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Abstract Several authors (e.g., Mcniff & Whitehead, 2006; Wallace, 1998) defend the idea that teachers' own involvement in research has the potential to encourage professional growth. Journal writing, teacher logs, written narratives and stimulated recall are some examples of methods that have been used by researchers to encourage and support teachers' reflective practice in teacher-researcher collaborative research. This paper discusses the use of video-stimulated reflection as both a research method and as a means for teacher professional growth. The research findings are drawn from a longitudinal study that investigates a model of Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) technology professional development programme. The research was carried out in the form of seven in-depth case studies with English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in German secondary/vocational schools, as they learn how to integrate the IWB into their teaching. Research data were collected via a variety of research instruments, namely classroom observations and field notes, video recordings of school lessons and teacher training workshops, interviews and video-stimulated reflection. Findings based on the analysis of the copious amount of data gathered indicate that the video-stimulated dialogues were used by the teachers as effective opportunities for reflection, self-evaluation and pedagogical development. Copyright © European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning 2011. Source

This paper discusses the findings of a case study conducted with an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher at a German secondary school. This case study is part of a research project that investigates the new competencies that EFL teachers need to acquire in order to be able to use the interactive whiteboard (IWB) to develop their practice, informed by a socio-cognitive approach to computer-assisted language learning. The findings point towards various competencies developed by the teacher as she integrated the technology into her teaching, namely: (a) the ability to design IWB-based materials which support opportunities for learner interaction with the whiteboard and with the learning content; (b) the appropriate management of interaction around IWBs in a way that ensures all learners are provided with opportunities to become actively involved; and (c) the ability to find the 'right balance' of technology use. Source

Over the past decade several studies have demonstrated children's rich knowledge of emotions. In contrast, less is known about children's knowledge about strategies to regulate their own emotional states. While questionnaire data suggest a rather late development of strategies to regulate emotions, not beginning before middle childhood, theory-of-mind research suggests the possibility of an earlier development. The present study examines whether children from age three on are able to distinguish effective from ineffective strategies of emotion regulation. A total of 64 children (16 3-, 4,-5-, and 6-year-olds) were given six stories all depicting a child protagonist facing a fear-eliciting situation. For each story, two effective and two ineffective strategies were presented. The children's task was to judge whether the strategy would be helpful for not feeling scared. With the exception of the 3-year-olds, children of all age groups were better in understanding the mental strategies than the behavioral strategies. Thus, the results are in accordance with theory of mind research and indicate that recognizing effective behavioral and mental strategies begins to develop from three years onward. © Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht GmbH & Co. KG, Göttingen 2010. Source

Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Die Naturwissenschaften

Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness (r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores (r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness. Source

Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

Black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus alter the number of D notes of their chick-a-dee call to reflect urgency and threat. Here, I tested whether heterospecific responses of an allopatric species to these mobbing calls occur. Heterospecific chickadee mobbing calls and songs from North America were broadcast to European great tits (Parus major) and compared with conspecific mobbing calls. During conspecific mobbing playbacks, all great tits approached the speaker, during the heterospecific "chick-a-dee" playbacks, 63.3% individuals approached the speaker, while during the song playback, only 31.3% of the great tits approached the speaker. Minimum distances of great tits were lower during conspecific mobbing calls compared to allopatric chick-a-dee calls and to allopatric chickadee song. Also, minimum distances were lower when comparing allopatric chick-a-dee calls and chickadee song. Great tits approached the speaker on average down to (mean ± SE) 20.0 ± 1.8 m during playbacks of 1-4 D elements, to 17.7 ± 2.0 m during playbacks of 5-7 D elements and down to 11.5 ± 2.0 m during playbacks of 8-11 D elements. The number of D notes was inversely related to minimum distance. Thus, the urgency message encoded in the D notes was perceived also by an allopatric but phylogenetically related European species, suggesting that the heterospecific response is possibly phylogenetically conserved. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

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