Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic

University of Hradec Kralove

www.uhk.cz
Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic

University of Hradec Králové was founded on June 21, 2000 by renaming the University College of Education , which itself traces its roots back to 1959. It is attended by around 8,500 students.It belongs to one of the most important education and research institutions in the Eastern Bohemia.The current rector of the university is prof. RNDr. Josef Hynek, MBA, Ph.D. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS.2012.2.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.78M | Year: 2013

This project aims to promote a widespread use of inquiry-based science teaching (IBST) in primary and secondary schools. Our major innovation is to connect IBST in school with the world of work making science more meaningful for young European students and motivating their interest in careers in S & T. To this end, we will run training courses in which pre- and in-service teachers will learn about IBST supported by teachers from vocational education, representatives from industry and informal learning. They will develop inquiry tasks in vocational contexts, leading to a large European task repository. Teachers will experience IBST themselves and through iterative cycles of implementation followed by reflection integrate this into their practice. To ensure widespread participation we will use a pyramid model in which we will work with a small number of teachers first each of which will then work with further teachers. Additionally we will develop an innovative interactive e-learning platform. To profit from the international perspective offered by the project teachers will be connected with existing European networks and our own thematic network on IBST through (virtual) meetings, a forum and the task repository. We will adopt a systemic approach to dissemination working with teachers and additionally parents, students, school authorities and policy makers. National and European advisory panels will bring together stakeholders to advise partners throughout the project; dialogue with policy makers will be facilitated by workshops and policy papers. To ensure effectiveness our work will be informed by a detailed analysis of the educational systems in partner nations. We plan to reach more than 65.000 teachers directly and 800.000 teachers indirectly (via stakeholders, media). Throughout, our work will be subject to rigorous evaluation and measures of quality assurance that will be both summative and formative in informing the progress of the project.


Smolej L.,University of Hradec Kralove
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2012

Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has recently undergone revolutionary changes. Two large randomized trials demonstrated superiority of chemoimmunotherapy combining fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (FCR) over fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC) alone in first line and relapse; this lead to establishment of FCR regimen as new gold standard in younger and physically fit patients. However, elderly and/or comorbid patients may not tolerate such aggressive approach due to high risk of unacceptable toxicity. To date, no randomized trials in this patient population have improved therapeutic results over chlorambucil; therefore, this agent remains the backbone of treatment against which the new protocols should be tested. Indeed, several currently running large trials investigate whether addition of an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab, obinutuzumab, ofatumumab) to chlorambucil yields better results. Performance status, biological age and number/severity of comorbid conditions should be incorporated into decision-making process with regard to intensity of treatment. Other emerging treatment alternatives for this patient population include fludarabine-based regimens in attenuated doses as well as protocols containing bendamustine or lenalidomide. Highdose steroids combined with rituximab might be a promising in relapsed/refractory CLL but infectious toxicity is serious. Finally, ofatumumab has been recently approved for the treatment of fludarabine and alemtuzumab-refractory patients. This article provides an overview of the current and future possibilities in the treatment of elderly and comorbid patients with CLL. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Pohanka M.,University of Hradec Kralove
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent that persists as a serious menace from the viewpoint of acute and chronic toxicity, simple synthesis and no effective treatment currently being available. The two most deleterious basic molecular mechanisms in SM poisoning are: inflammation and over-activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and the resulting DNA alkylation. Oxidative stress is the common consequence of these pathway activations. In the present review, the significance of oxidative stress in SM poisoning is discussed along with research on antioxidant therapy as a suitable antidote. The temporal dynamics of the redox imbalance, the antioxidant depletion and impact this has on tissues are described as the pathologies induced by SM. Special attention is paid to ameliorating the damage using low molecular weight antioxidants. Melatonin, epigallocatechin gallate and flavone derivatives, in particular, have been studied in recent experiments. The suitability of these antioxidants for therapy purposes is considered in a separate chapter. The review concludes with a view to the future and the studies needed on antioxidant therapy as a countermeasure to SM poisoning. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Pohanka M.,University of Hradec Kralove
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents | Year: 2012

Introduction: Both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are present in the body in large amounts. AChE is an important part of the cholinergic nervous system taking place in the central and peripheral nervous system. AChE is a target of several toxins such as insecticide carbofuran, nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun and VX. Beside toxins, drugs for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis, such as galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine, tacrine, huperzine, pyridostigmine and neostigmine, are known. Areas covered: The review gives an overview of the importance of the cholinergic nervous system, the biochemistry of AChE and the role of AChE inhibitors. Current efforts to introduce potent drugs for Alzheimer's disease therapy and reduce toxicity, while keeping the maximal pharmacological effect, are also discussed. Expert opinion: The current research effort into AChE inhibitors can be divided into two categories. First, new toxins useful for agricultural purposes and second, novel drugs that need to be prepared, although there is less interest in the new toxins. The research for drugs for Alzheimer's disease needs to focus on inhibitors that reduce the deposition of amyloid plaques, but do not initiate AChE expression. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.


Pohanka M.,University of Hradec Kralove
Biomedical Papers | Year: 2011

Background. Cholinesterases are a group of serine hydrolases that split the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and terminate its action. Of the two types, butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), AChE plays the key role in ending cholinergic neurotransmission. Cholinesterase inhibitors are substances, either natural or man-made that interfere with the break-down of ACh and prolong its action. Hence their relevance to toxicology and pharmacology. Methods and Results. The present review summarizes current knowledge of the cholinesterases and their inhibition. Particular attention is paid to the toxicology and pharmacology of cholinesterase-related inhibitors such as nerve agents (e.g. sarin, soman, tabun, VX), pesticides (e.g. paraoxon, parathion, malathion, malaoxon, carbofuran), selected plants and fungal secondary metabolites (e.g. aflatoxins), drugs for Alzheimer's disease (e.g. huperzine, metrifonate, tacrine, donepezil) and Myasthenia gravis (e.g. pyridostigmine) treatment and other compounds (propidium, ethidium, decamethonium). Conclusions. The crucial role of the cholinesterases in neural transmission makes them a primary target of a large number of cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs and toxins. In pharmacology, this has relevance to the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. © M. Pohanka.


Pohanka M.,University of Hradec Kralove
Journal of Applied Biomedicine | Year: 2011

Summary Age related neurodegenerative disorders are becoming a serious public health problem. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disease pathologically recognizable by deposition of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. Oxidative stress probably plays a pivotal role in AD, but despite expectations, antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β carotene, and flavonoids have failed as effective prophylaxis and/or treatment. Melatonin, a hormone controlling circadian rhythm, is a potent terminal antioxidant. In vitro tests and animal models have established that the application of melatonin could be beneficial for the amelioration of AD progression. Unfortunately, melatonin effects in human beings are not well understood and a lot of work has still to be done. The review summarizes the basic facts about melatonin and its prospects as a treatment for AD using its hormonal and antioxidant properties. © Journal of Applied Biomedicine.


Summary: The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between both a marker of bone formation and a marker of bone turnover and age, sex, and pubertal stage in a group (n =439) of healthy children and adolescents. These reference data should be instrumental in interpretation of results. Introduction: The skeletal system has high metabolic activity. In children, bone markers may be useful in diagnostics and treatment management of skeletal diseases but there could be difficulties with interpretation of results. Compared with adults, children have elevated bone marker levels due to high skeletal growth velocity and rapid bone turnover. Thus, valid age- and sex-specific reference data should be obtained for each pediatric population living in a particular climate and with a similar lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between both a marker of bone formation (procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide [PINP]) and a marker of bone turnover (osteocalcin [OC]) and age, sex, and pubertal stage in a group of healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Four hundred thirty-nine healthy Caucasian children participated. Their height, weight, and pubertal stage were recorded. Fasting PINP and OC weremeasured using a morning blood sample. Results: The highest levels of PINP were observed during the first year of life. There is no OC postnatal peak, but levels are higher than the adult reference interval throughout childhood. OC peaks with the pubertal growth spurt at second-third Tanner stage of breast development in girls and at second-third Tanner stage of genital development in boys. PINP peaks during second-third Tanner stage of breast development in girls and at third Tanner stage of genital development in boys. Conclusion: This study provides reference data for OC and PINP in healthy Caucasian children from a Central European population. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2013.


Pohanka M.,University of Hradec Kralove
Analytical Letters | Year: 2013

Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are the only two known cholinesterases. Acetylcholinesterase plays an important part in cholinergic system. It terminates neurotransmission by hydrolysis of transmitter acetylcholine. The role of butyrylcholinesterase is not well understood. It is able to detoxify several compounds such as cocaine, succinylcholine, and so forth. The current review is focused on the application of cholinesterases in biorecognition. Cholinesterases are important markers in the body. Butyrylcholinesterase activity in plasma can serve as a liver function test or specific marker for sensitivity to myorelaxants or liver carcinoma. Both cholinesterases can serve as markers of poisoning by some neurotoxic compounds. Nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, VX), some Alzheimer disease drugs (galantamine, huperzine, donepezil, rivastigmine), pesticides (carbofuran, trichlorfon, paraoxon, malaoxon), and natural toxins (aflatoxin, pyridostigmine) can act as inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase and/or acetylcholinesterase. Devices filled with immobilized cholinesterases can be used for the assay of the aforementioned toxins. In this review, methods for examination of cholinesterases activity in the body and in analytical devices are described. Applications, types of diagnosis, and assays are described as well. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Smolej L.,University of Hradec Kralove
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2012

Introduction: Management of refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) represents a major challenge because of the poor prognosis and limited treatment options. While corticosteroids have been used to treat CLL since 1940s, their benefit has never been conclusively proved. Recently, several groups reported use of high-dose corticosteroids (methylprednisolone or dexamethasone) either alone or combined with chemotherapy and/or monoclonal antibodies in relapsed/refractory CLL. Areas covered: While efficacy of high-dose corticosteroids is excellent including responses in patients with bulky lymphadenopathy or those considered ultra high-risk CLL because of deletion and/or mutation of p53 gene, the duration of response is still unsatisfactory. Combination with monoclonal antibodies seems to improve therapeutic efficacy but no randomized trials have been conducted. For the purpose of this review, a search for terms, high-dose corticosteroids/methylprednisolone/dexamethasone, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia has been performed in PubMed and database of abstracts from American Society of Hematology Meetings. Expert opinion: High-dose corticosteroids appear to play an important role in the management of highly pretreated relapsed/refractory CLL including patients with massive lymphadenopathy. Myelosuppression is usually limited but infectious toxicity, including increased risk of invasive fungal infections, represents the most dreaded side effects. This therapeutic approach should be further tested within large prospective trials, to optimize efficacy and safety. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.


Pohanka M.,University of Hradec Kralove
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2012

Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is an important part of the cholinergic nerve system in the brain. Moreover, it is associated with a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the termination of the parasympathetic nervous system. Antagonists of α7 nAChR are a wide group represented by conotoxin and bungarotoxin. Even Alzheimer's disease drug memantine acting as an antagonist in its side pathway belongs in this group. Agonists of α7 nAChR are suitable for treatment of multiple cognitive dysfunctions such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Inflammation or even sepsis can be ameliorated by the agonistic acting compounds. Preparations RG3487, SEN34625/WYE-103914, SEN12333, ABT-107, Clozapine, GTS-21, CNI-1493, and AR-R17779 are representative examples of the novel compounds with affinity toward the α7 nAChR. Pharmacological, toxicological, and medicinal significance of α7 nAChR are discussed throughout this paper. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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