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Farmington, CT, United States

Rajan T.V.,University of Health Center | Kerstetter J.,University of Connecticut | Feinn R.,Quinnipiac University | Kenny A.,University of Connecticut Health Center
Aging Male

There are increasing data indicating profound ethnic differences in the levels of virilization of males [1-4]. It is well understood that the intensity of testosterone-mediated effects is modulated by sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) [5] and the CAG repeat lengths in the androgen receptor (AR) gene [6]. We determined the serum testosterone, estradiol and SHBG levels and average CAG repeat lengths among a group of healthy older Indian men living in Connecticut, USA and compared these parameters with those of a reference group of white Caucasian men. We also compared various parameters that represent the end-manifestations of testosterone activity-serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, lean body mass, skeletal mineralization and visceral fat. Our data suggest that men from the Indian subcontinent are smaller, manifest lower levels of circulating free testosterone, lower mean PSA levels and lean body mass, but are comparable to white Caucasian men in terms of SHBG, estradiol, levels of visceral fat and CAG repeat length. These data suggest that Indian men manifest a lower level of virilization compared to white Caucasian males and that this might be due to lower mean circulating testosterone levels rather than higher AR CAG repeat length or SHBG. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source

Wiegand T.,University of Rochester | Wax P.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Smith E.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Hart K.,Hartford Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Toxicology

In 2010, the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) established its Case Registry, the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). All cases are entered prospectively and include only suspected and confirmed toxic exposures cared for at the bedside by board-certified or board-eligible medical toxicologists at its participating sites. The primary aims of establishing this Registry include the development of a realtime toxico-surveillance system in order to identify and describe current or evolving trends in poisoning and to develop a research tool in toxicology. ToxIC allows for extraction of data from medical records from multiple sites across a national and international network. All cases seen by medical toxicologists at participating institutions were entered into the database. Information characterizing patients entered in 2012 was tabulated and data from the previous years including 2010 and 2011 were included so that cumulative numbers and trends could be described as well. The current report includes data through December 31st, 2012. During 2012, 38 sites with 68 specific institutions contributed a total of 7,269 cases to the Registry. The total number of cases entered into the Registry at the end of 2012 was 17,681. Emergency departments remained the most common source of consultation in 2012, accounting for 61 % of cases. The most common reason for consultation was for pharmaceutical overdose, which occurred in 52 % of patients including intentional (41 %) and unintentional (11 %) exposures. The most common classes of agents were sedative-hypnotics (1,422 entries in 13 % of cases) non-opioid analgesics (1,295 entries in 12 % of cases), opioids (1,086 entries in 10 % of cases) and antidepressants (1,039 entries in 10 % of cases). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was the most common antidote administered in 2012, as it was in previous years, followed by the opioid antagonist naloxone, sodium bicarbonate, physostigmine and flumazenil. Anti-crotalid Fab fragments were administered in 109 cases or 82 % of cases in which a snake envenomation occurred. There were 57 deaths reported in the Registry in 2012. The most common associated agent alone or in combination was the non-opioid analgesic acetaminophen, being reported in 10 different cases. Other common agents and agent classes involved in death cases included ethanol, opioids, the anti-diabetic agent metformin, sedatives-hypnotics and cardiovascular agents, in particular amlodipine. There were significant trends identified during 2012. Abuse of over-the-counter medications such as dextromethorphan remains prevalent. Cases involving dextromethorphan continued to be reported at frequencies higher than other commonly abused drugs including many stimulants, phencyclidine, synthetic cannabinoids and designer amphetamines such as bath salts. And, while cases involving synthetic cannabinoids and psychoactive bath salts remained relatively constant from 2011 to 2012 several designer amphetamines and novel psychoactive substances were first reported in the Registry in 2012 including the NBOME compounds or "N-bomb" agents. LSD cases also spiked dramatically in 2012 with an 18-fold increase from 2011 although many of these cases are thought to be ultra-potent designer amphetamines misrepresented as "synthetic" LSD. The 2012 Registry included over 400 Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) involving 4 % of all Registry cases with 106 agents causing at least 2 ADRs. Additional data including supportive cares, decontamination, and chelating agent use are also included in the 2012 annual report. The Registry remains a valuable toxico-surveillance and research tool. The ToxIC Registry is a unique tool for identifying and characterizing confirmed cases of significant or potential toxicity or complexity to require bedside care by a medical toxicologist. © 2013 American College of Medical Toxicology. Source

Roh M.R.,Harvard University | Roh M.R.,Yonsei University | Eliades P.,Harvard University | Eliades P.,Tufts University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Women's Dermatology

Background: Gender disparity in melanoma outcome is consistently observed, suggesting that gender is as an important prognostic factor. However, the source of this gender disparity in melanoma remains unclear. Objective: This article reviews advances in our understanding of gender differences in melanoma and how such differences may contribute to outcomes. Methods: A broad literature search was conducted using the PubMed database, with search terms such as 'gender differences in melanoma' and 'sex differences in melanoma.' Additional articles were identified from cited references. Results: Herein, we address the gender-linked physiologic differences in skin and melanoma. We discuss the influence of estrogen on a woman's risk for melanoma and melanoma outcomes with regard to pregnancy, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and UV tanning. Conclusions: The published findings on gender disparities in melanoma have yielded many advances in our understanding of this disease. Biological, environmental, and behavioral factors may explain the observed gender difference in melanoma incidence and outcome. Further research will enable us to learn more about melanoma pathogenesis, with the goal of offering better treatments and preventative advice to our patients. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Various ovarian cell types including granulosa cells and ovarian surface epithelial cells express the progesterone (P4) binding protein, progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1). PGRMC1 is also expressed in ovarian tumors. PGRMC1 plays an essential role in promoting the survival of both normal and cancerous ovarian cell in vitro. Given the clinical significance of factors that regulate the viability of ovarian cancer, this review will focus on the role of PGRMC1 in ovarian cancer, while drawing insights into the mechanism of PGRMC1's action from cell lines derived from healthy ovaries as well as ovarian tumors. Studies using PGRMC1siRNA demonstrated that P4's ability to inhibit ovarian cells from undergoing apoptosis in vitro is dependent on PGRMC1. To confirm the importance of PGRMC1, the ability of PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cell lines to form tumors in intact nude mice was assessed. Compared to PGRMC1-expressing ovarian cancer cells, PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells formed tumors in fewer mice (80% compared to 100% for controls). Moreover, the number of tumors derived from PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells was 50% of that observed in controls. Finally, the tumors that formed from PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells were about a fourth the size of tumors derived from ovarian cancer cells with normal levels of PGRMC1. One reason for PGRMC1-deplete tumors being smaller is that they had a poorly developed microvasculature system. How PGRMC1 regulates cell viability and in turn tumor growth is not known but part of the mechanism likely involves the regulation of genes that promote cell survival and inhibit apoptosis. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Elassar A.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Liu X.,University of Health Center | Scranton V.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Wu C.A.,University of Connecticut Health Center | And 2 more authors.
Fertility and Sterility

Objective: To determine the relationship between progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) expression and the outcome of IVF treatment. Design: A prospective study in which PGRMC1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, methylation status of the Pgrmc1 promoter, and the presence of point mutations within Pgrmc1 were obtained from granulosa (GC)/luteal cells of women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Setting: Fertility center/basic science laboratory. Patient(s): Eighty-five patients undergoing IVF treatment and 10 women who were undergoing COH for the purpose of oocyte donation were included in this study. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PGRMC1 measurements were correlated with clinical outcomes, such as number of follicles, number of retrieved oocytes, and ongoing pregnancy rates (PR). Result(s): The PGRMC1 mRNA levels within GC/luteal cells of 18% of IVF patients were >2.25-fold higher than those of oocyte donors. Individuals with elevated PGRMC1 mRNA levels had 30% fewer large follicles and fewer oocytes retrieved. The elevated PGRMC1 mRNA levels were associated with an increase in the methylation of Pgrmc1 promoter. Conclusion(s): In patients with elevated PGRMC1 mRNA levels, gonadotropin-induced follicle development is attenuated, although sufficient numbers of follicles develop to allow for ET and subsequent pregnancy. © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

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