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Harīpur, Pakistan

Beaney K.E.,University College London | Cooper J.A.,University College London | Shahid S.U.,University of Punjab | Ahmed W.,University of Haripur | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Numerous risk prediction algorithms based on conventional risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) are available but provide only modest discrimination. The inclusion of genetic information may improve clinical utility. Methods: We tested the use of two gene scores (GS) in the prospective second Northwick Park Heart Study (NPHSII) of 2775 healthy UK men (284 cases), and Pakistani case-control studies from Islamabad/Rawalpindi (321 cases/228 controls) and Lahore (414 cases/219 controls). The 19-SNP GS included SNPs in loci identified by GWAS and candidate gene studies, while the 13-SNP GS only included SNPs in loci identified by the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium. Results: In NPHSII, the mean of both gene scores was higher in those who went on to develop CHD over 13.5 years of follow-up (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=7x10-3). In combination with the Framingham algorithm the GSs appeared to show improvement in discrimination (increase in area under the ROC curve, 19-SNP p=0.48, 13-SNP p=0.82) and risk classification (net reclassification improvement (NRI), 19-SNP p=0.28, 13-SNP p=0.42) compared to the Framingham algorithm alone, but these were not statistically significant. When considering only individuals who moved up a risk category with inclusion of the GS, the improvement in risk classification was statistically significant (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=0.04). In the Pakistani samples, risk allele frequencies were significantly lower compared to NPHSII for 13/19 SNPs. In the Islamabad study, the mean gene score was higher in cases than controls only for the 13-SNP GS (2.24 v 2.34, p=0.04). There was no association with CHD and either score in the Lahore study. Conclusion: The performance of both GSs showed potential clinical utility in European men but much less utility in subjects from Pakistan, suggesting that a different set of risk loci or SNPs may be required for risk prediction in the South Asian population. © 2015 Beaney et al.

Azhar Khan M.,University of Haripur | Zahir Khan M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Zaman K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Naz L.,University of Karachi
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

The present study examines the long-run relationship between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission for different groups of countries comprising lower middle income, upper middle income, and heavily indebted countries, East Asia and Pacific, East Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and for aggregate data of the world. The data has been analyzed by using various econometric techniques, specifically the Johnson cointegration, modified version of Granger causality and variance decomposition analysis from the period of 1975 to 2011. The results confirm that there is a long-run relationship between greenhouse gas emissions (i.e. agricultural methane emission, agricultural nitrous oxide emission and carbon dioxide emission) and energy consumption. The results of Granger causality indicate that energy consumption Granger causes greenhouse gas emission but not vice versa. The important finding is that energy consumption Granger causes GDP per unit energy use, which confirms the energy led growth hypothesis in the world. However, the vice versa relationship does not hold. The results imply that a policy to cut energy consumption tends to diminish greenhouse gas emission though affecting GDP of countries negatively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Bibi Y.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Zia M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Qayyum A.,University of Haripur
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization. © 2015, Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.

Syed M.A.,University of Haripur | Bana N.F.,Triple A Living Communities Inc
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly infectious, vaccine preventable disease. The incidence of the disease has greatly been reduced since the introduction of the diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccine. Pertussis resurgence has been observed in highly vaccinated populations of Western countries since 1990s. Poor vaccine quality, waning vaccine induced immunity, pathogen adaptation, and enhanced surveillance as well as advancements in diagnostic facilities are some of the reasons considered responsible for the increased reporting of pertussis cases. Pertussis may have been ignored and unnoticed due to its atypical manifestations in partially immunized population or people with waning immunity. We review the reports of pertussis resurgence from different countries and attempt to investigate reasons behind the reappearance of the disease. Pertussis is still an under reported disease and the available data from the developing countries is not a true picture of the story. Therefore, developing countries need to improve their surveillance systems. © 2014, Saudi Medical Journal. All rights reserved.

Khan M.A.,University of Haripur | Khan M.Z.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Zaman K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Arif M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

As the world struggles to emerge from a global recession and financial crisis, countries are looking for solutions to improve domestic economic performance and put people back to work. Global energy demand and prices have been resilient during the recession, leading policy-makers in countries with the potential to produce energy to look to that sector as a potential engine for economic growth. The objective of this study is to undertake an empirical study on linkages among energy consumption, economic growth, FDI, relative price and financial development (i.e., broad money supply - M2) in low income, middle income, high income non-OECD, high income OECD, South Africa, Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the aggregate data of the World over a period of 1975-2011. Data is analyzed by the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS) test of unit root to find out the order of integration. The long-run relationship is investigated through the Pedroni [37] test of panel cointegration. At last, the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) method is used for estimation of the impact of growth factors on energy consumption in these regions. The results reveal that each variable seem to have a unit root at level, so we could investigate cointegration of the series at level. On the basis of Pedroni test, we can bring to a close that series are cointegrated. The results of seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) suggests that GDP per capita has a positive impact on energy consumption in low income, middle income, South Africa, MENA and aggregate data of the World. However, in high income OECD and non-OECD regions, there is no significant relationship been found in both regions. FDI plays a pivotal role in increasing energy demand in middle income, high income OECD and non-OECD region which implies that whatever other benefits may accrue from FDI, it should not be expected to generate sufficient energy in South Africa, MENA and the World directly. FDI enhancement policies should be supplemented to stimulate growth in those regions. Broad money supply exerts positive impact on energy demand in low income, middle income, high income non-OECD and MENA regions. Finally, relative prices has either a positive impact i.e., middle income region and/or a negative impact on energy consumption i.e., low income, high income OECD and MENA region. The results conclude that lower energy prices reduce input costs for nearly all goods and services in the regions, thus making them more affordable. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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