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Hull, United Kingdom

The University of Hull is a public university, founded in 1927, located in Kingston upon Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The main university campus is located in Hull and there is a smaller campus in Scarborough on the North Yorkshire coast. The main campus is home to the Hull York Medical School, a joint initiative with the University of York. Students are served by Hull University Union.The University's Brynmor Jones Library was the workplace of the poet Philip Larkin who served as its Head Librarian for over thirty years. The Philip Larkin Society organises activities in remembrance of Larkin including the Larkin 25 festival which was organised during 2010 in partnership with the University. The Library was also the workplace of former poet laureate Andrew Motion. Lord Wilberforce was chancellor of the University from 1978 until 1994. Robert Armstrong was the chancellor from 1994 to 2006. Virginia Bottomley was installed as the current chancellor in April 2006.Alumni of the University of Hull are especially prominent in the fields of politics, academia, journalism and drama. They include former MP and later Deputy Prime Minister Lord Prescott , former MP and Deputy Leader of the Labour Party Lord Hattersley , politician and author Chris Mullin, social scientist Lord Giddens , poet Roger McGough, journalist John McCarthy and film director, playwright and screenwriter Anthony Minghella. Wikipedia.

Leese H.J.,University of Hull
Reproduction | Year: 2012

This review considers how our understanding of preimplantation embryo metabolism has progressed since the pioneering work on this topic in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Research has been stimulated by a desire to understand how metabolic events contribute to the development of the zygote into the blastocyst, the need for biomarkers of embryo health with which to improve the success of assisted conception technologies, and latterly by the 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) concept. However, arguably, progress has not been as great as it might have been due to methodological difficulties in working with tiny amounts of tissue and the low priority assigned to fundamental research on fertility and infertility, with developments driven more by technical than scientific advances. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made in defining the roles of the traditional nutrients: pyruvate, glucose, lactate, and amino acids; originally considered as energy sources and biosynthetic precursors, but now recognized as having multiple, overlapping functions. Other nutrients; notably lipids, are beginning to attract the attention they deserve. The pivotal role of mitochondria in early embryo development and the DOHaD concept, and in providing a cellular focus for metabolic events is now recognized. Some unifying ideas are discussed; namely 'stress-response models' and the 'quiet embryo hypothesis'; the latter aiming to relate the metabolism of individual preimplantation embryos to their subsequent viability. The review concludes by updating the state of knowledge of preimplantation embryo metabolism in the early 1970s and listing some future research questions. © 2012 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

Pamme N.,University of Hull
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2012

Magnetic particles can combine two very selective processes in bioanalysis: the specific binding of analytes to the particle surface based on molecular recognition and the specific isolation of magnetic objects from complex sample mixtures. They have found numerous applications including cell isolation, immunoassays or DNA extraction. In this review recent trends in the use of magnetic particles are presented. Integrated sample-in-answer-out lab-on-a-chip systems often employ magnetic particles for at least one of the reaction steps. Several groups have shown on-particle processing in continuous flow for assays and DNA extractions. Other researchers have demonstrated the manoeuvring and splitting of magnetically functionalised droplets for various bioapplications. Improvements in magnet configuration now allow for sorting of magnetically labelled cells within mL volumes in minutes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling modulates platelet shape change through unknown mechanisms. We examined the effects of cAMP signaling on platelet contractile machinery. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-mediated inhibition of thrombin-stimulated shape change was accompanied by diminished phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC). Since thrombin stimulates phospho-MLC through RhoA/Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK)-dependent inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), we examined the effects of cAMP on this pathway. Thrombin stimulated the membrane localization of RhoA and the formation of a signaling complex of RhoA/ROCK2/myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1). This resulted in ROCK-mediated phosphorylation of MYPT1 on threonine 853 (thr(853)), the disassociation of the catalytic subunit protein phosphatase 1δ (PP1δ) from MYPT1 and inhibition of basal MLCP activity. Treatment of platelets with PGE1 prevented thrombin-induced phospho-MYPT1-thr(853) in a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. Examination of the molecular mechanisms revealed that PGE1 induced the phosphorylation of RhoA on serine(188) through a pathway requiring cAMP and PKA. This event inhibited the membrane relocalization of RhoA, prevented the association of RhoA with ROCK2 and MYPT1, attenuated the dissociation of PP1δ from MYPT1, and thereby restored basal MLCP activity leading to a decrease in phospho-MLC. These data reveal a new mechanism by which the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway regulates platelet function.

Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) generated in the hyperlipidemic state may contribute to unregulated platelet activation during thrombosis. Although the ability of oxLDL to activate platelets is established, the underlying signaling mechanisms remain obscure. We show that oxLDL stimulate platelet activation through phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains of the contractile protein myosin IIa (MLC). oxLDL, but not native LDL, induced shape change, spreading, and phosphorylation of MLC (serine 19) through a pathway that was ablated under conditions that blocked CD36 ligation or inhibited Src kinases, suggesting a tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism. Consistent with this, oxLDL induced tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins including Syk and phospholipase C γ2. Inhibition of Syk, Ca(2+) mobilization, and MLC kinase (MLCK) only partially inhibited MLC phosphorylation, suggesting the presence of a second pathway. oxLDL activated RhoA and RhoA kinase (ROCK) to induce inhibitory phosphorylation of MLC phosphatase (MLCP). Moreover, inhibition of Src kinases prevented the activation of RhoA and ROCK, indicating that oxLDL regulates contractile signaling through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway that induces MLC phosphorylation through the dual activation of MLCK and inhibition of MLCP. These data reveal new signaling events downstream of CD36 that are critical in promoting platelet aggregation by oxLDL.

Humphries S.,University of Hull
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

The majority of biological rates are known to exhibit temperature dependence. Here I reveal a direct link between temperature and ecologically relevant rates such as swimming speeds in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes as well as fluid-pumping and filtration rates in many metazoans, and show that this relationship is driven by movement rates of cilia and flagella. I develop models of the temperature dependence of cilial and flagellar movement rates and evaluate these with an extensive compilation of data from the literature. The model captures the temperature dependence of viscosity and provides a mechanistic and biologically interpretable explanation for the temperature dependence of a range of ecologically relevant processes; it also reveals a clear dependence on both reaction rate-like processes and the physics of the environment. The incorporation of viscosity allows further insight into the effects of environmental temperature variation and of processes, such as disease, that affect the viscosity of blood or other body fluids.

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