Consuegra S.,University of Swansea |
John E.,University of Swansea |
Verspoor E.,University of Highlands and Islands |
de Leaniz C.G.,University of Swansea
Genetics Selection Evolution | Year: 2015
Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is frequently used in population genetic studies and is usually considered as a neutral marker. However, given the functional importance of the proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome, and the prominent role of mitochondria in cellular energy production, the assumption of neutrality is increasingly being questioned. Results: We tested for evidence of selection on the mitochondrial genome of the Atlantic salmon, which is a locally adapted and widely farmed species and is distributed across a large latitudinal cline. We analysed 20 independent regions of the salmon mtDNA that represented nine genes (ND1, ND2, ND3, COX1, COX2, ATP6, ND4, ND5, and CYTB). These 20 mtDNA regions were sequenced using a 454 approach from samples collected across the entire European range of this species. We found evidence of positive selection at the ND1, ND3 and ND4 genes, which is supported by at least two different codon-based methods and also by differences in the chemical properties of the amino acids involved. The geographical distribution of some of the mutations indicated to be under selection was not random, and some mutations were private to artic populations. We discuss the possibility that selection acting on the Atlantic salmon mtDNA genome might be related to the need for increased metabolic efficiency at low temperatures. Conclusions: The analysis of sequences representing nine mitochondrial genes that are involved in the OXPHOS pathway revealed signatures of positive selection in the mitochondrial genome of the Atlantic salmon. The properties of the amino acids involved suggest that some of the mutations that were identified to be under positive selection might have functional implications, possibly in relation to metabolic efficiency. Experimental evidence, and better understanding of regional phylogeographic structuring, are needed to clarify the potential role of selection acting on the mitochondrial genome of Atlantic salmon and other locally adapted fishes. © 2015 Consuegra et al.
Bourret V.,Laval University |
Kent M.P.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Primmer C.R.,University of Turku |
Vasemagi A.,University of Turku |
And 7 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2013
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the most extensively studied fish species in the world due to its significance in aquaculture, fisheries and ongoing conservation efforts to protect declining populations. Yet, limited genomic resources have hampered our understanding of genetic architecture in the species and the genetic basis of adaptation to the wide range of natural and artificial environments it occupies. In this study, we describe the development of a medium-density Atlantic salmon single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic sequencing. The array was used in the most extensive assessment of population genetic structure performed to date in this species. A total of 6176 informative SNPs were successfully genotyped in 38 anadromous and freshwater wild populations distributed across the species natural range. Principal component analysis clearly differentiated European and North American populations, and within Europe, three major regional genetic groups were identified for the first time in a single analysis. We assessed the potential for the array to disentangle neutral and putative adaptive divergence of SNP allele frequencies across populations and among regional groups. In Europe, secondary contact zones were identified between major clusters where endogenous and exogenous barriers could be associated, rendering the interpretation of environmental influence on potentially adaptive divergence equivocal. A small number of markers highly divergent in allele frequencies (outliers) were observed between (multiple) freshwater and anadromous populations, between northern and southern latitudes, and when comparing Baltic populations to all others. We also discuss the potential future applications of the SNP array for conservation, management and aquaculture. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Connelly J.,University of Highlands and Islands |
Kirk A.,University of Strathclyde |
Masthoff J.,University of Aberdeen |
Macrury S.,University of Highlands and Islands
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2013
Introduction: With increasing evidence available on the importance of physical activity in the management of Type 2 diabetes, there has been an increase in technology-based interventions. This review provides a systematic and descriptive assessment of the effectiveness of technology to promote physical activity in people with Type 2 diabetes. For this review, technology included mobile phones and text messages, websites, CD-ROMs and computer-learning-based technology, and excluded telephone calls. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to retrieve articles from January 2001 to March 2013 using the following databases: the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and PubMed. Articles had to describe an intervention that used technology to promote physical activity in people with Type 2 diabetes. A methodological quality assessment of the studies was conducted and data synthesis was performed. Results: In total, 15 articles were eligible for review: web-based (9), mobile phone (3), CD-ROM (2) and computer based (1). All studies found an increase in physical activity but only nine were significant. The use of a personal coach, logbooks and reinforcement strategies such as phone calls and email counselling were found to be effective components for behaviour change. No studies were ranked as low in terms of methodological quality. Conclusions: Technology-based interventions to promote physical activity are effective; using further methods to promote participant adherence is associated with greater benefit. Further research should look into strategies to enhance adherence and sustainability in order to increase the effectiveness of technology-based physical activity intervention in diabetes care. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.
McKendrick D.R.A.,Dr Grays Hospital |
McKendrick D.R.A.,University of Aberdeen |
Cumming G.P.,University of Aberdeen |
Cumming G.P.,Dr Grays Hospital |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2012
Background: Most consider Twitter as a tool purely for social networking. However, it has been used extensively as a tool for online discussion at nonmedical and medical conferences, and the academic benefits of this tool have been reported. Most anesthetists still have yet to adopt this new educational tool. There is only one previously published report of the use of Twitter by anesthetists at an anesthetic conference. This paper extends that work. Objective: We report the uptake and growth in the use of Twitter, a microblogging tool, at an anesthetic conference and review the potential use of Twitter as an educational tool for anesthetists. Methods: A unique Twitter hashtag (#WSM12) was created and promoted by the organizers of the Winter Scientific Meeting held by The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (AAGBI) in London in January 2012. Twitter activity was compared with Twitter activity previously reported for the AAGBI Annual Conference (September 2011 in Edinburgh). All tweets posted were categorized according to the person making the tweet and the purpose for which they were being used. The categories were determined from a literature review. Results: A total of 227 tweets were posted under the #WSM12 hashtag representing a 530% increase over the previously reported anesthetic conference. Sixteen people joined the Twitter stream by using this hashtag (300% increase). Excellent agreement (κ = 0.924) was seen in the classification of tweets across the 11 categories. Delegates primarily tweeted to create and disseminate notes and learning points (55%), describe which session was attended, undertake discussions, encourage speakers, and for social reasons. In addition, the conference organizers, trade exhibitors, speakers, and anesthetists who did not attend the conference all contributed to the Twitter stream. The combined total number of followers of those who actively tweeted represented a potential audience of 3603 people. Conclusions: This report demonstrates an increase in uptake and growth in the use of Twitter at an anesthetic conference and the review illustrates the opportunities and benefits for medical education in the future.
Arnold K.E.,University of York |
Boxall A.B.A.,University of York |
Brown A.R.,Astrazeneca |
Brown A.R.,University of Exeter |
And 11 more authors.
Biology Letters | Year: 2013
The use of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals is increasing. Over the past decade, there has been a proliferation of research into potential environmental impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment. A Royal Society-supported seminar brought together experts from diverse scientific fields to discuss the risks posed by pharmaceuticals to wildlife. Recent analytical advances have revealed that pharmaceuticals are entering habitats via water, sewage, manure and animal carcases, and dispersing through food chains. Pharmaceuticals are designed to alter physiology at low doses and so can be particularly potent contaminants. The near extinction of Asian vultures following exposure to diclofenac is the key example where exposure to a pharmaceutical caused a population-level impact on non-target wildlife. However, more subtle changes to behaviour and physiology are rarely studied and poorly understood. Grand challenges for the future includedevelopingmore realistic exposure assessments forwildlife, assessingthe impacts ofmixtures ofpharmaceuticals in combination with otherenvironmental stressors andestimating the risks frompharmaceutical manufacturing and usage in developing countries. We concluded that an integration of diverse approaches is required to predict 'unexpected' risks; specifically, ecologically relevant, often long-termand non-lethal, consequences of pharmaceuticals in the environment for wildlife and ecosystems.
Woolf D.K.,University of Highlands and Islands |
Goddijn-Murphy L.,University of Highlands and Islands
European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP | Year: 2012
A number of geochemical processes are dependent on bubbles primarily produced by "whitecapping" breaking waves, notably primary marine aerosol production, bubble-mediated gas exchange and the renewal of the organically rich surface marine microlayer. It is convenient to predict the magnitude of these processes through a "whitecap method" that then requires whitecap coverage to be measured or predicted. Whitecap coverage is difficult to define and harder to measure. There is adequate evidence that whitecap coverage (and thus by implication, the processes driven by it) do not simply depend on wind speed. Typically whitecap coverage may vary by a factor of two either side of a geometric mean for a given wind speed in response to changes in sea state. Both parametric and relatively direct methods of retrieving whitecap coverage require further development. © 2012 European Space Agency.
Annamalai A.S.K.,University of Highlands and Islands |
Yang C.,University of Plymouth |
Yang C.,South China University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015
The purpose of this research is to provide an insight into the effect of different parameters on the autopilot design. Various independent parameters of three autopilots namely, proportional integral derivative, linear quadratic regulator and model predictive controller are analyzed and evaluated to obtain optimum performance. Further these optimal parameters are employed in a controller design which is integrated with a Kalman filter and an interval Kalman filter based navigation system and a line of sight based guidance system. Overall performance of the autopilots with the optimum parameters are presented in a tabular form to enable easier comparison and to serve as a benchmark to tune autopilot parameters of an uninhabited surface vehicles. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
Nall C.R.,University of Highlands and Islands |
Guerin A.J.,Northumbria University |
Elizabeth J.,Scottish Association for Marine Science
Aquatic Invasions | Year: 2015
In this study, we compiled existing records of fouling marine non-native species in Scotland, and created a national checklist of these species. We then targeted a selection of these species (excluding those that could not be reliably identified) in a rapid assessment survey of 27 harbours in the north of Scotland. Collation of existing records revealed that 23 fouling marine non-native species were known to be present in Scotland. The geographic distribution of these records was not uniform, and they were largely underrepresented in the north and east of mainland Scotland, likely as result of lack of survey effort. In the rapid assessment survey of north Scotland, 9 out of 18 targeted species were found: Austrominius modestus (Darwin, 1854); Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927; Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935; Codium fragile fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889; Corella eumyota Traustedt, 1882; Heterosiphonia japonica Yendo, 1920; Neosiphonia harveyi (Bailey) Kim, Choi, Guiry and Saunders, 2001; Schizoporella japonica Ortmann, 1890; and Tricellaria inopinata d'Hondt and Occhipinti Ambrogi, 1985. The non-native bryozoan Bugula simplex Hincks, 1886, which was not targeted, was also found, and this constituted the first confirmed Scottish record. The surveys provided 60 new records and extended the northward national range for most of the species found. The number of fouling non-native species in the surveyed harbours was positively associated with the presence of floating structures and vessel activity indices. Our study presents an overview of the current status of fouling marine non-native species in Scotland, and the results of the first comprehensive survey of these species in the north of Scotland. The latter provides a baseline dataset for monitoring future changes, which may occur as a result of the development of the wave and tidal energy industry in the north of Scotland. The wave and tidal energy industry has the potential to facilitate the invasion of fouling marine non-native species through the provision of habitat and by increasing vector activity. © 2015 The Author(s).
Medek M.,University of Highlands and Islands
Rekreace a Ochrana Prirody - Sbornik Prispevku | Year: 2010
The paper briefly introduces history of interpretation and uses reveals its potential for conservation management, regional development and lifelong education. Systematic approach to interpretation based on interpretation planning in identified as the key factor of successful and effective interpretation delivery. The paper introduces 3 methods of interpretation planning and focuses on 5M model introduced by Lisa Brochu. Application of theoretical principles is demonstrated on examples from UK and the Czech Republic.
PubMed | Scottish Association for Marine Science, University of Highlands and Islands and University of Edinburgh
Type: | Journal: Marine biology | Year: 2016
Marine invasive non-native species (NNS) are one of the greatest threats to global marine biodiversity, causing significant economic and social impacts. Marinas are increasingly recognised as key reservoirs for invasive NNS. They provide submersed artificial habitat that unintentionally supports the establishment of NNS introduced from visiting recreational vessels. While ballast water and shipping vectors have been well documented, the role of recreational vessels in spreading NNS has been relatively poorly studied. Identification of the main physical features found within marinas, which relate to the presence of NNS, is important to inform the development of effective biosecurity measures and prevent further spread. Towards this aim, physical features that could influence the presence of NNS were assessed for marinas throughout the UK in July 2013. Thirty-three marine and brackish NNS have been recorded in UK marinas, and of the 88 marinas studied in detail, 83 contained between 1 and 13 NNS. Significant differences in freshwater input, marina entrance width and seawall length were associated with the presence of NNS. Additionally, questionnaires were distributed to marina managers and recreational vessel owners to understand current biosecurity practices and attitudes to recreational vessel biosecurity. The main barriers to biosecurity compliance were cited as cost and time. Further work identifying easily distinguished features of marinas could be used as a proxy to assess risk of invasion.