cyanogens and minor metabolites of cyanide have not induced konzo-like illnesses, SCN- remains the most likely neurotoxicant of konzo. Public health control of konzo will require food and water programs during droughts. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

Agency: GTR | Branch: MRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.10M | Year: 2013

There is now considerable evidence in support of a stepped care approach to expanding mental health service. In this model, non-physician primary care providers deliver the bulk of essential mental health service under the supervision and support of physicians and of more highly trained mental health specialists. This process, commonly described as task-shifting, facilitates the delivery of needed care even in the context of extreme shortage of specialists as seen in most LMIC. The WHO recently produced a set of guidelines, the mhGAP Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG), that incorporates evidence based interventions for a list of priority mental health conditions, including depression, to aid the recognition and management of such conditions in non-specialist settings. It builds on the well established knowledge that primary care providers can be trained to deliver both psychological and pharmacological interventions for several mental health conditions, while more highly trained providers, including specialists, offer necessary support and supervision and address more difficult conditions. The content of what constitutes essential ingredients to scale up mental health services is therefore generally agreed upon. However, the mode of delivery of the intervention in diverse settings still requires empirical exploration in order to determine the best fit to local health systems. Our study is designed to provide this evidence for Nigeria, the most populous nation in Africa, and also for most other countries in sub-Sahara Africa where the settings are similar. The proposed study sets out to assess the cost-effectiveness of a management program for depression delivered mainly by non-physician primary care providers in Nigeria in which supervision and support are provided by general doctors and specialists, wherever available, with the use of modern, affordable and readily available technology.

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