Time filter

Source Type

Rodriguez-Caballero E.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | Rodriguez-Caballero E.,University of Almeria | Escribano P.,Andalusian Center for the Assessment and Monitoring of Global Change | Olehowski C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | And 5 more authors.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2017

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are communities of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens and bryophytes in varying proportions, which live within or immediately on top of the uppermost millimeters of the soil in arid and semiarid regions. As biocrusts are highly relevant for ecosystem processes like carbon, nitrogen, and water cycling, a correct characterization of their spatial distribution is required. Following this objective, considerable efforts have been devoted to the identification and mapping of biocrusts using remote sensing data, and several mapping indices have been developed. However, their transferability to different regions has only rarely been tested. In this study we investigated the transferability of two multispectral indices, i.e. the Crust Index (CI) and the Biological Soil Crust Index (BSCI), and two hyperspectral indices, i.e. the Continuum Removal Crust Identification Algorithm (CRCIA) and the Crust Development Index (CDI), in three sites dominated by biocrusts, but with differences in soil and vegetation composition. Whereas multispectral indices have been important and valuable tools for first approaches to map and classify biological soil crusts, hyperspectral data and indices developed for these allowed to classify biocrusts at much higher accuracy. While multispectral indices showed Kappa (κ) values below 0.6, hyperspectral indices obtained good classification accuracy (κ ∼ 0.8) in both the study area where they had been developed and in the newly tested region. These results highlight the capability of hyperspectral sensors to identify specific absorption features related to photosynthetic pigments as chlorophyll and carotenoids, but also the limitation of multispectral information to discriminate between areas dominated by biocrusts, vegetation or bare soil. Based on these results we conclude that remote sensing offers an important and valid tool to map biocrusts. However, the spectral similarity between the main surface components of drylands and biocrusts demand for mapping indices based on hyperspectral information to correctly map areas dominated by biocrusts at ecosystem scale. © 2017 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS)


Sarimski K.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Lang M.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie | Year: 2017

Objective: To increase the limited knowledge concerning the form and risk factors of self-injurious, aggressive, and stereotypic behavior in children and youths with visual impairments. Method: Parents of 83 children and youths with visual impairments report on the characteristics of visual impairment, the social-communicative competence of their children, and the frequency and severity of self-injurious, aggressive, and stereotypic behaviors. Results: Stereotypic behaviors are reported more often than the other behavioral abnormalities. The frequencies of stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors are correlated with each other. Children with higher social-communicative competence received lower scores in stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors (range of correlation coefficients between -.26 and -.48). Furthermore, the developmental delay of cognitive and adaptive competence is associated with the frequency and severity of these self-injurious behaviors (F = 4.65, p = .012/F > 5.65, p < 0.01). For blind children, the parents describe a higher frequency and severity of stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors. The frequency of self-injurious behavior is lower for children in an integrative setting. Conclusions: Frequency and severity of stereotypic and selfinjurious behavior varies with characteristics of the child's visual impairment and additional disabilities. This association is not supported for aggressive behaviors.


Hintermair M.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Sarimski K.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Lang M.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie | Year: 2017

Objective: Hearing loss in the deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) is associated with an elevated risk of problems in socio-emotional development. Early assessment is necessary to start timely interventions. The present study tested two parent questionnaires that allow evaluation of the socio-emotional development of toddlers from a competence perspective. Method: 128 parents with DHH toddlers aged 18 to 36 months were asked to evaluate the development of their children and their own educational competences using two preliminary German adaptations of internationally well-known social-emotional assessment measures. Results: In addition to a series of results within the normal range, the data also reveal some specific problems in the socio-emotional development of children with hearing loss. DHH toddlers in particular show more problems developing empathic competences and maintaining relations with peers. DHH toddlers with additional handicaps have a higher risk of developing socio-emotional problems. Parental responsivity proves to be important regarding the development of socio-emotional competences in toddlers. Conclusions: The presented data strongly confirm results available from deaf research regarding the development and promotion of DHH children. The two questionnaires used in this study provide the opportunity to evaluate socio-emotional competences in DHH toddlers and to start appropriate interventions very early.


Lindenberg K.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Halasy K.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Schoenmaekers S.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications | Year: 2017

Background The reduction of prevalence rates of Internet Use Disorder (IUD) and its effective treatment are at high priority in both public health and educational policies. School-based preventive interventions facilitate a low-threshold approach for individuals with IUD, who are typically characterized by high therapy avoidance. Moreover, indicated approaches which target adolescents at high-risk show larger effects than universal prevention programs. Simultaneously, they reduce unnecessary burden for the majority of high-school students that is not at-risk. The PROTECT group intervention for indicated prevention of IUD in school settings was developed based on these preventive strategies. Methods Three-hundred and forty adolescents, aged 12–18 years, from 40 secondary schools in Germany, screened for high-risk of IUD onset, are randomly assigned to a) PROTECT preventive intervention group or b) assessment only control group. The tested intervention consists of a cognitive-behavioral 4-session brief-protocol. Follow-up assessments are at 1, 4 and 12 months after admission. Primary outcome is the 12-months incidence rate of IUD. Secondary outcomes are the reduction of IUD and comorbid symptoms as well as the promotion of problem solving, cognitive restructuring and emotion regulation skills. Conclusion The indicated preventive intervention PROTECT follows the APA-guidelines for psychological prevention, i.e., it is theory- and evidence-based and addresses both risk-reduction and strength-promotion, it considers current research and epidemiology and ethical standards such as professional secrecy and is designed as a systemic intervention at the school-level. It is expected that the intervention decreases risk of IUD onset (incidence rate). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02907658. © 2017 The Authors


Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Randler C.,University of Tübingen | Desch I.H.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Otte im Kampe V.,University of Education, Heidelberg | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science | Year: 2016

A growing body of research has shown that the emotion of disgust is adaptive since it protects humans from pathogens. The possible role of anxiety and other positive and negative emotions in pathogen avoidance remain less clear. We investigated individual food acceptance after a disgust-evoking experience (a trout dissection) in a real-life setting by assessing the taking of a portion of trout. The unique contribution is that both state and trait disgust influence the likelihood of taking food after being disgusted. Participants who were more anxious, disgust sensitive or predisposed to more negative emotions avoided food after dissection significantly more frequently than their more positively affected counterparts. Males tended to accept food more often than females. Overall, these results suggest that anxiety, disgust and additional negative emotions are important in human food avoidance and that both anxiety and emotions can be considered as adaptive from an evolutionary perspective. © 2016 AZTI-Tecnalia


Greschner M.,Universitatsklinikum Munster | Muller J.M.,Universitatsklinikum Munster | Lindenberg K.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Reck C.,Universitatsklinikum | And 3 more authors.
Sucht | Year: 2017

Aim: It is assumed that pathological Internet use (PIU) is a result of insecure attachment styles and unmet attachment needs. The following pilot study investigates the connection between PIU and attachment styles. Method: Ten study participants with PIU were compared to a control group consisting of 10 participants with the same sex, age, and educational level. An interview technique was used for the first time to examine the attachment needs by two trained raters using the Attachment Style Interview. PIU was assessed by an Internet addiction interview (Distinguishing Characteristics of Internet Addiction). Furthermore the questionnaires Onlinesucht- und Computerspielverhalten were used. Result: Study participants with PIU exhibited less secure attachment styles, which were significantly more insecure and disorganised compared to the control group [χ2(2) = 7.505; p =.023]. Conclusion: Insecure and disorganised attachment styles should be considered a risk factor in the multifactorial genesis of PIU. © 2017 Hogrefe.


Adan A.,University of Barcelona | Adan A.,Institute for Brain | Archer S.N.,University of Surrey | Hidalgo M.P.,Laboratorio Of Cronobiologia Do Hospital Of Clinicas Of Porto Alegre | And 4 more authors.
Chronobiology International | Year: 2012

The interest in the systematic study of the circadian typology (CT) is relatively recent and has developed rapidly in the two last decades. All the existing data suggest that this individual difference affects our biological and psychological functioning, not only in health, but also in disease. In the present study, we review the current literature concerning the psychometric properties and validity of CT measures as well as individual, environmental and genetic factors that influence the CT. We present a brief overview of the biological markers that are used to define differences between CT groups (sleepwake cycle, body temperature, cortisol and melatonin), and we assess the implications for CT and adjustment to shiftwork and jet lag. We also review the differences between CT in terms of cognitive abilities, personality traits and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. When necessary, we have emphasized the methodological limitations that exist today and suggested some future avenues of work in order to overcome these. This is a new field of interest to professionals in many different areas (research, labor, academic and clinical), and this review provides a state of the art discussion to allow professionals to integrate chronobiological aspects of human behavior into their daily practice. Copyright © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Many children with specific language disorders often have significant communicative and pragmatic language impairments. We report data of 41 children with specific language disorders. Teachers completed the German version of the "Children's Communication Checklist" (CCC) and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ). 36% of them scored in a range indicating pragmatic impairments, specifically inappropriate initiation, problems in the use of context and conversational rapport. These deficits are associated with conduct and hyperactive symptoms as well as problems with peers. There were no associations with either gender or syntactic language competences. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.


Vollmer C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Schaal S.,University of Bamberg | Hummel E.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Stress and Health | Year: 2011

We examined the relationship between morningness-eveningness and three dimensions of everyday stressors troubling adolescent pupils aged 13-16 years. Nine hundred and twenty-four pupils in secondary education, grades 8 and 9, completed the Composite Scale of Morningness (covering habitual rise times and bedtimes) and three-item sets of problem perception in adolescents, namely school-related, parent-related and self-related problem perception. Bad school marks, eveningness orientation and type of school are associated with school-related and parent-related problems when controlling for age and gender. Girls reported more self-related problems than boys. Given that school marks and chronotype were the most important moderators of problem perception, the results indicate that later school start times or adolescents changing their late bedtime behaviour, induced by an educational programme, could reduce the adolescents' stress perception and improve their academic performance. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Kaess M.,University of Heidelberg | Kaess M.,University of Melbourne | Parzer P.,University of Heidelberg | Haffner J.,University of Heidelberg | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: While suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people in most industrial countries, non-fatal suicidal behaviour is also a very important public health concern among adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in prevalence and emotional and behavioural correlates of suicidal behaviour in a representative school-based sample of adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional design was used to assess suicidal behaviour and various areas of emotional and behavioural problems by using a self-report booklet including the Youth Self-Report. One hundred sixteen schools in a region of Southern Germany agreed to participate. A representative sample of 5,512 ninth-grade students was studied. Mean age was 14.8 years (SD 0.73); 49.8% were female. Results: Serious suicidal thoughts were reported by 19.8% of the female students and 10.8% of the females had ever attempted suicide. In the male group, 9.3% had a history of suicidal thoughts and 4.9% had previously attempted suicide. Internalizing emotional and behavioural problems were shown to be higher in the female group (difference of the group means 4.41) while externalizing emotional and behavioural problems slightly predominated in male students (difference of the group means -0.65). However, the total rate of emotional and behavioural problems was significantly higher in the adolescent female group (difference of the group means 4.98). Using logistic regression models with suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide as dependent variables, the pseudo-R 2 of gender alone was only 2.7% or 2.3%, while it was 30% or 23.2% for emotional and behavioural problems measured by the YSR syndrome scales. By adding gender to the emotional and behavioural problems only an additional 0.3% of information could be explained. Conclusions: The findings suggest that gender differences in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among adolescents can to a large extent be explained by the gender differences in emotional and behavioural problems during this age. © 2011 Kaess et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Wurdak M.,University of Bamberg | Dorfler T.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Mentz J.,University of Bamberg | Schmidt A.,University of Bamberg | Wolstein J.,University of Bamberg
European Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Drunkenness among adolescents represents a significant problem and is associated with adverse consequences. A Licensing Act, which prohibits the dispensing of alcoholic beverages to visibly intoxicated individuals, was introduced in Germany to curb excessive drinking. The objective of the study was to explore whether it is possible for barkeepers and security personnel to correctly estimate the alcohol level (AL) of adolescents merely based on their outer appearance and self-report. In a commercial dance club, 89 adolescents reported their past and current alcohol consumption and estimated their own AL. Their breath alcohol level was measured with a breathalyzer. The sample was divided into "moderate drinkers" and "binge drinkers." Barkeepers and security personnel spoke to and examined the adolescents in order to estimate the adolescents' AL. Professional staff underestimated the ALs of adolescents in 60.7 % of all cases. Estimates of the personnel showed greater deviations from the measured AL of the adolescents as compared to estimates of the adolescents themselves, especially in the group of binge drinkers (t = 2.764; p = 0.009). Conclusion: It seems that adolescents suffer less from observable effects of alcohol, such as sedation or impairment of motor function. Consequently, we do not recommend the application of the Licensing Act to adolescents, but suggest its replacement by other restrictions and prevention measures. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Biswas A.,Kalyani University | Adan A.,University of Barcelona | Adan A.,Institute for Brain | Haldar P.,Kalyani University | And 4 more authors.
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2014

The reduced version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (rMEQ) is widely used to study morningness orientation. The fuzzy analysis helps mapping outputs of the questionnaire irrespective of linguistic and cross-cultural aspects in an efficient manner. In the present study, the rMEQ was administered to a convenience sample of university students (N = 2660) in four different countries and responses have been quantified by using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for the cross-cultural comparison and then the quantified values are used to construct the proposed model. The cross-country fuzzy morningness value showed that environmental temperature has definite influence on morningness orientation but other factors may also have a role. The developed model can be universally used to analyse the morning-evening orientation of people more precisely without cross-language and cross-cultural biases and it would become a potential tool for interpretation of morningness scores and counselling of individuals. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


GuNthert S.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Wieland M.,German Research Center for Geosciences | Heidelberg A.S.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation | Year: 2011

The influence of environmental factors, especially of tropical coastal forests, on the damage impact of a tsunami is still discussed controversially in literature. This paper focuses on the assessment of the vulnerability and protective effect of beach forests in case of the Indian Ocean Tsunami event 2004 in Thailand, based on remote sensing and multivariate-statistical methods. With the use of a post classification comparison, we show that the variability of the damage degree on different coastal vegetation types is highly spatial and species dependent. The combinatory evaluation of results from the change detection analysis and data on coastal vegetation structure from a field survey by using multiple regression analysis further proves that beach forests can have a protective effect against tsunami waves, if they satisfy certain vegetation structural conditions. In this context specific vegetation parameters for the vulnerability as well as the protective effect of beach forests are acquired, which mainly determine its vertical and horizontal forest density. A concluding case study finally illustrates how a combination of empirical tsunami hazard assessment and the presented work could be utilized to support local coastal protection in a targeted and efficient way. © 2011 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.


Fuchs C.,Columbia University | Hauck M.,Open University Milton Keynes | Muller-Hartmann A.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Language Learning and Technology | Year: 2012

This contribution presents findings from two empirical case studies, which followed a task-based telecollaborative learning format. Participants included student teacher trainees, tutors, 1 and language learners from colleges/universities in Germany, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The projects aimed at promoting learner autonomy through awareness raising of modes and meaning-making online and multiliteracy skills development based on hands-on analysis of web resources and social networking tools. It was hoped that this awareness would foster the teachers' own autonomy in virtual learning environments and enable them to design tasks which-in turn-would promote learner autonomy as understood by Palfreyman: the informed use of a range of interacting resources in context (2006). We argue that this awareness is reflected in enhanced multimodal communicative competence, ?the ability to understand the combined potential of various modes for making meaning? (Royce, 2002, p. 92), and multiliteracy, with the latter allowing teachers and learners to realize the potential of blended and online only settings for language acquisition purposes. Ideally then, while becoming gradually more versed in multimodality and multiliteracy, learners can also take over more control and self-direct their own learning when working online (Benson, 2001) which are also characteristics of autonomy. © 2012.


Jahn M.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Jahn M.,University of Cologne | Sachs T.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Sachs T.,German Research Center for Geosciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2010

The climatic changes on earth may have serious implications for the carbon (C) cycle in the terrestrial Arctic throughout the 21st century. Arctic vegetation takes up carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere producing biomass. In a cold and often moist soil environment, dead organic matter is preferentially preserved as soil organic matter (SOM) due to the inhibition of decomposition processes. However, viable soil microbes exhale huge amounts of CO2 and methane (CH4) annually. Hence, Arctic ecosystems exhibit annual fluxes of both carbon-based (CO2 and CH4) greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are in an order of magnitude of millions of tons. Rising Arctic temperatures lead to the degradation of much of today's permafrost in the long run. As a result, large quantities of frozen SOM may become available for decomposers, and GHGs that are entrapped in permafrost may be released. At the same time, warming tends to stimulate the growth, development, and reproduction of many Arctic plants, at least transiently. The present northward migration of boreal shrubs and trees into southern tundra areas may be amplified by that, increasing the ecosystems' gross primary production and, thus, their C sequestration. On the other hand, rising temperatures boost SOM decomposition and microbial respiration rates. In general, soil temperature and soil moisture are key environmental variables to control the intensity of aerobic and anaerobic respiration by microbes, and autotrophic respiration by plants.On the basis of published data on Arctic CO2 and CH4 fluxes, the calculations on the terrestrial C-based Arctic GHG balance made in this review reveal a current annual GHG exchange that ranges between a weak storage of = 225 Tg CO2 equivalent (eq.) y-1 and a huge release of = 1990 Tg CO2 eq. y-1. Hence, the Arctic GHG balance does apparently already contribute positively to the climatic changes at present. Regarding the future, the relative development of the uptake and release of CO2 and CH4 by northern ecosystems is fundamental to the overall GHG status of the Arctic under scenarios of continued climate change. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS.2012.2.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 4.04M | Year: 2013

Over the last decade a sharp decline in interest and participation in science has been identified in young people across Europe. Should this continue, the capacity to innovate both in industry and research will suffer in the long term. A critical issue in addressing this problem is providing young people with relevant contexts and practical experience of scientific concepts through classroom science. Therefore, the development of Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE) and active teaching and learning approaches has never been more important. The Chain Reaction project aims to capitalise on a previously successful approach to delivering IBSE in the UK in an attempt to embed IBSE practice within European schools. The key aim is to equip teacher educators to train teachers across twelve countries in the use of IBSE materials and techniques. Each country will adapt materials and techniques for use in their own country, addressing issues of different curricula and cultures as necessary. This will ensure that each partner will have ownership of resources and classroom techniques suitable for their own situation and contexts, but based around the proven principles of IBSE and based on materials that have already been tried and tested as part of the original Pupil Researcher Initiative (PRI) project. Chain Reaction will also establish a European teachers network, aimed at providing support to teachers, sharing experiences and expertise between teachers and training experts. This will help develop the work of the project through delivery, and will also contribute to sustainability in the longer term. The network will aid dissemination of the project resources and outcomes, while enabling peer support both within each year of the project, and across the project as a whole. This will ensure sharing, reflection and discussions of experiences and approaches. The teacher training, materials and instruction given will be delivered via a cascade approach within schools.


Diaz-Morales J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Escribano C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Jankowski K.S.,University of Warsaw | Vollmer C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2014

Accumulating evidence suggests that evening-type adolescents are exposed to a number of determinants that might have a negative impact on their health condition. Despite the fact that biological and psychosocial factors are interrelated, their impacts on the shift toward eveningness during puberty have been considered only separately. In this study, the effects of frequency of conflicts and functional autonomy on the relationship between pubertal development and Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) were tested together. A sample of 2081 adolescents aged 12-16 completed pubertal development, M-E, family frequency of conflicts and functional autonomy scales. Results indicated that greater functional autonomy and more conflicts in the family were unique predictors of greater eveningness, and they both together were better predictors of M-E than an advanced age and pubertal development. Apart from biological development, family relationship seems an important factor explaining progressive tendency toward eveningness during puberty and adolescence. Some implications to adolescent development were indicated. © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.


Kozuh I.,University of Maribor | Hintermair M.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Debevc M.,University of Maribor
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

In this study we examined whether the level of hearing loss is related to the frequency of communication within different situations and performance activities on social networking sites. It was also investigated as to how the frequency of activities were related to the perceived accessibility of these sites. Firstly, the findings revealed that users with lower levels of hearing loss communicated more frequently with hearing persons in the written language than users at higher levels. In contrast, they communicated less frequently with deaf users in sign language than those with higher levels of hearing loss. Secondly, users with lower levels of hearing loss posted videos more frequently than those with higher levels. Thirdly, the more frequently the deaf and hard of hearing users actualized their profiles, posted photos, videos, commented and liked the content, the higher the perceived accessibility of those sites they reported. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.


Low F.,University of Würzburg | Duveiller G.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Conrad C.,University of Würzburg | Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation | Year: 2015

High temporal revisit frequency over vast geographic areas is necessary to properly use satellite earth observation for monitoring agricultural production. However, this often limits the spatial resolution that can be used. The challenge of discriminating pixels that correspond to a particular crop type, a prerequisite for crop specific monitoring remains daunting when the signal encoded in pixels stems from several land uses (mixed pixels). Naturally, the concept of spatial scale arises but the issue of selecting a proper class legend (the categorical scale) should not be neglected. A framework is presented that addresses these issues and that can be used to quantitatively define pixel size requirements for crop identification and to assess the effect of categorical scale. The framework was applied over two agricultural landscapes. It was demonstrated that there was no unique spatial resolution that provided the best classification result for all classes at once at a given categorical scale. The suitability of pixel populations characterized by pixel size and purity differed for identifying specific crops within tested landscapes, and for one crop there were large differences among the landscapes. In the context of agricultural crop growth monitoring the framework described above can be used to draw guidelines for selecting appropriate imagery, e.g. suitable pixel sizes, and for selecting class legends suitable for accurate crop classification when the interest is only on pixels covering arable land as a prerequisite for crop specific monitoring. The framework could be used to plot the suitability (or accuracy) of pixels as a function of their purity to provide a spatial assessment of classification performance. © 2015 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.


Kozuh I.,University of Maribor | Hintermair M.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Hauptman S.,University of Maribor | Debevc M.,University of Maribor
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2015

This study examined the predictions regarding the frequencies of activities on social networking sites among D/deaf and hard of hearing people in Germany. Regression analysis revealed that gender, level of education, frequencies of attending social networking sites using smartphones and tablets, as well as purposes of using social networking sites for fun and school or work, account for about 33% of the variances in the frequencies of activities on social networking sites. The findings indicated that men tend to conduct activities on social networking sites more often than women and users with lower levels of education tend to also be more active on social networking sites. Frequent attending social networking sites from smartphones and tablets predicted even more frequent activities on these sites and likewise the using of social networking sites for fun and school or work. These findings could importantly contribute towards actual debates about the possibilities of successfully including social networking sites within the education process. Future research should be attempted to identify which characteristics predict the frequencies of activities on social networking sites in other countries in order to compare the possible effects in countries on these activities and, consequently, users' experiences with social networking sites. © 2015 The Authors.


Diaz-Morales J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Prieto P.D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Barreno C.E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Mateo M.J.C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2012

Knowledge of the sleep beliefs among adolescents is relevant in order to promote primary prevention of unhealthy lifestyles related to sleep hygiene. In study 1, sleep beliefs among 11-16-years-old adolescents were explored according to gender, age, and chronotype. Adolescents completed the Sleep Beliefs Scale (SBS; Adan A, Fabbri M, Natale V, Pratt G. 2006. SBS and circadian typology. J Sleep Res. 15:125-132) and the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC; Carskadon MA, Vieira C, Acebo C. 1993. Association between puberty and delayed phase preference. Sleep. 16:258-262) during normal school schedule. Results indicated incorrect sleep beliefs among boys and evening-types. In study 2, the effect of a sleep education program on sleep beliefs was analyzed. Results showed an increase of mean scores and percentage of correct responses of SBS after a sleep education program, especially among evening-type adolescents. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Kozuh I.,University of Maribor | Hintermair M.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Ivanisin M.,University of Maribor | Debevc M.,University of Maribor
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2013

Despite the widespread popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) among the deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH), relatively little has been published about how to examine their experiences on SNSs in terms of creating online communities to supportnon-formal education, such as e-learning. With this regard, this paper sets forth a new approach and proposes a theoretical model for examining the experiences of D/HH users of SNSs from the aspects of identity, community building and alliances between communities. Factors, such as hearing loss, educational background, the communication situation and the use of technology are all considered with regard to their meaning for communication at SNSs. The main aim of the model is to examine experiences in informal online spaces and provide a set of guidelines for efficient social and communication support for D/HH online users at non-formal educational process which will in particular serve teachers, designers and developers included in the process. We also point to further research in order to implement the model in the field as well © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Kozuh I.,University of Maribor | Hintermair M.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Debevc M.,University of Maribor
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2016

Since D/deaf and hard-of-hearing users of social networking sites (SNSs) may have communication specificities in comparison to hearing people, we proposed a model for understanding what factors affect building online communities. The model includes written language skills, the frequency of written communication, online Deaf and hearing identity, and the tendency for community building. One-hundred-and-sixty-two German D/deaf and hard-of-hearing users completed an online questionnaire in German sign and written language. Evaluation of the model with structural equation modelling revealed three main findings. Firstly, identification with the hearing online world has a positive effect on written language skills, the frequency of written communication on SNSs and indirectly on the tendency to build online communities. Secondly, the frequency of written communication has a positive effect on the tendency to build community. Thirdly, a positive effect of online Deaf identity on the frequency of written communication was found. Our findings may aid in understanding that, despite possible technological constraints, both D/deaf and hard-of-hearing people communicate on SNSs in written language more frequently due to their identification either with the Deaf or hearing online world which results in an increased tendency to build online communities. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Jankowski K.S.,University of Warsaw | Diaz-Morales J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Chronobiology International | Year: 2014

The study aimed at testing chronotype and gender differences in the time of day when humans feel the greatest need for sex and the time of day they actually undertake sexual activity. A Polish sample of 565 participants aged between 18 and 57 was tested. In females, regardless of chronotype, the greatest need for sex occurred between 18:00 and 24:00, but a secondary peak appeared only in morning types at 6:00-9:00. In males, the greatest need for sex occurred either in the morning or evening hours: in evening types at 9:00-12:00 and 18:00-3:00; in neither types at 6:00-9:00 and 18:00-24:00; in morning types at 6:00-12:00 and 18:00-24:00. Considering time of day when subjects were undertaking sexual activity most frequently, this appeared between 18:00 and 24:00 for all the participants, and prolonged until 3:00 at night in evening type males. Morningness preference was more strongly related to the timing of need for sex than to the timing of actual sexual activity (r=-0.275 vs. r=-0.174), while the timing of desire and the timing of sexual activity were positively, but moderately related (r=0.320). © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Diaz-Morales J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Jankowski K.S.,University of Warsaw | Vollmer C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Chronobiology International | Year: 2013

Life satisfaction is a crucial component of well being, thus research of its determinants are of great importance and are conducted worldwide. Recently, morningness has been shown to be related to greater life satisfaction in Polish and German samples; and in the present study, this relationship was tested in a Spanish adult sample. The results provide further evidence for the relationship of morningness with higher life satisfaction, which it seems independent of culture and geographic location. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Civco D.L.,University of Connecticut
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 8181, including the Title Page, Copyright Information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and the Conference Committee listing. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Clahsen H.,University of Potsdam | Rothweiler M.,University of Bremen | Sterner F.,University of Bremen | Chilla S.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics | Year: 2014

This study investigates verbal morphology in Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in German, focusing on past participle inflection. Longitudinal data from 12 German-speaking children with SLI, six monolingual and six Turkish-German sequential bilingual children, were examined, plus an additional group of six typically developing Turkish-German sequential bilingual children. In a recent study (Rothweiler, M., Chilla, S., & H. Clahsen. (2012). Subject verb agreement in Specific Language Impairment: A study of monolingual and bilingual German-speaking children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 39-57), the same children with SLI were found to be severely impaired in reliably producing correct agreement-marked verb forms. By contrast, the new results reported in this study show that both the monolingual and the bilingual children with SLI produce participle inflection according to their language age. Our results strengthen the case of difficulties with agreement as a linguistic marker of SLI in German and show that it is possible to identify SLI from an early sequential bilingual child's performance in one of her two languages. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


Kozuh I.,University of Maribor | Hintermair M.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Holzinger A.,Medical University of Graz | Volcic Z.,University of Queensland | Debevc M.,University of Maribor
Universal Access in the Information Society | Year: 2015

Despite numerous studies into the online activities of deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) users, there has been limited research into their experiences on social networking sites (SNSs), a domain where psychology and computer science intersects. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how one can enhance universal access for D/HH users on the example of SNSs. A model for examining the experiences and preferences of D/HH users of SNSs has been proposed. The model consists of three identity-relevant aspects: (1) belonging to online Deaf communities, (2) communication affinity/preferences for sign and/or written language, and (3) the stigma associated with hearing loss. Based on these aspects, a questionnaire was developed and applied to a study with 46 participants. The findings revealed that the motivation to communicate on SNSs is positively associated with identification with online Deaf communities, an affinity for communication in written language and an affinity/preference for communication in sign language. Better reading comprehension skills, crucial for written communication, are associated with less stigmatic experiences with regard to hearing loss. The model and the findings of this study can help improve understanding D/HH users’ online social interactions and can be used for educational purposes. It may contribute to the discussion of integrating SNSs as communication tools in personal learning environments, which can be an advantage for universal access. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Barrenstein S.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Vollmer C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Diaz-Morales J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Jankowski K.S.,University of Warsaw
Spanish Journal of Psychology | Year: 2014

Men sleep shorter and go to bed and get up later than women, thus they are later chronotypes. This difference between the sexes is most pronounced between puberty and menopause indicating the possibility that morningness is subject to sexual dimorphism related to reproductive aspects. The objective of the study was to compare the sleep-wake behavior of women with their actual partners and with their preferred partners. As a hypothesis, we expect some assortment in mating concerning chronotype (with the actual partner), but we also expect a higher synchronization with a preferred ideal partner. 167 women were analyzed in this study (mean age: 23.0 ± 2.57 (SD) years). Mated women were earlier chronotypes than their partners (t = -2.051, p =.042, d =.34) but the difference was small (11:02 min ± 1:04 min). The results of the present study showed women preferring a partner synchronized to their own sleep-wake-rhythm more than their actual partners were. The above result was true either for single facets of the sleep-wake rhythm (e.g. bed time, sleep onset) or for midpoint of sleep on free days - an indicator of actual chronotype: women's and their partners' correlation of midpoint of sleep was lower (r =.513) than women's and their ideal partners' correlation (r =.855). Amongst various sleep-wake measures, women particularly preferred a partner going to bed at the same time. Assortative mating according to sleep-wake rhythm exists, but women for long-term pair-bonds would like their partners far more synchronized. Copyright © Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid 2014.


Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Forschler M.I.,Institute of Avian Research Vogelwarte Helgoland
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2011

Passerine mobbing calls are, in part, addressed to conspecific and heterospecific prey individuals, and may encourage them to join a flock mobbing a predator. We examined whether conspecific and heterospecific individuals differ in their response to natural and manipulated contact and mobbing calls. We assumed that conspecifics would be more sensitive to slight variation in call elements and manipulations, whereas heterospecifics most likely cannot distinguish subtle differences. We used chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs, contact and mobbing calls, which differ only slightly in structure (start and maximum frequency and frequency bandwidth). Despite these subtle differences in call parameters, mobbing calls of chaffinches could be transformed into artificial contact calls by using fewer elements/min, and vice versa. Contact calls could be transformed into mobbing calls by reducing the pauses between the single elements. The results show that intense calling attracted more conspecific and heterospecific prey individuals than less intense playbacks of the calls made of the same elements. Responses to natural calls compared to manipulated calls were similar in minimum distance to the speaker in conspecifics and heterospecifics, in the number of conspecific and heterospecific individuals alerted and in the number of heterospecific species attracted. The frequency of calls per time unit was the most significant factor affecting whether other birds interpreted the vocalization as a mobbing or a contact call. In conspecifics, the effect sizes of the response were smaller, suggesting that conspecifics perceive the manipulation as conflicting information. © 2011 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.


PubMed | University of Education, Heidelberg and Complutense University of Madrid
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chronobiology international | Year: 2016

Measuring morningness-eveningness is an important aspect of individual differences because it is associated with many aspects of personality and health. The present study outlines recent advancements in the field of measurement and proposes an improved assessment of morningness-eveningness, such as the measurement of circadian amplitude, updating and reflecting new item developments, addressing the clock time based measures, the morning-biased items and the aspect of uni versus multidimensionality. Four studies have been carried out in Germany to present a novel development (with a total sample of N = 1181). In study I, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed three dimensions, one of morningness, one of eveningness and one of amplitude/stability. Then, items were reduced to present a clearer factor structure by removing ambiguous items. In the second study, a shortened questionnaire was applied, with 15 items (5 per construct), but Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) did not provide acceptable fit indices. Refining items were made in study III, which again showed a clearer factor structure in EFA, and subsequently, in study IV, the refined set of 15 items provided a good fit of a CFA. The final questionnaire was tested for validity by applying clock times, personality questions and alertness ratings. Thus, this newly developed questionnaire contains three distinct dimensions. To reflect the new content, the scale is labelled morningness-eveningness-stability-scale improved (MESSi).


PubMed | University of Education, Heidelberg, University of Warsaw and Complutense University of Madrid
Type: | Journal: The Spanish journal of psychology | Year: 2015

Men sleep shorter and go to bed and get up later than women, thus they are later chronotypes. This difference between the sexes is most pronounced between puberty and menopause indicating the possibility that morningness is subject to sexual dimorphism related to reproductive aspects. The objective of the study was to compare the sleep-wake behavior of women with their actual partners and with their preferred partners. As a hypothesis, we expect some assortment in mating concerning chronotype (with the actual partner), but we also expect a higher synchronization with a preferred ideal partner. 167 women were analyzed in this study (mean age: 23.0 2.57 (SD) years). Mated women were earlier chronotypes than their partners (t = -2.051, p = .042, d = .34) but the difference was small (11:02 min 1:04 min). The results of the present study showed women preferring a partner synchronized to their own sleep-wake-rhythm more than their actual partners were. The above result was true either for single facets of the sleep-wake rhythm (e.g. bed time, sleep onset) or for midpoint of sleep on free days - an indicator of actual chronotype: womens and their partners correlation of midpoint of sleep was lower (r = .513) than womens and their ideal partners correlation (r = .855). Amongst various sleep-wake measures, women particularly preferred a partner going to bed at the same time. Assortative mating according to sleep-wake rhythm exists, but women for long-term pair-bonds would like their partners far more synchronized.


Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Randler C.,University of Tübingen | Diaz-Morales J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rahafar A.,University of Education, Heidelberg | And 2 more authors.
Chronobiology International | Year: 2016

Measuring morningness–eveningness is an important aspect of individual differences because it is associated with many aspects of personality and health. The present study outlines recent advancements in the field of measurement and proposes an improved assessment of morningness–eveningness, such as the measurement of circadian amplitude, updating and reflecting new item developments, addressing the clock time based measures, the morning-biased items and the aspect of uni versus multidimensionality. Four studies have been carried out in Germany to present a novel development (with a total sample of N = 1181). In study I, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed three dimensions, one of morningness, one of eveningness and one of amplitude/stability. Then, items were reduced to present a clearer factor structure by removing ambiguous items. In the second study, a shortened questionnaire was applied, with 15 items (5 per construct), but Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) did not provide acceptable fit indices. Refining items were made in study III, which again showed a clearer factor structure in EFA, and subsequently, in study IV, the refined set of 15 items provided a good fit of a CFA. The final questionnaire was tested for validity by applying clock times, personality questions and alertness ratings. Thus, this newly developed questionnaire contains three distinct dimensions. To reflect the new content, the scale is labelled morningness–eveningness-stability-scale improved (MESSi). © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Ehlers M.,University of Osnabrück | Klonus S.,University of Osnabrück | Jarmer T.,University of Osnabrück | Sofina N.,University of Osnabrück | And 3 more authors.
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2012

A fast detection, visualization and assessment of change in areas of crisis or catastrophes are important requirements for coordination and planning of help. Through the availability of new satellites and/or airborne sensors with very high spatial resolutions (e.g., WorldView, GeoEye) new remote sensing data are available for a better detection, delineation and visualization of change. For automated change detection, a large number of algorithms has been proposed and developed. From previous studies, however, it is evident that to-date no single algorithm has the potential for being a reliable change detector for all possible scenarios. This paper introduces the Combined Edge Segment Texture (CEST) analysis, a decision-tree based cooperative suite of algorithms for automated change detection that is especially designed for the generation of new satellites with very high spatial resolution. The method incorporates frequency based filtering, texture analysis, and image segmentation techniques. For the frequency analysis, different band pass filters can be applied to identify the relevant frequency information for change detection. After transforming the multitemporal images via a fast Fourier transform (FFT) and applying the most suitable band pass filter, different methods are available to extract changed structures: differencing and correlation in the frequency domain and correlation and edge detection in the spatial domain. Best results are obtained using edge extraction. For the texture analysis, different 'Haralick' parameters can be calculated (e.g., energy, correlation, contrast, inverse distance moment) with 'energy' so far providing the most accurate results. These algorithms are combined with a prior segmentation of the image data as well as with morphological operations for a final binary change result. A rule-based combination (CEST) of the change algorithms is applied to calculate the probability of change for a particular location. CEST was tested with high-resolution satellite images of the crisis areas of Darfur (Sudan). CEST results are compared with a number of standard algorithms for automated change detection such as image difference, image ratioe, principal component analysis, delta cue technique and post classification change detection. The new combined method shows superior results averaging between 45% and 15% improvement in accuracy.


Ehlers M.,University of Osnabrück | Klonus S.,University of Osnabrück | Tomowski D.,University of Osnabrück | Michel U.,German Aerospace Center | Reinartz P.,University of Education, Heidelberg
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010

A fast detection of change in areas of crises or catastrophes is an important condition for planning and coordination of help. This paper describes the results of a cooperative suite of algorithms for automated change detection based on the availability of new satellites with high temporal and/or spatial resolutions. The methods are based on frequency and texture analysis, and segmentation. For the frequency analysis, different band pass filters are applied to identify relevant frequency information for change detection. After transforming the multitemporal images via a fast Fourier transform and applying the most suitable band pass filter, four different methods are available to extract changed structures: differencing and correlation in the frequency domain and correlation and edge detection in the spatial domain. For the texture analysis, we calculate four different parameters (i.e. energy, correlation, contrast and inverse distance moment) for the multitemporal images. The next step is the application of several change detection methods (difference, ratio, regression and principal component analysis) to visualize the changes in the texture images. This method can be combined with a prior segmentation of the image data as well as with morphological operations for a final binary change result. A rule-based combination of the change algorithms is applied to calculate the probability of change for a particular location. The methods were tested with high-resolution satellite images of the crisis areas of Darfour and Haiti. For the frequency based change detection, best results were obtained with adaptive band pass filtering and subsequent edge detection. For the texture based method, a bitemporal principal component analysis for the feature energy provided the best results for change visualization. The next steps will involve the extension of the developed algorithms to test their suitability for other applications such as environmental or phenological change.


Tomowski D.,University of Osnabrück | Klonus S.,University of Osnabrück | Ehlers M.,University of Osnabrück | Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Reinartz P.,German Aerospace Center
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010

A fast detection and visualization of change in crisis areas is an important condition for planning and coordination of help. The availability of new satellites with high temporal resolution (e.g. RapidEye) and/or high spatial resolution (e.g. Quickbird) provides the basis for a better visualization of multitemporal change. For automated change detection, a large number of algorithms has been proposed and developed. This article describes the results of four texture based change detection approaches that were applied to satellite images of the Darfur crisis region. In our methodology we calculate firstly different texture characteristics ("energy", "correlation", "contrast" and "inverse distance moment"), for a whole image at two (or more) different times. The second step is to test the capability of known change detection methods (image-differencing, image-ratioing, regression analysis and principal component analysis) to visualize the change of settlement areas through these texture characteristics and texture images, respectively. The comparison of different texture characteristics with different change detection methods shows that best results can be obtained using a selective bitemporal principal component analysis with the texture feature "energy".


Demharter T.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Ehlers M.,University of Osnabrück | Reinartz P.,German Aerospace Center
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

Given the importance of Change Detection, especially in the field of crisis management, this paper discusses the advantage of object-based Change Detection. This project and the used methods give an opportunity to coordinate relief actions strategically. The principal objective of this project was to develop an algorithm which allows to detect rapidly damaged and destroyed buildings in the area of Abu Suruj. This Sudanese village is located in West-Darfur and has become the victim of civil war. The software eCognition Developer was used to per-form an object-based Change Detection on two panchromatic Quickbird 2 images from two different time slots. The first image shows the area before, the second image shows the area after the massacres in this region. Seeking a classification for the huts of the Sudanese town Abu Suruj was reached by first segmenting the huts and then classifying them on the basis of geo-metrical and brightness-related values. The huts were classified as "new", "destroyed" and "preserved" with the help of a automated algorithm. Finally the results were presented in the form of a map which displays the different conditions of the huts. The accuracy of the project is validated by an accuracy assessment resulting in an Overall Classification Accuracy of 90.50 percent. These change detection results allow aid organizations to provide quick and efficient help where it is needed the most. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Sofina N.,University of Osnabrück | Ehlers M.,University of Osnabrück | Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

In recent years natural disasters have had an increasing impact leading to tremendous economic and human losses. Remote sensing technologies are being used more often for rapid detection and visualization of changes in the affected areas, providing essential information for damage assessment, planning and coordination of recovery activities. This study presents a GIS-based approach for the detection of damaged buildings. The methodology is based on the integrated analysis of vector data containing information about the original urban layout and remotely sensed images obtained after a catastrophic event. For the classification of building integrity a new 'Detected Part of Contour' (DPC) feature was developed. The DPC feature defines a part of the building contour that can be detected in the related remotely sensed image. It reaches maximum value (100%) if the investigated building contour is intact. Next, several features based on the analysis of textural information of the remotely sensed image are considered. Finally, a binary classification of building conditions concludes the change detection analysis. The proposed method was applied to the 2010 earthquake in Qinghai (China). The results indicate that a GIS-based analysis can markedly improve the accuracy of change detection analysis. The proposed methodology has been developed solely within the Open Source Software environment (GRASS GIS, Python, Orange). The employment of Open Source Software provides the way for an innovative, flexible and cost-effective implementation of change detection operations. © 2012 SPIE.


Low F.,University of Würzburg | Schorcht G.,University of Würzburg | Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Dech S.,University of Würzburg | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

Accurate crop identification and crop area estimation are important for studies on irrigated agricultural systems, yield and water demand modeling, and agrarian policy development. In this study a novel combination of Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers is presented that (i) enhances crop classification accuracy and (ii) provides spatial information on map uncertainty. The methodology was implemented over four distinct irrigated sites in Middle Asia using RapidEye time series data. The RF feature importance statistics was used as feature-selection strategy for the SVM to assess possible negative effects on classification accuracy caused by an oversized feature space. The results of the individual RF and SVM classifications were combined with rules based on posterior classification probability and estimates of classification probability entropy. SVM classification performance was increased by feature selection through RF. Further experimental results indicate that the hybrid classifier improves overall classification accuracy in comparison to the single classifiers as well as user's and producer's accuracy. © 2012 SPIE.


Klonus S.,University of Osnabrück | Tomowski D.,Clausthal University of Technology | Ehlers M.,University of Osnabrück | Reinartz P.,German Aerospace Center | Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

This paper describes the results of a new combined method that consists of a cooperative approach of several different algorithms for automated change detection. These methods are based on isotropic frequency filtering, spectral and texture analysis, and segmentation. For the frequency analysis, different band pass filters are applied to identify the relevant frequency information for change detection. After transforming the multitemporal images using a fast Fourier transform and applying the most suitable band pass filter to extract changed structures, we apply an edge detection algorithm in the spatial domain. For the texture analysis, we calculate the parameters energy and homogeneity for the multitemporal datasets. Then a principal component analysis is applied to the new multispectral texture images and subtracted to get the texture change information. This method can be combined with spectral information and prior segmentation of the image data as well as with morphological operations for a final binary change result. A rule-based combination of the change algorithms is applied to calculate the probability of change for a particular location. This Combined Edge Segment Texture (CEST) method was tested with high-resolution remote-sensing images of the crisis area in Darfur (Sudan). Our results were compared with several standard algorithms for automated change detection, such as image difference, image ratio, principal component analysis, multivariate alteration detection (MAD) and post classification change detection. CEST showed superior accuracy compared to standard methods. © 2012 IEEE.


Smith E.,University of Ulm | Gutinger A.,University of Ulm | Budde-Spengler N.,ZNL Transfer Zentrum fur Neurowissenschaften und Lernen | Reiter R.,University of Ulm | And 3 more authors.
Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie | Year: 2014

Background: By considering their general development, 2-year-old children with delayed speech development (late talkers, LT) were examined and described with respect to linguistic competence and hearing. Methods: Initially, 50 monolingual German speaking LT (age: 23-28 months) were recruited. In addition to audiological tests (impedance testing, otoacoustic emissions, reaction audiometry), language development status test was performed (clinical impression during examination, expressive vocabulary: FRAKIS, receptive competence: SETK-2). Results: After exclusion of 10 children with general retarded development (3 premature infants, 2 children with suspicion of autism and 2 children with infantile brain damage) 33 LTs with normal hearing were included. The expressive vocabulary (FRAKIS) of 82% of these 33 LTs were below the normal range. 39% showed deficits in language comprehension tests (SETK-2) although parental reports mentioned language comprehension problems in only 3 LT. No correlation was found between vocabulary (FRAKIS) and language comprehension (SETK-2). Conclusion: The clinical collective in this study showed severely affected children with a high percentage of other abnormalities and speech perception problems in many cases. Despite normal hearing, vocabulary and especially speech comprehension should also be tested. LT with language comprehension problems require early developmental psychological investigation in order to prevent language and general developmental limitations. Only in this way, remedial instruction adapted to the developmental level can be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.


Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Forschler M.I.,Institute For Vogelforschung | Gonzalez J.,University of Heidelberg | Aliabadian M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2012

The insular endemic Cyprus Wheatear Oenanthe cypriaca has been considered as a subspecies of Pied Wheatear O. pleschanka. However, due to several differences in behaviour, habitat selection and morphology, it is currently treated by most authors as an independent species. Here, we used mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (679 base pairs), playback experiments and dummy presentations to assess the status of O. cypriaca. For the playback experiments we used the conspecific song, and heterospecific songs of the two subspecies of Black-eared Wheatear O. hispanica hispanica and O. hispanicamelanoleuca, O. pleschanka, and Finsch's Wheatear O. finschii. Experimental dummy presentations included O. cypriaca, O. pleschanka and a dark and light morph of O. h. melanoleuca. O. cypriaca responded significantly stronger towards the conspecific model and towards conspecific playbacks than towards heterospecific stimuli. ML and BI analyses support the close relationship between O. cypriaca, O. pleschanka and O. h. melanoleuca. With a relative high posterior probability value (0.98), O. cypriaca clusters closer to O.h. melanoleuca from Iran and Israel (on migration) and O. pleschanka from Iran than to O. pleschanka obtained from Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia and wintering areas in East Africa (Kenya). The scenario suggests that O. cypriaca might be either a relatively young taxon, which is yet behavioural distinct, but genetically still similar to its sister populations on the mainland. Alternatively, we may assume a close relationship as an indication for potential ongoing hybridisation processes involving all three forms. © 2011 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.


Low F.,University of Würzburg | Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Dech S.,University of Würzburg | Dech S.,German Aerospace Center | Conrad C.,University of Würzburg
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

Satellite remote sensing is an invaluable tool to assess the status and changes of irrigated agricultural systems. Agricultural sites are among the most heterogeneous sites at the landscape level: spatial pattern of agricultural fields, within-field heterogeneity, crop phenology and crop management practices vary significantly. Highly dynamic objects (crops and crop rotations) result in large temporal variability of surface spatial heterogeneity. Technological advances have opened the possibility to monitor agricultural sites combining satellite images with both high spatial resolution and high revisit frequency, which could overcome these constraints. Yet depending on the field sizes and crop phenology of the agricultural system observed, requisites in terms of the instrument's spatial resolution and optimal timing of crop observation will be different. The overall goal is to quantitatively define region specific satellite observation support requirements in order to perform land use classification at the field basis. The main aspect studied here is the influence of spatial resolution on the accuracy of land use classification over a variety of different irrigated agricultural landscapes. This will guide in identifying an appropriate spatial resolution and input parameters for classification. The study will be performed over distinct locations in irrigated agro-ecosystems in Central Asia, where reliable information on agricultural crops and crop rotations is needed for sustainable land and water management. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Sofina N.,University of Osnabrück | Ehlers M.,University of Osnabrück | Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

The paper describes an object-based method to detect destroyed buildings as a consequence of an earthquake. The investigation is based on the analysis of remotely sensed raster and vector-based data. The methodology includes three main steps: generation of features defining the states of buildings, classification of building state and data import in GIS. This paper concentrates on the first step of the three, the generation of features. The appropriately selected features are indispensable for the following successful classification. The described methodology is applied to remotely sensed images of areas that had been subject to an earthquake. Our preliminary results confirm the potential of the proposed approach for detection of the building state. The change detection methodology has been developed solely with Open Source Software. GRASS GIS is involved for vector and raster data processing and presentation. Programming languages Python and Bash are used to develop new GRASS-modules. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Thunig H.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Ehlers M.,University of Osnabrück | Reinartz P.,German Aerospace Center
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

Rapid change detection is used in cases of natural hazards and disasters. This analysis lead to quick information about areas of damage. In certain cases the lack of information after catastrophe events is obstructing supporting measures within disaster management. Earthquakes, tsunamis, civil war, volcanic eruption, droughts and floods have much in common: people are directly affected, landscapes and buildings are destroyed. In every case geospatial data is necessary to gain knowledge as basement for decision support. Where to go first? Which infrastructure is usable? How much area is affected? These are essential questions which need to be answered before appropriate, eligible help can be established. This study presents an innovative strategy to retrieve post event information by use of an object-based change detection approach. Within a transferable framework, the developed algorithms can be implemented for a set of remote sensing data among different investigation areas. Several case studies are the base for the retrieved results. Within a coarse dividing into statistical parts and the segmentation in meaningful objects, the framework is able to deal with different types of change. By means of an elaborated normalized temporal change index (NTCI) panchromatic datasets are used to extract areas which are destroyed, areas which were not affected and in addition areas which are developing new for cases where rebuilding has already started. The results of the study are also feasible for monitoring urban growth. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Fiene C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Plass C.,University of Osnabrück
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

Within the project "Expedition Bog: Young researchers are experimenting, exploring and discovering" a boginformation- system is developed by the Department of Geography (University of Education Heidelberg, Germany), the Institute for Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing (University of Osnabrueck, Germany) and the NABU Umweltpyramide gGmbH. This information system will be available for schools and to the public. It is supplemented by teaching units on various topics around the bog via an online platform. The focus of the project, however, is the original encounter with the bog habitat. This is realized by a GPS scavenger hunt with small research tasks and observations, mapping and experiments. The project areas are the Huvenhoops bog and the Lauenbruecker bog in Rotenburg in Lower Saxony, Germany. Equipped with a researcher backpack, GPS device and a mobile bog book by means of a pocket PC, students can discover different learning stations in the project bogs. In our areas the students can learn more about different topics such as "the historical memory of the bog", "water", "peat moss and other plants" and "animals of the bog". Moreover small inquiry research projects can be executed. Experimenting on site helps students to develop important scientific findings and increases their curiosity and enthusiasm for nature. It also promotes a number of other basic skills such as literacy, language skills, social skills or fine motor skills. Moreover it also fosters the development of a positive attitude to science in general. The main objective of the project is to promote sustainable environmental education, as well as the development of environmental awareness. This will be accomplished through the imparting of knowledge but also through experiencing nature with all senses in the context of original encounters. © 2010 SPIE.


Low F.,University of Würzburg | Michel U.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Dech S.,University of Würzburg | Dech S.,German Aerospace Center | Conrad C.,University of Würzburg
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

Crop mapping is one major component of agricultural resource monitoring using remote sensing. Yield or water demand modeling requires that both, the total surface that is cultivated and the accurate distribution of crops, respectively is known. Map quality is crucial and influences the model outputs. Although the use of multi-spectral time series data in crop mapping has been acknowledged, the potentially high dimensionality of the input data remains an issue. In this study Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used for crop classification in irrigated landscapes at the object-level. Input to the classifications is 71 multi-seasonal spectral and geostatistical features computed from RapidEye time series. The random forest (RF) feature importance score was used to select a subset of features that achieved optimal accuracies. The relationship between the hard result accuracy and the soft output from the SVM is investigated by employing two measures of uncertainty, the maximum a posteriori probability and the alpha quadratic entropy. Specifically the effect of feature selection on map uncertainty is investigated by looking at the soft outputs of the SVM, in addition to classical accuracy metrics. Overall the SVMs applied to the reduced feature subspaces that were composed of the most informative multi-seasonal features led to a clear increase in classification accuracy up to 4.3%, and to a significant decline in thematic uncertainty. SVM was shown to be affected by feature space size and could benefit from RF-based feature selection. Uncertainty measures from SVM are an informative source of information on the spatial distribution of error in the crop maps. © 2013 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).


Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Braun M.,University of Heidelberg | Lintker S.,University of Education, Heidelberg
Laterality | Year: 2011

Evidence for foot preferences has been reported in parrots and the majority of parrot species uses the left foot to hold and process food objects. Here we assessed the footedness of ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) in a wild-living nonnative population in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Observations were made when parrots fed on catalpa trees Catalpa sp., with 20- to 50-cm-long fruits. Parakeets tend to bite off catalpa fruits with their beak, using one foot holding the fruit. Further, we established an experimental set-up (feeding location) and prepared pieces of apple in an adequate size to force parrots to handle the food with one foot. From 184 individuals feeding on the catalpa trees, 102 were recorded using the left foot and 82 the right foot. At the feeding location, 24 individuals were left-footed and 11 were right-footed. These observations suggest a foot preference in the ringnecked parakeet both on the population level and on the individual level. © 2010 Psychology Press.


Wahl H.-W.,University of Heidelberg | Heyl V.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Schilling O.,University of Heidelberg
Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences | Year: 2012

Objectives.Relations between personality and affect are generally regarded as robust. Extraversion is closely linked to positive affect (PA), but not to negative affect (NA), whereas neuroticism is closely linked to NA, but not to PA. We argue in this work that the stress experience associated with age-related vision and hearing impairment may alter this commonly found pattern as compared with sensory unimpaired (UI) older adults.Method.We analyzed data from a sample of severely visually impaired (VI; N = 121), severely hearing impaired (HI; N = 116), and a control condition of sensory UI (grand age mean: 82 years; N = 150).Results.Based on a structural equation modeling approach, we found that the relationship between extraversion and PA was higher in the UI as compared with the sensory impaired groups. In contrast, the strong linkage between neuroticism and NA was not affected by sensory status. Furthermore, we observed a meaningful negative relation between extraversion and NA only in the VI group.Discussion.Findings support the argument that the relationship between personality and affect deserves qualification when chronic vision and hearing impairment is present. © 2012 The Author.

Loading University of Education, Heidelberg collaborators
Loading University of Education, Heidelberg collaborators