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Hilo, HI, United States

The University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo, UHH, or UH Hilo is one of the ten branches of the University of Hawaiʻi system anchored by the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi, United States. The University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo is a public and co-educational university with the main campus located at 200 West Kawili Street, Hilo, the county seat for Hawaiʻi County.The University is composed of six colleges, and has received recognition for numerous academic programs including the marine biology, volcanology, astronomy, Hawaiian language, pharmacy, agriculture, computer science, and nursing programs.Ka Haka ʻUla O Keʻelikōlani, College of Hawaiian Language is the only school in the United States to offer graduate degrees for study in an indigenous language.The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy is the only ACPE approved pharmacy school in the State of Hawaiʻi and the Pacific Islands.UH Hilo ranks in the top 10 for having both the most ethnic diversity and the lowest percentage of students with debt at graduation, according to U.S. News & World Report. Wikipedia.

How plants respond to long-term nutrient enrichment can provide insights into physiological and evolutionary constraints in various ecosystems. The present study examined foliar concentrations after fertilization-to determine if nutrient accumulation responses of the most abundant species in a plant community reflect differences in N and P uptake and storage. Using a chronosequence in the Hawaiian Islands that differs in N and P availability, it was shown that after fertilization, plants increase foliar P to a much greater degree than foliar N, as indicated by response ratios. In addition, foliar P responses after fertilization were more variable and largely driving the observed changes in N:P values. Across species, both inorganic and organic P increased but neither form of N increased significantly. This pattern of P accumulation was consistent across 13 species of varying life forms and occurred at both the N-limited and P-limited site, although its magnitude was larger at the P-limited site. Foliar P accumulation after nutrient enrichment may indicate nutrient storage and may have evolved to be a general strategy to deal with uncertainties in P availability. Storage of P complicates interpretations of N:P values and the determination of nutrient limitation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Carson H.S.,University of Hawaii at Hilo
Marine Pollution Bulletin

One of the primary threats to ocean ecosystems from plastic pollution is ingestion by marine organisms. Well-documented in seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals, ingestion by fish and sharks has received less attention until recently. We suggest that fishes of a variety of sizes attack drifting plastic with high frequency, as evidenced by the apparent bite marks commonly left behind. We examined 5518 plastic items from random plots on Kamilo Point, Hawai'i Island, and found 15.8% to have obvious signs of attack. Extrapolated to the entire amount of debris removed from the 15. km area, over 1.3. tons of plastic is attacked each year. Items with a bottle shape, or those blue or yellow in color, were attacked with a higher frequency. The triangular edges or punctures left by teeth ranged from 1 to 20. mm in width suggesting a variety of species attack plastic items. More research is needed to document the specific fishes and rates of plastic ingestion. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pezzuto J.M.,University of Hawaii at Hilo
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Cancer chemoprevention entails the ingestion of dietary or pharmaceutical agents that can prevent, delay, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. With support provided by the National Cancer Institute, we have been actively engaged in the systematic discovery and characterization of natural chemopreventive agents. The typical approach involves identifying active crude substances such as extracts derived from terrestrial plants or marine organisms, utilizing in vitro bioassay systems, followed by the isolation of pure active components. As part of this project, an extract obtained from a nonedible Peruvian legume, Cassia quinquangulata Rich. (Leguminosae), was evaluated and found to be active as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase. The active component was identified as resveratrol. Surprisingly broad spectrum activity was observed, indicative of potential to inhibit carcinogenesis at the stages of initiation, promotion, and progression. This discovery has led to many additional research efforts. There are now around 3,500 papers concerning some aspect of resveratrol action, yet the molecule is unusually promiscuous and specific mechanisms remain elusive. Considering the structural simplicity of this stilbene, the intensity of interest is phenomenal. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

Smith S.A.,University of Hawaii at Hilo
International Journal of Nursing Knowledge

PURPOSE: The purpose of this analysis was to explore the concept of nurse competence. DATA SOURCES: Data sources include EBSCOhost, Gale PowerSearch, ProQuest, PubMed Medline, Google Scholar, and Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. DATA SYNTHESIS: This paper utilizes Rodgers' evolutionary method to analyze the concept of nurse competence. CONCLUSION: Antecedents to nurse competence include personal and external motivations. Attributes include integrating knowledge into practice, experience, critical thinking, proficient skills, caring, communication, environment, motivation, and professionalism. Consequences include confidence, safe practice, and holistic care. Implications for nursing responsibility regarding defining nurse competence and ensuring nurse competence need to be identified. More research is needed to determine the best evaluation methods for the different facets of nurse competence. © 2012, The Author International Journal of Nursing Knowledge © 2012, NANDA International. Source

Pillon Y.,University of Hawaii at Hilo
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society

New Caledonia is well known for its rich and unique flora. Many studies have focused on the biogeographical origins of New Caledonian plants but rates of diversification on the island have scarcely been investigated. Here, dated phylogenetic trees from selected published studies were used to evaluate the time and tempo of diversification in New Caledonia. The 12 plant lineages investigated all appear to have colonized the island <37Mya, when New Caledonia re-emerged after a period of inundation, and the timing of these arrivals is spread across the second half of the Cenozoic. Diversification rates are not particularly high and are negatively correlated with lineage age. The palms have the fastest diversification rates and also the most recent arrival times. The lineage ages of rainforest plants suggest that this ecosystem has been present for at least 6.9Myr. The New Caledonian flora is apparently a relatively old community that may have reached a dynamic equilibrium. Colonization by new immigrants has been possible until relatively recently and diversity-dependent processes may still be affecting the diversification rates of the earlier colonizers. Further studies on the diversification of large plant clades with exhaustive sampling should help to clarify this. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London. Source

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