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Huddersfield, United Kingdom

The University of Huddersfield is a public university located in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, England. Wikipedia.

Blyth E.,University of Huddersfield
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2012

This exploratory qualitative study investigates the experiences of eight adults conceived following anonymous sperm donation who had discovered the identity both of their donor and of donor half-siblings and had established contact with each other. It focuses primarily on participants' reflections on genetic and social kinship relationships. Data were collected from this group as well as from the son of the donor and the donor-conceived half-sister of one participant by means of semistructured interviews utilizing asynchronous email and digitalized voice recording. Participants discussed their experience of genetic disconnection resulting from learning of their donor-conceived status and of revising their personal biographies and developing new kinship networks as a result of discovering the identity of their donor and the existence of donor half-siblings. The study highlights participants' agency expressed through their ability to draw on both genetic and non-genetic elements of their inheritance to redefine their self-identity and extend their familial/kinship networks in meaningful ways. This paper reports findings from a study investigating the experiences of eight adults who learned of their conception following anonymous donor insemination provided by the same fertility clinic, the identity of their shared donor and their relatedness to each other and who had subsequently established communications with each other. The donor-conceived sister of one participant and the son of the donor also participated. Data were collected by means of email communications using a semi-structured interview schedule. The specific focus of this paper examines participants' experiences of genetic disconnection resulting from learning of their donor-conceived status and of revising their personal biographies and developing new kinship networks as a result of discovering the identity of their donor and the existence of donor half-siblings. It concludes that participants were able to draw on both genetic and non-genetic elements of their 'roots' in order to redefine their self-identity and extend their familial/kinship networks. © 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Jiang X.,University of Huddersfield
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2011

A fundamentally improved technology for micro structured surface measurement, based on Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) techniques is introduced. The WDM technique allows phase-to-depth implementation over large measurement ratios (range/resolution) while the GPU technique allows the analysis of the optical interferograms in real-time. This research attempts to create a new kind of full-field measurement to replace electro-mechanical scanning with white-light interferometry and to form a compact system that is fast, robust and suitable for in situ surface measurement. An experimental system has been developed for the manufacture of diamond turned/fly cut micro-structured surfaces on a large drum diamond turning machine (DTM). © 2011 CIRP. Source

Kasprzyk-Hordern B.,University of Huddersfield | Kasprzyk-Hordern B.,University of Bath
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

Pharmacologically active compounds including both legally used pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs are potent environmental contaminants. Extensive research has been undertaken over the recent years to understand their environmental fate and toxicity. The one very important phenomenon that has been overlooked by environmental researchers studying the fate of pharmacologically active compounds in the environment is their chirality. Chiral drugs can exist in the form of enantiomers, which have similar physicochemical properties but differ in their biological properties such as distribution, metabolism and excretion, as these processes (due to stereospecific interactions of enantiomers with biological systems) usually favour one enantiomer over the other. Additionally, due to different pharmacological activity, enantiomers of chiral drugs can differ in toxicity. Furthermore, degradation of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment and in the environment can be stereoselective and can lead to chiral products of varied toxicity. The distribution of different enantiomers of the same chiral drug in the aquatic environment and biota can also be stereoselective. Biological processes can lead to stereoselective enrichment or depletion of the enantiomeric composition of chiral drugs. As a result the very same drug might reveal different activity and toxicity and this will depend on its origin and exposure to several factors governing its fate in the environment. In this critical review a discussion of the importance of chirality of pharmacologically active compounds in the environmental context is undertaken and suggestions for directions in further research are made. Several groups of chiral drugs of major environmental relevance are discussed and their pharmacological action and disposition in the body is also outlined as it is a key factor in developing a full understanding of their environmental occurrence, fate and toxicity. This review will be of interest to environmental scientists, especially those interested in issues associated with environmental contamination with pharmacologically active compounds and chiral pollutants. As the review will outline current state of knowledge on chiral drugs, it will be of value to anyone interested in the phenomenon of chirality, chiral drugs, their stereoselective disposition in the body and environmental fate (212 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Humphreys P.N.,University of Huddersfield
Journal of Hospital Infection | Year: 2011

Sporicidal products are of considerable importance in healthcare environments due to the requirement for products that are capable of dealing with contamination with Clostridium difficile spores. Sporicidal testing standards to validate the claims of sporicidal activity are an important tool in the evaluation of commercial sporicides. Within Europe there are a number of sporicidal testing standards which are often used to validate the claims of commercial sporicides. However, the extent to which these standards reflect the practical application of sporicides in healthcare settings is limited since they employ long contact times (≥30 min) and do not involve surface contamination. Alternative international standards are available which employ contaminated carriers rather than spore suspensions, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is currently developing a unified set of standards which are more realistic in their design than the currently available European standards. This paper reviews the currently available testing standards for sporicides, highlighting the key procedural differences between them and the extent to which they reflect the practical application of sporicidal products. Some of the common problems and errors associated with the application of the European sporicidal standard methods are also highlighted and discussed. Finally gaps in the currently available testing standards are identified and discussed. © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Source

Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 3.55M | Year: 2015

The current MIAMI facility - which combines a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with an ion accelerator, enabling the observation at the nanoscale of radiation effects- has several major technological applications. In nuclear research: investigations into the behaviour of materials used in current and near-term nuclear fission reactors to understand how they will perform both within their intended lifetimes and also during deviations from normal conditions; for future fission (GenIV) and fusion (both magnetic and inertial confinement) reactors, the focus is shifted towards the development of novel materials systems capable of performing in these extreme environments; also the quest for materials solutions for the immobilisation of long-lived radioactive waste. For nanotechnology, advanced manufacturing, semiconductor processing and the modification of materials (properties, structures and surfaces), ion beams are an important tool and TEM with in situ irradiation is an ideal method to explore ion-solid interactions to develop new technologies and materials processing techniques. Finally the study of the effects of radiation exposure in extra-terrestrial environments, on communication satellites or even manned craft operating outside the Earths protective magnetic field, such as those heading to Mars. The construction of MIAMI-2 will firstly ensure that the capabilities of the original MIAMI facility are maintained for the forseeable future enabling the continued investigation of these materials. Secondly the enhanced capabilities of MIAMI-2 will allow for the investigation of a greater range of extreme environments in a much more detailed manner. Specifically, the proposed configuration of new TEM, will enable MIAMI-2 to access a higher level of information including the changes in composition, chemical bonding and electronic structure, as well as to capture microstructural changes at higher resolutions (both temporal and spatial). It will also permit the use of thicker (more bulk-like specimens) and permit radiation damage studies in reactive gaseous environments. This facility would become one of only two in the world with these capabilities, the other being in the USA at Sandia National Labs. This would ensure that the UK would maintain its position as one of the leaders in the field of radiation damage and lead to the next generation of advanced materials. The extreme environment range nano-mechanical and nano-tribology platform (E2N2) will be unique facility at a national and international level which will allow the measurement of material properties under in-service environments. The proposed instrument will include: indentation, scratch, impact, fretting and friction in the range of working loads from mN to tens of Newtons and in an extreme temperature range (-30 to 1000 C); measurements in vacuum, partial pressure, in-service, predefined and precisely monitored environment; in situ optical and AFM surface/indent observation/measuring system. The platform will generate data for a broad temperature range and on the nanoscale a combination which is not otherwise available. It brings together research activities at Huddersfield in Advanced Materials, Railway and Turbocharger Engineering, Precision Metrology, healthcare and archaeology. The instrument will be extensively used in development of new self-healing materials and coating multilayers with nanostructures for extreme environments such us high temperature protection, friction and erosion. The ability to measure under in-service environments will also permit research in recreational medicine and healthcare. The facility will ensure that the country remains a leader in the field of nano-mechanics and will provide essential data on advanced materials and thin films for transport, energy and healthcare.

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