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Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Recent research results have shown that nursing practice in correctional psychiatric settings is difficult since institutional functionning and correctional culture threaten fundamental socioprofessional standards of care. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a research conducted in a Canadian correctional facility between 2006 and 2009 with nurses providing psychiatric care. This research highlights the challenges faced by the nursing staff who see their professional practice constrained by correctional prerogatives. we believe that the results of our research are paramount if we wish to understand the specificities of this complex field of nursing.

Dabboussi F.,University of Health Sciences
Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhīyah li-sharq al-mutawassit | Year: 2012

Campylobacter species are a major cause of human diarrhoeal disease worldwide. In Lebanon, the true prevalence of Campylobacter infections and the species distribution in childhood diarrhoea are not known. This study in 2010 investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter species and its possible etiologic role in childhood diarrhoea in north Lebanon. A total of 90 stool samples from children (aged 1 month to 10 years) presenting with diarrhoea were collected from 5 hospitals. A polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) was used for each sample forthe amplification of all Campylobacter species followed by 5 PCR reactions for the amplification of C. jejuni, C. hyointestinalis, C. coli, C. fetus and C. upsaliensis. Of the 90 samples, 10 were positive for Campylobacterspecies (11.1%):1 for C.coli, 1 for C. jejuni, 2 for both C. jejuni and C. coli, and 6 could not be identified to the species level with the available primers. Campylobacter species is frequently associated with childhood diarrhoea in north Lebanon but Campylobacter infection may be significantly underdiagnosed because the search for Campylobacter is not part of the routine stool culture.

Adegbidi H.,University of Health Sciences
Le Mali médical | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological aspects of drug eruptions in children in hospital area in Cotonou. A retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Dermatology of Cotonou (Benin) from 1998 to 2009. All cases of drug eruption occurred, during the study period, in children under 16 years old were selected for the study. The diagnosis of the drug eruption was based on clinical findings. The Identification of culprit drugs was based on the criteria as defined by the French Group of Pharmaco-vigilance. From 1998 to 2009, 232 cases of drug eruption were diagnosed in the Department of Dermatology. Of this, 35 cases occurred in children under 16 years old. The patient mean age was 6.6 years with a sex ratio of 0.94. 4 patients were HIV positive. The culprit drug was identified in 21 patients (60%): sulfonamides 52.38% (11/21 cases), penicillin 9.52% (2 cases), vaccine 9.52% (2 cases), acetaminophen 9.52% (2 cases), acetyl salicylic acid 4.76% (n = 1), quinine 4.76% (n = 1), phenobarbital 4.76% (n = 1) and ceftriaxone 4.76% (n = 1). The main clinical patterns were: fixed drug eruption 45.71% (16/35), maculopapular rash 17.14% (n = 6), Stevens-Johnson syndrome 17.14% (n=6), and urticaria 8.57% (n = 3), 1 case of toxic epidermal necrolysis was seen and one patient died. Skin reactions caused by drug intake are a rare disorder among children and fixed drug eruption is the main clinical presentation of the disease in Cotonou (Benin).

Otgontuya D.,National Center for Public Health | Oum S.,University of Health Sciences | Buckley B.S.,University of the Philippines at Manila | Bonita R.,University of Auckland
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Abstract. Background: Recent research has used cardiovascular risk scores intended to estimate "total cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk" in individuals to assess the distribution of risk within populations. The research suggested that the adoption of the total risk approach, in comparison to treatment decisions being based on the level of a single risk factor, could lead to reductions in expenditure on preventive cardiovascular drug treatment in low- and middle-income countries. So that the patient benefit associated with savings is highlighted. Methods. This study used data from national STEPS surveys (STEPwise Approach to Surveillance) conducted between 2005 and 2010 in Cambodia, Malaysia and Mongolia of men and women aged 40-64 years. The study compared the differences and implications of various approaches to risk estimation at a population level using the World Health Organization/ International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk score charts. To aid interpretation and adjustment of scores and inform treatment in individuals, the charts are accompanied by practice notes about risk factors not included in the risk score calculations. Total risk was calculated amongst the populations using the charts alone and also adjusted according to these notes. Prevalence of traditional single risk factors was also calculated. Results: The prevalence of WHO/ISH "high CVD risk" (≥20% chance of developing a cardiovascular event over 10 years) of 6%, 2.3% and 1.3% in Mongolia, Malaysia and Cambodia, respectively, is in line with recent research when charts alone are used. However, these proportions rise to 33.3%, 20.8% and 10.4%, respectively when individuals with blood pressure > = 160/100 mm/Hg and/or hypertension medication are attributed to "high risk". Of those at "moderate risk" (10- < 20% chance of developing a cardio vascular event over 10 years), 100%, 94.3% and 30.1%, respectively are affected by at least one risk-increasing factor. Of all individuals, 44.6%, 29.0% and 15.0% are affected by hypertension as a single risk factor (systolic ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic ≥ 90 mmHg or medication). Conclusions: Used on a population level, cardiovascular risk scores may offer useful insights that can assist health service delivery planning. An approach based on overall risk without adjustment of specific risk factors however, may underestimate treatment needs.At the individual level, the total risk approach offers important clinical benefits. However, countries need to develop appropriate clinical guidelines and operational guidance for detection and management of CVD risk using total CVD-risk approach at different levels of health system. Operational research is needed to assess implementation issues. © 2013 Otgontuya et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

In 1995, 2005 and 2011, cross-sectional studies of 611 parturients at the Centre Hospitalier de Libreville in Gabon assessed the prevalence of maternal malaria and anaemia; two indicators of poor pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in maternal peripheral blood decreased from 25% in 2005 to 6% in 2011. Parasite density was significantly lower in 2005 (31 p/μL) than in 1995 (1,240 p/μL) or 2011 (35,055 p/μL). Anaemia prevalence was high (>50%) in 1995 and in 2005, but fell by more than 50% (24%) in 2011. After implementation of new malaria prevention strategies during pregnancy, the prevalence of both maternal peripheral P. falciparum infection and anaemia fell. Studies are necessary to assess the efficacy of these strategies and to seek other causes of anaemia.

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