University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Lahore, Pakistan

University of Health science Lahore is an Medical University Located at Lahore. It is internationally recognised student centered research university with a mission of improvement of Health Care delivery to populace.The university regulates and coordinates the activities of medical education, training & research institutions throughout the province of Punjab. It is also the provincial authority of Punjab which conducts Medical College Admission Test every year.University is placed #2 in Higher Education Commission of Pakistan's National University Ranking for 2012 in the field of medical and health science, and #8 in all universities of Pakistan. Wikipedia.

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Mahmood S.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore | Ahmad W.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Hassan M.J.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2011

Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare disorder of neurogenic mitosis characterized by reduced head circumference at birth with variable degree of mental retardation. In MCPH patients, brain size reduced to almost one-third of its original volume due to reduced number of generated cerebral cortical neurons during embryonic neurogensis. So far, seven genetic loci (MCPH1-7) for this condition have been mapped with seven corresponding genes (MCPH1, WDR62, CDK5RAP2, CEP152, ASPM, CENPJ, and STIL) identified from different world populations. Contribution of ASPM and WDR62 gene mutations in MCPH World wide is more than 50%. By and large, primary microcephaly patients are phenotypically indistinguishable, however, recent studies in patients with mutations in MCPH1, WDR62 and ASPM genes showed a broader clinical and/or cellular phenotype. It has been proposed that mutations in MCPH genes can cause the disease phenotype by disturbing: 1) orientation of mitotic spindles, 2) chromosome condensation mechanism during embryonic neurogenesis, 3) DNA damage-response signaling, 4) transcriptional regulations and microtubule dynamics, 5) certain unknown centrosomal mechanisms that control the number of neurons generated by neural precursor cells. Recent discoveries of mammalian models for MCPH have open up horizons for researchers to add more knowledge regarding the etiology and pathophysiology of MCPH. High incidence of MCPH in Pakistani population reflects the most probable involvement of consanguinity. Genetic counseling and clinical management through carrier detection/prenatal diagnosis in MCPH families can help reducing the incidence of this autosomal recessive disorder. © 2011 Mahmood et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Rana S.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore | Mahmood S.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Journal of Circadian Rhythms | Year: 2010

Circadian rhythms are daily oscillations of multiple biological processes directed by endogenous clocks. The circadian timing system comprises peripheral oscillators located in most tissues of the body and a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Circadian genes and the proteins produced by these genes constitute the molecular components of the circadian oscillator which form positive/negative feedback loops and generate circadian rhythms. The circadian regulation extends beyond clock genes to involve various clock-controlled genes (CCGs) including various cell cycle genes. Aberrant expression of circadian clock genes could have important consequences on the transactivation of downstream targets that control the cell cycle and on the ability of cells to undergo apoptosis. This may lead to genomic instability and accelerated cellular proliferation potentially promoting carcinogenesis. Different lines of evidence in mice and humans suggest that cancer may be a circadian-related disorder. The genetic or functional disruption of the molecular circadian clock has been found in various cancers including breast, ovarian, endometrial, prostate and hematological cancers. The acquisition of current data in circadian clock mechanism may help chronotherapy, which takes into consideration the biological time to improve treatments by devising new therapeutic approaches for treating circadian-related disorders, especially cancer.© 2010 Rana and Mahmood; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Imran M.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Virology journal | Year: 2011

Prion diseases are transmissible, progressive and invariably fatal neurodegenerative conditions associated with misfolding and aggregation of a host-encoded cellular prion protein, PrP(C). They have occurred in a wide range of mammalian species including human. Human prion diseases can arise sporadically, be hereditary or be acquired. Sporadic human prion diseases include Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD), fatal insomnia and variably protease-sensitive prionopathy. Genetic or familial prion diseases are caused by autosomal dominantly inherited mutations in the gene encoding for PrP(C) and include familial or genetic CJD, fatal familial insomnia and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome. Acquired human prion diseases account for only 5% of cases of human prion disease. They include kuru, iatrogenic CJD and a new variant form of CJD that was transmitted to humans from affected cattle via meat consumption especially brain. This review presents information on the epidemiology, etiology, clinical assessment, neuropathology and public health concerns of human prion diseases. The role of the PrP encoding gene (PRNP) in conferring susceptibility to human prion diseases is also discussed.

Bokhari F.A.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2010

Few studies have studied the role of homocysteine in migraineurs and have produced conflicting results. The MTHFR C677T genotype has been associated with increased risk of migraine in selected clinical samples. We assessed the association of the MTHFR C677T variant with migraine, the corresponding homocysteine levels and their correlation. We studied 27 random adult migraineurs with aura (MWA), migraine without aura (MWOA), and 32 non-migraineurs (controls) from Lahore, Pakistan in this pilot study which is still under progress. We found significant differences in homocysteine levels between various diagnostic groups (K-W test: p=0.005). One-way ANOVA, post-hoc tests revealed significant differences in homocysteine levels between Non-migraineurs, MWA (p=0.002, CI: 1.93 - 9.19) and MWoA (p=0.002, CI: -9.19 - -1.9). We found a significant association between the migraine group and C677T-MTHFR variant mutant allele (C/T) (p=0.039). We did not find a significant association between C677T-MTHFR variant and homocysteine levels. In this pilot study, we found plasma homocysteine levels to be significantly associated with MWOA. Additionally, plasma homocysteine levels were lower in MWA than in MWOA. Furthermore, we did not find a relationship between homocysteine levels and the MTHFR variant (SNP rs1801133). Lastly, there may be a relationship between the MTHFR variant (SNP rs1801133) and migraine in this population.

Raja M.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore | Hannan A.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore | Ali K.,University of Plymouth
Caries Research | Year: 2010

Introduction: Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic oral fungal infections. Oral candidal carriage in schoolchildren is a subject of increasing interest worldwide and has recently been associated with increased caries incidence in children. Aims: This study was carried out to identify association between oral candidal carriage in children and dental caries. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects with an age range between 6 and 12 years were included in this study. The subjects were distributed equally into two groups, i.e., study (caries-positive) and control (caries-free) groups. Oral hygiene index and DMFT/dmft scores were recorded for each subject. Sampling for Candida was carried out using intraoral swabs and concentrated oral rinse. Sabouraud dextrose agar containing 0.1 mg/ml of chloramphenicol was used as the primary culture medium. Candida was identified by employing API-20C AUX and germ tube formation tests. Results: The subjects in the caries-positive group showed a high frequency of oral candidal carriage compared to the caries-free subjects and the results were statistically very significant (p < 0.01). The odds ratio was 67.37, implying a high caries risk with positive oral candidal carriage (95% CI 14-323). Discussion: The findings of this study underscore the possible association of Candida with dental caries. Conclusions: The occurrence of dental caries in children with mixed dentition is positively correlated with the frequency of oral candidal carriage. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG.

Sadiq S.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2010

To assess the effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi seeds in experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rodents, we studied 48 adult male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: normal controls (group A), diabetes positive control (group B), and experimental (groups C and D). They received Carum carvi extract as a renoprotective agent. Rats having fasting blood glucose levels over 280 mg/dL were included in this study. Group C rats received STZ (60 mg/kg) and aqueous extract of Carum carvi at 30 mg/kg of body weights. On the other hand group D rats received STZ (60 mg/kg) and aqueous extract of Carum carvi at 60 mg/kg of body weight. Blood samples were collected on the 60 th day, and kidneys were also extracted for examination. The diabetic group rats showed a variable increase in the serum levels of glucose, urea, creatinine, total urinary protein and microalbuminuric levels. Body weight decreased and urine volume increased in the diabetic groups. 30 mg/kg body weight of Carum carvi dose decreased the levels of these parameters in rats. On the other hand, 60 mg/kg body weight of Carum carvi dose significantly decreased the levels of the biochemical parameters. The morphological examination of group C rats showed no changes whereas the rats in group D showed moderate changes. Carum carvi constituents, especially flavonoids and carvone have strong anti-oxidant activity, which provides reno-protection against diabetes and its complications. In conclusion, high dose of Carum carvi aqueous seeds extract (60 mg/kg) showed reno-protection against STZ induced dia-betic nephropathy in rats.

Hannan A.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2010

Cholera is a major public health problem in developing countries of the world. Bacterial resistance, lack of surveillance data and proper microbiological facilities are major problems regarding diagnosis of cholera. The spread of microbial drug resistance is a global public health challenge that results in increased illness and death rate. Newer antimicrobials or agents are urgently required to overcome this problem. This work was therefore done to investigate the antimicrobial potential of onion against thirty-three clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae. The extract was prepared by reflux extraction method. Antibacterial screening of clinical isolates of V. cholerae was done by agar well diffusion method. Agar dilution method was used to assess the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). All tested strains of V. cholerae were sensitive to onion (Allium cepa) extracts of two types (purple and yellow). Purple type of extract had MIC range of 19.2-21.6 mg/ml. The extract of yellow type onion had an MIC range of 66-68.4 mg/ml. The results indicated that onion (Allium cepa) has an inhibitory effect on V. cholerae. Keeping in view the anti-bacterial activity of this compound can be exploited as a therapeutic agent in an animal model. This finding is a positive point for further investigation of this herb of traditional medicine.

Biggs J.S.G.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2016

In November 2014 the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council directed that Family Medicine should be taught to final year medical students. Family Medicine will be strengthened as a result. This paper considers some implications of the decision, identifying first the need for more information on primary care services, especially in the private sector, to enable planning of the curriculum and attachments to public and private units. The challenges to medical colleges in providing what will be largely experiential learning are described and the importance of training practitioners is emphasised. The urgent need to overcome the virtual absence in Pakistan of postgraduate training in Family Medicine described, and the quality standards of primary care are explored and the need for attention in the face of student learning is described. Recommendations are offered, including an advisory board on Family Medicine to audit its introduction and performance. © 2016, Pakistan Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Jabeen R.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2010

Lead remains a considerable occupational and public health problem, which is known to cause a number of adverse effects in both men and women. Conflicting reports have appeared on lead induced nephrotoxicity in experimental studies in the past. There is hardly any work on its teratogenic effects on kidney. Present study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of lead acetate on developing kidney. Twelve mice were used as experimental model and were divided into two groups of six animals each; group A served as control group and B was used as an experimental group. Lead acetate (10 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.02 ml of distilled water was administered as a single daily dose orally to group B whereas weight related amount of distilled water was given to group A for the entire period of experiment. On 18th day of gestation foetuses were dissected free of uterine wall under the dissecting microscope and were sacrificed; kidneys were removed and fixed in 10% formalin, dehydrated in ascending grades of alcohol, cleared in xylene and infiltrated with filtered paraffin. The paraffin blocks were made and five micron thin sections were obtained using a rotary microtome. The sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin and, PAS; these were examined under light microscope. Significant decrease in cortical thickness was observed which varied from 578.61 +/- 1.4 microm in group A to 515.6 +/- 5 microm in group B (p < 0.001). Diameter of renal corpuscles varied from 57.7 +/- 0.07 microm in group A to 50.5 +/- 0.07 microm in group B (p < 0.001). Moderate cortical tubular atrophy showing thickening of endothelial basement membrane in glomeruli, desquamated epithelium with degenerated nuclei in proximal and distal tubules were observed in group B in contrast to group A. The results of the investigation indicated that lead acetate administration to the dams produced deleterious effects on the developing kidney in mice.

Imran M.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore | Mahmood S.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Virology Journal | Year: 2011

Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases. © 2011 Imran and Mahmood; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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