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Honolulu, HI, United States

The University of Hawai'i at Mānoa is a public co-educational research university, and is the flagship campus of the greater University of Hawai'i system. The school is located in Mānoa, an affluent neighborhood of Honolulu, Honolulu County, Hawai'i, United States, approximately three miles east and inland from downtown Honolulu and one mile from Ala Moana and Waikiki. The campus occupies the eastern half of the mouth of Mānoa Valley. It is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges and is governed by the Hawaii State Legislature and a semi-autonomous board of regents, which in turn hires a president to be administrator. The university campus houses the main offices of the University of Hawai'i System. Wikipedia.

Schorghofer N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Forget F.,University Paris - Sud
Icarus | Year: 2012

Ice buried beneath a thin layer of soil has been revealed by neutron spectroscopy and explored by the Phoenix Mars Lander. It has also been exposed by recent impacts. This subsurface ice is thought to lose and gain volume in response to orbital variations (Milankovitch cycles). We use a powerful numerical model to follow the growth and retreat of near-surface ice as a result of regolith-atmosphere exchange continuously over millions of years. If a thick layer of almost pure ice has been deposited recently, it has not yet reached equilibrium with the atmospheric water vapor and may still remain as far equatorward as 43°N, where ice has been revealed by recent impacts. A potentially observable consequence is present-day humidity output from the still retreating ice. We also demonstrate that in a sublimation environment, subsurface pore ice can accumulate in two ways. The first mode, widely known, is the progressive filling of pores by ice over a range of depths. The second mode occurs on top of an already impermeable ice layer; subsequent ice accumulates in the form of pasted on horizontal layers such that beneath the ice table, the pores are completely full with ice. Most or all of the pore ice on Mars today may be of the second type. At the Phoenix landing site, where such a layer is also expected to exist above an underlying ice sheet, it may be extremely thin, due to exceptionally small variations in ice stability over time. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Tessier K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2010

This study evaluates whether a hands-on educational intervention makes a significant difference in the proper use of a child passenger restraint by a parent. The clinical trial design included a sample of 111 parents who were at least seven months pregnant and who were randomly assigned to one of two groups (56 intervention and 55 control). All participants received a free car seat and a standardized education session on the safety and use of child passenger restraints. The experimental group received an additional component consisting of a hands-on demonstration and return demonstration of correct installation and use in their own vehicle. Follow-up observation for correctness of use was done after birth using a standardized tool. A total of 24 (22%) parents correctly used the car seat; of these, 18 (32%) were in the intervention group and 6 (11%) were in the control group. The intervention group was four times more likely to have correct use than the control group (odds ratio 4.3, p-value = 0.0074). The range for the number of errors per person was 0-7, with the majority (70%) having 0-2. The rate of errors was 33% less in the intervention group (ratio of 0.67). There were few serious errors in either group. No secondary variable (age, education, income, or help from others) had a significant effect on the outcome. The hands-on educational intervention made a significant difference in the proper use of a child passenger restraint by a parent. This study demonstrates the value of hands-on teaching for learning how to install and use a child car seat. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yamamoto L.G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Pediatric Emergency Care | Year: 2013

High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Yaktine A.L.,Institute of Medicine | Murphy S.P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2013

Nutrition assistance programs, including the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs (NSLP/SBP), and the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), are intended to offer low-income families the opportunity for a healthier food pattern that promotes overall health and reduces risk for chronic disease. To be successful in improving the diets of underserved Americans requires a unified approach toward meeting the nutritional needs of program participants. Newly revised recommendations increase intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain-rich foods while reducing consumption of saturated fats, added sugars, and sodium. In addition to improving the nutritional profile of meals and snacks for NSLP and CACFP and meal patterns for WIC, the new recommendations ensure variety within food groups for menus across a week and allow for regional and cultural preferences and increased flexibility of choice within food groups. The newly revised meal pattern recommendations are broadly applicable to the design of feeding programs for any age group and for any combination of meals and snacks being provided. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute. Source

Schorghofer N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Aharonson O.,Weizmann Institute of Science
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

It has long been suggested that water ice can exist in extremely cold regions near the lunar poles, where sublimation loss is negligible. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial or ambiguous correlation with permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that another mechanism may contribute to locally enhancing water concentrations. We show that under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H2O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated and found to occur where the mean surface temperature is below 105 K and the peak surface temperature is above 120 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps that are roughly defined by peak temperatures lower than 120 K. On the present-day Moon, an estimated 0.8% of the global surface area experiences such temperature variations. Typically, pumping occurs on pole-facing slopes in small areas, but within a few degrees of each pole the equator-facing slopes are preferred. Although pumping of water molecules is expected over cumulatively large areas, the absolute yield of this pump is low; at best, a few percent of the H2O delivered to the surface could have accumulated in the near-surface layer in this way. The amount of ice increases with vapor diffusivity and is thus higher in the regolith with large pore spaces. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Han X.,Harvard University | Boisvert W.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Boisvert W.A.,Kazan Federal University
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2015

Atherosclerosis is primarily a disorder of lipid metabolism, but there is also a prominent chronic inflammatory component that drives the atherosclerotic lesion progression in the artery wall. During hyperlipidaemic conditions, there is a rapid influx of circulating monocytes into the atherosclerosis-prone areas of the arterial intima. These infiltrated monocytes differentiate into macrophages and take up the atherogenic lipoproteins in the intima of the vessel wall that have been modified within the lesion environment. Interleukin (IL)-10 is a prototypic anti-inflammatory cytokine made primarily by the macrophages and Th2 subtype T lymphocytes. In terms of atherosclerosis its major roles include inhibition of macrophage activation as well as inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase, pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase- 2 expression in lipid-loaded and activated macrophage foam cells. Recent discoveries suggest another important role of IL-10 in atherosclerosis: its ability to alter lipid metabolism in macrophages. The current review will highlight the present knowledge on multiple ways in which IL-10 mediates atherosclerosis. As macrophages play a critical role in all stages of atherosclerosis, the review will concentrate on how IL-10 regulates the activities of macrophages that are especially important in the development of atherosclerosis. © Schattauer 2015. Source

Gaidos E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Mann A.W.,University of Texas at Austin
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

Comparisons between the planet populations around solar-type stars and those orbiting M dwarfs shed light on the possible dependence of planet formation and evolution on stellar mass. However, such analyses must control for other factors, i.e., metallicity, a stellar parameter that strongly influences the occurrence of gas giant planets. We obtained infrared spectra of 121 M dwarfs stars monitored by the California Planet Search and determined metallicities with an accuracy of 0.08 dex. The mean and standard deviation of the sample are -0.05 and 0.20 dex, respectively. We parameterized the metallicity dependence of the occurrence of giant planets on orbits with a period less than two years around solar-type stars and applied this to our M dwarf sample to estimate the expected number of giant planets. The number of detected planets (3) is lower than the predicted number (6.4), but the difference is not very significant (12% probability of finding as many or fewer planets). The three M dwarf planet hosts are not especially metal rich and the most likely value of the power-law index relating planet occurrence to metallicity is 1.06 dex per dex for M dwarfs compared to 1.80 for solar-type stars; this difference, however, is comparable to uncertainties. Giant planet occurrence around both types of stars allows, but does not necessarily require, a mass dependence of ∼1 dex per dex. The actual planet-mass-metallicity relation may be complex, and elucidating it will require larger surveys like those to be conducted by ground-based infrared spectrographs and the Gaia space astrometry mission. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Jorgenson R.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Wolfe A.M.,University of California at San Diego
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM 0.″15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222-0946 at a redshift of z 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M yr-1 and a dynamical mass of M dyn = 6.1 × 109 M . The average star formation rate surface density is 〈ΣSFR〉 = 0.55 M yr-1 kpc-2, with a central peak of 1.7 M yr -1 kpc-2. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σgas = 243 M pc -2. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M gas = 4.2 × 109 M . We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222-0946 to be f gas 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas 6 kpc away, 30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Halliday T.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2014

We use micro-data to investigate the relationship between unemployment and mortality in the United States using Logistic regression on a sample of over 16,000 individuals. We consider baselines from 1984 to 1993 and investigate mortality up to ten years from the baseline. We show that poor local labor market conditions are associated with higher mortality risk for working-aged men and, specifically, that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate increases their probability of dying within one year of baseline by 6%. There is little to no such relationship for people with weaker labor force attachments such as women or the elderly. Our results contribute to a growing body of work that suggests that poor economic conditions pose health risks and illustrate an important contrast with studies based on aggregate data. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yang B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Jewitt D.,University of California at Los Angeles
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2011

We obtained near-infrared (NIR; 0.8-2.5μm) spectra of seven Jovian Trojan asteroids that have been formerly reported to show silicate-like absorption features near 1μm. Our sample includes the Trojan (1172) Aneas, which is one of the three Trojans known to possess a comet-like 10μm emission feature, indicative of fine-grained silicates. Our observations show that all seven Trojans appear featureless in high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. The simultaneous absence of the 1μm band and the presence of the 10μm emission can be understood if the silicates on (1172) Aneas are iron-poor. In addition, we present NIR observations of five optically gray Trojans, including three objects from the collisionally produced Eurybates family. The five gray Trojans appear featureless in the NIR with no diagnostic absorption features. The NIR spectrum of Eurybates can be best fitted with the spectrum of a CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, which hints that the C-type Eurybates family members may have experienced aqueous alteration. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Tonry J.L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific | Year: 2011

Earth is bombarded by meteors, occasionally by one large enough to cause a significant explosion and possible loss of life. It is not possible to detect all hazardous asteroids, and the efforts to detect them years before they strike are only advancing slowly. Similarly, ideas for mitigation of the danger from an impact by moving the asteroid are in their infancy. Although the odds of a deadly asteroid strike in the next century are low, the most likely impact is by a relatively small asteroid, and we suggest that the best mitigation strategy in the near term is simply to move people out of the way. With enough warning, a small asteroid impact should not cause loss of life, and even portable property might be preserved.We describe an early warning system that could provide a week's notice of most sizeable asteroids or comets on track to hit the Earth. This may be all the mitigation needed or desired for small asteroids, and it can be implemented immediately for relatively low cost. This system, dubbed Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System (ATLAS), comprises two observatories separated by about 100 km that simultaneously scan the visible sky twice a night. Software automatically registers a comparison with the unchanging sky and identifies everything that has moved or changed. Communications between the observatories lock down the orbits of anything approaching the Earth, within one night if its arrival is less than a week. The sensitivity of the system permits detection of 140 m asteroids (100 Mton impact energy) three weeks before impact and 50 m asteroids a week before arrival. An ATLAS alarm, augmented by other observations, should result in a determination of impact location and time that is accurate to a fewkilometers and a fewseconds. In addition to detecting and warning of approaching asteroids,ATLAS will continuously monitor the changing universe around us: most of the variable stars in our Galaxy, many microlensing events from stellar alignments, luminous stars and novae in nearby galaxies, thousands of supernovae, nearly a million quasars and active galactic nuclei, tens of millions of galaxies, and a billion stars. With two views per day ATLAS will make the variable universe as familiar to us as the sunrise and sunset. © 2011. Source

Rehm S.J.,Cleveland Clinic | Tice A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

The evolution of methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has demanded serious review of antimicrobial use and development of new agents and revised approaches to prevent and overcome drug resistance. Depending on local conditions and patient risk factors, empirical therapy of suspected S. aureus infection may require coverage of drug-resistant organisms with newer agents and novel antibiotic combinations. The question of treatment with inappropriate antibiotics raises grave concerns with regard to methicillin-resistant S. aureus selection, overgrowth, and increased virulence. Several strategies to reduce the nosocomial burden of resistance are suggested, including shortened hospital stays and outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy of the most serious infections. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Duffy D.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Waterbirds | Year: 2010

Fossil evidence indicates that diverse and abundant seabird communities were once found in the main Hawaiian Islands. However, these seabird populations have severely decreased, or even disappeared, as a result of human disturbance, habitat loss and predation from introduced mammals. Today, the vast majority of Hawai'i's seabirds nest on low-lying and uninhabited atolls in the Northwestern Hawaiian islands, some of which will not be able to withstand projected sea-level rises. As a result, populations of many seabird species will be further reduced unless suitable nesting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands can be restored against predators. The history of seabird management in the Hawaiian Islands is examined, tracing three overlapping stages. The first emphasized exploitation, the second recognized the damage done by humans and developed methods to remove the causes. The third and current stage focuses on restoration, initially of seabirds, and most recently of ecosystems. Restoration will require a scientific approach and documentation of successes and failures, improving the chances of success for future interventions. Source

Kaiser N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

In homogeneous cosmological models, the wavelength λ of a photon exchanged between two fundamental observers changes in proportion to expansion of the space D between them, so δlog (λ/D) = 0. This is exactly the same as for a pair of observers receding from each other in flat space-time where the effect is purely kinematic. The interpretation of this has been the subject of considerable debate, and it has been suggested that all redshifts are a relative velocity effect, raising the question of whether the wavelength always stretches in proportion to the emitter-receiver separation. Here, we show that, for low redshift at least, δlog (λ/D) vanishes for a photon exchanged between any two freely falling observers in a spatially constant tidal field, because such a field stretches wavelengths and the space between the observers identically. But in general there is a non-kinematic, and essentially gravitational, component of the redshift that is given by a weighted average of the gradient of the tidal field along the photon path. While the redshift can always be formally expressed using the Doppler formula, in situations where the gravitational redshift dominates, the 'relative velocity' is typically quite different from the rate of change of D and it is misleading to think of the redshift as being a velocity or 'kinematic' effect © 2014 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Voluntary food certification systems have emerged as a prominent mechanism of food governance in recent years. However, critics have exposed certifications' inability to secure independence, quality, consumer trust, and costs. Recent criticism is even more pointed in that some theorists have critiqued " alternative" systems such as Fair Trade as neoliberal window-dressing. What is curious about this emerging literature is how little has been said about the role of citizens. Although most of the certification literature has assumed that food certification resides in the exclusive realm of " experts" and that technical sophistication is equated with improvement, I argue that democratization is possible and desirable. This paper draws on a case study of a Japanese consumer cooperative which has conducted a laywomen's food certification system for past ten years. By proposing at least two parameters of evaluation of food certification-redistributive effect and the degree of democratization, the paper expands the imaginary of " politics of the possible" in food governance while acknowledging tension of gendered participation. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chuang Y.-C.,National Taiwan University | Chang S.-C.,National Taiwan University | Wang W.-K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: Bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is becoming more frequent among critically ill patients, and has been associated with high mortality and prolonged hospital stay. Multidrug resistance and delay in blood culture have been shown to be significant barriers to appropriate antibiotic treatment. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were recently used to monitor bacterial loads; we hypothesized that the rate of bacterial clearance determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction can be used as a timely surrogate marker to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic usage. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University hospital and research laboratory. PATIENTS: Patients with culture-proven A. baumannii bacteremia in the intensive care units were prospectively enrolled from April 2008 to February 2009. INTERVENTIONS: Plasmid Oxa-51/pCRII-TOPO, which contained a 431-bp fragment of the A. baumannii-specific Oxa-51 gene in a pCRII-TOPO vector, was used as the standard. Sequential bacterial DNA loads in the blood were measured by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We enrolled 51 patients with A. baumannii bacteremia, and examined 318 sequential whole blood samples. The initial mean bacterial load was 2.15 log copies/mL, and the rate of bacterial clearance was 0.088 log copies/mL/day. Multivariate linear regression using the generalized estimation equation approach revealed that the use of immunosuppressants was an independent predictor for slower bacterial clearance (coefficient, 1.116; p < .001), and appropriate antibiotic usage was an independent predictor for more rapid bacterial clearance (coefficient, -0.995; p < .001). Patients with a slower rate of bacterial clearance experienced higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 2.323; p = .04) CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppression and appropriate antibiotic usage were independent factors affecting the rate of clearance of A. baumannii bacteremia in critical patients. These findings highlight the importance of appropriate antibiotic usage and development of effective antibiotics against A. baumannii in an era of emerging antibiotic resistance. The rate of bacterial clearance could serve as a timely surrogate marker for evaluating the appropriateness of antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 by the Society of Critical Care. Source

Barton K.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Functional Ecology | Year: 2016

Most plants rely at least in part on physical defence traits to deter herbivores, and yet, very little is known about the inducibility of these traits. A meta-analysis was conducted on data extracted from 57 publications from 1982 to 2014, including 53 species in 20 plant families in which the induction of physical defence traits was examined. Log response ratio effect sizes were calculated for 112 separate responses and analysed to characterize general patterns and test whether induction differed between physical and chemical defence traits (in the same study), among defence traits, and in response to the damage type (artificial, herbivore, jasmonates). Physical defence traits are generally inducible, showing a mean increase of 52% in damaged compared to control plants. The magnitude of increase did not differ between physical and chemical defence traits measured within the same experiments, and nutrients showed no overall response. Physical defence traits varied significantly in their responses, with non-glandular trichomes showing the greatest magnitude of increase, and no induction detected for leaf toughness. Responses induced by real herbivores or by jasmonate application were significantly greater than responses elicited by mechanical damage alone. This suggests that specificity in physical trait induction in response to different kinds of damage may occur. Induction of physical defence traits is common and widespread, but the ecological and evolutionary consequences of this response remain unknown. Future studies examining genetic variation in the inducibility of physical defence traits and their fitness consequences for plants would be particularly informative. © 2016 British Ecological Society. Source

Martindale M.Q.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Current Biology | Year: 2013

Historically, the position of the site of gastrulation has been used to understand the developmental basis for body plan diversity. A recent molecular study, however, challenges long-held views and shows that molecular patterning mechanisms can be used to understand body plan evolution despite variation in gastrulation movements. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nevzorov R.,Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics | Pakvasa S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We study the decays of the SM-like Higgs state within the E6 inspired supersymmetric (SUSY) models with exact custodial symmetry that forbids tree-level flavor-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. In these models there are two states which are absolutely stable and can contribute to the dark matter density. One of them is the lightest SUSY particle (LSP) which is expected to be lighter than 1 eV forming hot dark matter in the Universe. The presence of another stable neutral state allows to account for the observed cold dark matter density. In the considered SUSY models next-to-lightest SUSY particle (NLSP) also tend to be light. We argue that the NLSP with GeV scale mass can result in the substantial branching ratio of the nonstandard decays of the lightest Higgs boson. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Dera P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials | Year: 2014

Framework and applications of a new approach, developed by Degtyareva to analyze the stability of non-close-packed structures of elemental metals in the context of Hume Rothery rules and Fermi sphere Brillouin zone interactions, are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography. Source

Nihous G.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2012

A model to predict wave power conversion from arbitrary arrays of oscillating water columns is presented. Based on linear potential theory and idealized non-diffracting machines, it relies on a published analytical solution for the flow field generated by a single oscillating pressure patch on the ocean surface. Estimates of wave power conversion are obtained for several array configurations and well-defined wave resources at two sites in Hawaii, using a single-processor computer. Such results illustrate the versatility and computational efficiency of the model. The proposed approach allows a relatively easy evaluation of interferences among individual machines. This would be useful in optimizing the spatial arrangement of oscillating water columns in large wave farms. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dunn R.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2015

Using P-wave refraction data from the L-SCAN controlled-source seismic experiment, the three-dimensional anisotropy structure of the upper crust is determined along the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC). The tomographic image of anisotropy magnitude and orientation is constructed from ~197000 travel time measurements of P-wave arrivals recorded on 83 ocean bottom seismometers, providing the most detailed and extensive view of upper-crustal spreading center anisotropy to date. P-wave speeds vary with the azimuth of the seismic ray path, a type of anisotropy produced by stress-aligned lithospheric cracks and microcracks. Across the study area, the fast axes of anisotropy are generally oriented parallel to the trend of the spreading center, as expected for ridge-parallel cracks that form in association with seafloor spreading. The seismic study encompassed four individual spreading segments of the ELSC separated by three overlapping spreading centers (OSC). The two larger OSCs exhibit high anisotropy that penetrates deep into the upper crust. Surrounding these OSCs, and in the wake of the largest, are regions where the fast axes of anisotropy are misaligned relative to the general trend. In these areas, the observations agree with numerical models and seafloor morphology that suggest tensile stress concentrations and a high degree of brittle crack formation. The tomographic images indicate that the location and dynamics of persistent ridge offsets can be tracked back through time via their anomalous anisotropy. Along the spreading centers, and away from ridge tips, the anisotropy is greater where the melt supply is inferred to be greater, and smaller where the melt supply is inferred to be smaller. This is opposite to the trend expected if simple tectonic stress models govern anisotropy. Alternatively, hydrothermal activity is expected to increase with magma supply and can explain higher anisotropy via hydrofracturing. This study provides the first evidence that seismic anisotropy tracks variations in hydrologic activity along the crests of oceanic spreading centers. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Chun M.B.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Medical Education | Year: 2010

Objectives In an effort to provide preventive advice, this paper aims to acknowledge what has not worked with regard to cultural competency initiatives. A successful cultural competency training initiative should have lasting impact on its participants in terms of long-term, ideally permanent changes to attitudes, knowledge and skills resulting in the provision of optimum care, regardless of a patient's cultural background. Legal mandates mean there is an assumed need for cultural competency curricula and training programmes for medical students and postgraduate medical trainees. However, policy and practice have bypassed 'proof' that such programmes are effective and result in better patient care. Often only positive results are reported, which may minimise the difficulties involved in programme implementation. Methods Utilising the example of a cultural competency initiative introduced into a postgraduate general surgery training programme, this paper discusses mistakes that were made during the implementation phase, particularly with regard to underestimating potential resistance by the trainees. Also presented are the lessons learned and efforts that were made to mitigate the problems that arose. None of what is discussed in this paper is new. However, the literature often does not discuss in detail the difficulties that can be or have been faced and how these obstacles can be adequately mitigated. Conclusions The glow of cultural competency training initiatives is fading in the light of higher expectations for an evidence base prior to acknowledgement that their introduction has had a positive impact. For these initiatives to advance, there needs to be a clear understanding of terms utilised, buy-in and a long-term commitment at both individual and organisational levels, and use of standardised and validated tools to measure outcomes. An understanding of potential pitfalls can help to advance cultural competency training to the next level, namely, a solid evidence base that justifies both an individual's and an institution's investment in this effort. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Barton K.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Annals of Botany | Year: 2013

Background and AimsHerbivory and plant defence differ markedly among seedlings and juvenile and mature plants in most species. While ontogenetic patterns of chemical resistance have been the focus of much research, comparatively little is known about how tolerance to damage changes across ontogeny. Due to dramatic shifts in plant size, resource acquisition, stored reserves and growth, it was predicted that tolerance and related underlying mechanisms would differ among ontogenetic stages.MethodsOntogenetic patterns in the mechanisms of tolerance were investigated in Plantago lanceolata and P. major (Plantaginaceae) using the genetic sib-ship approach. Pot-grown plants were subjected to 50 % defoliation at the seedling, juvenile and mature stages and either harvested in the short-term to look at plasticity in growth and photosynthesis in response to damage or allowed to grow through seed maturation to measure phenology, shoot compensation and reproductive fitness.Key ResultsTolerance to defoliation was high in P. lanceolata, but low in P. major, and did not vary among ontogenetic stages in either species. Mechanisms underlying tolerance did vary across ontogeny. In P. lanceolata, tolerance was significantly related to flowering (juveniles) and pre-damage shoot biomass (mature plants). In P. major, tolerance was significantly related to pre-damage root biomass (seedlings) and induction of non-photochemical quenching, a photosynthetic parameter (juveniles).ConclusionsBiomass partitioning was very plastic in response to damage and showed associations with tolerance in both species, indicating a strong role in plant defence. In contrast, photosynthesis and phenology showed weaker responses to damage and were related to tolerance only in certain ontogenetic stages. This study highlights the pivotal role of ontogeny in plant defence and herbivory. Additional studies in more species are needed to determine how seedlings tolerate herbivory in general and whether mechanisms vary across ontogeny in consistent patterns. © The Author 2013. Source

Nihous G.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2010

This paper aims to demonstrate how the evaluation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) resources can benefit from currently available high-resolution ocean models. The case of waters around the main Hawaiian Islands is presented because of its relevance to the future development of OTEC. OTEC resources are defined here by ocean temperature differences between water depths of 20 and 1000 m, with little loss of generality. Using state-of-the-art tools like the HYCOM+NCODA (1/12°) model affords the possibility to track changes on a daily basis over a wide area (e.g., 17 °N to 24 °N and 153 °W to 162 °W). An examination of numerical data over a time period of 2 years reveals interesting geographical patterns. It is found that average OTEC temperature differences are consistently higher (by about 1 °C) west of the islands, whereas the amplitude of the yearly cycle globally decreases from north to south as expected. Better OTEC resources in the lee of the islands are attributed to the narrow eastward-flowing Hawaiian Lee Counter Current. All other things being equal, a change of 1 °C in the resource typically would amount to a 15% variation in net OTEC power output. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. Source

Dinezio P.N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Tierney J.E.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2013

The Indo-Pacific warm pool - the main source of heat and moisture to the global atmosphere - plays a prominent role in tropical and global climate variability. During the Last Glacial Maximum, temperatures within the warm pool were cooler than today and precipitation patterns were altered, but the mechanism responsible for these shifts remains unclear. Here we use a synthesis of proxy reconstructions of warm pool hydrology and a multi-model ensemble of climate simulations to assess the drivers of these changes. The proxy data suggest drier conditions throughout the centre of the warm pool and wetter conditions in the western Indian and Pacific oceans. Only one model out of twelve simulates a pattern of hydroclimate change similar to our reconstructions, as measured by the Cohen's κ statistic. Exposure of the Sunda Shelf by lower glacial sea level plays a key role in the hydrologic pattern simulated by this model, which results from changes in the Walker circulation driven by weakened convection over the warm pool. We therefore conclude that on glacial-interglacial timescales, the growth and decay of ice sheets exert a first-order influence on tropical climate through the associated changes in global sea level. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

DiNezio P.N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Vecchi G.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Clement A.C.,University of Miami
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

Changes in the gradients in sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature (SST) along the equatorial Pacific are analyzed in observations and 101 numerical experiments performed with 37 climate models participating in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The ensemble of numerical experiments simulates changes in the earth's climate during the 2004-1870 period in response to changes in natural (solar variations and volcanoes) and anthropogenic (well-mixed greenhouse gases, ozone, direct aerosol forcing, and land use) radiative forcings. A reduction in the zonal SLP gradient is present in observational records and is the typical response of the ensemble, yet only 26 out of the 101 experiments exhibit a reduced SLP gradient within 95% statistical confidence of the observed value. The multimodel response indicates a reduction of the Walker circulation to historical forcings, albeit an order of magnitude smaller than the observed value. There are multiple nonexclusive interpretations of these results: (i) the observed trend may not be entirely forced and includes a substantial component from internal variability; (ii) there are problems with the observational record that lead to a spuriously large trend; and (iii) the strength of theWalker circulation, as measured by the zonal SLP gradient, may be less sensitive to external forcing in models than in the real climate system. Analysis of a subset of experiments suggests that greenhouse gases act to weaken the circulation, but aerosol forcing drives a strengthening of the circulation, which appears to be overestimated by the models, resulting in a muted response to the combined anthropogenic forcings. © 2013 American Meteorological Society. Source

Hayatdavoodi M.,Texas A&M University at Galveston | Ertekin R.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Fluids and Structures | Year: 2015

This paper is the companion to Part I under the same title, and is mainly concerned with wave loads due to nonlinear waves of solitary and cnoidal type propagating over a submerged, horizontal and thin plate. Following the development of the nonlinear model (via the Level I Green-Naghdi theory) for the flow of an incompressible and inviscid fluid given in Part I, the wave-induced loads on the submerged, fixed (and rigid) plate are calculated, and results are compared with the available laboratory data, and with linear solutions of the problem. Dependence of the loads on wave conditions (wave height and wavelength) and plate characteristics (submergence depth and plate width) are studied for both the solitary and cnoidal wave cases. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhao P.,National Meteorological Information Center | Wang B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Zhou X.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2012

With the twentieth century analysis data (1901-2002) for atmospheric circulation, precipitation, Palmer drought severity index, and sea surface temperature (SST), we show that the Asian-Pacific Oscillation (APO) during boreal summer is a major mode of the earth climate variation linking to global atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate anomalies, especially the Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer land monsoon. Associated with a positive APO phase are the warm troposphere over the Eurasian land and the relatively cool troposphere over the North Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Indian Ocean. Such an amplified land-ocean thermal contrast between the Eurasian land and its adjacent oceans signifies a stronger than normal NH summer monsoon, with the strengthened southerly or southwesterly monsoon prevailing over tropical Africa, South Asia, and East Asia. A positive APO implies an enhanced summer monsoon rainfall over all major NH land monsoon regions: West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Mexico. Thus, APO is a sensible measure of the NH land monsoon rainfall intensity. Meanwhile, reduced precipitation appears over the arid and semiarid regions of northern Africa, the Middle East, and West Asia, manifesting the monsoon-desert coupling. On the other hand, surrounded by the cool troposphere over the North Pacific and North Atlantic, the extratropical North America has weakened low-level continental low and upper-level ridge, hence a deficient summer rainfall. Corresponding to a high APO index, the African and South Asian monsoon regions are wet and cool, the East Asian monsoon region is wet and hot, and the extratropical North America is dry and hot. Wet and dry climates correspond to wet and dry soil conditions, respectively. The APO is also associated with significant variations of SST in the entire Pacific and the extratropical North Atlantic during boreal summer, which resembles the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation in SST. Of note is that the Pacific SST anomalies are not present throughout the year, rather, mainly occur in late spring, peak at late summer, and are nearly absent during boreal winter. The season-dependent APO-SST relationship and the origin of the APO remain elusive. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Baer H.,University of Oklahoma | Barger V.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Huang P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Mustafayev A.,University of Minnesota | Tata X.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

It has been argued that requiring low electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT) along with a (partial) decoupling solution to the supersymmetry (SUSY) flavor and CP problems leads to a sparticle mass spectra characterized by light Higgsinos at 100-300 GeV, sub-TeV third generation scalars, gluinos at a few TeV, and multi-TeV first or second generation scalars (natural SUSY). We show that by starting with multi-TeV first or second and third generation scalars and trilinear soft breaking terms, the natural SUSY spectrum can be generated radiatively via renormalization group running effects. Using the complete 1-loop effective potential to calculate EWFT, significantly heavier third generation squarks can be allowed even with low EWFT. The large negative trilinear term and heavier top squarks allow for a light Higgs scalar in the ∼125GeV regime. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Konan D.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Chan H.L.,OmniTrak Group Inc.
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

This paper focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with economic activities in Hawai'i. Data on economic activity, petroleum consumption by type (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, residual, propane), and emissions factors are compiled and analyzed. In the baseline year 1997, emissions are estimated to total approximately 23.2 million metric tons of carbon, 181 thousand metric tons of nitrous oxide, and 31 thousand metric tons of methane in terms of carbon-equivalent global warming potential over a 100-year horizon. Air transportation, electricity, and other transportation are the key economic activity responsible for GHG emissions associated with fossil fuel use. More than 22% of total emissions are attributed to visitor expenditures. On a per person per annum basis, emission rates generated by visitor demand are estimated to be higher than that of residents by a factor of 4.3 for carbon, 3.2 for methane, and 4.8 for nitrous oxide. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Chen Q.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

Gaussian decomposition has been used to extract terrain elevation from waveforms of the satellite lidar GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System), on board ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite). The common assumption is that one of the extracted Gaussian peaks, especially the lowest one, corresponds to the ground. However, Gaussian decomposition is usually complicated due to the broadened signals from both terrain and objects above over sloped areas. It is a critical and pressing research issue to quantify and understand the correspondence between Gaussian peaks and ground elevation. This study uses ∼2000 km 2 airborne lidar data to assess the lowest two GLAS Gaussian peaks for terrain elevation estimation over mountainous forest areas in North Carolina. Airborne lidar data were used to extract not only ground elevation, but also terrain and canopy features such as slope and canopy height. Based on the analysis of a total of ∼500 GLAS shots, it was found that (1) the lowest peak tends to underestimate ground elevation; terrain steepness (slope) and canopy height have the highest correlation with the underestimation, (2) the second to the lowest peak is, on average, closer to the ground elevation over mountainous forest areas, and (3) the stronger peak among the lowest two is closest to the ground for both open terrain and mountainous forest areas. It is expected that this assessment will shed light on future algorithm improvements and/or better use of the GLAS products for terrain elevation estimation. © 2009 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS). Source

Church M.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Lomas M.W.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences | Muller-Karger F.,University of South Florida
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2013

Ocean time-series provide vital information needed for assessing ecosystem change. This paper summarizes the historical context, major program objectives, and future research priorities for three contemporary ocean time-series programs: The Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT), the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), and the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series. These three programs operate in physically and biogeochemically distinct regions of the world's oceans, with HOT and BATS located in the open-ocean waters of the subtropical North Pacific and North Atlantic, respectively, and CARIACO situated in the anoxic Cariaco Basin of the tropical Atlantic. All three programs sustain near-monthly shipboard occupations of their field sampling sites, with HOT and BATS beginning in 1988, and CARIACO initiated in 1996. The resulting data provide some of the only multi-disciplinary, decadal-scale determinations of time-varying ecosystem change in the global ocean. Facilitated by a scoping workshop (September 2010) sponsored by the Ocean Carbon Biogeochemistry (OCB) program, leaders of these time-series programs sought community input on existing program strengths and for future research directions. Themes that emerged from these discussions included:. 1. Shipboard time-series programs are key to informing our understanding of the connectivity between changes in ocean-climate and biogeochemistry.2. The scientific and logistical support provided by shipboard time-series programs forms the backbone for numerous research and education programs. Future studies should be encouraged that seek mechanistic understanding of ecological interactions underlying the biogeochemical dynamics at these sites.3. Detecting time-varying trends in ocean properties and processes requires consistent, high-quality measurements. Time-series must carefully document analytical procedures and, where possible, trace the accuracy of analyses to certified standards and internal reference materials.4. Leveraged implementation, testing, and validation of autonomous and remote observing technologies at time-series sites provide new insights into spatiotemporal variability underlying ecosystem changes.5. The value of existing time-series data for formulating and validating ecosystem models should be promoted.In summary, the scientific underpinnings of ocean time-series programs remain as strong and important today as when these programs were initiated. The emerging data inform our knowledge of the ocean's biogeochemistry and ecology, and improve our predictive capacity about planetary change. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

McGaugh S.S.,University of Maryland University College | Schombert J.M.,University of Oregon | De Blok W.J.G.,University of Cape Town | Zagursky M.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2010

We make an inventory of the baryonic and gravitating mass in structures ranging from the smallest galaxies to rich clusters of galaxies. We find that the fraction of baryons converted to stars reaches a maximum between M 500 = 1012 and 1013 M ·, suggesting that star formation is most efficient in bright galaxies in groups. The fraction of baryons detected in all forms deviates monotonically from the cosmic baryon fraction as a function of mass. On the largest scales of clusters, most of the expected baryons are detected, while in the smallest dwarf galaxies, fewer than 1% are detected. Where these missing baryons reside is unclear. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Kuwano-Yoshida A.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Minobe S.,Hokkaido University | Xie S.-P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Climate | Year: 2010

The precipitation response to sea surface temperature (SST) gradients associated with the Gulf Stream is investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model. Forced by observed SST, the model simulates a narrow band of precipitation, surface convergence, and evaporation that closely follows the Gulf Stream, much like satellite observations. Such a Gulf Stream rainband disappears in the model when the SST front is removed by horizontally smoothing SST. The analysis herein shows that it is convective precipitation that is sensitive to SST gradients. The Gulf Stream anchors a convective rainband by creating surface wind convergence and intensifying surface evaporation on the warmer flank. Deep convection develops near the Gulf Stream in summer when the atmosphere is conditionally unstable. As a result, a narrow band of upward velocity develops above the Gulf Stream throughout the troposphere in summer, while it is limited to the lower troposphere in other seasons. © 2010 American Meteorological Society. Source

Johnson N.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

It is now widely recognized that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurs in more than one form, with the canonical eastern Pacific (EP) and more recently recognized central Pacific (CP) ENSO types receiving the most focus. Given that these various ENSO "flavors" may contribute to climate variability and long-term trends in unique ways, and that ENSO variability is not limited to these two types, this study presents a framework that treats ENSO as a continuum but determines a finite maximum number of statistically distinguishable representative ENSOpatterns. Aneural network-based cluster analysis called self-organizing map (SOM) analysis paired with a statistical distinguishability test determines nine unique patterns that characterize the September-February tropical Pacific SST anomaly fields for the period from 1950 through 2011. These nine patterns represent the flavors of ENSO, which include EP, CP, and mixed ENSO patterns. Over the 1950-2011 period, the most significant trends reflect changes in La Niña patterns, with a shift in dominance of La Niña-like patterns with weak or negative western Pacific warm pool SST anomalies until the mid-1970s, followed by a dominance of La Niña-like patterns with positive western Pacific warm pool SST anomalies, particularly after the mid-1990s. Both an EP and especially a CP El Niño pattern experienced positive frequency trends, but these trends are indistinguishable fromnatural variability. Overall, changes in frequencywithin the ENSO continuum contributed to the pattern of tropical Pacific warming, particularly in the equatorial eastern Pacific and especially in relation to changes of La Niña-like rather than El Niño-like patterns.©2013 American Meteorological Society. Source

Still S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Sivak D.A.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Sivak D.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Bell A.J.,University of California at Berkeley | Crooks G.E.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

A system responding to a stochastic driving signal can be interpreted as computing, by means of its dynamics, an implicit model of the environmental variables. The system's state retains information about past environmental fluctuations, and a fraction of this information is predictive of future ones. The remaining nonpredictive information reflects model complexity that does not improve predictive power, and thus represents the ineffectiveness of the model. We expose the fundamental equivalence between this model inefficiency and thermodynamic inefficiency, measured by dissipation. Our results hold arbitrarily far from thermodynamic equilibrium and are applicable to a wide range of systems, including biomolecular machines. They highlight a profound connection between the effective use of information and efficient thermodynamic operation: any system constructed to keep memory about its environment and to operate with maximal energetic efficiency has to be predictive. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Chung P.-H.,University of Taipei | Li T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

The interdecadal change of the mean state and two types of El Niño was investigatedbased on the analysis of observational data from 1980 to 2010. It was found that easterlytrades and sea surface temperature (SST) gradients across the equatorial Pacific undergo a regime change in 1998/99, with enhanced trades and a significant cooling (warming)overtropical eastern (western) Pacific in the later period. Accompanying this mean state change is more frequent occurrence of central Pacific (CP) El Niño during 1999-2010.The diagnosis of air-sea feedback strength showed that atmospheric precipitation and wind responses to CP El Niño are greater than those to the eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño for givena unit SST anomaly (SSTA) forcing. The oceanic response to the same wind forcing, however, is greater in the EP El Niño than in the CP El Niño. A mixed layer heat budget analysis reveals that zonal advection (thermocline change induced vertical advection) primarily contributes to the CP (EP) El Niño growth. The role of the mean SST zonal gradient in El Niño selection was investigated through idealized numerical experiments. With the increase of the background zonal SST gradient, the anomalous wind and convection response toa specified EP or CP SSTA shift to the west. Such adifference results in a bifurcation of maximum SSTA tendency, as shown from a simple ocean model. The numerical results support the notion that a shift to the La Niño-likeinterdecadal mean state is responsible for more frequent occurrence of CP-type El Niño. © 2013 American Meteorological Society. Source

Murakami H.,Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Murakami H.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Wang B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Climate | Year: 2010

Possible future change in tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the North Atlantic (NA) was investigated by comparison of 25-yr simulations of the present-day climate and future change under the A1B emission scenario using a 20-km-mesh Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) atmospheric general circulation model. The present-day simulation reproduces many essential features of observed climatology and interannual variability in TC frequency of occurrence and tracks over the NA. For the future projection, the model is driven by the sea surface temperature (SST) that includes a trend projected by the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) multimodel ensemble and a year-to-year variation derived from the present-day climate. A major finding is that the future change of total TC counts in the NA is statistically insignificant, but the frequency of TC occurrence will decrease in the tropical western NA (WNA) and increase in the tropical eastern NA (ENA) and northwestern NA (NWNA). The projected change in TC tracks suggests a reduced probability of TC landfall over the southeastern United States, and an increased influence of TCs on the northeastern United States. The track changes are not due to changes of large-scale steering flows; instead, they are due to changes in TC genesis locations. The increase in TC genesis in the ENA arises from increasing background ascending motion and convective available potential energy. In contrast, the reduced TC genesis in the WNA is attributed to decreases in midtropospheric relative humidity and ascending motion caused by remotely forced anomalous descent. This finding indicates that the impact of remote dynamical forcing is greater than that of local thermodynamical forcing in the WNA. The increased frequency of TC occurrence in the NWNA is attributed to reduced vertical wind shear and the pronounced local warming of the ocean surface. These TC changes appear to be most sensitive to future change in the spatial distribution of rising SST. Given that most IPCC models project a larger increase in SST in the ENA than in the WNA, the projected eastward shift in TC genesis is likely to be robust. © 2010 American Meteorological Society. Source

Kudritzki R.-P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astronomische Nachrichten | Year: 2010

Measuring distances to galaxies, determining their chemical composition, investigating the nature of their stellar populations and the absorbing properties of their interstellar medium are fundamental activities in modern extragalactic astronomy helping to understand the evolution of galaxies and the expanding universe. The optically brightest stars in the universe, blue supergiants of spectral A and B, are unique tools for these purposes. With absolute visual magnitudes up to MV ≅ -9.5 they are ideal to obtain accurate quantitative information about galaxies through the powerful modern meth= ods of quantitative stellar spectroscopy. The spectral analysis of individual blue supergiant targets provides invaluable information about chemical abundances and abundance gradients, which is more comprehensive than the one obtained from H II regions, as it includes additional atomic species, and which is also more accurate, since it avoids the systematic uncertainties inherent in the strong line studies usually applied to the H II regions of spiral galaxies beyond the Local Group. Simultaneously, the spectral analysis yields stellar parameters and interstellar extinction for each individual supergiant target, which provides an alternative very accurate way to determine extragalactic distances through a newly developed method, called the Flux-weighted Gravity-Luminosity Relationship (FGLR). With the present generation of 10 m-class telescopes these spectroscopic studies can reach out to distances of 10 Mpc. The new generation of 30 m-class telescopes will allow to extend this work out to 30 Mpc, a substantial volume of the local universe. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Stimson J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013

Much of the production by macroalgae on the broad, sandy reef-flat of the fringing reef of Moku o Loe in Ka-ne'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, is transported to the leeward outer reef flat and reef slope areas by wind-driven currents. The export of algae from the inner reef flat can amount to an average delivery rate over a year of 163 g wet weight d-1 m-1 of leeward reef crest (2.45 g C d-1 m-1). This export is equivalent to estimates of the production of fixed carbon by grazed turf algae on the hard substratum at the outer edge of the reef. Grazing by herbivorous fishes resident on the reef slope and outer reef flat area can prevent the development of accumulations of this transported macroalgae in these habitats or gradually eliminate accumulations; however, when rates of delivery are high, long-lasting accumulations of macroalgae can develop between and on top of living corals. Broad sandy reef-flats have often been reported to have stands of macroalgae which are not utilized by herbivorous fishes, and the production of these stands may often be transported to other leeward habitats. The reason for the development of herbivore- free refuges for algae could be the relatively low preference herbivores have for macroalgae in comparison with the more nutrient-rich filamentous algal turfs available on the hard surfaces of the outer reef flat and reef slope. © Inter-Research 2013. Source

Hue N.V.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2013

Past use of arsenical pesticides has resulted in elevated levels of arsenic (As) in some Hawaiian soils. Total As concentrations of 20-100 mg/kg are not uncommon, and can exceed 900 mg/kg in some lands formerly planted with sugarcane. With high contents of amorphous aluminosilicates and iron oxides in many Hawaii's volcanic ash-derived Andisols, a high proportion (25-30%) of soil As was associated with either these mineral phases or with organic matter. Less than 1% of the total As was water soluble or exchangeable. Furthermore, the soils can sorb As strongly: the addition of 1000 mg/kg as As (+5) resulted in only between 0.03 and 0.30 mg/L As in soil solution. In contrast, soils having more crystalline minerals (e.g., Oxisols) sorb less As and thus often contain less As. Phosphate fertilization increases As bioaccessibility, whereas the addition of Fe(OH)3 decreases it. Brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) can be used to remove some soil As. Concentrations of As in fronds varied on average from 60 mg/kg when grown on a low-As Oxisol to 350 mg/kg when grown on a high-As Andisol. Ratios of leaf As to CaCl2-extractable soil As were 12 and 222 for the Oxisol and Andisol, respectively. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Turner A.G.,University of Reading | Annamalai H.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Nature Climate Change | Year: 2012

The vagaries of South Asian summer monsoon rainfall on short and long timescales impact the lives of more than one billion people. Understanding how the monsoon will change in the face of global warming is a challenge for climate science, not least because our state-of-the-art general circulation models still have difficulty simulating the regional distribution of monsoon rainfall. However, we are beginning to understand more about processes driving the monsoon, its seasonal cycle and modes of variability. This gives us the hope that we can build better models and ultimately reduce the uncertainty in our projections of future monsoon rainfall. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Jacso P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Online Information Review | Year: 2012

Purpose - Ulrich's Serials Analysis System (USAS) is based on Ulrich's Periodical Directory which has been an essential resource about periodical publications for 80 years, first in print, then later in CD-ROM and online versions. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the content and software features of USAS, based on tests made between July 2011 and January 2012. Design/methodology/approach - In addition to depicting the overall profile of USAS, special emphasis was given to marketing-focused and marketing-related journals, and their coverage in academic multidisciplinary and business databases. Findings - In light of the apparently everlasting library budget crises, the incessant increases in the subscription costs of journals and database licensing, and - on the positive side - the impressive growth of full text digital availability of journals through various sources, it was found that USAS can be a great asset in discovering alternatives, negotiating prices, and making educated decisions in collection development, as well as in reference services. Originality/value - The paper presents an analysis of the Ulrich's Serials Analysis System from the perspective of journal coverage by academic databases. Copyright © 2012 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Jacso P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Online Information Review | Year: 2012

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review the software and content features of the Google Scholar Metrics (GSM) service launched in April 2012. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews GSM, examining the software, browsing, searching and sorting functions, citation matching and content. Findings - The paper reveals that the service can offer a better alternative than the traditional Google Scholar service to discover and judge the standing of journals through the prism of their citedness. GSM could become a potentially useful complementary resource primarily by virtue of its brand recognition, and the convenience of not requiring the installation of additional software, but currently its bibliometric indicators are often inappropriate for decision making in matters of tenure, promotion, grants and accreditation. Originality/value - The paper provides a good understanding of the GSM service. Copyright © 2012 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Using data from the Heliospheric Imagers (HIs) onboard STEREO, it is possible to derive the direction of propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in addition to their speed with a variety of methods. For CMEs observed by both STEREO spacecraft, it is possible to derive their direction using simultaneous observations from the twin spacecraft and also, using observations from only one spacecraft with fitting methods. This makes it possible to test and compare different analysis techniques. In this article, we propose a new fitting method based on observations from one spacecraft, which we compare to the commonly used fitting method of Sheeley et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24739, 1999). We also compare the results from these two fitting methods with those from two stereoscopic methods, focusing on 12 CMEs observed simultaneously by the two STEREO spacecraft in 2008 and 2009. We find evidence that the fitting method of Sheeley et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24739, 1999) may result in significant errors in the determination of the CME direction when the CME propagates outside of 60°±20° from the Sun - spacecraft line. We expect our new fitting method to be better adapted to the analysis of halo or limb CMEs with respect to the observing spacecraft. We also find some evidence that direct triangulation in the HI fields-of-view should only be applied to CMEs propagating approximatively toward Earth (± 20° from the Sun - Earth line). Last, we address one of the possible sources of errors of fitting methods: the assumption of radial propagation. Using stereoscopic methods, we find that at least seven of the 12 studied CMEs had a heliospheric deflection of less than 20° as they propagated in the HI fields-of-view, which, we believe, validates this approximation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Connelley M.S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Greene T.P.,NASA
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2010

We present the results of a near-IR spectroscopic survey of 110 Class I protostars observed from 0.80 μm to 2.43 μm at a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1200. This survey is unique in its selection of targets from the whole sky, its sample size, wavelength coverage, depth, and sample selection. We find that Class I objects exhibit a wide range of lines and the continuum spectroscopic features. Eighty-five percent of Class I protostars exhibit features indicative of mass accretion, and we found that the veiling excess, CO emission, and Br γ emission are closely related. We modeled the spectra to estimate the veiling excess (rk) and extinction to each target. We also used near-IR colors and emission line ratios, when available, to also estimate extinction. In the course of this survey, we observed the spectra of 10 FU Orionis-like objects, including 2 new ones, as well as 3 Herbig Ae-type stars among our Class I young stellar objects. We used photospheric absorption lines, when available, to estimate the spectral type of each target. Although most targets are late-type stars, there are several A- and F-type stars in our sample. Notably, we found no A or F class stars in the Taurus-Auriga or Perseus star-forming regions. There are several cases where the observed CO and/or water absorption bands are deeper than expected from the photospheric spectral type. We find a correlation between the appearance of the reflection nebula, which traces the distribution of material on very large scales, and the near-IR spectrum, which probes smaller scales. All of the FU Orionis-like objects are associated with reflection nebulae. The spectra of the components of spatially resolved protostellar binaries tend to be very similar. In particular both components tend to have similar veiling and H2 emission, inconsistent with random selection from the sample as a whole. There is a strong correlation between [Fe II] and H2 emission, supporting previous results showing that H2 emission in the spectra of young stars is usually shock excited by stellar winds. Source

Gandhi N.S.,University of Hawaii at Hilo | Tekade R.K.,University of Hawaii at Hilo | Tekade R.K.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Chougule M.B.,University of Hawaii at Hilo | Chougule M.B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

Chemotherapeutic agents have certain limitations when it comes to treating cancer, the most important being severe side effects along with multidrug resistance developed against them. Tumor cells exhibit drug resistance due to activation of various cellular level processes viz. activation of drug efflux pumps, anti-apoptotic defense mechanisms, etc. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) based therapeutic approaches are under vibrant scrutinization to seek cancer cure. Especially small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA), are able to knock down the carcinogenic genes by targeting the mRNA expression, which underlies the uniqueness of this therapeutic approach. Recent research focus in the regime of cancer therapy involves the engagement of targeted delivery of siRNA/miRNA in combinations with other therapeutic agents (such as gene, DNA or chemotherapeutic drug) for targeting permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistant protein 1 (MRP-1), B-cell lymphoma (BCL-2) and other targets that are mainly responsible for resistance in cancer therapy. RNAi-chemotherapeutic drug combinations have also been found to be effective against different molecular targets as well and can increase the sensitization of cancer cells to therapy several folds. However, due to stability issues associated with siRNA/miRNA suitable protective carrier is needed and nanotechnology based approaches have been widely explored to overcome these drawbacks. Furthermore, it has been univocally advocated that the co-delivery of siRNA/miRNA with other chemodrugs significantly enhances their capability to overcome cancer resistance compared to naked counterparts. The objective of this article is to review recent nanocarrier based approaches adopted for the delivery of siRNA/miRNA combinations with other anticancer agents (siRNA/miRNA/pDNA/chemodrugs) to treat cancer. © 2014, Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Murakami H.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Wang B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Kitoh A.,Meteorological Research Institute
Journal of Climate | Year: 2011

Projected future changes in tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B emission scenario were investigated using a 20-km-mesh, very-high-resolution Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)-Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) atmospheric general circulation model. The present-day (1979-2003) simulation yielded reasonably realistic climatology and interannual variability for TC genesis frequency and tracks. The future (2075-99) projection indicates (i) a significant reduction (by about 23%) in both TC genesis number and frequency of occurrence primarily during the late part of the year (September-December), (ii) an eastward shift in the positions of the two prevailing northward-recurving TC tracks during the peak TC season (July-October), and (iii) a significant reduction (by 44%) in TC frequency approaching coastal regions of Southeast Asia. The changes in occurrence frequency are due in part to changes in large-scale steering flows, but they are due mainly to changes in the locations of TC genesis; fewer TCs will form in the western portion of the WNP (west of 1458E), whereas more storms will form in the southeastern quadrant of the WNP (108-208N, 1458- 1608E). Analysis of the genesis potential index reveals that the reduced TC genesis in the westernWNP is due mainly to in situ weakening of large-scale ascent and decreasing midtropospheric relative humidity, which are associated with the enhanced descent of the tropical overturning circulation. The analysis also indicates that enhanced TC genesis in the southeastern WNP is due to increased low-level cyclonic vorticity and reduced vertical wind shear. These changes appear to be critically dependent on the spatial pattern of future sea surface temperature; therefore, it is necessary to conduct ensemble projections with a range of SST spatial patterns to understand the degree and distribution of uncertainty in future projections. © 2011 American Meteorological Society. Source

Kraus A.L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Ireland M.J.,University of Sydney | Martinache F.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Hillenbrand L.A.,California Institute of Technology
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

We have conducted a high-resolution imaging study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region in order to characterize the primordial outcome of multiple star formation and the extent of the brown dwarf desert. Our survey identified 16 new binary companions to primary stars with masses of 0.25-2.5 M ⊙, raising the total number of binary pairs (including components of high-order multiples) with separations of 3-5000AU to 90. We find that ∼2/3-3/4 of all Taurus members are multiple systems of two or more stars, while the other ∼1/4-1/3 appear to have formed as single stars; the distribution of high-order multiplicity suggests that fragmentation into a wide binary has no impact on the subsequent probability that either component will fragment again. The separation distribution for solar-type stars (0.7-2.5 M ⊙) is nearly log-flat over separations of 3-5000AU, but lower-mass stars (0.25-0.7 M⊙) show a paucity of binary companions with separations of ≳200AU. Across this full mass range, companion masses are well described with a linear-flat function; all system mass ratios (q = MB /MA ) are equally probable, apparently including substellar companions. Our results are broadly consistent with the two expected modes of binary formation (free-fall fragmentation on large scales and disk fragmentation on small scales), but the distributions provide some clues as to the epochs at which the companions are likely to form. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Pakvasa S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Joshipura A.,Physical Research Laboratory | Mohanty S.,Physical Research Laboratory
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

There has been some concern about the unexpected paucity of cosmic high-energy muon neutrinos in detectors probing the energy region beyond 1 PeV. As a possible solution we consider the possibility that some exotic neutrino property is responsible for reducing the muon neutrino flux at high energies from distant sources; specifically, we consider (i) neutrino decay and (ii) neutrinos being pseudo-Dirac-particles. This would provide a mechanism for the reduction of high-energy muon events in the IceCube detector, for example. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Dupuy T.J.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Liu M.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

We have compiled a sample of 16 orbits for very low-mass stellar (<0.1 M⊙) and brown dwarf binaries, including updated orbits for HD 130948BC and LP 415-20AB. This sample enables the first comprehensive study of the eccentricity distribution for such objects. We find that very low-mass binaries span a broad range of eccentricities from near-circular to highly eccentric (e ≈ 0.8), with a median eccentricity of 0.34. We have examined potential observational biases in this sample, and for visual binaries we show through Monte Carlo simulations that if we choose appropriate selection criteria then all eccentricities are equally represented (≲ 5% difference between input and output eccentricity distributions). The orbits of this sample of very low-mass binaries show some significant differences from their solar-type counterparts. They lack a correlation between orbital period and eccentricity, and display a much higher fraction of near-circular orbits (e < 0.1) than solar-type stars, which together may suggest a different formation mechanism or dynamical history for these two populations. Very low-mass binaries also do not follow the e 2 distribution of Ambartsumian, which would be expected if their orbits were distributed in phase space according to a function of energy alone (e.g., the Boltzmann distribution). We find that current numerical simulations of very low-mass star formation do not completely reproduce the observed properties of our binary sample. The cluster formation model of Bate agrees very well with the overall e distribution, but the lack of any high-e (>0.6) binaries at orbital periods comparable to our sample suggests that tidal damping due to gas disks may play too large of a role in the simulations. In contrast, the circumstellar disk fragmentation model of Stamatellos & Whitworth predicts only high-e binaries and thus is highly inconsistent with our sample. These discrepancies could be explained if multiple formation processes are responsible for producing the field population. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Neyrinck M.C.,Johns Hopkins University | Szapudi I.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Szalay A.S.,Johns Hopkins University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

We find that, even in the presence of discreteness noise, a Gaussianizing transform (producing a more Gaussian one-point distribution) reduces nonlinearities in the power spectra of cosmological matter and galaxy density fields, in many cases drastically. Although Gaussianization does increase the effective shot noise, it also increases the power spectrum's fidelity to the linear power spectrum on scales where the shot noise is negligible. Gaussianizing also increases the Fisher information in the power spectrum in all cases and resolutions, although the gains are smaller in redshift space than in real space. We also find that the gain in cumulative Fisher information from Gaussianizing peaks at a particular grid resolution depends on the sampling level. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Morgan H.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

Potential field source surface (PFSS) extrapolations of the photospheric magnetic field provide a qualitatively correct model of the coronal magnetic structure. We show that the magnetic structure provided by PFSS describes a framework within which high-density coronal streamers are distributed. However, the density structures have considerable freedom to drift longitudinally along the magnetic structure. Some caution must therefore be taken when using PFSS models as proxies for the coronal density structure. In particular, while measurements of coronal rotation using PFSS models provide an estimate of the large-scale magnetic structure rotation, they are not valid measurements of the density rotation. Furthermore, attempts to assign a consistent rate of rotation to the electron corona over long time periods are not always valid since the movement is dominated by structural reconfiguration. These conclusions are reached by the application of solar rotational tomography to LASCO C2/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory observations during solar minimum (1996-1997), revealing the changing density structure of the equatorial streamer belt at a height of 4 R. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Lin H.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

The SpectroPolarimetric Imager for the Energetic Sun (SPIES) is a project to develop a new class of spectropolarimetric instrument for the study of highly dynamic solar phenomena. Understanding the physics of dynamic solar phenomena requires detailed information about the magnetic, thermal, and dynamic properties of the solar atmosphere at every stage of their evolution. Although these properties can be obtained with existing high-performance spectropolarimeters such as the SpectroPolarimeter onboard the Hinode space solar observatory or the Facility IR Spectropolarimeter of the Dunn Solar Telescope, these instruments cannot observe the required field of view with temporal resolution that can resolve the dynamic timescale of these energetic events. SPIES-2K is an experimental true-imaging spectropolarimeter developed under this program to address this deficiency in our observing capability. It is based on a fiber-optic integral field unit containing 2,048 standard multimode fused silica fibers, and is capable of observing a 64 x 32 pixels field simultaneously with high spatial and spectral resolution. Moreover, it can obtain the full Stokes spectra of the field with a maximum temporal resolution of a few seconds. This paper presents the design and characteristics of the instrument, as well as preliminary results obtained at Fe I 1565 nm wavelength. Additionally, this paper also reports on recent studies of the polarization maintenance optical fiber ribbon constructed from rectangular element fibers for the Birefringence Fiber-Optic Image Slicer, and discusses its application to future generation of SPIES and other astronomical spectropolarimetry projects. © 2012 SPIE. Source

Kim A.S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Kim A.S.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2013

We investigated fundamental aspects of heat and mass transfer of direct contact membrane distillation. Molar flux of water vapor through a membrane pore was analytically obtained by solving Fick's law in the original differential form. Axial variation of the temperature profile was derived as exponentially decreasing, and was found to be linear due to small membrane thickness and dominant heat conduction through the solid part of the membrane. An alternative expression of water vapor pressure at a constant temperature was developed using experimental data of water latent heat for evaporation, and was used to calculate the concentration of water vapor in the membrane pore. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by combining Knudsen and Brownian diffusion coefficients with Bosanquet's assumption. The effective diffusivity and mean free path of water vapor slowly decrease in the axial direction, and the vapor concentration increases along the membrane pore primarily due to the linearly decreasing temperature. We found that the required heat flux monotonously increases with the vapor flux through membrane pores. Finite variance of a pore size distribution provides less vapor flux than that of mono-dispersed pores. This is because a number of smaller pores than the average pore size significantly hinders the vapor transport across the porous membrane. Theoretical prediction of permeate flux agrees very well with experimental observations reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Linton K.F.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Social Work in Mental Health | Year: 2014

Social workers should become knowledgeable not only of the specific diagnostic changes in DSM-5, but how the diagnoses impact clients. Research primarily confirms that clinical diagnoses exacerbate stigma, while scant research suggests that people with autism have felt that their diagnoses have fostered an understanding of their life circumstances. This phenomenological study aimed to understand how people with Autistic Disorder (AD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) felt about their clinical diagnoses. This study analyzed discussion forum data among people with AD and AS (N = 76) using inductive content analyses. There were more males (n = 42; 55.3%) than females (n = 34; 44.7%) in the sample. Of the 40 participants who provided demographic information, participants' ages ranged from 17 to 61 (M = 31.95; SD = 12.56); participants were from the United States (n = 13), Canada (n = 7), United Kingdom (n = 6), South Africa (n = 2), and one from each of the following countries: China, New Zealand, and Spain. Most participants expressed that clinical diagnoses exacerbated stigma, yet some also illustrated that their diagnoses improved their self-discovery, which adds a new dimension of understanding to the potential impact and purpose of clinical diagnoses. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Kaiser N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Wojtak et al. have stacked 7800 clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in redshift space. They find a small net blueshift for the cluster galaxies relative to the brightest cluster galaxies, which agrees quite well with the gravitational redshift predicted from general relativity. Zhao et al. have pointed out that, in addition to the gravitational redshift, one would expect to see transverse Doppler (TD) redshifts, so 〈δz〉 = -〈φ〉 + 〈β2〉/2 with β the 3D source velocity in units of c, and that these two effects are generally of the same order. Here, we show that there are other corrections that are also of the same order of magnitude. The fact that we observe galaxies on our past light cone results in a bias such that more of the galaxies observed are moving away from us in the frame of the cluster than are moving towards us. This causes the observed average redshift to be 〈dz〉 = -〈φ〉 + 〈β2〉/2 + 〈β2 x 〉, with βx the line-of-sight velocity. That is if we average over galaxies with equal weight. If the galaxies in each cluster are weighted by their fluence, or equivalently if we do not resolve the moving sources, and make an average of the mean redshift giving equal weight per photon, the observed redshift is 〈δz〉 = -〈φ〉 - 〈β2〉/2, so the kinematical effect is then opposite to the usual transverse Doppler effect. In the Wojtak, Hansen & Hjorth experiment, the weighting is a step-function because of the flux limit for inclusion in the spectroscopic sample and the result is different again, and depends on the details of the luminosity function and the spectral energy distributions of the galaxies. Including these effects substantially modifies the blueshift profile. We show that in-fall and out-flow have very small effect over the relevant range of impact parameters but out-flow becomes significant and needs to be taken into account for measurements on larger scales. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Cote I.M.,Simon Fraser University | Green S.J.,Simon Fraser University | Green S.J.,Oregon State University | Hixon M.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

The invasion of western Atlantic marine habitats by two predatory Indo-Pacific lionfish, Pterois volitans and P. miles, has recently unfolded at an unprecedented rate, with ecological consequences anticipated to be largely negative. We take stock of recently accumulated knowledge about lionfish ecology and behaviour and examine how this information is contributing to our general understanding of the patterns and processes underpinning marine predator invasions, and to the specific issue of lionfish management. Lionfish were first reported off Florida in 1985. Since their establishment in The Bahamas in 2004, they have colonised 7.3 million km2 of the western Atlantic and Caribbean region, and populations have grown exponentially at many locations. These dramatic increases potentially result from a combination of life-history characteristics of lionfish, including early maturation, early reproduction, anti-predatory defenses, unique predatory behaviour, and ecological versatility, as well as features of the recipient communities, including prey naïveté, weak competitors, and native predators that are overfished and naïve to lionfish. Lionfish have reduced the abundance of small native reef fishes by up to 95% at some invaded sites. Population models predict that culling can reduce lionfish abundance substantially, but removal rates must be high. Robust empirical estimates of the cost-effectiveness and effects of removal strategies are urgently needed because lionfish management will require a long-term, labour-intensive effort that may be possible only at local scales. The ultimate causes of the invasion were inadequate trade legislation and poor public awareness of the effects of exotic species on marine ecosystems. The lionfish invasion highlights the need for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to marine invaders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Shaya E.J.,University of Maryland University College | Tully R.B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

The confinement of most satellite galaxies in the Local Group to thin planes presents a challenge to the theory of hierarchical galaxy clustering. The Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) collaboration has identified a particularly thin configuration with kinematic coherence among companions of M31 and there have been long-standing claims that the dwarf companions to the MilkyWay lie in a plane roughly orthogonal to the disc of our galaxy. This discussion investigates the possible origins of four Local Group planes: the plane similar, but not identical to that identified by the PAndAS collaboration, an adjacent slightly tilted plane and two planes in the vicinity of the Milky Way: one with very nearby galaxies and the other with more distant ones. Plausible orbits are found by using a combination of Numerical Action methods and a backward in time integration procedure. This investigation assumes that the companion galaxies formed at an early time in accordance with the standard cosmological model. For M31, M33, IC10 and Leo I, solutions are found that are consistent with measurements of their proper motions. For galaxies in planes, there must be commonalities in their proper motions, and this constraint greatly limits the number of physically plausible solutions. Key to the formation of the planar structures has been the evacuation of the Local Void and consequent build-up of the Local Sheet, a wall of this void.Most of the M31 companion galaxies were born in early-forming filamentary or sheet-like substrata that chased M31 out of the void. M31 is a moving target because of its attraction towards the Milky Way, and the result has been alignments stretched towards our galaxy. In the case of the configuration around the Milky Way, it appears that our galaxy was in a three-way competition for companions with M31 and Centaurus A. Only those within a modest band fell our way. The Milky Way's attraction towards the Virgo Cluster resulted in alignment along the MilkyWay-Virgo Cluster line. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Aspin C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2011

We present optical and near-IR observations of the young eruptive variable star V1647 Orionis which illuminates McNeil's Nebula. In late 2003, V1647 Ori was observed to brighten by around 5 mag to r′ = 17.7. In early 2006 the star faded back to its quiescent brightness of r′ 23, however in mid-2008 it brightened yet again by 5 mag. Our new observations, taken in early 2011, show V1647 Ori to be in an elevated photometric state with an optical brightness similar to the value found at the start of the 2003 and 2008 outbursts. Optical images taken between 2008 and 2011 suggest that the star has remained in outburst from mid-2008 to the present. Hα and the far-red Ca II triplet lines remain in emission with Hα possessing a significant P Cygni profile. A self-consistent study of the accretion luminosity and rate using data taken in 2004, 2007, 2008, and 2011 indicates that when bright, V1647 Ori has values of 16 2 L⊙ and (4 2) × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1, respectively. We support the premise that the accretion luminosity and rate both declined by a factor of 2-3 during the 5 mag fading in 2007. However, a significant part of the fading was due to either variable extinction or dust reformation. We discuss these new observations in relation to previous published data and the classification schemes for young eruptive variables. © 2011 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Zhang W.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Aging Research | Year: 2010

This study examines if religious participation in China is associated with cognitive functioning among the oldest-old and whether positive psychological feelings and leisure activity engagement explain the association, and gender moderates the association. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the Chinese Healthy Longevity Survey. A significant negative association between religious participation and cognitive impairment was found among the oldest-old and much of the association was mediated by positive psychological feelings and leisure activities. Women reported higher proportion of religious participation, but the cognitive benefits of religious participation were stronger for men. Findings indicate that (a) religious participation is significantly correlated with cognitive functioning in part because the religious oldest-old are more likely to be optimistic and happy and engage in more cognitively stimulating activities; (b) there might be gender differences in religious participation such that the oldest-old men may engage in religious activities that are particularly relevant to cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2010 Wei Zhang. Source

Cook B.G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Remedial and Special Education | Year: 2014

Valid, scientific research is critical for ascertaining the effects of instructional techniques on learners with disabilities and for guiding effective special education practice and policy. Researchers in fields such as psychology and medicine have identified serious and widespread shortcomings in their research literatures related to replication and bias, leading many to question the validity of research findings in these fields. Replication and bias have not been systematically examined in special education research. In this article, I explore research on replication and bias conducted in other fields, discuss the likelihood that problems in replication and bias may exist in the special education research base, propose a research agenda for investigating replication and bias in special education research, and make initial recommendations for increasing replication and reducing bias in intervention studies in special education. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014. Source

Wee S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Renewable Energy | Year: 2016

An investment in solar photovoltaic (PV) is considered a home improvement, and should be reflected in home sales prices. However, uncertainty about PV policies and information asymmetries may result in an imperfect pass-through. Hawai'i serves as an illustrative case study to assess the impact of PV on home prices because Hawai'i has the highest number of PV installations per capita nationwide. Applying a hedonic pricing model using home resale and PV building permit data from 2000 to 2013 for O'ahu, I find that the presence of PV adds on average 5.4% to the value of a home. The value of PV exceeds total average installed costs because many of Hawai'i's electricity circuits have reached legal limits for PV installations and thus many neighborhoods could technically no longer install additional PV capacity. Therefore, the value of the system goes beyond its capital investment-on average, by $5000-to incorporate expected electricity savings. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wu K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

China is currently the largest energy consuming country in the world. Until the early 1990s, China had long been a net energy exporter. The country became a net oil importer in 1993, the first time since the 1960s. For China, energy security first means oil supply security. China turned into a net natural gas importer in 2007 and then a net coal importer in 2009. In other words, China is now a net importer of all three types of fossil energy-oil, natural gas, and coal.In the context of rising oil imports and implementation of China[U+05F3]s 12th Five-Year Program from 2011 to 2015, this paper examines China's energy security strategies with a focus on three leading elements, namely overseas oil investment, strategic petroleum reserves (SPR)and unconventional gas development. Our findings suggest that the Chinese government has promoted overseas investment strongly; its SPR program has been established though the progress for Phase II has been slower than expected and the government intends to boost the unconventional gas sector development. However, the challenges are enormous as well. As for future research, other elements for each dimension of energy security should be reviewed to reach a comprehensive conclusion about how well China has done and what steps are needed to move forward. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Linhares C.H.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health | Year: 2012

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of midwives who experienced the phenomenon of spirituality when they attended births. Methods: The research design was descriptive, using a transcendental phenomenological approach reflected in Moustakas' 15 model. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the sample of 10 certified nurse-midwives. Results: The major findings of this study consisted of 5 theme categories that revealed the essential structure of the midwives' lived experiences of spirituality during childbirth: belief in the existence of a higher power, the essence of spirituality, birth is spiritual, the essence of midwifery, and relationships. Discussion: The midwives in the study experienced spirituality as an integral and essential component of childbirth. The midwives reported using elements of spirituality as instruments that helped them assist their clients through the process of pregnancy and birth. The midwives also revealed their dependence on spirituality and belief in a higher being who guided their lives and their calling to midwifery. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives. Source

Marsella A.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Traumatology | Year: 2010

The present article offers an overview discussion of ethnocultural aspects of PTSD, with special attention to major conceptual issues, clinical considerations, and therapy practices. The historical circumstances leading to the widespread acceptance of PTSD among conventional mental health professionals, and the subsequent criticisms that emerged from scholars, humanitarian workers, and ethnocultural minorities are presented as an important background to the current controversial status of the concept, especially with regard to arguments regarding the ethnocultural determinants of PTSD. The concept of culture, its definition, and its developmental socialization process, are presented as foundations for understanding the many influences cultural variables have on the perception, experience, clinical expressions, and treatment responses to trauma. A "trauma event-person ecology" model identifies the different factors that serve to shape the outcome of trauma within and across cultures. A therapy outcome equation is presented that summarizes the complex calculus of variables and considerations impacting different outcomes. The many healing principles used by different Western and traditional approaches are also identified, calling attention to the importance of fitting patient to therapist to therapy to present and past circumstances. The article concludes that in spite of what appears to be common neurological processes, correlates, and consequences in the initial response to trauma exposure, ethnocultural variables exercise major influence on perceived causes, symptom manifestations, clinical parameters (i.e., onset, course, and outcome), interventions, and societal responses. © The Author(s) 2010. Source

Stimson J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Coral Reefs | Year: 2011

Bulbous skeletal structures with associated aberrant corallites have been abundant on Porites compressa in Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i, for at least the last 19 years. These growth anomalies (GA) appear in the summer in shallow (<3 m) water on some, but not on all colonies. GA-free branches, collected from colonies with GAs, produced GAs when cultured in outdoor flow-thru aquaria. Normal branches, whose tissues were continuous with those of GAs, grew in length much more slowly than normal branches from the same colony that were not connected with a GA, suggesting that there is a translocation of materials from normal tissue to GAs. Small experimental colonies that were either exposed to, or protected from, UV radiation did not differ in their rate of GA formation. GAs had a lower probability of survival than normal branches. This characteristic, in combination with their effect on the growth of normal branches and other reported deficiencies in the tissues of growth anomalies (e.g., reduced or failed reproduction), suggests that GA-bearing colonies of this species have reduced fitness. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Sengupta P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Jovanovic-Talisman T.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Jovanovic-Talisman T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Lippincott-Schwartz J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Nature Protocols | Year: 2013

The distinctive distributions of proteins within subcellular compartments both at steady state and during signaling events have essential roles in cell function. Here we describe a method for delineating the complex arrangement of proteins within subcellular structures visualized using point-localization superresolution (PL-SR) imaging. The approach, called pair correlation photoactivated localization microscopy (PC-PALM), uses a pair-correlation algorithm to precisely identify single molecules in PL-SR imaging data sets, and it is used to decipher quantitative features of protein organization within subcellular compartments, including the existence of protein clusters and the size, density and number of proteins in these clusters. We provide a step-by-step protocol for PC-PALM, illustrating its analysis capability for four plasma membrane proteins tagged with photoactivatable GFP (PAGFP). The experimental steps for PC-PALM can be carried out in 3 d and the analysis can be done in ∼6-8 h. Researchers need to have substantial experience in single-molecule imaging and statistical analysis to conduct the experiments and carry out this analysis. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

The challenge to retrieve canopy height from large-footprint satellite lidar waveforms over mountainous areas is formidable given the complex interaction of terrain and vegetation. This study explores the potential of GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) for retrieving maximum canopy height over mountainous areas in the Pacific Coast region, including two conifers sites of tall and closed canopy and one broadleaf woodland site of shorter and sparse canopy. Both direct methods and statistical models are developed and tested using spatially extensive coincident airborne lidar data. The major findings include: 1) the direct methods tend to overestimate the canopy height and are complicated by the identification of waveform signal start and terrain ground elevation, 2) the exploratory data analysis indicates that the edge-extent linear regression models have better generalizability than the edge-extent nonlinear models at the inter-site level, 3) the inter-site level test with mixed-effects models reveals that the edge-extent linear models have statistically-justified generalizability between the two conifer sites but not between the conifer and woodland sites, 4) the intra-site level test indicates that the edge-extent linear models have statistically-justified generalizability across different vegetation community types within any given site; this, combined with 3), unveils that the statistical modeling of maximum canopy height over large areas with edge-extent linear models only need to consider broad vegetation differences (such as woodlands versus conifer forests instead of different vegetation communities within woodlands or conifer forests), and 5) the simulations indicate that the errors and uncertainty in canopy height estimation can be significantly reduced by decreasing the footprint size. It is recommended that the footprint size of the next-generation satellite lidar systems be at least 10 m or so if we want to achieve meter-level accuracy of maximum canopy height estimation using direct and statistical methods. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Stanley S.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Geology | Year: 2010

Thermal barriers provide an explanation for the geologically sudden extinction of benthic faunas of epeiric seas when these seas disappeared by contracting to the open ocean. Biotic interactions could not have caused the sudden extinctions, and neither could reduction of the regional area of seafloor because substantial areas of shallow seafloor remained along neighboring continental shelves when epeiric seas drained. Instead, temperature contrasts must have been responsible. Epeiric seas had strongly seasonal climates, and when some receded to continental margins, many of their species would have encountered waters that failed to provide the maximum or minimum temperature required for reproduction. When epeiric seas receded poleward, equatorward, or into Coriolis-driven currents, many species faced lethal temperatures. The history of the Jurassic Sundance Sea provides a striking example of the fate of a warm-adapted fauna driven westward into an area dominated by a cool, Coriolis-driven current. © 2010 Geological Society of America. Source

Wang L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Zhou T.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Journal of Climate | Year: 2012

The structure and evolution characteristics of intraseasonal (20-100 day) variations of sea surface temperature (SST) and associated atmospheric and oceanic circulations over the Kuroshio Extension (KE) region during boreal summer are investigated, using satellite-based daily SST, observed precipitation data, and reanalysis data. The intraseasonal SST warming in the KE region is associated with an anomalous anticyclone in the overlying atmosphere, reduced precipitation, and northward and downward currents in the upper ocean. The corresponding atmospheric and oceanic fields during the SST cooling phase exhibit a mirror image with an opposite sign. A mixed layer heat budget analysis shows that the intraseasonal SST warming is primarily attributed to anomalous shortwave radiation and latent heat fluxes at the surface. The anomalous sensible heat flux and oceanic advection also have contributions, but with a much smaller magnitude. The SST warming caused by the atmospheric forcing further exerts a significant feedback to the atmosphere through triggering the atmospheric convective instability and precipitation anomalies. The so-induced heating leads to quick setup of a baroclinic response, followed by a baroclinic-to-barotropic transition. As a result, the atmospheric circulation changes from an anomalous anticyclone to an anomalous cyclone. This two-way interaction scenario suggests that the origin of the atmospheric intraseasonal oscillation over the KE region may partly arise from the local atmosphere-ocean interaction. © 2012 American Meteorological Society. Source

Solar rotational tomography is applied to Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) observations covering the period 1996-2010, resulting in a set of electron density maps at a height of 4 R from which rotation rates can be calculated. Large variation of rotation rates is measured. Rates are dominated by the Carrington rotation rate (14.18degd-1 sidereal), but at times over the solar cycle, rates are measured between -3 and 3degd-1 relative to the Carrington rotation rate. Rotation rates can vary considerably between latitudes, even between neighboring latitudes. They can remain relatively stable or change smoothly over long periods of times, or can change rather abruptly. There are periods for certain latitudes (for example, the equator at solar maximum) when the movement is dominated by rapid structural reconfiguration, not a coherent rotation. These results raise new questions regarding the link between the Sun and the corona, and provide fresh challenges to interpretations of the coronal structural evolution and the development of large-scale coronal models. In particular, can interchange reconnection provide an explanation of the considerable latitudinal differences in rotation rates, and what mechanism can explain abrupt changes in rotation rates? © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Merrifield M.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Climate | Year: 2011

Pacific Ocean sea surface height trends from satellite altimeter observations for 1993-2009 are examined in the context of longer tide gauge records and wind stress patterns. The dominant regional trends are high rates in the western tropical Pacific and minimal to negative rates in the eastern Pacific, particularly off North America. Interannual sea level variations associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation events do not account for these trends. In the western tropical Pacific, tide gauge records indicate that the recent high rates represent a significant trend increase in the early 1990s relative to the preceding 40 years. This sea level trend shift in the western Pacific corresponds to an intensification of the easterly trade winds across the tropical Pacific. The wind change appears to be distinct from climate variations centered in the North Pacific, such as the Pacific decadal oscillation. In the eastern Pacific, tide gauge records exhibit higher-amplitude decadal fluctuations than in the western tropical Pacific, and the recent negative sea level trends are indistinguishable from these fluctuations. The shifts in trade wind strength and western Pacific sea level rate resemble changes in dominant global modes of outgoing longwave radiation and sea surface temperature. It is speculated that the western Pacific sea level response indicates a general strengthening of the atmospheric circulation over the tropical Pacific since the early 1990s that has developed in concert with recent warming trends. © 2011 American Meteorological Society. Source

Hayatdavoodi M.,Texas A&M University at Galveston | Ertekin R.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Fluids and Structures | Year: 2015

This paper is concerned with the propagation of nonlinear gravity waves over a thin horizontal plate submerged in water of shallow depth. An unsteady solution of the problem is obtained by use of the theory of directed fluid-sheets for the two-dimensional motion of an incompressible and inviscid fluid. Particular attention is paid to the calculation of the nonlinear wave-induced vertical and horizontal forces and overturning moment by solving the Level I Green-Naghdi equations. The theoretical formulation of the problem is given in this paper (Part I), while the results due to solitary and cnoidal waves, and comparisons with the available experimental data are given in a companion paper under the same title (Part II). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Despite high rates of low health literacy among uninsured American adults, empirical research until now has not quantified whether low health literacy is associated with lack of health insurance above and beyond other related factors, such as employment, the availability of employment-based insurance, race or ethnicity, and poverty. This study analyzed a large, representative sample of adults in California and found that even when these related factors were considered, people with low health literacy were more likely to be uninsured than those with adequate health literacy. This finding represents the first empirical evidence that low health literacy predicts the lack of health insurance in adults. The study also found that among people who were uninsured, those with low health literacy were sicker and less likely to have ever had health insurance. They were also more likely to be eligible for the expanded Medicaid program under the Affordable Care Act, compared to uninsured respondents with adequate health literacy. These findings suggest that it will be critical to keep health literacy in mind in implementing the law-for example, in the design of eligibility documents and required forms, insurance exchange interfaces, and educational and outreach campaigns related to the Medicaid expansion and the insurance exchanges. © 2012 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

Litchman E.,Michigan State University | Edwards K.F.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Klausmeier C.A.,Michigan State University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Trait-based approaches provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict the structure and functioning of microbial communities. Resource utilization traits and trade-offs are among key microbial traits that describe population dynamics and competition among microbes. Several important trade-offs have been identified for prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial taxa that define contrasting ecological strategies and contribute to species coexistence and diversity. The shape, dimensionality, and hierarchy of trade-offs may determine coexistence patterns and need to be better characterized. Laboratory measured resource utilization traits can be used to explain temporal and spatial structure and dynamics of natural microbial communities and predict biogeochemical impacts. Global environmental change can alter microbial community composition through altering resource utilization by different microbes and, consequently, may modify biogeochemical impacts of microbes. © 2015 Litchman, Edwards and Klausmeier. Source

Wessel P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2016

Observations of the temporal variations in the volume flux of a plume can provide useful constraints on geodynamic models of plumes and plume-plate interactions. Furthermore, they can be compared with observations at other plumes and may be analysed further to understand the nature and cause of the variations. The volume plume flux is typically derived from a sum of edifice and compensation root volumes. The former can be obtained via the application of regional-residual separation procedures that split the observed relief into regional (swell) and residual (edifice) components, while the latter is generally inferred from the former using local (Airy) or regional (flexural) compensation models. Most regional-residual techniques used in past studies give non-unique results and provide no estimates of the uncertainty in the separation, which impacts the significance of the results. Here, the optimal robust separator (ORS) method achieves a unique separation for the swell and edifice components of the Hawaiian Ridge and furthermore obtain confidence bounds on the total volume flux. A fast spectral method for plate flexure with different edifice and infill densities is used to determine compensation volumes. Although my flux estimates have assigned confidence bounds, these are much smaller than the flux estimates themselves. A comparison of my new results to published volume flux curves shows that my revised flux estimates are lower by a factor of 2-3. Reproducing the prior higher results demonstrates that these discrepancies appear to be related to shortcomings in the implementation of the methodology used in the separation. The variability in the Hawaiian plume flux occurs at two different time scales: A short (1- 2 Myr) periodicity related to the spacing of islands and seamounts, which ultimately is related to plume-plate flexural interactions, and a much longer (10-15 Myr) periodicity that may be related to plate kinematic changes. Superimposed on these trends may be an exponential increase towards more recent times, but this trend may also be explained by a higher flux level during the period when the plume was positioned beneath the relatively younger lithospheric segment bracketed by the Murray and Molokai fracture zones. Landslides and erosion of the edifice may imply an underestimation of total volumes by 5-10 per cent. The main uncertainty facing studies of plume flux is related to the unknown quantity of magmatic underplating. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Dye T.S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

This study illustrates how the theory of directed graphs can be used to investigate the structure and growth of the leeward Kohala field system, a traditional Hawaiian archaeological site that presents an unparalleled opportunity to investigate relative chronology. The relative chronological relationships of agricultural walls and trails in two detailed study areas are represented as directed graphs and then investigated using graph theoretic concepts including cycle, level, and connectedness. The structural properties of the directed graphs reveal structure in the field system at several spatial scales. A process of deduction yields a history of construction in each detailed study area that is different than the history produced by an earlier investigation. These results indicate that it is now possible to study the structure and growth of the entire field system remnant using computer software implementations of graph theoretic concepts applied to observations of agricultural wall and trail intersections made on aerial imagery and/or during fieldwork. A relative chronology of field system development with a resolution of one generation is a possible result. © 2014 Thomas S. Dye. Source

Carter G.S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Physical Oceanography | Year: 2010

A high-resolution (250 m) primitive equation model is used to simulate the depth-averaged and baroclinic M2 tides in the Monterey Bay region. The model shows a high level of skill in comparisons with sea level observations. ADCP current observations within the submarine canyon are reasonably well reproduced. The modeled depth-averaged currents have a complex spatial pattern with magnitudes in excess of 0.1 m s-1 near Moss Landing. During the second half of flood (ebb) tide, the flow is into (out of) the bay through the canyon but out of (into) the bay over the shelf regions. This depth-averaged flow pattern is not evident in a diagnostic run, implying a feedback between the internal tides and the pressure gradient in the bay. The depth-integrated baroclinic (total minus depth-averaged) energy fluxes show a complex beamlike pattern due to the interaction of energy from multiple sources. The beams have magnitudes up to 1 kW m-1 interspersed with regions of near-zero depth-integrated flux. Energy entering the bay propagates northward from generation regions along the continental margins to the south of the bay (notably on the flanks of Sur Platform) and is steered into the canyon. A localized increase in depth-integrated baroclinic flux magnitude (up to 5 times the values elsewhere in the domain) closely follows the canyon axis near the mouth of the bay, presumably due to topographic focusing. Upper ocean velocities from a long-term surface mooring (MBARI M1) are used to assess the temporal variability of the M2 tide outside the canyon. © 2010 American Meteorological Society. Source

Annamalai H.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2010

During boreal summer, both the monsoon trough and the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) receive intense climatological precipitation. At various time scales, EIO sea surface temperature (SST) and/or precipitation variations interact with rainfall along the trough. For instance, during July-August in strong Indian Ocean dipole/zonal mode (IODZM) years, EIO experiences below-normal rainfall while regions along the monsoon trough receive above-normal rainfall. A lack of spatial coherency between SST and precipitation variations is noted in both regions. This paper posits the hypothesis that interaction between equatorial waves and moist physics is important in determining precipitation anomalies over these regions and in setting up the teleconnection. The hypothesis is tested using a linear baroclinic model (LBM). IODZM-related SST anomalies derived from multicentury integrations of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled model (GFDL CM2.1) are used to force the LBM. Consistent with observations and CM2.1 composites of strong IODZM events, steady-state LBM solutions simulate zonally oriented negative (positive) precipitation anomalies over the EIO (along the monsoon trough). To identify the processes simulated in the LBM, moisture and moist static energy budgets are examined. Over both regions, analyses reveal that moisture advection contributes the most to the LBM budget, with advection of climatological moisture by the anomalous wind being the principal factor. Specifically, in response to cold SST anomalies in the EIO, moist stability due to surface fluxes increases, giving rise to below-normal rainfall. These conditions produce anomalous anticyclonic circulation as a Rossby wave response in the lower troposphere. Over the centraleastern EIO, this anomalous circulation advects climatological air of lower moisture content from the subtropics. In addition, advection of anomalous moisture by both climatological and anomalous wind results in anomalous dry conditions over the entire EIO. In contrast, anomalous divergent circulations that emanate from the EIO advect climatological air of higher moisture content from the equatorial region, amplifying rainfall along the monsoon trough. Consequently, the two regions are connected by a thermally driven overturning meridional circulation. Budget diagnostics performed with CM2.1 composites and the ECMWF interim reanalysis for observed IODZM events support the hypothesis. The results here imply that in coupled models, realistic representation of the basic state and details of the moist processes are necessary for successful monsoon prediction. © 2010 American Meteorological Society. Source

Chen J.-M.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Li T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Shih C.-F.,Research and Development Center
Journal of Climate | Year: 2010

This study investigates the interannual variability of tropical cyclone (TC)- and monsoon-induced rainfall (P) in Taiwan during July-September for the period 1950-2002. To examine the relative effects of TCs and monsoons, local rainfall in Taiwan is separated into two subcomponents: TC rainfall (PTC) and seasonal monsoon rainfall (PSM). The former is induced by TC passage across Taiwan, while the later is caused by large-scale monsoon circulation. Climatologically, PTC and PSM accounts for 47.5% and 52.5% of total rainfall in Taiwan, respectively, showing a comparable contribution. On an interannual time scale, PTC and PSM anomalies tend to vary inversely. Two dominant rainfall variability types are found in Taiwan: enhanced PTC but suppressed PSM (T+S-) and suppressed PTC but enhanced PSM (T-S+). The T+S- type features a low-level anomalous cyclone and enhanced upward motion southeast of Taiwan. This favorable environmental condition leads to more TC formation in the region. TCs are further steered by mean southeasterly flows toward Taiwan to increase PTC (T1). As Taiwan is located in the western boundary of the anomalous cyclone, anomalous northeasterly water vapor fluxes hinder moisture supplies from the South China Sea into Taiwan, resulting in decreased PSM (S2). The T-S+ type concurs with an anomalous cyclone over Taiwan. Its center enhances upward motion and moisture fluxes from the South China Sea into Taiwan, yielding increased PSM (S+). Meanwhile, weak relative vorticity anomalies occur to the southeast of Taiwan, suppressing TC formation in the region. Mean southerly steering flows tend to drive more TCs toward Japan and the North Pacific, resulting in decreased TC frequency and PTC in Taiwan (T-). The present approach provides a new perspective for studying and predicting interannual rainfall variability via the separation of rainfall into TC- and monsoon-induced rainfall subcomponents, rather than looking solely at total rainfall. The result shows that there are two ways to significantly increase total rainfall in Taiwan (T+S- and T-S+), but there is only one way to decrease it (T-S-). The composites of circulation anomalies based on two rainfall indexes have more significant and coherent dynamic patterns than those sorted based on the total rainfall index. © 2010 American Meteorological Society. Source

St-Pierre J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

A unique, generic, transient, and more general PEMFC contamination model able to predict the cell performance impact of foreign cations exchanging with ionomer protons was derived by adding a variable equivalent proton fraction in the flow field channel liquid water drops. Ion exchange phenomena are described with appropriate and recognized relationships. Steady state ohmic performance losses and time constants for both contamination and recovery processes were used to define contaminant tolerance limits for monovalent, divalent and trivalent cations and are respectively equal to 5100, 380 and 4.4 ppm. These tolerance limits are expected to be widely applicable for similarly charged cations because model parameters, ionic conductivity and separation factor, do not vary significantly (first order approximation). The model also describes the effect of ammonia, revealing that its fast reaction with ionomer protons creating ammonium ions at the gas phase/membrane phase boundary is analogous to ion exchange. A 2.1 ppb tolerance limit is proposed which does not take into account the scavenging effect of liquid water (parallel contamination path). The model applicability to ammonia enlarges the existing contamination model library specifically developed to facilitate mechanism identification (fingerprinting) and addresses the large number of untested and unidentified contaminants. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Cai Y.-C.,Durham University | Neyrinck M.C.,Johns Hopkins University | Szapudi I.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Cole S.,Durham University | Frenk C.S.,Durham University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We measure the average temperature decrement on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) produced by voids selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 spectroscopic redshift galaxy catalog, spanning redshifts 0 < z < 0.44. We find an imprint amplitude between 2.6 and 2.9 μK as viewed through a compensated top-hat filter scaled to the radius of each void, we assess the statistical significance of the imprint at ∼2σ, and we make crucial use of N-body simulations to calibrate our analysis. As expected, we find that large voids produce cold spots on the CMB through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. However, we also find that small voids in the halo density field produce hot spots, because they reside in contracting, larger-scale overdense regions. This is an important effect to consider when stacking CMB imprints from voids of different radii. We have found that the same filter radius that gives the largest ISW signal in simulations also yields close to the largest detected signal in the observations. However, although it is low in significance, our measured signal has a much higher amplitude than expected from ISW in the concordance λCDM universe. The discrepancy is also at the ∼2σ level. We have demonstrated that our result is robust against the varying of thresholds over a wide range. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kloosterziel R.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

The linear stability properties of viscous circular flows in a rotating environment are studied with respect to symmetric perturbations. Through the use of an effective energy or Lyapunov functional, we derive sufficient conditions for Lyapunov stability with respect to such perturbations. For circular flows with swirl velocity V(r) we find that Lyapunov stability is determined by the properties of the function (r) = (2V/r + f)/Q (with f the Coriolis parameter, r the radius and Q the absolute vorticity) instead of the customary Rayleigh discriminant (r) = (2V/r + f)Q. The conditions for stability are valid for flows with non-zero Q everywhere. Further, the flows are presumed stationary, incompressible and velocity perturbations are required to vanish at rigid boundaries. For Lyapunov stable flows an upper bound for the increase of the total perturbation energy due to transient non-modal growth is derived which is valid for any Reynolds number. The theory is applied to Couette flow and the Lamb-Oseen vortex. © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

Cook H.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2011

Taking the view that honorifics are indexes, this paper examines uses of referent honorifics in a committee meeting in a Japanese company. The ways in which referent honorifics occur in this committee meeting defy the explanation that honorifics are markers of politeness. The paper finds that most of the referent honorifics that occur in the meeting are used in the speech act of requests and descriptions of the third party not present in the speech context. Furthermore, the male participants use referent honorifics more than the female participants. The paper argues that neither Brown and Levinson's politeness theory nor Ide's notion of wakimae 'discernment' alone can adequately account for the usages of the referent honorifics in the committee meeting talk. This paper illustrates ways in which the participants discursively construct their institutional identity through the use of referent honorifics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Keil K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry | Year: 2014

Brachinites are ultramafic, dunitic to wherlitic, unbrecciated and essentially unshocked rocks that are low in SiO2 (~36-39wt.%), high in MgO (~27-30wt.%) and notably high in FeO (~26-37wt.%), and low in Al2O3 (~0.2-2.5wt.%) and combined alkalis Na2O and K2O (~0-0.7wt.%). They consist mostly of olivine (~71-96vol.%; ~Fo64-73), major clinopyroxene (minor to ~15vol.%; ~En40-63Wo36-48), with variable small amounts of plagioclase (0 to ~10vol.%; ~An15-33), and minor to trace amounts of orthopyroxene (none to ~20vol.%; En69-73Wo2-4), Fe-sulfides (trace to ~7vol.%), chromite (none to ~5vol.%), phosphates (none to ~3vol.%) and metallic Fe,Ni (trace to ~2vol.%). Minerals tend to be homogeneous, and textures are medium to coarse-grained (~0.1-1.5mm), with olivine commonly displaying triple junctions. Brachina has near-chondritic lithophile element abundances, whereas other brachinites show variable depletions in Al, Ca, Rb, K, Na, and LREE. Siderophile element abundance patterns vary and range from ~0.01 to ~0.9 CI. Oxygen isotope composition (δ17O) ranges from ~-0.09 to -0.39‰, with the mean=-0.23±0.14‰. Brachinites are ancient rocks, as was recognized early by the detection, in some brachinites, of excess 129Xe from the decay of short-lived 129I (half-life 17Ma) and of fission tracks from the decay of 244Pu (half-life 82Ma) in phosphate, high-Ca clinopyroxene and olivine. The first precise crystallization age was determined for Brachina using 53Mn-53Cr systematics, relative to the Pb-Pb age of the angrite LEW 86010, and yielded an age of 4563.7±0.9Ma. Thus, Brachina is at most ~4Ma younger that the CAIs whose age is 4567.2±0.6Ma. There is no consensus on the origin of brachinites, but they most likely are primitive achondrites, i.e., ultra-mafic residues from various low degrees of partial melting. Partial melting experiments suggest that they possibly formed from a parent lithology chemically similar but not identical to the Rumuruti (R) chondrites, although the different oxygen isotopic compositions of the R chondrites and the brachinites put a serious constraint on this hypothesis. The apparent lack of abundant rocks representing the partial melts suggests that brachinites may have formed on a parent body <~100km in radius, where early partial melts were removed from the parent body by explosive pyroclastic volcanism. Graves Nunataks 06128 and 06129 are felsic, andesitic basalts which have properties that suggest a relationship to brachinites and thus, may be samples of the elusive partial melts. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Del Raye G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Weng K.C.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2015

Climate change will expose many marine ecosystems to temperature, oxygen and CO2 conditions that have not been experienced for millennia. Predicting the impact of these changes on marine fishes is difficult due to the complexity of these disparate stressors and the inherent non-linearity of physiological systems. Aerobic scope (the difference between maximum and minimum aerobic metabolic rates) is a coherent, unifying physiological framework that can be used to examine all of the major environmental changes expected to occur in the oceans during this century. Using this framework, we develop a physiology-based habitat suitability model to forecast the response of marine fishes to simultaneous ocean acidification, warming and deoxygenation, including interactions between all three stressors. We present an example of the model parameterized for Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), an important fisheries species that is likely to be affected by climate change. We anticipate that if embedded into multispecies ecosystem models, our model could help to more precisely forecast climate change impacts on the distribution and abundance of other high value species. Finally, we show how our model may indicate the potential for, and limits of, adaptation to chronic stressors. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Deser C.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Alexander M.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Xie S.-P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Phillips A.S.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2010

Patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) variability on interannual and longer timescales result from a combination of atmospheric and oceanic processes. These SST anomaly patterns may be due to intrinsic modes of atmospheric circulation variability that imprint themselves upon the SST field mainly via surface energy fluxes. Examples include SST fluctuations in the Southern Ocean associated with the Southern Annular Mode, a tripolar pattern of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and a pan-Pacific mode known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (with additional contributions from oceanic processes). They may also result from coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions, such as the El Nio-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Indo-Pacific, the tropical Atlantic Nio, and the cross-equatorial meridional modes in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Finally, patterns of SST variability may arise from intrinsic oceanic modes, notably the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. © 2010 by Annual Reviews. Source

Lyman J.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Lyman J.M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Surveys in Geophysics | Year: 2012

The relative significance of short multi-year linear trends in the global integral of 0-700 m ocean heat content anomaly (OHCA) is investigated by examining the overlapping segments of the 16-year OHCA curve from Lyman et al. (Nature 465:334-337, 2010). Segments of 4 years and less are found not to be significantly different from each other or from 0 at the 90% confidence interval. Likewise, short 5- to 7-year segments are not statistically different from each other. Ten-year and longer trends are significant and provide a useful comparison for satellite observations of the radiation imbalance at the top of the atmosphere. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Christie A.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Mastotermes darwiniensis is the most basal living member of the Isoptera (termites), yet it exhibits an extremely advanced level of eusocial organization. Given the interest in, and the high levels of differential developmental and behavioral control needed for, eusociality, it is surprising that essentially nothing is known about the native peptides of M. darwiniensis, which undoubtedly represent the largest and most diverse class of hormones present in this species. The recent public deposition of a 100,000+-sequence transcriptome for M. darwiniensis provides a means for peptide discovery in this termite. Here, this resource was mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts via the BLAST algorithm tblastn and known arthropod neuropeptide precursor queries; mature peptide structures were predicted from the deduced pre/preprohormones using a well-vetted bioinformatics workflow. Thirty-four M. darwiniensis peptide-encoding transcripts were identified, with 163 distinct mature peptides predicted from these sequences. These peptides included members of the adipokinetic hormone, adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin C, allatotropin, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, FMRFamide-like peptide, insulin-like peptide, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide families. This peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any member of the Isoptera, and provides a foundation for initiating studies of peptidergic signaling in this and other termites, including ones directed at understanding the roles peptide hormones play in the developmental and behavioral control required for eusociality. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Christie A.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Arthropods have contributed greatly to our understanding of peptidergic control of physiology and behavior, and being the largest and most diverse animal phylum, represent a model for investigating peptide hormone evolution. Surprisingly, one arthropod subphylum, the Myriapoda, is uninvestigated in terms of its peptide hormones. The public deposition of a transcriptome for Symphylella vulgaris, a pseudocentipede, provides a means for peptide discovery in myriapods. Here, in silico transcriptome mining was used to identify 47 S. vulgaris neuropeptide-encoding transcripts within this dataset. The identified transcripts allowed for the deduction of 31 unique pre/preprohormone sequences, with 97 distinct mature peptides predicted from the deduced proteins. The predicted S. vulgaris peptidome includes members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone, adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin C (AST-C), allatotropin, CCHamide, crustacean cardioactive peptide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, proctolin, pyrokinin, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and sulfakinin families. This is the first, and thus far only, peptidome predicted for a myriapod. Of particular note were a modified AST-C, TYWKQCAFNAVSRFamide, that lacks one of two cysteine residues (i.e. one at position 13) stereotypically present in members of this peptide family (and hence is missing the disulfide bridge that spans these residues) and a SIFamide, PPFNGSIFamide, that is truncated due to a lysine for arginine substitution in the dibasic residue pair commonly located at positions 3 and 4 of stereotypical full-length isoforms (e.g. the crustacean peptide GYRKPPFNGSIFamide). The peptides predicted here represent the only extant resource for initiating investigations of native peptidergic signaling in the Myriapoda. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Zeebe R.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2011

The molecular diffusion coefficients of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), bicarbonate ion (HCO3 -), and carbonate ion (CO3 2-) are fundamental physico-chemical constants and are of practical significance in various disciplines including geochemistry, biology, and medicine. Yet, very little experimental data is available, for instance, on the bicarbonate and carbonate ion diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, it appears that no information was hitherto available on the mass-dependence of the diffusion coefficients of the ionic carbonate species in water. Here I use molecular dynamics simulations to study the diffusion of the dissolved carbonate species in water, including their dependence on temperature and isotopic mass. Based on the simulations, I provide equations to calculate the diffusion coefficients of dissolved CO2, HCO3 -, and CO3 2- over the temperature range from 0° to 100 °C. The results indicate a mass-dependence of CO2 diffusion that is consistent with the observed 12CO2/13CO2 diffusion ratio at 25 °C. No significant isotope fractionation appears to be associated with the diffusion of the naturally occurring isotopologues of HCO3 - and CO3 2- at 25 °C. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Alden D.L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Medical Decision Making | Year: 2014

Methods. A pilot study initially evaluated measurement scales, model fit, and the overall effect of the DA experience. The pilot compared matched treatment and control group samples of US adult online panel members exposed to a vignette about meeting their dermatologist to decide on skin cancer treatment. The treatment group also experienced a skin cancer DA with treatment options and value clarification activity, while the control group did not. The main study employed a randomized experimental design to formally test hypothesized path coefficients across the groups.Results. The pilot study suggested an overall enhanced DA effect on self-empowerment. In the experimental study, the DA experience strengthened the direct path from desire for medical information to self-empowerment and the indirect path from comprehension/participation confidence to self-empowerment through cancer attitude. The DA had no strengthening effect on the direct path from life satisfaction to self-empowerment, but in the DA condition, the factor appeared to play a role by contributing to the enhanced association between confidence and cancer attitude.Conclusion. Evidence from this research indicates that experiencing a DA prior to treatment decision making affects patient empowerment through a network that includes desire for information, life satisfaction, and multiple mediators. The studies also demonstrate the role that theory-based, multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) can play in increasing understanding of DA effects. Such understanding is critical to improving SDM between patients and their physicians.Background. Despite progress, models that incorporate antecedent and mediating factors associated with shared decision making (SDM)-related outcomes remain limited. An experimental study tests patient decision aid (DA) effects on a network of antecedents and mediators associated with patient empowerment prior to a medical decision-making consultation regarding cancer treatment. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Brown A.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2012

Gluten sensitivity appears to be emerging as a separate condition from celiac disease, yet no clear definition or diagnosis exists. As a result, patients with gluten sensitivity experience delayed diagnosis and continuing symptoms if they consume gluten. This emerging medical problem may involve human genetics, plant genetic modifications, gluten as a food additive, environmental toxins, hormonal influences, intestinal infections and autoimmune diseases. The treatment is similar to that for celiac disease - a gluten-free diet. The use of a gluten-free diet or an elimination diet is encouraged in assisting people to determine whether or not they are gluten sensitive. It is time to not only recognize, but to treat and further research gluten sensitivity, as unconfirmed environmental factors continue to spread this problem further into the general population. Source

Birchler J.A.,University of Missouri | Presting G.G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Genes and Development | Year: 2012

The centromeres of most eukaryotic organisms consist of highly repetitive arrays that are similar across nonhomologous chromosomes. These sequences evolve rapidly, thus posing a mystery as to how such arrays can be homogenized. Recent work in species in which centromere- enriched retrotransposons occur indicates that these elements preferentially insert into the centromeric regions. In two different Arabidopsis species, a related element was recognized in which the specificity for such targeting was altered. These observations provide a partial explanation for how homogenization of centromere DNA sequences occurs. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source

Ethnobotanical Knowledge Transmission and Evolution: The Case of Medicinal Markets in Tanga, Tanzania. This paper explores the range and distribution of local ecological knowledge (LEK) of popular medicinal plants by means of a case study in the medicinal markets of Tanga, Tanzania. Seventy-four medicinal plant harvesters, healers, and vendors were surveyed to test if knowledge differed based on their role in the market system, age, years of experience, and level of formal education. These results diverge from previous studies that explain variation in plant knowledge based on sociodemographic variables. It also questions the assumption that markets inevitably erode local or traditional knowledge. This study contributes to an understanding of the dynamics of ethnobotanical knowledge transmission and evolution by showing how particular contexts, in this case medicinal plant markets, can influence this process. © 2012 The New York Botanical Garden. Source

Andreeva V.A.,University Paris - Sud | Pokhrel P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2013

Objective Many countries host growing Eastern European immigrant communities whose breast cancer preventive behaviors are largely unknown. Thus, we aimed to synthesize current evidence regarding secondary prevention via breast cancer screening utilized by that population. Methods All observational, general population studies on breast cancer screening with Eastern European immigrant women and without any country, language, or age restrictions were identified. Screening modalities included breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography. Results The selected 30 studies were published between 1996 and 2013 and came from Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, the UK, and the USA. The reported prevalence of monthly breast self-examination was 0-48%; for yearly clinical breast examination 27-54%; and for biennial mammography 0-71%. The substantial methodologic heterogeneity prevented a meta-analysis. Nonetheless, irrespective of host country, healthcare access, or educational level, the findings consistently indicated that Eastern European immigrant women underutilize breast cancer screening largely because of insufficient knowledge about early detection and an external locus of control regarding decision making in health matters. Conclusions This is a vulnerable population for whom the implementation of culturally tailored breast cancer screening programs is needed. As with other underscreened immigrant/minority groups, Eastern European women's inadequate engagement in prevention is troublesome as it points to susceptibility not only to cancer but also to other serious conditions for which personal action and responsibility are critical. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Keil K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry | Year: 2010

The aubrites are nearly monomineralic enstatite pyroxenites, consisting mostly of nearly FeO-free enstatite, with minor albitic plagioclase, nearly FeO-free diopside and forsterite, metallic Fe,Ni, troilite, and a host of rare accessory minerals, many unknown from Earth, that formed under highly reducing conditions. As a result, many of the normally lithophile elements such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Na, etc. behave partly as chalcophiles (i.e., occur in sulfides), and Si is partly siderophile and occurs in metallic Fe,Ni. Aubrites must therefore have formed in a very unique part of the solar nebula, possibly within 1AU of the Sun. While of the 27 aubrites, 15 are fragmental breccias, 6 are regolith breccias, and 6 are described as non-brecciated, their ingredients are clearly of igneous origin and formed by melting and fractional crystallization, possibly of a magma ocean. This is indicated by the occurrence of a variety of lithic clasts of igneous origin, and by the REE and other trace element distributions. Their highly reduced nature and their oxygen isotopic compositions suggest close kinship to the enstatite chondrites. However, they did not form from known EH or EL chondrites on their parent bodies. Rather, they formed from enstatite chondrite-like material on at least two separate parent bodies, the Shallowater parent body and, for all other aubrites, on the aubrite parent body. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spetra of asteroids suggest that the aubrite parent bodies may be asteroids of the E-type and perhaps the E(II) sub-class, such as 3103 Eger and 2867 Steins (the target of the Rosetta Mission). If aubrites formed by the melting and fractional crystallization of enstatite chondrite-like parent lithologies, which should have contained ~10vol% plagioclase, then meteorites of enstatite-plagioclase basaltic composition should exist, which is not the case. These early basaltic melts may have been removed from the aubrite parent body by explosive pyroclastic volcanism, and these small pyroclasts would have been destroyed in space long ago. Age dates suggest that the aubrites formed very early in the history of the solar system, within a few Ma of CAI formation, and that the heat sources for heating and melting of their parent bodies were, most likely, short-lived radionuclides such as 26Al and, perhaps, 60Fe. Finally, attention has been drawn to the surface composition of Mercury of low bulk FeO and of nearly FeO-free enstatite, perhaps with plagioclase, diopside and sulfide. While known aubrites clearly did not originate from Mercury, recent calculations suggest that several percent of high-speed ejecta from Mercury reach Earth. This is only factors of 2-3 less than typical launches from Mars and, since there are now 53 Martian meteorites in our collections, meteoriticists should be alert to the potential discovery of a genuine meteorite from Mercury which, superficially, should resemble aubrites. However, recent results from the Neutron Spectrometer of the Messenger Flyby of Mercury have been interpreted to suggest that the planet's surface may, in fact, contain abundant Fe-Ti-oxides and, if true, a meteorite from Mercury should not resemble any currently known meteorite type. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. Source

McManus M.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Woodson C.B.,Stanford University
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2012

Plankton are small organisms that dwell in oceans, seas and bodies of fresh water. In this review, we discuss life in the plankton, which involves a balance between the behavioral capabilities of the organism and the characteristics and movement of the water that surrounds it. In order to consider this balance, we discuss how plankton interact with their environment across a range of scales - from the smallest viruses and bacteria to larger phytoplankton and zooplankton. We find that the larger scale distributions of plankton, observed in coastal waters, along continental shelves and in ocean basins, are highly dependent upon the smaller scale interactions between the individual organism and its environment. Further, we discuss how larger scale organism distributions may affect the transport and/or retention of plankton in the ocean environment. The research reviewed here provides a mechanistic understanding of how organism behavior in response to the physical environment produces planktonic aggregations, which has a direct impact on the way marine ecosystems function. © 2012. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

Lumpkin R.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Flament P.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Oceanography | Year: 2013

Direct velocity observations from drogued drifters in the Hawaiian Island region are used to map the time-mean and seasonal variability of the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent (HLCC). The density of these data has more than doubled since the initial discovery of the HLCC. They provide valuable absolute estimates of HLCC velocity structure and variability, complementing data derived from geostrophy and numerical simulations. The data demonstrate that the HLCC has a peak annual mean velocity > 9 cm s-1, with the strongest velocities along 19.75°N and eastward speeds in the longitudinal range 170°W to 157°W. The HLCC is relatively weak from March to May compared to its strength in other months. In the longitude band 160°-168°W, an eddy-to-mean energy flux of 3.3 ± 1.2 μW m-3 is found in the annual mean associated with the Reynolds shear stress, maintaining the shear between the HLCC and the North Equatorial Current to its south. This shear stress is associated with energetic anticyclonic eddies that are shed from the Big Island of Hawaii and propagate west-southwest. This energy flux is nearly twice as large during the peak HLCC months of August to January. It is sufficient to spin up the HLCC in O(10 days), and it is associated with an eddy spin-down time of O(100 days). © 2013 by The Oceanography Society. All rights reserved. Source

Dohan K.,Earth and Space Research | Maximenko N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Oceanography | Year: 2010

The interconnected ocean surface current system involves multiple scales, including basin-wide gyres, fast narrow boundary currents, eddies, and turbulence. To understand the full system requires measuring a range of motions, from thousands of kilometers to less than a meter, and time scales from those that are climate related (decades) to daily processes. Presently, satellite systems provide us with global and regional maps of the ocean surface's mesoscale motion (larger than 100 km). Surface currents are measured indirectly from satellite systems. One method involves using remotely sensed fields of sea surface height, surface winds, and sea surface temperature within a physical model to produce currents. Another involves determining surface velocity from paths of drifting surface buoys transmitted to satellite sensors. Additional methods include tracking of surface features and exploitation of the Doppler shift in radar fields. The challenges for progress include measuring small and fast processes, capturing the vertical variation, and overcoming sensor limitations near coasts. Here, we detail the challenges as well as upcoming missions and advancements in satellite oceanography that will change our understanding of surface currents in the next 10 years. Source

Christie A.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Technological advancements in high-throughput sequencing have resulted in the production/public deposition of an ever-growing number of arthropod transcriptomes. While most sequencing projects have focused on hexapods, transcriptomes have also been generated for members of the Chelicerata. One chelicerate for which a large transcriptome has recently been released is the Western black widow Latrodectus hesperus, a member of the Araneae (true spiders). Here, a neuropeptidome for L. hesperus was predicted using this resource. Thirty-eight peptide-encoding transcripts were mined from the L. hesperus transcriptome, with 216 distinct peptides predicted from the deduced pre/preprohormones. The identified peptides included members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, bursicon α, bursicon β, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP), GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, neuropeptide F (NPF), orcokinin, proctolin, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) families. Of particular note were the identifications of a carboxyl (C)-terminally extended corazonin, FLPs possessing -IMRFamide, -MMYFamide, and -MIHFamide C-termini, a NPF and a sulfakinin each ending in -RYamide rather than -RFamide, a precursor whose orcokinins include C-terminally amidated isoforms, and a collection of TRPs possessing -F. XP. XLamide rather than the stereotypical -F. XG. XLamide C-termini. The L. hesperus peptidome is by far the largest thus far published for any member of the Chelicerata. Taken collectively, these data serve as a reference for future neuropeptide discovery in the Araneae and provide a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in L. hesperus and other spiders. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Harris R.J.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Andrews S.M.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Wilner D.J.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Kraus A.L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We present a high angular resolution millimeter-wave dust continuum imaging survey of circumstellar material associated with the individual components of 23 multiple star systems in the Taurus-Auriga young cluster. Combined with previous measurements in the literature, these new data permit a comprehensive look at how the millimeter luminosity (a rough tracer of disk mass) relates to the separation and mass of a stellar companion. Approximately one-third (28%-37%) of the individual stars in multiple systems have detectable millimeter emission, an incidence rate half that for single stars (62%) which does not depend on the number of companions. There is a strong, positive correlation between the luminosity and projected separation (ap ) of a stellar pair. Wide pairs (ap > 300AU) have a similar luminosity distribution as single stars, medium pairs (ap 30-300AU) are a factor of five fainter, and close pairs (ap < 30AU) are 5× fainter yet (aside from a small, but notable population of bright circumbinary disks). In most cases, the emission is dominated by a disk around the primary (or a wide tertiary in hierarchical triples), but there is no clear relationship between luminosity and stellar mass ratio. A direct comparison of resolved disk sizes with predictions from tidal truncation models yields mixed results; some disks are much larger than expected given the projected distances of their companions. We suggest that the presence of a stellar companion impacts disk properties at a level comparable to the internal evolution mechanisms that operate in an isolated system, with both the multiple star formation process itself and star-disk tidal interactions likely playing important roles in the evolution of circumstellar material. From the perspective of the mass content of the disk reservoir, we expect that (giant) planet formation is inhibited around the components of close pairs or secondaries, but should be as likely as for single stars around the primaries (or wide tertiaries in hierarchical triples) in more widely separated multiple star systems. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Courtois H.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Tully R.B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

The construction of the Cosmicflows-2 compendium of distances involves the merging of distance measures contributed by the following methods: (Cepheid) period-luminosity, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB), surface brightness fluctuation (SBF), luminosity-linewidth (TF), fundamental plane (FP), and Type Ia supernova (SNIa). The method involving SNIa is at the top of an interconnected ladder, providing accurate distances to well beyond the expected range of distortions to Hubble flow from peculiar motions. In this paper, the SNIa scale is anchored by 36 TF spirals with Cepheid or TRGB distances, 56 SNIa hosts with TF distances, and 61 groups or clusters hosting SNIa with Cepheid, SBF, TF, or FP distances. With the SNIa scale zero-point set, a value of the Hubble constant is evaluated over a range of redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.5, assuming a cosmological model with Ωm = 0.27 and ΩΛ = 0.73. The value determined for the Hubble constant is H 0 = 75.9 ± 3.8kms-1Mpc-1. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Hurwitz E.L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2012

The objectives of this article are to (1) describe spinal manipulation use by time, place, and person, and (2) identify predictors of the use of spinal manipulation. We conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature published from January 1, 1980 through June 30, 2011. Of 822 citations identified, 213 were deemed potentially relevant; 75 were included after further consideration. Twenty-one additional articles were identified from reference lists. The literature is heavily weighted toward North America, Europe, and Australia and thus largely precludes inferences about spinal manipulation use in other parts of the world. In the regions covered by the literature, chiropractors, osteopaths, and physical therapists are most likely to deliver spinal manipulation, often in conjunction with other conservative therapies. Back and neck pain are the most frequent indications for receiving spinal manipulation; non-musculoskeletal conditions comprise a very small percentage of indications. Although spinal manipulation is more commonly used in adults than children, evidence suggests that spinal manipulation may be more likely used for non-musculoskeletal ailments in children than in adults. Patient satisfaction with spinal manipulation is very high. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Terada H.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Tokunaga A.T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We present the 1.9-4.2 μm spectra of the five bright (L ≤ 11.2) young stars associated with silhouette disks with a moderate to high inclination angle of 39°-80° in the M42 and M43 regions. The water ice absorption is seen toward d121-1925 and d216-0939, while the spectra of d182-316, d183-405, and d218-354 show no water ice feature around 3.1 μm within the detection limits. By comparing the water ice features toward nearby stars, we find that the water ice absorption toward d121-1925 and d216-0939 most likely originates from the foreground material and the surrounding disk, respectively. The angle of the disk inclination is found to be mainly responsible for the difference of the optical depth of the water ice among the five young stars. Our results suggest that there is a critical inclination angle between 65° and 75° for the circumstellar disk where the water ice absorption becomes strong. The average density at the disk surface of d216-0939 was found to be 6.38 × 10-18gcm-3. The water ice absorption band in the d216-0939 disk is remarkable in that the maximum optical depth of the water ice band is at a longer wavelength than detected before. It indicates that the primary carrier of the feature is purely crystallized water ice at the surface of the d216-0939 disk with characteristic size of 0.8 μm, which suggests grain growth. This is the first direct detection of purely crystallized water ice in a silhouette disk. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Jacso P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Online Information Review | Year: 2011

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the new version of the Web of Science (WoS) software. Design/methodology/approach - This paper discusses the new version of the Web of Science (WoS) software. Findings - The new version of the Web of Science (WoS) software released in mid-2011 eliminated the 100,000-record limit in the search results. This, in turn, makes it possible to study the bibliometric profile of the entire WoS database (which consists of 50 million unique records), and/or any subset licensed by a library. In addition the maximum record set for the automatic production of the informative citation report was doubled from 5,000 to 10,000 records. These are important developments for getting a realistic picture of WoS, and gauging the most widely used gauge. It also helps in comparing WoS with the Scopus database using traceable and reproducible quantitative measures, including the h-index and its variants, the citation rate of the documents making up the h-core (the set of records that contribute to the h-index), and computing additional bibliometric indicators that can be used as proxies in evaluating the research performance of individuals, research groups, educational and research institutions as well as serial publications for the broadest subject areas and time span - although with some limitations and reservations. Originality/value - This paper, which attempts to describe some of the bibliometric traits of WoS in three different configurations (in terms of the composition and time span of the components licensed), complements the one published in a previous issue of ITOnline Information Review/IT profiling the Scopus database. © 2011 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Silburt A.,University of Toronto | Gaidos E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Wu Y.,University of Toronto
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

Using the cumulative catalog of planets detected by the NASA Kepler mission, we reconstruct the intrinsic occurrence of Earth- to Neptune-size (1-4 R⊕) planets and their distributions with radius and orbital period. We analyze 76,711 solar-type (0.8 < R∗/R⊙ < 1.2) stars with 430 planets on 20-200 day orbits, excluding close-in planets that may have been affected by the proximity to the host star. Our analysis considers errors in planet radii and includes an "iterative simulation" technique that does not bin the data. We find a radius distribution that peaks at 2-2.8 Earth radii, with lower numbers of smaller and larger planets. These planets are uniformly distributed with logarithmic period, and the mean number of such planets per star is 0.46 ± 0.03. The occurrence is ∼0.66 if planets interior to 20 days are included. We estimate the occurrence of Earth-size planets in the "habitable zone" (defined as 1-2 R⊕, 0.99-1.7 AU for solar-twin stars) as 6.4-1.1 +3.4%. Our results largely agree with those of Petigura et al., although we find a higher occurrence of 2.8-4 Earth-radii planets. The reasons for this excess are the inclusion of errors in planet radius, updated Huber et al. stellar parameters, and also the exclusion of planets that may have been affected by proximity to the host star. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Korde U.A.,South Dakota School of Mines and Technology | Ertekin R.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Renewable Energy | Year: 2014

This paper investigates wave energy conversion in open water where the goal is to utilize the wave-field focusing effect of a stationary disc submerged a short depth beneath the water surface. Dynamic interaction of the disc with additional coupled, submerged inertias is used to minimize its oscillation. The method used to enable and extend this favorable dynamic coupling is discussed here. An oscillating water column in a submerged duct attached under a small circular opening in the disc and driven by the wave-field over the disc is used for wave energy conversion. Non-real-time reactive control of the water column response to enhance energy absorption is examined. Added mass, radiation damping, and exciting force values for the submerged disc are computed, and the focusing effect of a submerged stationary disc is confirmed with numerical calculations of surface elevation over the disc. Calculations of hydrodynamic performance suggest that energy absorption from the oscillating water column is significantly greater under control holding the disc stationary, and can be improved further by applying reactive loads tuned to the optimal susceptance and conductance associated with the oscillating water column. Although the control forces involved in holding the disc stationary may be large at lower wave numbers, the maximum deflection amplitudes of the compensation system are found to be within reasonable limits. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Blust R.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Human Biology | Year: 2013

Within recorded history. most Southeast Asian peoples have been of "southern Mongoloid" physical type, whether they speak Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Austronesian, Tai-Kadai, or Hmong-Mien languages. However, population distributions suggest that this is a post-Pleistocene phenomenon and that for tens of millennia before the last glaciation ended Greater Mainland Southeast Asia, which included the currently insular world that rests on the Sunda Shelf, was peopled by short, dark-skinned, frizzy-haired foragers whose descendants in the Philippines came to be labeled by the sixteenth-century Spanish colonizers as "negritos," a term that has since been extended to similar groups throughout the region. There are three areas in which these populations survived into the present so as to become part of written history: the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and the Andaman Islands. All Philippine negritos speak Austronesian languages, and all Malayan negritos speak languages in the nuclear Mon-Khmer branch of Austroasiatic, but the linguistic situation in the Andamans is a world apart. Given prehistoric language shifts among both Philippine and Malayan negritos, the prospects of determining whether disparate negrito populations were once a linguistically or culturally unified community would appear hopeless. Surprisingly, however, some clues to a common negrito past do survive in a most unexpected way. © 2013 Wayne State University Press. Source

Rice T.S.,Harvard University | Wolk S.J.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Aspin C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We present the first results from a 124 night J, H, K near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark cloud L 1003 in Cygnus OB7, an active star-forming region. Using three seasons of UKIRT observations spanning 1.5years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04mag. On the basis of near-infrared excesses from disks, we identify 30 pre-main-sequence stars, including 24 which are newly discovered. We analyze those stars and find that the NIR excesses are significantly variable. All 9200 stars were monitored for photometric variability; among the field star population, 160 exhibited near-infrared variability (1.7% of the sample). Of the 30 young stellar objects (YSOs), 28 of them (93%) are variable at a significant level. Of the 30 YSOs, twenty-five have near-infrared excess consistent with simple disk-plus-star classical T Tauri models. Nine of these (36%) drift in color space over the course of these observations and/or since Two Micron All Sky Survey observations such that they cross the boundary defining the NIR excess criteria; effectively, they have a transient near-infrared excess. Thus, time-series JHK observations can be used to obtain a more complete sample of disk-bearing stars than single-epoch JHK observations. About half of the YSOs have color-space variations parallel to either the classical T Tauri star locus or a hybrid track which includes the dust reddening trajectory. This indicates that the NIR variability in YSOs that possess accretion disks arises from a combination of variable extinction and changes in the inner accretion disk: either in accretion rate, central hole size, and/or the inclination of the inner disk. While some variability may be due to stellar rotation, the level of variability on the individual stars can exceed a magnitude. This is a strong empirical suggestion that protoplanetary disks are quite dynamic and exhibit more complex activity on short timescales than is attributable to rotation alone or captured in static disk models. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kraus A.L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Kraus A.L.,California Institute of Technology | Hillenbrand L.A.,California Institute of Technology
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

The frequency and properties of multiple star systems offer powerful tests of star formation models. Multiplicity surveys over the past decade have shown that binary properties vary strongly with mass, but the functional forms and the interplay between frequency and semimajor axis remain largely unconstrained. We present the results of a large-scale survey of multiplicity at the bottom of the initial mass function in several nearby young associations, encompassing 78 very low mass members observed with Keck laser guide star adaptive optics. Our survey confirms the overall trend observed in the field for lower-mass binary systems to be less frequent and more compact, including a null detection for any substellar binary systems with separations wider than 7AU. Combined with a Bayesian re-analysis of existing surveys, our results demonstrate that the binary frequency and binary separations decline smoothly between masses of 0.5 M ⊙ and 0.02 M ⊙, though we cannot distinguish the functional form of this decline due to a degeneracy between the total binary frequency and the mean binary separation. We also show that the mass ratio distribution becomes progressively more concentrated at q 1 for declining masses, though a small number of systems appear to have unusually wide separations and low-mass ratios for their mass. Finally, we compare our results to synthetic binary populations generated by smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations, noting the similarities and discussing possible explanations for the differences. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kumar J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Marfatia D.,University of Kansas
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We provide a compendium of results at the level of matrix elements for a systematic study of dark matter scattering and annihilation. We identify interactions that yield spin-dependent and spin-independent scattering and specify whether the interactions are velocity and/or momentum suppressed. We identify the interactions that lead to s-wave or p-wave annihilation, and those that are chirality suppressed. We also list the interaction structures that can interfere in scattering and annihilation processes. Using these results, we point out situations in which deviations from the standard lore are obtained. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Sudol J.J.,West Chester University | Haghighipour N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Debates regarding the age and inclination of the planetary system orbiting HR 8799, and the release of additional astrometric data following the discovery of the fourth planet, prompted us to examine the possibility of constraining these two quantities by studying the long-term stability of this system at different orbital inclinations and in its high-mass configuration (7-10-10-10 M Jup). We carried out 1.5 million N-body integrations for different combinations of orbital elements of the four planets. The most dynamically stable combinations survived less than 5 Myr at inclinations of 0° and 13°, and 41, 46, and 31 Myr at 18°, 23°, and 30°, respectively. Given such short lifetimes and the location of the system on the age-luminosity diagram for low-mass objects, the most reasonable conclusion of our study is that the planetary masses are less than 7-10-10-10 M Jup and the system is quite young. Two trends to note from our work are as follows. (1) In the most stable systems, the higher the inclination, the more the coordinates for planets b and c diverge from the oldest archival astrometric data (released after we completed our N-body integrations), suggesting that either these planets are in eccentric orbits or have lower orbital inclinations than that of planet d. (2) The most stable systems place planet e closer to the central star than is observed, supporting the conclusion that the planets are more massive and the system is young. We present the details of our simulations and discuss the implications of the results. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kumar J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Kraus A.L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Ireland M.J.,Macquarie University | Ireland M.J.,Sydney Institute for Astronomy SIfA
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Young and directly imaged exoplanets offer critical tests of planet-formation models that are not matched by radial velocity surveys of mature stars. These targets have been extremely elusive to date, with no exoplanets younger than 10-20 Myr and only a handful of direct-imaged exoplanets at all ages.We report the direct-imaging discovery of a likely (proto)planet around the young (∼2 Myr) solar analog LkCa 15, located inside a known gap in the protoplanetary disk (a "transitional disk"). Our observations use non-redundant aperture masking interferometry at three epochs to reveal a faint and relatively blue point source (MK′ = 9.1±0.2, K′-L′ = 0.98±0.22), flanked by approximately co-orbital emission that is red and resolved into at least two sources (M L′ = 7.5±0.2, K′ -L′ = 2.7±0.3; ML′ = 7.4±0.2, K′ -L′ = 1.94±0.16).We propose that the most likely geometry consists of a newly formed (proto)planet that is surrounded by dusty material. The nominal estimated mass is ∼6MJup according to the 1 Myr hot-start models. However, we argue based on its luminosity, color, and the presence of circumplanetary material that the planet has likely been caught at its epoch of assembly, and hence this mass is an upper limit due to its extreme youth and flux contributed by accretion. The projected separations (71.9±1.6 mas, 100.7±1.9 mas, and 88.2±1.8 mas) and deprojected orbital radii (16, 21, and 19 AU) correspond to the center of the disk gap, but are too close to the primary star for a circular orbit to account for the observed inner edge of the outer disk, so an alternative explanation (i.e., additional planets or an eccentric orbit) is likely required. This discovery is the first direct evidence that at least some transitional disks do indeed host newly formed (or forming) exoplanetary systems, and the observed properties provide crucial insight into the gas giant formation process. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2010

Traditionally, Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils that cannot be allocated to Homo erectus sensu lato or modern H. sapiens have been assigned to different specific taxa. For example, in eastern Asia, these hominin fossils have been classified as archaic, early, or premodern H. sapiens. An increasing number of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils are currently being assigned to H. heidelbergensis. This is particularly the case for the African and European Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record. There have been suggestions that perhaps the eastern Asian late Middle Pleistocene hominins can also be allocated to the H. heidelbergensis hypodigm. In this article, I review the current state of the late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record from eastern Asia and examine the various arguments for assigning these hominins to the different specific taxa. The two primary conclusions drawn from this review are as follows: 1) little evidence currently exists in the eastern Asian Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record to support their assignment to H. heidelbergensis; and 2) rather than add to the growing list of hominin fossil taxa by using taxonomic names like H. daliensis for northeast Asian fossils and H. mabaensis for Southeast Asian fossils, it is better to err on the side of caution and continue to use the term archaic H. sapiens to represent all of these hominin fossils. What should be evident from this review is the need for an increase in the quality and quantity of the eastern Asian hominin fossil data set. Fortunately, with the increasing number of large-scale multidisciplinary paleoanthropological field and laboratory research projects in eastern Asia, the record is quickly becoming better understood. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Wissner-Gross A.D.,Harvard University | Wissner-Gross A.D.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Freer C.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human "cognitive niche" - tool use and social cooperation - to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Chelton D.B.,Oregon State University | Xie S.-P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Oceanography | Year: 2010

Satellite observations have revealed a remarkably strong positive correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) and surface winds on oceanic mesoscales of 10-1000 km. Although SST influence on the atmosphere had previously been identified from several in situ observational studies, its widespread existence in regions of strong SST gradients throughout the world's ocean and the detailed structure of the surface wind response to SST have only become evident over the past decade from simultaneous satellite measurements of SST and surface winds. This has stimulated considerable scientific interest in the implications of this air-sea interaction to large-scale and mesoscale circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Convergence and divergence of surface winds in regions of spatially varying SST generate vertical motion that can penetrate deep into the atmosphere. Spatial variability of the SST field also results in a curl of the wind stress and associated upwelling and downwelling that feeds back on the ocean and alters SST itself. Significant progress has been made toward understanding the two-way coupling between the ocean and atmosphere but many exciting research opportunities remain. In addition to regional and global modeling, future research on coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction will continue to be guided by satellite observations. In particular, high-resolution measurements in the vicinity of narrow, intense SST fronts and immediately adjacent to land provided by the next-generation scatterometer will open up new areas of research that cannot be addressed from presently available data sets. Source

Conrad C.P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Behn M.D.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2010

Although an average westward rotation of the Earth's lithosphere is indicated by global analyses of surface features tied to the deep mantle (e.g., hot spot tracks), the rate of lithospheric drift is uncertain despite its importance to global geodynamics. We use a global viscous flow model to predict asthenospheric anisotropy computed from linear combinations of mantle flow fields driven by relative plate motions, mantle density heterogeneity, and westward lithosphere rotation. By comparing predictions of lattice preferred orientation to asthenospheric anisotropy in oceanic regions inferred from SKS splitting observations and surface wave tomography, we constrain absolute upper mantle viscosity (to 0•5-1•0 × 1021 Pa s, consistent with other constraints) simultaneously with net rotation rate and the decrease in the viscosity of the asthenosphere relative to that of the upper mantle. For an asthenosphere 10 times less viscous than the upper mantle, we find that global net rotation must be <0.26°/Myr (<60% of net rotation in the HS3 (Pacific hot spot) reference frame); larger viscosity drops amplify asthenospheric shear associated with net rotation and thus require slower net rotation to fit observed anisotropy. The magnitude of westward net rotation is consistent with lithospheric drift relative to Indo-Atlantic hot spots but is slower than drift in the Pacific hot spot frame (HS3 ≈ 0•44°/Myr). The latter may instead express net rotation relative to the deep mantle beneath the Pacific plate, which is moving rapidly eastward in our models. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Casey C.M.,University of California at Irvine | Casey C.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Narayanan D.,Haverford College | Cooray A.,University of California at Irvine
Physics Reports | Year: 2014

Far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength surveys have now established the important role of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) in the assembly of stellar mass and the evolution of massive galaxies in the Universe. The brightest of these galaxies have infrared luminosities in excess of 1013L⊙ with implied star-formation rates of thousands of solar masses per year. They represent the most intense starbursts in the Universe, yet many are completely optically obscured. Their easy detection at submm wavelengths is due to dust heated by ultraviolet radiation of newly forming stars. When summed up, all of the dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe produce an infrared radiation field that has an equal energy density as the direct starlight emission from all galaxies visible at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The bulk of this infrared extragalactic background light emanates from galaxies as diverse as gas-rich disks to mergers of intense starbursting galaxies. Major advances in far-infrared instrumentation in recent years, both space-based and ground-based, has led to the detection of nearly a million DSFGs, yet our understanding of the underlying astrophysics that govern the start and end of the dusty starburst phase is still in nascent stage. This review is aimed at summarizing the current status of DSFG studies, focusing especially on the detailed characterization of the best-understood subset (submillimeter galaxies, who were summarized in the last review of this field over a decade ago, Blain et al., 2002), but also the selection and characterization of more recently discovered DSFG populations. We review DSFG population statistics, their physical properties including dust, gas and stellar contents, their environments, and current theoretical models related to the formation and evolution of these galaxies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Zeebe R.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

Due to the chaotic nature of the solar system, the question of its long-term stability can only be answered in a statistical sense, for instance, based on numerical ensemble integrations of nearby orbits. Destabilization of the inner planets, leading to close encounters and/or collisions can be initiated through a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity, with a currently assumed likelihood of ∼1%. However, little is known at present about the robustness of this number. Here I report ensemble integrations of the full equations of motion of the eight planets and Pluto over 5Gyr, including contributions from general relativity. The results show that different numerical algorithms lead to statistically different results for the evolution of Mercury's eccentricity (eM). For instance, starting at present initial conditions (eM ≃ 0.21), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over 5 Gyr is, on average, significantly higher in symplectic ensemble integrations using heliocentric rather than Jacobi coordinates and stricter error control. In contrast, starting at a possible future configuration (eM ≃ 0.53), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over the subsequent 500 Myr is, on average, significantly lower using heliocentric rather than Jacobi coordinates. For example, the probability for eM to increase beyond 0.53 over 500 Myr is >90% (Jacobi) versus only 40%-55% (heliocentric). This poses a dilemma because the physical evolution of the real system - and its probabilistic behavior - cannot depend on the coordinate system or the numerical algorithm chosen to describe it. Some tests of the numerical algorithms suggest that symplectic integrators using heliocentric coordinates underestimate the odds for destabilization of Mercury's orbit at high initial eM. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Zhang H.,University of Miami | Clement A.,University of Miami | Nezio P.D.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Climate | Year: 2014

In this study, the authors investigate the connection between the South Pacific atmospheric variability and the tropical Pacific climate in models of different degrees of coupling between the atmosphere and ocean. A robust mode of variability, defined as the South Pacific meridional mode (SPMM), is identified in a multimodel ensemble of climate model experiments where the atmosphere is only thermodynamically coupled to a slab ocean mixed layer. The physical interpretation of the SPMM is nearly identical to the North Pacific meridional mode (NPMM) with the off-equatorial southeast trade wind variability altering the latent heat flux and sea surface temperature (SST) and initiating a wind-evaporation-SST feedback that propagates signals into the tropics. The authors also show that a positive cloud feedback plays a role in the development of this mode, but this effect is model dependent. While physically analogous to the NPMM, theSPMMhas a stronger expression in the equatorial Pacific and directly perturbs the zonal gradients of SST and sea level pressure (SLP) on the equator, thus leading to ENSO-like variability despite the lack of ocean-atmosphere dynamical coupling. Further analysis suggests that the SPMM is also active in fully coupled climate models and observations. This study highlights the important role of the Southern Hemisphere in tropical climate variability and suggests that including observations from the data-poor South Pacific could improve the ENSO predictability. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source

Christie A.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Copepods of the order Siphonostomatoida are a major concern for commercial aquaculture as many farmed fish serve as hosts for these parasitic crustaceans. Caligus rogercresseyi, a member of the Siphonostomatoida, is a significant problem for salmonid aquaculture in the Southern Hemisphere, and as such, a search for methods for controlling infestations of it is ongoing. One possibility for biological control of this and other copepod ectoparasites is endocrine manipulation. However, little is known about the native endocrine signaling systems in these animals. As part of an ongoing effort to characterize crustacean ectoparasite peptidergic systems, the publicly accessible C. rogercresseyi transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) was mined for peptide-encoding transcripts. Using the identified TSA sequences, precursor proteins were deduced and their mature peptides predicted. Thirty-three peptide-encoding transcripts were identified within the Caligus TSA dataset, with the structures of 131 distinct peptides characterized from the deduced pre/preprohormones. The predicted peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, allatostatin B, bursicon α, bursicon β, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, D. XXRLamide, FLRFamide, F. XGG. Xamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide (ILP), intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F (NPF), orcokinin and tachykinin-related peptide. The predicted ILPs are of particular note as they are the first members of this peptide family identified from a copepod. Similarly, the predicted complement of four distinct NPFs is larger than that known from other crustaceans. Taken collectively, these data greatly expand the known C. rogercresseyi peptidome and provide a foundation for initiating studies of peptidergic control in this species. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Li R.C.Y.,University of Hong Kong | Zhou W.,University of Hong Kong | Li T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Climate | Year: 2014

This study investigates the influences of the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern on synoptic-scale variability (SSV) in the western North Pacific (WNP). The PJ pattern exhibits salient intraseasonal variations, with a dominant peak at 10-50 days. During positive PJ phases, strengthened SSV is found in the WNP, with a much stronger and better organized synoptic wave train structure. Such a synoptic-scale wave train, however, is greatly weakened during negative PJ phases. Examination of the vertical profiles of the observational data suggests that environmental parameters are generally more (less) favorable for the growth of synoptic disturbances under positive (negative) PJ conditions. Observational results are further verified with an anomaly atmospheric general circulation model, which reveals faster (slower) growth of the synoptic-scale wave train when the environmental anomalies associated with positive (negative) PJ phases are incorporated into the summer mean state of the model. In addition, sensitivity experiments indicate that thermodynamic parameters of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) play a determining role in controlling the development of synoptic disturbances in the WNP. The increase (decrease) in background PBL moisture during positive (negative) PJ phases enhances (suppresses) perturbation moisture convergence and thus the convective heating associated with SSV, leading to strengthened (weakened) synoptic-scale activity in the WNP. Serving as potential seed disturbances for cyclogenesis, the strengthened (weakened) synoptic-scale activity may also contribute to the enhancement (suppression) in intraseasonal TC frequency during positive (negative) PJ phases. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source

Taguchi B.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Schneider N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Climate | Year: 2014

Upper ocean heat content (OHC) is at the heart of natural climate variability on interannual-to-decadal time scales, providing climate memory and the source of decadal prediction skill. In the midlatitude North Pacific Ocean, OHC signals are often found to propagate eastward as opposed to the frequently observed westward propagation of sea surface height, another variable that represents the ocean subsurface state. This dichotomy is investigated using a 150-yr coupled GCMintegration. Simulated OHC signals are distinguished in terms of two processes that can support eastward propagation: higher baroclinic Rossby wave (RW) modes that are associated with density perturbation, and spiciness anomalies due to density-compensated temperature and salinity anomalies. The analysis herein suggests a unique role of the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension (KOE) region as an origin of the spiciness and higher mode RWsignals.Wind-forced, westward-propagating equivalent barotropic RWs cause meridional shifts of the subarctic front in the KOE region. The associated anomalous circulation crossesmean temperature and salinity gradients and thereby generates spiciness anomalies. These anomalies are advected eastward by themean currents,while the associated surface temperature anomalies are damped by air- sea heat exchange. The accompanying surface buoyancy flux generates higher baroclinic, eastward-propagating RWs. The results suggest that the largeOHC variability in the western boundary currents and their extensions is associated with the spiciness gradients and axial variability of oceanic fronts. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source

DiNezio P.N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Deser C.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research
Journal of Climate | Year: 2014

A large fraction (35%-50%) of observed La Niña events last two years or longer, in contrast to the great majority of ElNiño events,which last one year.Here, the authors explore the nonlinear processes responsible for the multiyear persistence of La Niña in the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4), a coupled climate model that simulates the asymmetric duration of La Niña and El Niño events realistically. The authors develop a nonlinear delayed-oscillator (NDO) model of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to explore the mechanisms governing the duration of La Niña. The NDO includes nonlinear and seasonally dependent feedbacks derived from the CCSM4 heat budget, which allow it to simulate key ENSO features in quantitative agreement with CCSM4. Sensitivity experiments with theNDOshow that the nonlinearity in the delayed thermocline feedback is the sole process controlling the duration of La Niña events. The authors' results show that, as La Niña events become stronger, the delayed thermocline response does not increase proportionally. This nonlinearity arises from two processes: 1) the response of winds to sea surface temperature anomalies and 2) the ability of thermocline depth anomalies to influence temperatures at the base of the mixed layer. Thus, strong La Niña events require that the thermocline remains deeper for longer than 1 yr for sea surface temperatures to return to neutral. Ocean reanalysis data show evidence for this thermocline nonlinearity, suggesting that this process could be at work in nature. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source

Qu T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Song Y.T.,California Institute of Technology | Maes C.,CNRS Geophysical Research and Oceanographic Laboratory
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2014

This study investigates the sea surface salinity (SSS) and barrier layer variability in the equatorial Pacific using recently available Aquarius and Argo data. Comparison between the two data sets indicates that Aquarius is able to capture most of the SSS features identified by Argo. Despite some discrepancies in the mean value, the SSS from the two data sets shows essentially the same seasonal cycle in both magnitude and phase. For the period of observation between August 2011 and July 2013 Aquarius nicely resolved the zonal displacement of the SSS front along the equator, showing its observing capacity of the western Pacific warm pool. Analysis of the Argo data provides further information on surface stratification. A thick barrier layer is present on the western side of the SSS front during all the period of observation, moving back and forth along the equator with its correlation with the Southern Oscillation Index exceeding 0.80. Generally, the thick barrier layer moves eastward during El Niño and westward during La Niña. The mechanisms responsible for this zonal displacement are discussed. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Purpose-Google Scholar has been increasingly used in the past six to seven years as a highly efficient information source and service by librarians and other information professionals. The problem is when Google Scholar is touted and used as a bibliometric/scientometric tool and resource in the assessment of the quantity (productivity) and quality (impact) of research publications, in formal and informal ways, for decisions related to tenure, promotion and grant applications of individual researchers and research groups, as well as in journal subscriptions and cancellations. This paper aims to examine this issue. Design/methodology/approach-The paper discusses the use of Google Scholar for journal impact factors and the h-index in nationwide publishing assessments in academia. It focuses on the issues of access and excess in Google Scholar: The innate limits of Google Scholar and those imposed by its developers on the users. Findings-The paper reveals that issues of access and excess in Google Scholar prevent the researchers from doing appropriate content analysis that the best librarians and other information professionals do systematically to discover the pros and cons of databases. The excess content grossly dilutes the originally worthy collection of scholarly publications. The accuracy, reliability and reproducibility are essential for realistic research assessment through the prism of the quantity (publication counts) and quality (citation counts) of scholarly works. Unfortunately the metadata created by Google Scholar is substandard, neither reliable nor reproducible and it distorts the metric indicators at the individual, corporate and journal levels. Originality/value- The paper provides useful information on the use of Google Scholar for journal impact factors and the h-index in academic publishing. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Jacso P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Online Information Review | Year: 2012

Purpose - Seven years after the release of Google Scholar in 2004, it was enhanced by a new module, the Google Scholar Author Citation Tracker (GSACT), currently a small subset of the complete Google Scholar (GS) database. The aim of this paper is to focus on this enhancement. Design/methodology/approach - The paper discusses the Google Scholar Author Citation Tracker, its features, potential benefits and problems. Findings - GSACT allows registered users to create and edit their scientific profiles and some bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index, total citation counts, and the i10 index. These metrics are provided for the entire academic career of authors and for the most recent five-year period. The new module also offers some long overdue essential options, such as sorting result lists of the documents by their publication year, title, and the citations received Originality/value - The paper shows that, at present, GSACT may be too little, too late. However, with an extension of the current clean-up project it could possibly become a really scholarly resource in the long run. Copyright © 2012 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Although several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that having a disadvantaged family background is a risk factor for subsequent symptoms of depression, few studies have examined the mediating mechanisms that explain this long-term relationship. Thus, this study uses US national longitudinal data and integrates social stress theory with the life course perspective by focusing on two mediating mechanisms - the chronic stress of poverty and self-esteem during the transition to adulthood. Results reveal that self-esteem largely mediates the inverse relationship between parental education and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. However, the inverse relationship between parental occupational prestige and depressive symptoms among young adults is not mediated by self-esteem, but rather long durations of poverty across 16years. Overall, these findings suggest that different components of family socioeconomic status can leave a lasting imprint on mental health via the self-concept and the chronic stress of poverty throughout the journey to adulthood. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Waters C.Z.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Hollek J.K.,Speedway
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific | Year: 2013

We present ROBOSPECT, a new code to automatically measure and deblend line equivalent widths for both absorption and emission spectra. We test the accuracy of these measurements against simulated spectra as well as manual equivalent width measurements of five stellar spectra over a range of signal-to-noise values and a set of long slit emission spectra. We find that ROBOSPECT accurately matches both the synthetic and manual measurements, with scatter consistent with the expectations based on the data quality and the results of Cayrel. © 2013. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. All rights reserved. Source

This paper reflects on the most current and some of the recent contributions of JK Vanclay, focusing on his methods, findings, and criticism about the journal citations reports and the web of science databases, the journal impact factor and the h-index. It is argued and demonstrated that some of the recent papers of the author about scientometric issues, measures and sources show so much demagoguery, ignorance and arrogance, have so much prejudice and bias, so profound errors in using the databases, calculating metrics, and interpreting search results that the papers are very unlikely to be meant as a genuine contribution from an academic who is a graduate of-among others-Oxford University, professor and dean in a respected university, a well-published and well-cited author and a recipient of the Queen's Award (all the above in forest science). The papers are much more likely to serve as props for a staged, mock-up scenario based on slipshod research in an experiment, to illustrate the deficiencies in the processes and in the assessment of scholarly publishing productivity and impact in order to present the idealized solution of Vanclay: using the h-index, portrayed as the Prince, mounted on the shoulder of the White Horse, Google Scholar. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source

Santhanam N.P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Wainwright M.J.,University of California at Berkeley
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2012

The problem of graphical model selection is to estimate the graph structure of a Markov random field given samples from it. We analyze the information-theoretic limitations of the problem of graph selection for binary Markov random fields under high-dimensional scaling, in which the graph size p and the number of edges k, and/or the maximal node degree d, are allowed to increase to infinity as a function of the sample size n. For pairwise binary Markov random fields, we derive both necessary and sufficient conditions for correct graph selection over the class G p,k of graphs on p vertices with at most k edges, and over the class G p,d of graphs on p vertices with maximum degree at most d. For the class G p, k, we establish the existence of constants c and c′ such that if n < c k log p, any method has error probability at least 1/2 uniformly over the family, and we demonstrate a graph decoder that succeeds with high probability uniformly over the family for sample sizes n > c′ k 2 log p. Similarly, for the class G p,d, we exhibit constants c and c′ such that for n < c d 2 log p, any method fails with probability at least 1/2, and we demonstrate a graph decoder that succeeds with high probability for n > c′d 3 log p. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Sluijs A.,University Utrecht | Zeebe R.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Bijl P.K.,University Utrecht | Bohaty S.M.,University of Southampton
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2013

The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) was an approximately 500,000-year-long episode of widespread ocean-atmosphere warming about 40 million years ago, superimposed on a long-term middle Eocene cooling trend. It was marked by a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, biotic changes and prolonged carbonate dissolution in the deep ocean. However, based on carbon cycle theory, a rise in atmospheric CO2 and warming should have enhanced continental weathering on timescales of the MECO. This should have in turn increased ocean carbonate mineral saturation state and carbonate burial in deep-sea sediments, rather than the recorded dissolution. We explore several scenarios using a carbon cycle model in an attempt to reconcile the data with theory, but these simulations confirm the problem. The model only produces critical MECO features when we invoke a sea-level rise, which redistributes carbonate burial from deep oceans to continental shelves and decreases shelf sediment weathering. Sufficient field data to assess this scenario is currently lacking. We call for an integrated approach to unravel Earth system dynamics during carbon cycle variations that are of intermediate timescales (several hundreds of thousands of years), such as the MECO. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Delong E.F.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Delong E.F.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cell | Year: 2014

Animals harbor gut microbiota characteristic of the host and diet of origin. Whether bacteria from diverse nonindigenous origins successfully invade foreign gut habitats is not well known. Now, Seedorf et al. show that microbiota from a variety of disparate habitats can successfully colonize and compete in the mammalian gut environment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Panee J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Cytokine | Year: 2012

Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) is the first discovered and most extensively studied CC chemokine, and the amount of studies on its role in the etiologies of obesity- and diabetes-related diseases have increased exponentially during the past two decades. This review attempted to provide a panoramic perspective of the history, regulatory mechanisms, functions, and therapeutic strategies of this chemokine. The highlights of this review include the roles of MCP-1 in the development of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, insulitis, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Therapies that specifically or non-specifically inhibit MCP-1 overproduction have been summarized. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Background: This study aimed to find the strength of the correlation between ORange® (intraoperative wavefront aberrometer) objective refraction during pseudophakic cataract surgery (Gen 1) and 1-week objective autorefraction postcataract surgery in order to establish the clinical degree of confidence in the ORange. Gen 1 was used because Gen 2 was not available at the time of the study. However, Gen 1 can still be a good reference. Methods: Thirty-two consecutive eyes were included in this prospective nonrandomized study. ORange was used after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. There were no complications and no withdrawals from the study. The refraction data from the ORange were recorded in spherical equivalents and put into Excel. One week postoperatively, autorefraction was done and the data were again recorded in spherical equivalents and put into Excel. Both sets of data were then transferred to SPSS for a correlation study. Because ORange is an objective refractor, it is necessary to use another objective refractor, such as the Zeiss Autorefractor, for comparison. Measurement at 1 week postoperatively is for cornea clearance for autorefraction and is the closest time to intraoperative assessment for comparison. Results: The Pearson correlation was r = 0.56, P < 0.01, which qualifies for a moderate or good correlation (0.5-0.75). Conclusion: Intraoperative refraction using the ORange Gen 1 after cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation is moderate to good when correlated with objective autorefraction 1 week after cataract surgery. © 2011 Chen. Source

Rodney S.A.,Johns Hopkins University | Tonry J.L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

The IfA Deep Survey uncovered ∼130 thermonuclear supernova (TN SN, i.e., Type Ia) candidates at redshifts from z = 0.1 out to beyond z = 1. The TN SN explosion rates derived from these data have been controversial, conflicting with evidence emerging from other surveys. This work revisits the IfA Deep Survey to re-evaluate the photometric evidence. Applying the SOFT program to the light curves of all SN candidates, we derive new classification grades and redshift estimates.We find a volumetric rate for z ∼ 0.5 that is substantially smaller than the originally published values, bringing the revised IfA Deep rate into good agreement with other surveys. With our improved photometric analysis techniques, we are able to confidently extend the rate measurements to higher redshifts and we find a steadily increasing TN SN rate, with no indication of a peak out to z = 1.05. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. Source

Schorghofer N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Icarus | Year: 2010

Subsurface water ice on Mars evolves due to exchange of vapor with the atmosphere, in the form of loss of ice to the atmosphere or in the form of the growth of interstitial ice. Described here is an accelerated numerical method for the long-term evolution of subsurface ice. This accelerated method is five orders of magnitude faster than explicit vapor transport calculations, enabling fundamentally new types of climate models. Its speed matches that of purely thermal models. The speedup is achieved primarily by solving time-averaged equations for vapor transport and ice volume change. Processes incorporated are growth of interstitial pore ice, retreat of pore ice, retreat of an ice sheet, and retreat of pore ice due to geothermal heating from below. Two example applications illustrate this numerical method's capabilities. Near the permafrost margin at 55° latitude, ice is periodically depleted and slowly recharged, leading to a pore ice layer estimated to be currently no more than a few meters thick. At the Phoenix Landing Site, it shows the formation of a three layered structure, whereby the layer of pore ice can be very thin. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Cavaleri M.A.,Michigan Technological University | Cavaleri M.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Lawren S.,University of California at Los Angeles
Ecology | Year: 2010

Ecohydrology and invasive ecology have become increasingly important in the context of global climate change. This study presents the first in-depth analysis of the water use of invasive and native plants of the same growth form at multiple scales: leaf, plant, and ecosystem. We reanalyzed data for several hundred native and invasive species from over 40 published studies worldwide to glean global trends and to highlight how patterns vary depending on both scale and climate. We analyzed all pairwise combinations of co-occurring native and invasive species for higher comparative resolution of the likelihood of an invasive species using more water than a native species and tested for significance using bootstrap methods. At each scale, we found several-fold differences in water use between specific paired invasive and native species. At the leaf scale, we found a strong tendency for invasive species to have greater stomatal conductance than native species. At the plant scale, however, natives and invasives were equally likely to have the higher sap flow rates. Available data were much fewer for the ecosystem scale; nevertheless, we found that invasive-dominated ecosystems were more likely to have higher sap flow rates per unit ground area than native-dominated ecosystems. Ecosystem-scale evapotranspiration, on the other hand, was equally likely to be greater for systems dominated by invasive and native species of the same growth form. The inherent disconnects in the determination of water use when changing scales from leaf to plant to ecosystem reveal hypotheses for future studies and a critical need for more ecosystem-scale water use measurements in invasive- vs. native-dominated systems. The differences in water use of native and invasive species also depended strongly on climate, with the greater water use of invasives enhanced in hotter, wetter climates at the coarser scales. © 2010 by the Ecological Society of America. Source

Seff K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2010

A new method of ion exchange entitled-thallous ion exchange-(TIE) is proposed without experimental confirmation. First, a zeolite or other porous solid is fully ion exchanged with Tl+ from aqueous solution and fully dehydrated. It is then exposed to the anhydrous vapor of a halide MX n where Mn+ is the incoming cation. The volatile product TlX(g) is easily removed, leaving behind, when successful, the fully cation exchanged material with no other content. During the Mn+ exchange step, the zeolite is in contact only with gases and its container. The Tl + exchanged zeolite may also be used in solid state ion exchange to yield TlX(g). Although Tl+ is best for this, some other metal cations may be used. Although the halides offer much versatility with relative safety, oxides and organometallic compounds may be used because the Tl2O and R3Tl products are also volatile. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Amend A.S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Matulich K.L.,University of California at Irvine | Martiny J.B.H.,University of California at Irvine
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. © 2015 Amend, Matulich and Martiny. Source

Williams S.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2013

Sea-level rise, a dominant driving force of change for coastal regions, is becoming increasingly important as a hazard to humans and urban areas in the coastal zone worldwide as global climate change takes effect. The geologic record shows that sea level, due to past natural climate factors, has been highly variable, as much as 6-8 m higher than present during the last interglacial warm period and 130 m lower during the last glacial period. Sea level was fairly stable for the past 3,000 years until about the mid- 19 th century. During the 20th century, sea level began rising at a global average rate of 1.7 mm/yr. The current average rise rate is 3.1 mm/yr, a 50% increase over the past two decades. Many regions are experiencing even greater rise rates due to local geophysical (e.g., Louisiana, Chesapeake Bay) and oceanographic (Mid-Atlantic coast) forces. A few regions experience rise rates less than the global average due to land uplift. Observations show the increase of carbon emissions since the Industrial Revolution has increased global mean temperature of the air and ocean, which is responsible for sea-level rise due to ice sheet melting and steric expansion, and many related environmental changes. Sea-level rise, with high regional variability, is exhibiting acceleration and is expected to continue for centuries unless mitigation is enacted to reduce atmospheric carbon. Low-lying coastal plain regions, deltas, and most islands are highly vulnerable. Adaptation planning on local, state and national scales for projected sea-level rise of 0.5-2 m by A.D. 2100 is advisable. Sustained global rise in sea level of 4 m to as much as 8 m is possible, but not likely until well after A.D. 2100. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2013. Source

Social networking sites have demonstrated considerable utility to Internet users who wish to form or maintain interpersonal relationships online, but the qualities of these Internet platforms can also give rise to negative interactions between contacts. Perceptible relational problems, such as strain and changes to relational rules, originate from three commonly experienced transgressions on social networking sites: having a friend request declined or ignored, having a public message or identification tag deleted, and issues related to Top Friends applications. This investigation examines factors that contribute to the experience of relational problems following the three most common relational transgressions over social networking sites. The findings reveal that self-esteem, relational satisfaction, and publicness of the event, moderated by network esteem, affect the magnitude of the relational problems. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Karori M.A.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Li Dr. J.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Jin F.-F.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

In this study, the authors demonstrate that the two types of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have asymmetric features with respect to the impact of their positive and negative phases on boreal summer rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley (YRV) and South China (SC). The relationship between rainfall over theYRV and the warm pool (WP) La Niña is positive and significant, whereas the relationship with the WP El Niño is not. In the case of the cold tongue (CT) ENSO, its positive phase has a positive influence, while there is no significant relationship with the negative phase. In contrast, rainfall over SC has a significant positive relationship with WP El Niño, but a nonsignificant relationship with WP La Niña. The positive phase of the CT ENSO has a significant negative influence on SC rainfall, while the negative phase has a nonsignificant impact. An asymmetric atmospheric response to the asymmetric sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) was also observed in the lower troposphere. The location of the center of the anomalous circulations over the study region differs during the opposite phases of the two types of ENSO. This asymmetric response is likely to be linked to the different spatial patterns of the two types of El Niño and La Niña. Atmospheric general circulation models confirm the authors' analysis of the observed data. Numerical simulations show that the asymmetric response of the lower atmosphere is drivenmainly by differing SSTApatterns in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. © 2013 American Meteorological Society. Source

Martel S.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

The surfaces of many bodies are weakened by shallow enigmatic cracks that parallel the surface. A re-formulation of the static equilibrium equations in a curvilinear reference frame shows that a tension perpendicular to a traction-free surface can arise at shallow depths even under the influence of gravity. This condition occurs if σ11k1 + σ22k2 > pg cosβ, where k1 and k2 are the principal curvatures (negative if convex) at the surface, σ11 and σ22 are tensile (positive) or compressive (negative) stresses parallel to the respective principal curvature arcs, p is material density, g is gravitational acceleration, and β is the surface slope. The curvature terms do not appear in equilibrium equations in a Cartesian reference frame. Compression parallel to a convex surface thus can cause subsurface cracks to open. A quantitative test of the relationship above accounts for where sheeting joints (prominent shallow surface-parallel fractures in rock) are abundant and for where they are scarce or absent in the varied topography of Yosemite National Park, resolving key aspects of a classic problem in geology: the formation of sheeting joints. Moreover, since the equilibrium equations are independent of rheology, the relationship above can be applied to delamination or spalling caused by surface-parallel cracks in many materials. © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

St-Pierre J.,University of South Carolina | St-Pierre J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

A generic, transient fuel cell ohmic loss mathematical model was developed for the case of contaminants that ion exchange with ionomer protons. The model was derived using step changes in contaminant concentration, constant operating conditions and foreign cation transport via liquid water droplets. In addition, the effect of ionomer cations redistribution within the ionomer on thermodynamic, kinetic and mass transport losses and migration were neglected. Thus, a simpler, ideal, ohmic loss case is defined and is applicable to uncharged contaminant species and gas phase contaminants. The closed form solutions were validated using contamination data from a membrane exposed to NH 3. The model needs to be validated against contamination and recovery data sets including an NH 4 + contaminated membrane exposed to a water stream. A method is proposed to determine model parameters and relies on the prior knowledge of the initial ionomer resistivity. The model expands the number of previously derived cases. Most models in this inventory, derived with the assumption that the reactant is absent, lead to different dimensionless current vs. time behaviors similar to a fingerprint. These model characteristics facilitate contaminant mechanism identification. Separation between membrane and catalyst (electroinactive contaminant) contamination is conceivably possible using additional indicative cell resistance measurements. Contamination is predicted to be significantly more severe under low relative humidity conditions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Harris F.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2011

Results based on 106 M ψ′ events and about 226 M J/ψ events acquired with the BESIII detector at BEPCII are reported, including a confirmation of the BESII pp̄ threshold enhancement in J/ψ → γpp̄, branching ratios for χ cJ → π 0π 0 and ηη, and first measurements of the branching ratios for ψ′ → π 0h c and h c → γη c, as well as measurements of the mass and width of the h c. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

Rhodes R.E.,University of Victoria | Nigg C.R.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews | Year: 2011

As behavioral physical activity (PA) research matures, the adaptation and augmentation of theories with PA-specific concepts are required to improve explanatory power and to justify the uniqueness of the discipline. This review details the advances of three prominent theories applied to understand PA. We conclude by presenting a framework for researchers to test whether a particular behavioral theory holds use in the PA domain. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

Knox M.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
American Family Physician | Year: 2013

Thyroid nodules are a common finding in the general population. They may present with symptoms of pressure in the neck or may be discovered during physical examination. Although the risk of cancer is small, it is the main reason for workup of these lesions. Measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone can identify conditions that may cause hyperfunctioning of the thyroid. For all other conditions, ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration are central to the diagnosis. Lesions larger than 1 cm should be biopsied. Lesions with features suggestive of malignancy and those in patients with risk factors for thyroid cancer should be biopsied, regardless of size. Smaller lesions and those with benign histology can be followed and reevaluated if they grow. The evaluation of thyroid nodules in euthyroid and hypothyroid pregnant women is the same as in other adults. Thyroid nodules are uncommon in children, but the malignancy rate is much higher than in adults. Fine-needle aspiration is less accurate in children, so more aggressive surgical excision may be preferable. © 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians. Source

Mann R.K.,National Research Council Canada | Williams J.P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

We present the full results of our three-year-long Submillimeter Array (SMA) survey of protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We imaged 23 fields at 880μm and 2 fields at 1330μm, covering an area of ∼6.5 arcmin2 and containing 67 disks. We detected 42 disks with fluxes between 6 and 135 mJy and at rms noise levels between 0.6 and 5.3 mJy beam -1. Thermal dust emission above any free-free component was measured in 40 of the 42 detections, and the inferred disk masses range from 0.003 to 0.07M⊙. We find that disks located within 0.3 pc of θ1 Ori C have a truncated mass distribution, while disks located beyond 0.3 pc have masses more comparable to those found in low-mass star-forming regions. The disk mass distribution in Orion has a distance dependence, with a derived relationship max(Mdisk) = 0.046M⊙(d/0.3 pc) 0.33 for the maximum disk masses. We found evidence of grain growth in disk 197-427, the only disk detected at both 880μm and 1330μm with the SMA. Despite the rapid erosion of the outer parts of the Orion disks by photoevaporation, the potential for planet formation remains high in this massive star-forming region, with ≈18% of the surveyed disks having masses ≥0.01M⊙ within 60 AU. © 2010 The American Astronomical Society. Source

Rodney S.A.,Johns Hopkins University | Tonry J.L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

Wide-field surveys will soon be discovering Type Ia supernovae (SNe) at rates of several thousand per year. Spectroscopic follow-up can only scratch the surface for such enormous samples, so these extensive data sets will only be useful to the extent that they can be characterized by the survey photometry alone. In a companion paper we introduced the Supernova Ontology with Fuzzy Templates (SOFT) method for analyzing SNe using direct comparison to template light curves, and demonstrated its application for photometric SN classification. In this work we extend the SOFT method to derive estimates of redshift and luminosity distance for Type Ia SNe, using light curves from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) as a validation set. Redshifts determined by SOFT using light curves alone are consistent with spectroscopic redshifts, showing an rms scatter in the residuals of rmsz = 0.051. SOFT can also derive simultaneous redshift and distance estimates, yielding results that are consistent with the currently favored ΛCDM cosmological model. When SOFT is given spectroscopic information for SN classification and redshift priors, the rms scatter in Hubble diagram residuals is 0.18 mag for the SDSS data and 0.28 mag for the SNLS objects. Without access to any spectroscopic information, and even without any redshift priors from host galaxy photometry, SOFT can still measure reliable redshifts and distances, with an increase in the Hubble residuals to 0.37 mag for the combined SDSS and SNLS data set. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we predict that SOFT will be able to improve constraints on time-variable dark energy models by a factor of 2-3 with each new generation of large-scale SN surveys. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Incipient-stage alteration products in relatively fresh oceanic gabbros from deep boreholes provide critical information on hydration processes in the oceanic lower crust and their effect on lithosphere dynamics. We present the results of a petrographic study on the alteration of olivine-bearing gabbroic rocks recovered from the deeper parts of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1309D in the Atlantis Massif near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30°N. In these rocks, alteration is localized in proximity to fluid-infiltration veins or igneous contacts. It is most conspicuous in halos surrounding amphibole + chlorite veins or leucocratic veins in olivine-bearing gabbros, where coronitic fringes of tremolite, chlorite and talc occur around discrete olivine grains. Many of the halos exhibit a zonal pattern with systematic changes in mineral assemblage, generally consisting of three zones: tremolite + chlorite around relict olivine-plagioclase contacts; talc pseudomorphs after olivine; and tremolite pseudomorphs after olivine. The tremolite + chlorite assemblage appears in increasing amounts and talc grows unevenly with increasing thickness toward the veins. The alteration minerals have highly magnesian compositions, reflecting the compositions of the precursor igneous phases.Within the zone closest to the veins, green hornblende with a relatively high Al content occurs, showing textures suggestive of its later formation than the coronitic tremolite and chlorite. Considering the mode of occurrence and chemical composition of the minerals combined with thermodynamic calculations of silica and water activities in a simplified system, we conclude that the zoned halos were caused by metasomatism owing to protracted or sequential infiltration of hydrothermal fluids at amphibolite-facies conditions (450-750°C, 1·5-2 kbar). Textural relationships clearly indicate that zoned halos formed earlier than serpentinization and clay mineral formation, and suggest that the high-temperature, amphibolite-facies alteration took place in a near-axis region before the exhumation of the lower crustal rocks. Recent results of seafloor drilling have provided supporting evidence for the predominance of gabbroic rocks in oceanic core complexes. The similarity in mineral association between zoned halos and schistose fault rocks suggests that preferential formation of talc and/or chlorite, rather than serpentine, at contacts between gabbroic rocks and peridotite plays an essential role in detachment faulting and tectonic exhumation of oceanic core complexes from lower crustal levels. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Schad T.A.,University of Arizona | Penn M.J.,U.S. National Solar Observatory | Lin H.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

Atomic-level polarization and Zeeman effect diagnostics in the neutral helium triplet at 10830 Å in principle allow full vector magnetometry of fine-scaled chromospheric fibrils. We present high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of superpenumbral fibrils in the He I triplet with sufficient polarimetric sensitivity to infer their full magnetic field geometry. He I observations from the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter are paired with high-resolution observations of the Hα 6563 Å and Ca II 8542 Å spectral lines from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer from the Dunn Solar Telescope in New Mexico. Linear and circular polarization signatures in the He I triplet are measured and described, as well as analyzed with the advanced inversion capability of the "Hanle and Zeeman Light" modeling code. Our analysis provides direct evidence for the often assumed field alignment of fibril structures. The projected angle of the fibrils and the inferred magnetic field geometry align within an error of ±10°. We describe changes in the inclination angle of these features that reflect their connectivity with the photospheric magnetic field. Evidence for an accelerated flow (∼40 m s-2) along an individual fibril anchored at its endpoints in the strong sunspot and weaker plage in part supports the magnetic siphon flow mechanism's role in the inverse Evershed effect. However, the connectivity of the outer endpoint of many of the fibrils cannot be established. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Gaidos E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

A key goal of the Kepler mission is the discovery of Earth-size transiting planets in "habitable zones" where stellar irradiance maintains a temperate climate on an Earth-like planet. Robust estimates of planet radius and irradiance require accurate stellar parameters, but most Kepler systems are faint, making spectroscopy difficult and prioritization of targets desirable. The parameters of 2035 host stars were estimated by Bayesian analysis and the probabilities p HZ that 2738 candidate or confirmed planets orbit in the habitable zone were calculated. Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program models were compared to photometry from the Kepler Input Catalog, priors for stellar mass, age, metallicity and distance, and planet transit duration. The analysis yielded probability density functions for calculating confidence intervals of planet radius and stellar irradiance, as well as p HZ. Sixty-two planets have p HZ > 0.5 and a most probable stellar irradiance within habitable zone limits. Fourteen of these have radii less than twice the Earth; the objects most resembling Earth in terms of radius and irradiance are KOIs 2626.01 and 3010.01, which orbit late K/M-type dwarf stars. The fraction of Kepler dwarf stars with Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (η⊕) is 0.46, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.31-0.64. Parallaxes from the Gaia mission will reduce uncertainties by more than a factor of five and permit definitive assignments of transiting planets to the habitable zones of Kepler stars. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Allers K.N.,Bucknell University | Liu M.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We present a near-infrared (0.9-2.4 μm) spectroscopic study of 73 field ultracool dwarfs having spectroscopic and/or kinematic evidence of youth (10-300 Myr). Our sample is composed of 48 low-resolution (R 100) spectra and 41 moderate-resolution spectra (R ≳ 750-2000). First, we establish a method for spectral typing M5-L7 dwarfs at near-IR wavelengths that is independent of gravity. We find that both visual and index-based classification in the near-IR provides consistent spectral types with optical spectral types, though with a small systematic offset in the case of visual classification at J and K band. Second, we examine features in the spectra of 10 Myr ultracool dwarfs to define a set of gravity-sensitive indices based on FeH, VO, K I, Na I, and H-band continuum shape. We then create an index-based method for classifying the gravities of M6-L5 dwarfs that provides consistent results with gravity classifications from optical spectroscopy. Our index-based classification can distinguish between young and dusty objects. Guided by the resulting classifications, we propose a set of low-gravity spectral standards for the near-IR. Finally, we estimate the ages corresponding to our gravity classifications. © 2013 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Canalizo G.,University of California at Riverside | Stockton A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z ∼ 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kumar J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Sanford D.,University of California at Irvine | Strigari L.E.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We derive bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross-section for low-mass (5-20-GeV) dark matter annihilating primarily to up or down quarks, using the Fermi-LAT bound on gamma-rays from Milky-Way satellites. For models in which dark matter-Standard Model interactions are mediated by particular contact operators, we show that these bounds can be directly translated into bounds on the dark matter-proton scattering cross section. For isospin-violating dark matter, these constraints are tight enough to begin to constrain the parameter-space consistent with experimental signals of low-mass dark matter. We discuss possible models that can evade these bounds. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Wahlberg N.,University of Turku | Rubinoff D.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2011

Allopatric speciation is thought to occur in the absence of gene flow, thereby suggesting that widespread vagile species might be less likely to generate restricted sister taxa because of a lack of isolation. The butterfly genus Vanessa provides an ideal test of this concept, as it contains some of the most cosmopolitan and vagile species of butterflies on the planet, as well as some highly restricted taxa. Given the age of these groups, this arrangement offers a special opportunity to examine the relationship between vagility and phylogeny in generating novel taxa; specifically, does the vagility of some lineages impede allopatric speciation, leaving restricted clades more speciose? A phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed for all species belonging to the butterfly genus Vanessa based on DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and eight nuclear gene regions. The resulting topology shows very little conflict among gene regions, with five well-supported clades corresponding to morphologically consistent species groups. The data very strongly indicate a polyphyletic genus Antanartia, and thus to preserve monophyly two species previously assigned to Antanartia are transferred to Vanessa, Vanessa hippomenecomb.n. and Vanessa dimorphicacomb.n., resulting in a total of 22 species placed in Vanessa. A biogeographical analysis shows that in many cases the most geographically restricted species are sister to geographically widespread species, suggesting dispersal and allopatric speciation. Surprisingly, in almost all cases the divergences between widespread and restricted species are quite old (>5 Ma), suggesting long-term isolation and stability of both vagile and sedentary species, despite the high (even intercontinental) vagility of many extant species and, by extension, ancestral species. The biogeography of Vanessa suggests that species vagility and allopatry do not fully explain the forces governing cladogenesis in this remarkable genus. © 2011 The Authors. Systematic Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society. Source

Jones R.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2012

This article investigates local actions that transgress, subvert, and ignore the imposition of sovereign authority at the borders of sovereign states. It describes the creation and gradual securitization of the 4,096-km border between India and Bangladesh, which has culminated with the construction of roads, floodlights, and fences on the majority of the previously open and lightly guarded border. Then, by drawing on interviews with borderland residents, it analyzes the ways that people interact with, talk about, and cross the border in their daily lives. The motives and consequences of these cross-border connections are not precisely captured by the literature on sovereign power and the state of exception, which identifies very little space for resistance, or the literature on dominance-resistance in power relations, which understands most actions as political resistance in a broad milieu of power. To reconcile these conflicting views on resistance, this article proposes spaces of refusal to understand a range of activities that are not overt political resistance but nevertheless refuse to abide by the binary framing of state territorial and identity categories. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Williams J.P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2012

I summarize recent surveys of protoplanetary disks at millimeter wavelengths and show that the distribution of luminosity, equivalent to the mass in small dust grains, declines rapidly. This contrasts with statistics on the lifetime of disks from infrared observations and the high occurrence of planets from radial velocity and transit surveys. I suggest that these disparate results can be reconciled if most of the dust in a disk is locked up in millimeter and larger-sized particles within about 2Myr. This statistical result on disk evolution agrees with detailed modeling of a small number of individual disks and with cosmochemical measurements of rapid planetesimal formation. © 2012 The Meteoritical Society. Source

Gomez B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Livingston D.M.,Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
Geomorphology | Year: 2012

Post-glacial incision created 50 to 120m of relief in the headwaters of the Waipaoa River basin, but it is not known how the signal of incision propagated along the trunk streams. We addressed this issue by imposing previously determined long-term rates of rock uplift, that vary between 0.6 and 4mmyear -1, on the preaggradation longitudinal profile. Acting over the past 27.1±2cal.kaBP, these rates are sufficient to passively elevate the Waipaoa-1 terrace to its present level. But during the Last Glacial Maximum, rates of vertical incision failed to match those of the uplifting rocks. Thus, by the time favorable conditions for incision were reestablished after the Antarctic Cold/New Zealand Late Glacial reversal we estimate that the channel would have been elevated ≤55m above the datum the river should otherwise have maintained. The channel incised rapidly after the transition from glacial to interglacial conditions and reacquired its steady-state form in the mid-Holocene (5.5±2cal.kaBP). Thereafter, we suggest rates of incision matched rates of uplift. No knickpoints are found on the upper Waipaoa and Mangatu Rivers because incision commenced simultaneously along the entire length of the trunk streams, and the pattern of incision is consistent with the downstream decline in the rate of rock uplift. We also used hypsometric analysis to show how post-glacial incision affected the surface morphology of low order (0.1-4.3km 2) drainages in the headwaters of the Waipaoa River basin. Values of the hypsometric integral are higher for proximal basins, which the incision signal did not permeate, than for low-order basins bordering the upper Waipaoa River and the lower reaches of tributaries that possessed enough erosive capacity to keep pace with incision along the mainstem. Hillslope adjustments were focused on the lower and mid-sections of these basins so that the most pronounced changes to the hypsometric curve occur in the vicinity of the toe, whereas the entire form of the hypsometric curve changes once mass wasting processes encroach onto hillslopes in the middle and upper sections of a basin. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Lobell D.B.,Stanford University | Roberts M.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Schlenker W.,Columbia University | Braun N.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

A key question for climate change adaptation is whether existing cropping systems can become less sensitive to climate variations. We use a field-level data set on maize and soybean yields in the central United States for 1995 through 2012 to examine changes in drought sensitivity. Although yields have increased in absolute value under all levels of stress for both crops, the sensitivity of maize yields to drought stress associated with high vapor pressure deficits has increased. The greater sensitivity has occurred despite cultivar improvements and increased carbon dioxide and reflects the agronomic trend toward higher sowing densities. The results suggest that agronomic changes tend to translate improved drought tolerance of plants to higher average yields but not to decreasing drought sensitivity of yields at the field scale. Source

Gonnermann H.M.,Rice University | Houghton B.F.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2012

We have modeled the nucleation and isothermal growth of bubbles in dacite from the 1912 Plinian eruption of Novarupta, Alaska. Bubble growth calculations account for the exsolution of H 2O and CO 2, beginning with bubble nucleation and ending when bubble sizes reproduced the observed size distribution of vesicles in Novarupta pumice clasts. Assuming classical nucleation theory, bubbles nucleated with a diameter of the order of 10 -8 m and grew to sizes ranging from 10 -6 m to greater than 10 -3 m, the typical range of vesicle sizes found in Novarupta pumice. The smallest vesicles in Novarupta pumices are also the most abundant and bubbles with radii of 10 -6 m to 10 -5 m comprise almost 90% of the entire bubble population. We find that these bubbles must have nucleated and grown to their final size within a few 100 milliseconds. Despite these extremely fast growth rates, the pressures of exsolved volatiles contained within the bubbles remained high, up to about 10 7 Pa in excess of ambient pressure. Assuming a closed-system, the potential energy of these compressed volatiles was sufficient to cause magma fragmentation, even though only a fraction of the pre-eruptive volatiles had exsolved. Unless the matrix glasses of Novarupta pyroclasts retains a large fraction of pre-eruptive volatiles, the majority of magmatic volatiles (80-90%) was likely lost by open-system degassing between magma fragmentation and quenching. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Merrifield M.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Maltrud M.E.,Los Alamos National Laboratory
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

Over the past two decades, sea level trends have increased in the western tropical Pacific Ocean with rates that are approximately three times the global average. A general circulation model is used to show that the high rates are caused by a gradual intensification of Pacific trade winds since the early 1990s. The modeled sea level change captures the spatial trend pattern in satellite altimeter sea surface heights and the temporal trend shift in tide gauge observations. In addition to the sea level response, the model is used to show how other aspects of the ocean circulation have increased appreciably in amplitude as a consequence of the trade wind intensification, including tropical surface currents, the shallow meridional over-turning circulation, the Equatorial Undercurrent, and the Indonesian Throughflow. These results highlight an ongoing shift in the state of the tropical Pacific Ocean that will continue as long as the trade wind trend persists. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Vaughan M.B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Vitousek P.M.,Stanford University
Pacific Science | Year: 2013

Throughout the Pacific, "subsistence" fishing feeds not only individual fishers and their families but a much broader network of people through the noncommercial distribution, or sharing, of fish. This study evaluated the current importance of this sharing, through tracking subsistence fish catch and distributions (mahele) in one small Hawai'i fishery over an 18-month period. We found that the traditional and customary system of sharing fish, like subsistence activities in other mixed-economy settings, provides benefits beyond provisioning of food. These benefits include perpetuation of traditional and customary skills and practices, social status, social networks, reciprocal exchange, and collective insurance. Taken together these benefits enhance resilience of community-level social and ecological systems. © 2013 by University of Hawai'i Press. Source

MacDonald G.K.,University of Sainte-Anne | Bennett E.M.,University of Sainte-Anne | Bennett E.M.,McGill University | Potter P.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Ramankutty N.,McGill University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2011

Increased phosphorus (P) fertilizer use and livestock production has fundamentally altered the global P cycle. We calculated spatially explicit P balances for cropland soils at 0.5° resolution based on the principal agronomic P inputs and outputs associated with production of 123 crops globally for the year 2000. Although agronomic inputs of P fertilizer (14.2 Tg of P·y-1) and manure (9.6 Tg of P·y-1) collectively exceeded P removal by harvested crops (12.3 Tg of P·y -1) at the global scale, P deficits covered almost 30% of the global cropland area. There was massive variation in the magnitudes of these P imbalances across most regions, particularly Europe and South America. High P fertilizer application relative to crop P use resulted in a greater proportion of the intense P surpluses (>13 kg of P·ha-1·y -1) globally than manure P application. High P fertilizer application was also typically associated with areas of relatively low P-use efficiency. Although manure was an important driver of P surpluses in some locations with high livestock densities, P deficits were common in areas producing forage crops used as livestock feed. Resolving agronomic P imbalances may be possible with more efficient use of P fertilizers and more effective recycling of manure P. Such reforms are needed to increase global agricultural productivity while maintaining or improving freshwater quality. Source

Ritchie A.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Johnson Z.I.,Duke University
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are photoheterotrophic microbes that are found in a broad range of aquatic environments. Although potentially significant to the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems, their abundance and genetic diversity and the environmental variables that regulate these properties are poorly understood. Using samples along nearshore/offshore transects from five disparate islands in the Pacific Ocean (Oahu, Molokai, Futuna, Aniwa, and Lord Howe) and off California, we show that AAP bacteria, as quantified by the pufM gene biomarker, are most abundant near shore and in areas with high chlorophyll or Synechococcus abundance. These AAP bacterial populations are genetically diverse, with most members belonging to the alpha- or gammaproteobacterial groups and with subclades that are associated with specific environmental variables. The genetic diversity of AAP bacteria is structured along the nearshore/offshore transects in relation to environmental variables, and uncultured pufM gene libraries suggest that nearshore communities are distinct from those offshore. AAP bacterial communities are also genetically distinct between islands, such that the stations that are most distantly separated are the most genetically distinct. Together, these results demonstrate that environmental variables regulate both the abundance and diversity of AAP bacteria but that endemism may also be a contributing factor in structuring these communities. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Mora C.,Dalhousie University | Mora C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Sale P.F.,Environment Canada
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2011

A leading strategy in international efforts to reverse ongoing losses in biodiversity is the use of protected areas. We use a broad range of data and a review of the literature to show that the effectiveness of existing, and the current pace of the establishment of new, protected areas will not be able to overcome current trends of loss of marine and terrestrial biodiversity. Despite local successes of well-designed and well-managed protected areas proving effective in stemming biodiversity loss, there are significant shortcomings in the usual process of implementation of protected areas that preclude relying on them as a global solution to this problem. The shortcomings include technical problems associated with large gaps in the coverage of critical ecological processes related to individual home ranges and propagule dispersal, and the overall failure of such areas to protect against the broad range of threats affecting ecosystems. Practical issues include budget constraints, conflicts with human development, and a growing human population that will increase not only the extent of anthropogenic stressors but the difficulty in successfully enforcing protected areas. While efforts towards improving and increasing the number and/or size of protected areas must continue, there is a clear and urgent need for the development of additional solutions for biodiversity loss, particularly ones that stabilize the size of the world's human population and our ecological demands on biodiversity. © Inter-Research 2011. Source

Stephan W.G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy | Year: 2012

In this article, I argue that the psychological basis of many of the problems associated with immigration can be traced to tangible threats, cultural threats, fears of change, and the negative attitudes and misperceptions that flow from these threats and fears. Concrete suggestions are made for policies at the societal and individual levels that can counteract these problems. In addition, specific programs are suggested to improve relations between residents and immigrants. The article ends with a discussion of some of the psychological processes that underlie improvements in intergroup relations. © 2011 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Source

Martini F.H.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Beulig A.,New College of Florida
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Hagfishes have been the target of commercial fisheries in many areas of the world, with the catch processed for leather and for human consumption. A fishery has been operating in New Zealand waters for the last six years, harvesting the bearded hagfish, Eptatretus cirrhatus. The fishery has thus far been unregulated. Based on samples collected dockside over a two-year period, this report expands the morphometric database for this species, provides information on the size and weight of the harvested animals, determines the sizes at the onset of gonadal development and the minimum sizes at sexual maturation for males and females, and indicates that E. cirrhatus , like most other hagfish species, has no specific breeding season. Although females appear in the population at smaller sizes, the sex ratio for mature animals is 1:1 and the sizes of the largest males and females are comparable. The changes observed in sex ratio as a function of TL suggest differences in the timing and rates of gonadal development in females versus males rather than protogyny. Based on the size of the eggs, the number of eggs per female, the proportion of the population that contains large eggs, and the number of postovulatory females, it is clear that E. cirrhatus, like other hagfish species, are potentially vulnerable to overexploitation. © 2013 Martini, Beulig. Source

McConnell N.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | McConnell N.J.,University of California at Berkeley | Ma C.-P.,University of California at Berkeley
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

New kinematic data and modeling efforts in the past few years have substantially expanded and revised dynamical measurements of black hole masses (M •) at the centers of nearby galaxies. Here we compile an updated sample of 72 black holes and their host galaxies, and present revised scaling relations between M • and stellar velocity dispersion (σ), V-band luminosity (L), and bulge stellar mass (M bulge), for different galaxy subsamples. Our best-fitting power-law relations for the full galaxy sample are log10(M •) = 8.32 + 5.64log10(σ/200 km s-1), log10(M •) = 9.23 + 1.11log10(L/1011 L ⊙), and log10(M •) = 8.46 + 1.05log10(M bulge/1011 M ⊙). A log-quadratic fit to the M •-σ relation with an additional term of β2 [log10(σ/200 km s -1)]2 gives β2 = 1.68 ± 1.82 and does not decrease the intrinsic scatter in M •. Including 92 additional upper limits on M • does not change the slope of the M •-σ relation. When the early- and late-type galaxies are fit separately, we obtain similar slopes of 5.20 and 5.06 for the M •-σ relation but significantly different intercepts - M • in early-type galaxies are about two times higher than in late types at a given sigma. Within early-type galaxies, our fits to M •(σ) give M • that is about two times higher in galaxies with central core profiles than those with central power-law profiles. Our M •-L and M •-M bulge relations for early-type galaxies are similar to those from earlier compilations, and core and power-law galaxies yield similar L- and M bulge-based predictions for M •. When the conventional quadrature method is used to determine the intrinsic scatter in M •, our data set shows weak evidence for increased scatter at M bulge < 1011 M ⊙ or LV < 1010.3 L⊙, while the scatter stays constant for 1011 < M bulge < 1012.3 M ⊙ and 1010.3 < LV < 10 11.5 L⊙. A Bayesian analysis indicates that a larger sample of M • measurements would be needed to detect any statistically significant trend in the scatter with galaxy properties. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Gao J.,Fujian Climate Center | Li T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2011

The statistical feature of occurrence of multiple tropical cyclone (MTC) events in the western North Pacific (WNP) is examined during summer (June-September) for the period of 1979-2006. The number of MTC events ranged from one to eight per year, experiencing a marked interannual variation. The spatial distance between the TCs associated with MTC events is mostly less than 3000 km, which accounts for 73% of total samples. The longest active phase of an MTC event lasts for nine days, and about 80% of the MTC events last for five days or less. A composite analysis of active and inactive MTC phases reveals that positive low-level (negative upper-level) vorticity anomalies and enhanced convection and midtropospheric relative humidity are the favorable large-scale conditions for MTC genesis. About 77% of the MTC events occurred in the region where either the atmospheric intraseasonal (25-70 day) oscillation (ISO) or biweekly (10-20 day) oscillation (BWO) is in a wet phase. The overall occurrence of the MTC events is greatly regulated by the combined large-scale impact of BWO, ISO, and the lower-frequency (90 days or longer) oscillation. On the interannual time scale, the MTC frequency is closely related to the seasonal mean anomalies of 850-hPa vorticity, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and 500-hPa humidity fields. The combined ISO and BWO activity is greatly strengthened (weakened) in the WNP region during the MTC active (inactive) years. © 2011 American Meteorological Society. Source

Du Y.,CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology | Yang L.,CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology | Xie S.-P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Xie S.-P.,Ocean University of China
Journal of Climate | Year: 2011

In the summer following a strong El Niño, tropical cyclone (TC) number decreases over the Northwest (NW) Pacific despite little change in local sea surface temperature. The authors' analysis suggests El Niño-induced tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) warming as the cause. The TIO warming forces a warm tropospheric Kelvin wave that propagates into the western Pacific. Inducing surface divergence off the equator, the tropospheric Kelvin wave suppresses convection and induces an anomalous anticyclone over the NW Pacific, both anomalies unfavorable for TCs. The westerly vertical shear associated with the warm Kelvin wave reduces the magnitude of vertical shear in the South China Sea and strengthens it in the NW Pacific, an east-west variation that causes TC activity to increase and decrease in respective regions. These results help improve seasonal TC prediction. © 2011 American Meteorological Society. Source

Ikagawa M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Pacific Conservation Biology | Year: 2013

Feral Cattle Bos taurus, Goats Capra hircus, Sheep Ovis aries, and Pigs Sus scrofa have been modifying Hawaii's native ecosystems since being introduced more than 200 years ago. Controlled rigorously in the early 1900s as pests, the animals have been increasing in number and range since the 1950s, when the rise of sport hunting resulted in take restrictions and the introduction of additional game species. Presently, free-roaming Pigs, Goats, Cattle, Sheep (both O. aries and the more recently introduced Mouflon O. gmelini mouflon) and deer Axis axis, Odocoileus hemionus are described in state reports and plans as high-threat invasive species, while simultaneously being protected under the law as game mammals. This study examines the statutes, rules and management practices pertaining to invasive ungulates in an island state with highly imperiled native ecosystems. This analysis reveals that Hawaii's invasive-animal policy and management framework does not support the ungulate control needed to further state plans and mandates to preserve native species and watersheds. Lacking are laws that have been passed by other governments to reduce the spread and impacts of invasive vertebrates, such as maintaining a comprehensive vertebrate pest list, facilitating the control of such pests on all land ownerships, prohibiting the feeding and transport of vertebrate pests without a permit, and prohibiting the release of introduced vertebrates into the wild. Source

Bellorado J.,Link A Media Devices | Kavcic A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2010

In this paper, we present an algebraic methodology for implementing low-complexity, Chase-type, decoding of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes of length n. In such, a set of 2ηtest-vectors that are equivalent on all except η ≪ n coordinate positions is first produced. The similarity of the test-vectors is utilized to reduce the complexity of interpolation, the process of constructing a set of polynomials that obey constraints imposed by each test-vector. By first considering the equivalent indices, a polynomial common to all test-vectors is constructed. The required set of polynomials is then produced by interpolating the final η dissimilar indices utilizing a binary-tree structure. In the second decoding step (factorization) a candidate message is extracted from each interpolation polynomial such that one may be chosen as the decoded message. Although an expression for the direct evaluation of each candidate message is provided, carrying out this computation for each polynomial is extremely complex. Thus, a novel, reduced-complexity, methodology is also given. Although suboptimal, simulation results affirm that the loss in performance incurred by this procedure is decreasing with increasing code length n, and negligible for long $(n > 100)$ codes. Significant coding gains are shown to be achievable over traditional hard-in hard-out decoding procedures (e.g., Berlekamp-Massey) at an equivalent (and, in some cases, lower) computational complexity. Furthermore, these gains are shown to be similar to the recently proposed soft-in-hard-out algebraic techniques (e.g., Sudan, Kötter-Vardy) that bear significantly more complex implementations than the proposed algorithm. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Nguyen C.T.,Rice University | Gonnermann H.M.,Rice University | Houghton B.F.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Geology | Year: 2014

Silicic volcanic eruptions commonly show abrupt shifts between powerful and dangerous (Plinian) explosive episodes and gentle effusion of lava. Whether the onset of magma permeability and ensuing gas loss controls these transitions has been a subject of debate. We measured porosities and permeabilities in samples from the A.D. 1912 eruption of Novarupta volcano, Alaska, and analyzed them within the context of a well-constrained eruptive sequence that encompasses sustained explosive and effusive activity. For the explosive samples, we find that the degree of vesicle interconnectivity, measured as the ratio of connected to total porosity, decreases with phenocryst content and with increasing eruption intensity. Permeabilities of explosive samples show a weak dependence on porosity. Dome samples are not significantly different in permeability, but are of lower porosity, which together with abundant flattened vesicles is consistent with bubble collapse by permeable outgassing. Quantitative analysis indicates that outgassing alone was insufficient to affect the transition to effusive activity. Rather, the change from explosive to effusive activity was probably a consequence of high versus low magma ascent rates. © 2014 Geological Society of America. Source

Hue N.V.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Soil Science | Year: 2011

Soil acidity, which is characterized by mainly aluminum (Al) toxicity and often calcium (Ca) deficiency, is a serious constraint for crop production. To separate these two factors and to alleviate the acidity problem using organic materials instead of lime, a greenhouse experiment was conducted on two acid soils of Hawaii. Eight treatments were established: (i) unamended (control); (ii) 4 cmol c/kg as Ca(OH) 2; (iii) 4 cmol c/kg as MgO; (iv) 4 cmolc/kg as CaSO4 • 2H 2O; (v) 10 g/kg ground fresh cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves; (vi) 10 g ground, dried, fresh cowpea leaves ashed at 350°C for 4 h and then added to 1 kg soil; (vii) 10 g/kg ground fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus) crowns; and (viii) ashed pineapple at rate equivalent to (vii). Desmodium intortum cv. greenleaf, which is a tropical forage legume highly sensitive to soil acidity, was used as the test plant. The results indicated that treatments 1 to 4 could distinguish Al toxicity from Ca deficiency in acid soils and that crop residues could be used to alleviate soil acidity; the fresh cowpea amendment was most effective. More specifically, soil pH was raised moderately by crop-residue amendments, yet exchangeable Al was lowered substantially. Furthermore, soil-solution Al was complexed substantially by dissolved oxidizable carbon, particularly by organic acids produced by the crop residues. There was a good correlation between plant growth and the activity of total monomeric hydrolytic species of Al (Σ{Al}). Significant growth reduction would be expected when Σ{Al} > 12.0 μM. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Benoit-Bird K.J.,Oregon State University | McManus M.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Biology Letters | Year: 2012

The importance of spatial pattern in ecosystems has long been recognized. However, incorporating patchiness into our understanding of forces regulating ecosystems has proved challenging. We used a combination of continuously sampling moored sensors, complemented by shipboard sampling, to measure the temporal variation, abundance and vertical distribution of four trophic levels in Hawaii's near shore pelagic ecosystem. Using an analysis approach from trophic dynamics, we found that the frequency and intensity of spatial aggregations-rather than total biomass-in each step of a food chain involving phytoplankton, copepods, mesopelagic micronekton and spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) were the most significant predictors of variation in adjacent trophic levels.Patches of organisms hadimpacts disproportionate to the biomass of organisms within them. Our results are in accordance with resource limitation- mediated by patch dynamics-regulating structure at each trophic step in this ecosystem, as well as the foraging behaviour of the top predator. Because of their high degree of heterogeneity, ecosystem-level effects of patchiness such as this may be common inmany pelagic marine systems. © 2012 The Royal Society. Source

The Lucinidae (Bivalvia) originated in the Silurian Period with adaptations and life habits like those of modern members of this family. Nonetheless, the family remained at very low diversity until beginning a remarkable evolutionary radiation near the end of the Cretaceous Period, when seagrasses and mangroves arose. These marine angiosperms provided protective habitats in which the lucinids suddenly began to flourish, taking advantage of the dysaerobic sediments below roots and rhizomes to acquire sulfides for the endosymbiotic bacteria that they harbor in their gills and employ as food. Lucinids entered a symbiotic relationship with seagrasses, which benefit from the endosymbionts' uptake of toxic sulfide, and it is in seagrass meadows that they have by far their highest diversity in shallow seas today. The terminal Cretaceous mass extinction had little impact on the taxonomic diversity of lucinids. Presumably they relied heavily on endosymbionts for nutrition at a time when marine pelagic productivity collapsed and many suspension-feeding taxa died out. The lucinids continued their radiation into the Cenozoic Era without interruption. © 2014 Geological Society of America. Source

Nosal E.-M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2013

Most methods used to track marine mammals with passive acoustics require that time differences of arrivals (TDOAs) are established and are associated between hydrophone pairs. Consequently, multiple animal trackers commonly apply single-animal TDOA localization methods after performing a call separation and/or TDOA association step. When a wide-baseline array is used with multiple animals that make similar calls with short inter-call-intervals, the separation/association step can be challenging and potentially rejects valid TDOAs. This paper extends a model-based TDOA method to deal with multiple-animal datasets in a way that does not require a TDOA association step; animals are separated based on position. Advantageously, false TDOAs (e.g., a direct path associated with a multipath arrival) do not need to be removed. An analogous development is also presented for a model-based time of arrival tracking method. Results from simulations and application to a multiple sperm whale dataset are used to illustrate the multiple-animal methods. Although computationally more demanding than most track-after-association methods because separation is performed in a higher-dimensional space, the methods are computationally tractable and represent a useful new tool in the suite of options available for tracking multiple animals with passive acoustics. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America. Source

Gorham P.W.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

Current evidence for dark matter in the Universe does not exclude heavy composite nuclear-density objects consisting of bound quarks or antiquarks over a significant range of masses. Here we analyze one such proposed scenario, which hypothesizes antiquark nuggets with a range of B∼1024-30 with specific predictions for spectral emissivity via interactions with normal matter. We find that, if these objects make up the majority of the dark matter density in the solar neighborhood, their radiation efficiency in solids is marginally constrained, due to limits from the total geothermal energy budget of the Earth. At allowed radiation efficiencies, the number density of such objects can be constrained to be well below dark matter densities by existing radio data over a mass range currently not restricted by other methods. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Dienes K.R.,National Science Foundation | Dienes K.R.,University of Maryland University College | Dienes K.R.,University of Arizona | Thomas B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose a new framework for dark-matter physics. Rather than focus on one or more stable dark-matter particles, we instead consider a multicomponent framework in which the dark matter of the universe comprises a vast ensemble of interacting fields with a variety of different masses, mixings, and abundances. Moreover, rather than impose stability for each field individually, we ensure the phenomenological viability of such a scenario by requiring that those states with larger masses and standard-model decay widths have correspondingly smaller relic abundances, and vice versa. In other words, dark-matter stability is not an absolute requirement in such a framework, but is balanced against abundance. This leads to a highly dynamical scenario in which cosmological quantities such as Ω CDM experience nontrivial time-dependences beyond those associated with the expansion of the universe. Although it may seem difficult to arrange an ensemble of states which have the required decay widths and relic abundances, we present one particular example in which this balancing act occurs naturally: an infinite tower of Kaluza-Klein (KK) states living in the bulk of large extra spacetime dimensions. Remarkably, this remains true even if the stability of the KK tower itself is entirely unprotected. Thus theories with large extra dimensions-and by extension, certain limits of string theory-naturally give rise to dynamical dark matter. Such scenarios also generically give rise to a rich set of collider and astrophysical phenomena which transcend those usually associated with dark matter. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Daroch M.,China University of Technology | Geng S.,China University of Technology | Wang G.,China University of Technology | Wang G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

Major challenges of the modern world: energy security, oil price, resources depletion and climate change, have prompted significant advances in research and development of biomass-derived energy and fuels. Algal biofuels are seen as one of the most promising solutions of global energy crisis and climate change for the years to come. Major advantages of algae are potentially high yield and no competition with food crops for arable land and fresh water resource. This review summarises recent advances in algal biofuel production and focuses on synthesis of transportation fuel rather than characterising algal feedstocks or their well-documented potential as bioenergy resource. The available literature covering production of bioethanol, biodiesel and other potential liquid fuels are evaluated. Overall finding from this study suggests that to date the most effective methods of producing biofuels from algal feedstocks are: fermentation of microalgae to bioethanol and production of biodiesel via in situ transesterification of microalgal biomass. The real breakthrough however is expected from metabolic engineering of photosynthetic organisms to produce and secrete biofuels that promises significant simplification of down-stream processing. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kimura A.H.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Agriculture and Human Values | Year: 2011

This paper analyzes politics of food education in Japan where food education has become one of the central motifs of food policy in recent years. It describes the emergence of private enterprise institutions that offer credentials for people as "food education experts," the majority of whom are women. Based on a survey of more than one hundred food education experts, the paper explores motivations of these women and finds that the reasons for the popularity of food education certifications are not so much that women wanted to challenge the dominant food system-as agrofood scholars may have expected or hoped for-but for reasons related more to the gendered career expectations and pressures for women to conform to a culturally-scripted feminine ideal. The paper's importance beyond Japan lies in the discussion of dynamics and implications of privatization of food education. "Privatization" indicates a shift in the location of control and in what is considered to be "necessary" knowledge about food. Subject to market logic, food education is at risk of becoming an exercise of superficial mastering of "sanitized" information. Furthermore, at the core of privatization of food education is an increasingly pervasive approach to food education that I term "food literacy" approach, based upon a deficiency framework which posits individual knowledge and skills as sole reasons for inappropriate food choices, dietary behaviors, and culinary practices. Not only is the food literacy approach highly individualistic and apolitical, but it also enables and exacerbates the privatization and gendered pressures of food education. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Oka E.,University of Tokyo | Qiu B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Oceanography | Year: 2012

This article reviews the progress in research on North Pacific mode waters of the past decade from the physical oceanographic perspective. The accumulation of satellite altimeter sea surface height data, the rapid growth of the Argo profiling float array, and the advancement in eddy-resolving ocean general circulation models have greatly improved the traditional views on the mode waters that were formed prior to the 1990s based on the analyses of historical temperature/salinity data. Areas where significant progress was made include: (1) descriptions of the mode waters' distributions and properties with fine spatial scales, particularly in their formation regions in winter where observational data had been insufficient; (2) clarifications of the mode waters' formation and subduction processes relating to the large-scale mean circulation, as well as to the time-varying mesoscale eddy field; (3) impacts of the mode waters' circulation and dissipation processes on the climate and biogeochemical processes; and (4) dynamic versus thermodynamic causes underlying the mode waters' decadal changes. In addition to the review, future directions for mode water research are also presented. © 2011 The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer. Source

Spencer J.H.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Urban Health | Year: 2013

The literature on development has focused on the concept of transition in understanding the emergent challenges facing poor but rapidly developing countries. Scholars have focused extensively on the health and urban transitions associated with this change and, in particular, its use for understanding emerging infectious diseases. However, few have developed explicit empirical measures to quantify the extent to which a transitions focus is useful for theory, policy, and practice. Using open source data on avian influenza in 2004 and 2005 and the Vietnam Census of Population and Housing, this paper introduces the Kuznets curve as a tool for empirically estimating transition and disease. Findings suggest that the Kuznets curve is a viable tool for empirically assessing the role of transitional dynamics in the emergence of new infectious diseases. © 2012 The New York Academy of Medicine. Source

Maunakea A.K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Maunakea A.K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Chepelev I.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chepelev I.,Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology | And 2 more authors.
Cell Research | Year: 2013

Although the function of DNA methylation in gene promoter regions is well established in transcriptional repression, the function of the evolutionarily conserved widespread distribution of DNA methylation in gene body regions remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that DNA methylation is enriched in included alternatively spliced exons (ASEs), and that inhibition of DNA methylation results in aberrant splicing of ASEs. The methyl-CpG-binding protein MeCP2 is enriched in included ASEs, particularly those that are also highly methylated, and inhibition of DNA methylation disrupts specific targeting of MeCP2 to exons. Interestingly, ablation of MeCP2 results in increased histone acetylation and aberrant ASE-skipping events. We further show that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity leads to exon skipping that shows a highly significant degree of overlap with that caused by MeCP2 knockdown. Together, our data indicate that intragenic DNA methylation operates in exon definition to modulate alternative RNA splicing and can enhance exon recognition via recruitment of the multifunctional protein MeCP2, which thereby maintains local histone hypoacetylation through the subsequent recruitment of HDACs. © 2013 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved. Source

Nichols A.W.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Current Sports Medicine Reports | Year: 2015

Competitive swimmers are affected by several musculoskeletal and medical complaints that are unique to the sport. «Swimmer's shoulder,» the most common overuse injury, is usually caused by some combination of impingement, rotator cuff tendinopathy, scapular dyskinesis, and instability. The condition may be treated with training modifications, stroke error correction, and strengthening exercises targeting the rotator cuff, scapular stabilizers, and core. Implementation of prevention programs to reduce the prevalence of shoulder pathology is crucial. Knee pain usually results from the breaststroke kick in swimmers, and the «egg beater» kick in water polo players and synchronized swimmers. Lumbar back pain also is common in aquatics athletes. Among the medical conditions of particular importance in swimmers are exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, respiratory illnesses, and ear problems. Participants in other aquatics sports (water polo, diving, synchronized swimming, and open water swimming) may experience medical ailments specific to the sport. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

Sugii N.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant | Year: 2011

More than one third of the USA's federally listed endangered and threatened plants are endemic to Hawaii. Because of the accelerating rate of environmental pressures resulting from habitat degradation to loss, the Hawaiian Rare Plant Program (HRPP, Lyon Arboretum, Honolulu, Hawaii) utilizes in vitro culture and seed storage to rescue, recover, and restore Hawaii's most critically endangered native plant taxa. These in vitro methods complement existing ex situ and in situ efforts in the state. Wild-collected seeds tend to be hard to clean, and obtaining contamination-free seeds or embryos without damage or over sterilization is one of the most difficult obstacles in the successful establishment of in vitro cultures. Loss of rare and valuable propagation material occurs when seed samples succumb to contamination or mortality during the initial disinfestation stage. This study reviews pre-treatments and provides examples of three general disinfestation protocols successfully used in the HRPP to establish axenic ovule and embryo cultures of some endangered Hawaiian species. Three disinfestation protocols are described: bleach sterilization, gas sterilization, and ethanol dip and flame. Since 1998, the HRPP has been successful in establishing in vitro cultures of 135 endangered Hawaiian plant taxa representing 30 genera. © 2010 The Society for In Vitro Biology. Source

Kaiser R.I.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Mebel A.M.,Florida International University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

This tutorial review compiles recent experimental and theoretical studies on the formation of polyacetylenes (H(CC)nH) and cyanopolyacetylenes (H(CC)nCN) together with their methyl-substituted counterparts (CH3(CC)nH, CH3(CC)nCN) as probed under single collision conditions in crossed beam studies via the elementary reactions of ethynyl (CCH) and cyano radicals (CN) with unsaturated hydrocarbons. The role of these key reaction classes in the chemical evolution of Titan's orange-brownish haze layers is also discussed. We further comment on astrobiological implications of our findings with respect to proto-Earth and present a brief outlook on future research directions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Based on observational studies, it appears that soy food consumption provides protection against breast cancer primarily in Asian but not in Western populations. Given the problems in examining the effects of isoflavones directly in the human mammary gland, this review describes epidemiologic studies that investigated the association with biomarkers reflecting hormonal activity of isoflavones, in particular sex steroid levels, mammographic densities, nipple aspirate fluid, and tissue specimens from biopsies or surgeries. Three possible mechanisms that may be responsible for ethnic-specific health effects from these compounds are discussed: genetic variation in metabolic enzymes, timing of exposure, and intestinal metabolism by microbiota. Only a limited number of comparative studies and even fewer nutritional interventions have examined effects and addressed differences in biomarkers between Asian and Western populations. Investigations that looked at estrogens and mammographic densities as endpoints observed some associations in Asian women that were not seen in Caucasians. On the other hand, the low rate of nipple aspirate fluid production and a lack of breast tissue studies make it impossible to evaluate effects of isoflavones on these biomarkers in Asian women. Based on the current evidence, it appears likely that the timing of exposure is the most important determinant of beneficial health effects from soy foods. This may be the result of gut microbiota, which colonize the intestine during childhood and facilitates the hydrolysis of glycosides and the formation of equol from dadzein, a pathway that may result in beneficial health effects. The current evidence is insufficient to answer the question whether women of diverse ethnic groups experience distinct effects from soy isoflavones in breast tissue, but as knowledge about the role of early life nutrition and the development of gut microbiota increases, the potential for diverse metabolic pathways of isoflavones in individuals with different ethnic backgrounds and dietary exposures may be clarified. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. Source

Pearce M.G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Clinical and Experimental Optometry | Year: 2014

Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of global visual impairment. Given resource constraints in developing countries, the gold standard method of refractive error correction, custom-made spectacles, is unlikely to be available for some time. Therefore, ready-made and recycled spectacles are in wide use in the developing world. To ensure that refractive error interventions are successful, it is important that only appropriate modes of refractive error correction are used. As a basis for policy development, a systematic literature review was conducted of interventional studies analysing visual function, patient satisfaction and continued use outcomes of ready-made and recycled spectacles dispensed to individuals in developing countries with refractive errors or presbyopia. PubMed and CINAHL were searched by MESH terms and keywords related to ready-made and recycled spectacle interventions, yielding 185 non-duplicated papers. After applying exclusion criteria, eight papers describing seven studies of clinical outcomes of dispensing ready-made spectacles were retained for analysis. The two randomised controlled trials and five non-experimental studies suggest that ready-made spectacles can provide sufficient visual function for a large portion of the world's population with refractive error, including those with astigmatism and/or anisometropia. The follow-up period for many of the studies was too short to confidently comment on patient satisfaction and continued-use outcomes. No studies were found that met inclusion criteria and discussed recycled spectacles. The literature also notes concerns about quality and cost effectiveness of recycled spectacles, as well as their tendency to increase developing countries' reliance on outside sources of help. In light of the findings, the dispensing of ready-made spectacles should be favoured over the dispensing of recycled spectacles in developing countries. Clinical and Experimental Optometry. © 2014 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia. Source

Goetze E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

Species discovery through large-scale sampling of mitochondrial diversity, as advocated under DNA barcoding, has been widely criticized. Two of the primary weaknesses of this approach, the use of a single gene marker for species delineation and the possible coamplification of nuclear pseudogenes, can be circumvented through incorporation of multiple data sources. Here I show that for taxonomic groups with poorly characterized systematics, large-scale genetic screening using a mitochondrial DNA marker can be a very effective approach to species discovery. Global sampling (120 locations) of 1295 individuals of 22 described species of eucalanid copepods identified 15 novel evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) within this marine holoplanktonic family. Species limits were tested under reciprocal monophyly at the mitochondrial (mt) gene 16S rRNA, and 13 of 15 lineages were reciprocally monophyletic under three phylogenetic inference methods. Five of these mitochondrial ESUs also received moderate support for reciprocal monophyly at the independently-inherited nuclear gene, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Additional support for the utility of mt DNA as a proxy for species boundaries in this taxon is discussed, including results from related morphological and biogeographic studies. Minimal overlap of intra-ESU and inter-ESU 16S rRNA genetic distances was observed, suggesting that this mt marker performs well for species discovery via molecular screening. Sampling coverage required for the discovery of new ESUs was found to be in the range of >50 individuals /species, well above the sampling intensity of most current DNA Barcoding studies. Large-scale genetic screening can provide critical first data on the presence of cryptic species, and should be used as an approach to generate systematic hypotheses in groups with incomplete taxonomies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Darling E.S.,Simon Fraser University | Alvarez-Filip L.,Simon Fraser University | Oliver T.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Mcclanahan T.R.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Cote I.M.,Simon Fraser University
Ecology Letters | Year: 2012

Classifying the biological traits of organisms can test conceptual frameworks of life-history strategies and allow for predictions of how different species may respond to environmental disturbances. We apply a trait-based classification approach to a complex and threatened group of species, scleractinian corals. Using hierarchical clustering and random forests analyses, we identify up to four life-history strategies that appear globally consistent across 143 species of reef corals: competitive, weedy, stress-tolerant and generalist taxa, which are primarily separated by colony morphology, growth rate and reproductive mode. Documented shifts towards stress-tolerant, generalist and weedy species in coral reef communities are consistent with the expected responses of these life-history strategies. Our quantitative trait-based approach to classifying life-history strategies is objective, applicable to any taxa and a powerful tool that can be used to evaluate theories of community ecology and predict the impact of environmental and anthropogenic stressors on species assemblages. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS. Source

Nevzorov R.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Nevzorov R.,Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

The breakdown of E6 gauge symmetry at high energies may lead to supersymmetric models based on the standard model gauge group together with extra U(1)ψ and U(1)χ gauge symmetries. To ensure anomaly cancellation the particle content of these E6 inspired models involves extra exotic states that generically give rise to nondiagonal flavor transitions and rapid proton decay. We argue that a single discrete ZËœ2H symmetry can be used to forbid tree-level flavor changing transitions, as well as the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We present 5D and 6D orbifold grand unified theory constructions that lead to the E6 inspired supersymmetric models of this type. The breakdown of U(1)ψ and U(1)χ gauge symmetries that preserves E6 matter parity assignment guarantees that ordinary quarks and leptons and their superpartners, as well as the exotic states which originate from 27 representations of E6, survive to low energies. These E6 inspired models contain two dark matter candidates and must also include additional TeV scale vectorlike lepton or vectorlike down-type quark states to render the lightest exotic quark unstable. We examine gauge coupling unification in these models and discuss their implications for collider phenomenology and cosmology. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Kaneshiro B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2012

Obesity and unintended pregnancy differentially affect women based on sociodemographic factors. Because of the overlap of these factors, obesity and unintended pregnancy have been described as colliding epidemics. Understanding the relationship between obesity and unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and sexual behavior is important in improving the reproductive health of women given the increasing weight demographic. A review of the literature reveals contraceptive use versus nonuse does not differ in women of different body weights. Obese women use oral contraceptives less than normal weight women and are more likely to use procedural methods like sterilization. No difference was noted in most types of sexual behavior for women of different body weights. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. Source

Chi J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2016

This paper explores the long-run impacts of gross domestic product, exchange rate, and transport costs on bilateral air and ocean freight flows between the US and China. The study employs a cointegration framework by using export and import data over the period of 2003:Q1-2014:Q2. Results show that gross domestic product is the key determinant of bilateral freight flows, indicating that real income of a trading partner is a driving force of the bilateral freight flows between the US and China. In examining the sensitivities of the bilateral trade flows, air freight flows are found to be more responsive to a real income change than ocean freight flows. The bilateral exchange rate is a significant factor affecting the freight flows from China to the US, suggesting that a US dollar appreciation against the Chinese yuan increases the inflows of Chinese commodities to the US. The impacts of the bilateral exchange rate and transport cost are found to vary at industry and commodity levels. These findings support the importance of employing disaggregate data in the bilateral freight flow analysis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mondragon Chaparro D.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional Ciidir | Ticktin T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Conservation Biology | Year: 2011

Hundreds of epiphytic bromeliads species are harvested from the wild for trade and for cultural uses, but little is known about the effects of this harvest. We assessed the potential demographic effects of harvesting from the wild on 2 epiphytic bromeliads: Tillandsia macdougallii, an atmospheric bromeliad (adsorbs water and nutrients directly from the atmosphere), and T. violaceae, a tank bromeliad (accumulates water and organic material between its leaves). We also examined an alternative to harvesting bromeliads from trees-the collection of fallen bromeliads from the forest floor. We censused populations of T. macdougallii each year from 2005 to 2010 and of T. violaceae from 2005 to 2008, in Oaxaca, Mexico. We also measured monthly fall rates of bromeliads over 1 year and monitored the survival of fallen bromeliads on the forest floor. The tank bromeliad had significantly higher rates of survival, reproduction, and stochastic population growth rates (λs) than the atmospheric bromeliad, but λs for both species were <1, which suggests that the populations will decline even without harvest. Elasticity patterns differed between species, but in both, survival of large individuals had high elasticity values. No fallen bromeliads survived more than 1.5 years on the forest floor and the rate of bromeliad fall was comparable to current harvest rates. Low rates of population growth recorded for the species we studied and other epiphytic bromeliads and high elasticity values for the vital rates that were most affected by harvest suggest that commercial harvesting in the wild of these species is not sustainable. We propose the collection of fallen bromeliads as an ecologically and, potentially, economically viable alternative. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology. Source

In recent years, Karl Polanyi's concept of the “double movement” has been resurrected to describe growing international resistance to neoliberal global capitalism. The double movement originally referred to counter-movements for social protection against the 19th and early 20th century laissez-faire market. Today, it describes the growth of new social movements which often resist neoliberal economic practices and ideologies. Drawing on Polanyi's concept of the double movement and on recent work on neoliberalism and new social movements, this article examines farm hosts' motivations for participation in World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms (WWOOF). It argues that farm hosts tend to articulate their motivations as an attempt to proclaim solidarity with organic, spiritual, and educational new social movement agendas. It describes how a loosely articulated organic identity converges around three corollary protective counter-movements: organic food production and consumption, spirituality, and alternative education, exploring the creative ways people are resisting neoliberal capitalism at the intersection of alternative tourism and organic agriculture. Yet, despite hosts' intentions, the article illustrates how new social movement participation through WWOOF is in constant tension with the neoliberal agrarian and tourism marketplace in which it operates, as well as the perhaps unforeseen limits of its radical horizon. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Stewart M.L.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Schroeder N.M.,Johns Hopkins University
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2013

Constipation in children is defined on the basis of several clusters of symptoms, and these symptoms are likely to persist into adulthood. The aim of this review article is to summarize the current literature on the use of dietary fiber and whole grains as treatments for childhood constipation. Current recommendations for fiber intake in children vary substantially among organizations, suggesting that the function of fiber in children is not fully understood. Additionally, no formal definition of "whole grain" exists, which further complicates the interpretation of the literature. Few randomized controlled trials have examined the effect of dietary fiber supplementation in children with constipation. Currently, no randomized controlled trials have investigated the efficacy of whole grains in treating childhood constipation. This is an area that warrants further attention. Increasing the intake of dietary fiber and/or whole grain has the potential to relieve childhood constipation; however, additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to make a formal recommendation. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute. Source

Covariance among plant defense traits is predicted to occur both within and among plant species, potentially leading to characteristic defense syndromes. I examined patterns of variation in prickle density, latex exudation, and tolerance in order to assess whether traits varied between populations, across plant ontogeny, and as phenotypic plasticity in response to water and light limitation and physical damage using the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, Argemone glauca, as a model system. Plants produced copious latex, had extremely variable prickle densities, and were generally tolerant of 50 % defoliation. However, expression patterns differed among defense traits. Prickle density was consistent across ontogeny and was not induced by either water limitation or mechanical damage, but was significantly induced under high light conditions. In contrast, latex exudation increased significantly across ontogeny and was reduced by water limitation, but had no response to mechanical damage or light. Prickles, latex, and tolerance differed considerably between populations, suggesting different evolutionary histories for these populations. These disparate patterns indicate that latex and prickles are unlinked within A. glauca, potentially as a result of differences in their function, and providing little evidence that they jointly function as a defense syndrome. Moreover, this study provides the first description patterns of variation for multiple defense traits in an island endemic, and high levels of prickles, latex, and tolerance suggest that A. glauca is well defended against herbivores. Future research in the field will provide additional insights into the functional ecology of these traits in A. glauca. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Zeebe R.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Paleoceanography | Year: 2013

Paleorecords show that the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ∼56 Ma) was associated with a large carbon cycle anomaly and global warming >5 K, which persisted for at least 50 kyr. Conventional carbon cycle/climate models that include a single initial carbon input pulse over ∼10 kyr fail to reproduce the long duration of the PETM without invoking additional, slow carbon release over more than 50 kyr (hereafter referred to as bleeding). However, a potential carbon source for the bleeding, as well as its release mechanism, has hitherto remained elusive. Here I present first-principle calculations of heat transfer in marine sediments which demonstrate that a bottom water temperature anomaly as generated during the PETM takes tens of thousands of years to penetrate the top few hundred meters of deep-sea sediments. While the initial temperature rise has been suggested to cause dissociation of the majority of oceanic methane hydrate within ∼10 kyr, my calculations reveal a long tail of hydrate dissociation, causing smaller but continued carbon release substantially beyond 10 kyr. In addition, I suggest that temperature-enhanced metabolic processes in marine sediments and the absence of methane hydrate deposition during the PETM contributed to prolonged carbon input during the event. Enhanced fluxes of methane over this time scale would have sustained the carbon isotope excursion and amplified long-term greenhouse warming by elevating atmospheric concentrations of steady state CH4, or in oxidized form, CO2. Key Points PETM duration of more than 50 kyr is a mysteryI present first-principle calculations pointing to slow methane releaseLong PETM duration due to hydrate release and temperature-enhanced metabolism ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Decima M.,University of California at San Diego | Landry M.R.,University of California at San Diego | Popp B.N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Limnology and Oceanography | Year: 2013

Nitrogen isotopic compositions of zooplankton in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) are known to vary over inter-annual scales of climate variability, but the extent to which those changes are driven by variations in baseline phytoplankton δ15N values vs. zooplankton trophic position (TP) is poorly resolved. We use field samples collected during a large natural environmental perturbation, the 1998-1999 alternation between El Niño and La Niña states, to test the ability of large dominant CCE zooplankton Euphausia pacifica and Calanus pacificus to alter their TPs in response to environmental variability. To distinguish trophic changes from variations of δ15N values at the base of the food web, the zooplankton were assayed by Compound Specific Isotope Analysis of Amino Acids (CSIA-AA). Linear mixed-effect models were developed to utilize data from all amino acids (AAs), providing greater statistical power than the typical CSIA-AA approach of using only phenylalanine and glutamic acid. We confirm a significant 15N enrichment of ~ 2% at the base of the food web for all AAs and all zooplankton groups during the 1998 El Niñ o. This baseline enrichment in 15N has been speculated to occur during El Niño events but never conclusively shown. We also demonstrate a significantly elevated TP, implying increased carnivory during 1998, for E. pacifica while C. pacificus did not alter their TP between years. Lastly, TPs calculated from the standard CSIA-AA equation with laboratory-derived constants gave unrealistically low estimates, suggesting an assessment of these variables in situ is needed for an accurate application in natural systems. © 2013, by the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc. Source

Moser S.C.,Susanne Moser Research and Consulting | Moser S.C.,Stanford University | Jeffress Williams S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Boesch D.F.,University of Cambridge
Annual Review of Environment and Resources | Year: 2012

With continuing influx of large numbers of people into coastal regions, human stresses on coastal ecosystems and resources are growing at the same time that climate variability and change and associated consequences in the marine environment are making coastal areas less secure for human habitation. The article reviews both climatic and nonclimatic drivers of the growing stresses on coastal natural and human systems, painting a picture of the mostly harmful impacts that result and the interactive and systemic challenges coastal managers face in managing these growing risks. Although adaptive responses are beginning to emerge, the adaptation challenge is enormous and requires not just incremental but also transformative changes. At the same time, such "wicked" problems, by definition, defy all-encompassing, definitive, and final solutions; instead, temporary best solutions will have to be sought in the context of an iterative, deliberately learning-oriented risk management framework. © Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Gaidos E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

If the photospheres of solar-type stars represent the composition of circumstellar disks from which any planets formed, spectroscopic determinations of stellar elemental abundances offer information on the composition of those planets, including smaller, rocky planets. In particular, the C/O ratio is proposed to be a key determinant of the composition of solids that condense from disk gas and are incorporated into planets. Also, planets may leave chemical signatures on the photospheres of their host stars by sequestering heavy elements, or by being accreted by the stars. The presence, absence, and composition of planets could be revealed by small differences in the relative abundances between stars. I critically examine these scenarios and show that (i) a model of Galactic chemical evolution predicts that the C/O ratio is expected to be close to the solar value and varies little between dwarf stars in the solar neighborhood; (ii) spectroscopic surveys of M dwarf stars limit the occurrence of stars with C/O to ; and (iii) planetesimal chemistry will be controlled by the composition of oxygen-rich dust inherited from the molecular cloud and processed in a dust-rich environment, not a gas with the stellar composition. A second generation of more reduced planetesimals could be produced by re-equilibration of material with dust-depleted gas. Finally, I discuss how minor differences in relative abundances between stars that correlate with condensation temperature can be explained by dust-gas segregation, perhaps in circumstellar disks, rather than planet formation. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Zeebe R.E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

Due to the chaotic nature of the solar system, the question of its dynamic long-term stability can only be answered in a statistical sense, for instance, based on numerical ensemble integrations of nearby orbits. Destabilization of the inner planets, including catastrophic encounters and/or collisions involving the Earth, has been suggested to be initiated through a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity (), with an estimated probability of ∼1%. However, it has recently been shown that the statistics of numerical solar system integrations are sensitive to the accuracy and type of numerical algorithm. Here, I report results from computationally demanding ensemble integrations (N = 1600 with slightly different initial conditions) at unprecedented accuracy based on the full equations of motion of the eight planets and Pluto over 5 Gyr, including contributions from general relativity. The standard symplectic algorithm used for long-term integrations produced spurious results for highly eccentric orbits and during close encounters, which were hence integrated with a suitable Bulirsch-Stoer algorithm, specifically designed for these situations. The present study yields odds for a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity that are less than previous estimates. Strikingly, in two solutions, Mercury continued on highly eccentric orbits (after reaching values >0.93) for 80-100 Myr before colliding with Venus or the Sun. Most importantly, none of the 1600 solutions led to a close encounter involving the Earth or a destabilization of Earth's orbit in the future. I conclude that Earth's orbit will be dynamically highly stable for billions of years in the future, despite the chaotic behavior of the solar system. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source