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Franks M.M.,Purdue University | Sahin Z.,Purdue University | Seidel A.J.,Purdue University | Shields C.G.,Purdue University | And 2 more authors.
Families, Systems and Health | Year: 2012

In adjusting to chronic illness, patients often negotiate new or altered daily routines within a dynamic family context. Yet, the responses of family members to the disease and its management are understudied. The authors investigated patients with Type 2 diabetes and their spouses (N = 55 couples) and examined the association of diet-related interactions (i.e., diet-related support, diet-related pressure, and frequency of sharing meals together) with each partner's adjustment to the illness context (i.e., diabetes distress). All spouses (100%) reported providing some type of diet-related support to their partners with diabetes in the past month, and many reported exerting pressure to improve their partners' diet choices (60%). In addition, many couples (64%) indicated that they frequently shared meals together in the past month. For spouses, their provision of diet-related pressure was associated (positively) with their diabetes distress. Frequently sharing meals was associated with less diabetes distress among patients, even after controlling for their glycemic control and diet adherence. Findings reveal that spouses of patients with diabetes are actively involved in illness management with their partners, and these activities are associated with their own diabetes distress and with that of their ill partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Gibbons F.X.,Dartmouth College | Gibbons F.X.,University of Connecticut | Kingsbury J.H.,Dartmouth College | Kingsbury J.H.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
Health Psychology | Year: 2014

Objective: Prospective data tested a "differential mediation" hypothesis: The relations (found in previous research) between perceived racial discrimination and physical health status versus healthimpairing behavior (problematic substance use) are mediated by two different types of affective reactions, internalizing and externalizing. Method: The sample included 680 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (M age=37 years at Time 1; 45 years at Time 4). Four waves of data were analyzed. Perceived discrimination was assessed, along with anxiety and depression (internalizing) and hostility/anger (externalizing) as mediators, and physical health status and problematic substance use (drinking) as outcomes. Results: Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination predicted increases in both externalizing and internalizing reactions. These affective responses, in turn, predicted subsequent problematic substance use and physical health status, respectively, also controlling for earlier reports. In each case, the indirect effects from discrimination through the affective mediator to the specific health outcome were significant and consistent with the differential mediation hypothesis. Conclusions: Perceived racial discrimination is associated with increases in internalizing and externalizing reactions among Black women, but these reactions are related to different health outcomes. Changes in internalizing are associated with self-reported changes in physical health status, whereas changes in externalizing are associated with changes in substance use problems. Discussion focuses on the processes whereby discrimination affects health behavior and physical health status. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

He Y.,Purdue University | Xu C.,Purdue University | Khanna N.,Graphic Era University | Boushey C.J.,University of Hawaii Cancer Center | Delp E.J.,Purdue University
2014 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP 2014 | Year: 2014

In this paper we investigate features and their combinations for food image analysis and a classification approach based on k-nearest neighbors and vocabulary trees. The system is evaluated on a food image dataset consisting of 1453 images of eating occasions in 42 food categories which were acquired by 45 participants in natural eating conditions. The same image dataset is used to test the classification system proposed in the previously reported work [1]. Experimental results indicate that using our combination of features and vocabulary trees for classification improves the food classification performance about 22% for the Top 1 classification accuracy and 10% for the Top 4 classification accuracy. © 2014 IEEE.

Simons J.S.,University of South Dakota | Wills T.A.,University of Hawaii Cancer Center | Emery N.N.,University of South Dakota | Marks R.M.,University of South Dakota
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2015

Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647. days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a biochemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between- person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between- person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demonstration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Shavers V.L.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Fagan P.,University of Hawaii Cancer Center | Jones D.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Klein W.M.P.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives. We conducted a review to examine current literature on the effects of interpersonal and institutional racism and discrimination occurring within health care settings on the health care received by racial/ethnic minority patients. Methods. We searched the PsychNet, PubMed, and Scopus databases for articles on US populations published between January 1, 2008 and November 1, 2011. We used various combinations of the following search terms: discrimination, perceived discrimination, race, ethnicity, racism, institutional racism, stereotype, prejudice or bias, and health or health care. Fifty-eight articles were reviewed. Results. Patient perception of discriminatory treatment and implicit provider biases were the most frequently examined topics in health care settings. Few studies examined the overall prevalence of racial/ethnic discrimination and none examined temporal trends. In general, measures used were insufficient for examining the impact of interpersonal discrimination or institutional racism within health care settings on racial/ethnic disparities in health care. Conclusions. Better instrumentation, innovative methodology, and strategies are needed for identifying and tracking racial/ethnic discrimination in health care settings.

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