University of Haripur

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

University of Haripur

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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Hussain M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Hussain M.,University of Haripur | Naseem Malik R.,University of Haripur | Taylor A.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Environmental Research | Year: 2017

This study quantified the carbon footprint of particleboard production in Pakistan using a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach. The system boundary comprised raw materials acquisition, transport, particleboard manufacture and finished product distribution. Primary data were collected through surveys and meetings with particleboard manufacturers. Secondary data were taken from the literature. Greenhouse gas emissions from off-site industrial operations of the particleboard industry represented 52% of the total emissions from the production of 1.0 m3 of particleboard in Pakistan. The on-site industrial operations cause direct greenhouse gas emissions and accounted for 48% of the total emissions. These operations included energy consumption in stationary sources, the company-owned vehicle fleet, and the distribution and marketing of the finished product. The use of natural gas combustion in the stationary and mobile sources, raw material transport and urea-formaldehyde resin production chain accounted for the highest emissions from the particleboard production chain in Pakistan. The identification of the major hotspots in the particleboard production chain can assist the wood panel industry to improve their environmental profile. More efforts are needed to investigate the urea-formaldehyde resin production chain and substitution of roundwood with wood and agri-residues to assess the potential improvements. In addition, renewable energy sources should be encouraged to avoid greenhouse gas emissions by substituting fossil energy. This study also provides a benchmark for future research work to formulate comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions reduction plans, because no previous research work is available on the carbon footprint of particleboard production in Pakistan. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Azhar Khan M.,University of Haripur | Zahir Khan M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Zaman K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Naz L.,University of Karachi
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

The present study examines the long-run relationship between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission for different groups of countries comprising lower middle income, upper middle income, and heavily indebted countries, East Asia and Pacific, East Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and for aggregate data of the world. The data has been analyzed by using various econometric techniques, specifically the Johnson cointegration, modified version of Granger causality and variance decomposition analysis from the period of 1975 to 2011. The results confirm that there is a long-run relationship between greenhouse gas emissions (i.e. agricultural methane emission, agricultural nitrous oxide emission and carbon dioxide emission) and energy consumption. The results of Granger causality indicate that energy consumption Granger causes greenhouse gas emission but not vice versa. The important finding is that energy consumption Granger causes GDP per unit energy use, which confirms the energy led growth hypothesis in the world. However, the vice versa relationship does not hold. The results imply that a policy to cut energy consumption tends to diminish greenhouse gas emission though affecting GDP of countries negatively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Akhmat G.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zaman K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Shukui T.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Sajjad F.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Khan M.A.,University of Haripur | Khan M.Z.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Zaman K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Arif M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

As the world struggles to emerge from a global recession and financial crisis, countries are looking for solutions to improve domestic economic performance and put people back to work. Global energy demand and prices have been resilient during the recession, leading policy-makers in countries with the potential to produce energy to look to that sector as a potential engine for economic growth. The objective of this study is to undertake an empirical study on linkages among energy consumption, economic growth, FDI, relative price and financial development (i.e., broad money supply - M2) in low income, middle income, high income non-OECD, high income OECD, South Africa, Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the aggregate data of the World over a period of 1975-2011. Data is analyzed by the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS) test of unit root to find out the order of integration. The long-run relationship is investigated through the Pedroni [37] test of panel cointegration. At last, the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) method is used for estimation of the impact of growth factors on energy consumption in these regions. The results reveal that each variable seem to have a unit root at level, so we could investigate cointegration of the series at level. On the basis of Pedroni test, we can bring to a close that series are cointegrated. The results of seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) suggests that GDP per capita has a positive impact on energy consumption in low income, middle income, South Africa, MENA and aggregate data of the World. However, in high income OECD and non-OECD regions, there is no significant relationship been found in both regions. FDI plays a pivotal role in increasing energy demand in middle income, high income OECD and non-OECD region which implies that whatever other benefits may accrue from FDI, it should not be expected to generate sufficient energy in South Africa, MENA and the World directly. FDI enhancement policies should be supplemented to stimulate growth in those regions. Broad money supply exerts positive impact on energy demand in low income, middle income, high income non-OECD and MENA regions. Finally, relative prices has either a positive impact i.e., middle income region and/or a negative impact on energy consumption i.e., low income, high income OECD and MENA region. The results conclude that lower energy prices reduce input costs for nearly all goods and services in the regions, thus making them more affordable. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Khan M.A.,University of Haripur | Khan M.Z.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Zaman K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Khan M.M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Zahoor H.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

This study investigates the long-run and the causal relationship between greenhouse gas emissions, economic growth per unit of energy use and energy consumption in Pakistan by using cointegration theory and Granger causality test. In addition, this study compares the influencing magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions on energy consumption by employing variance decomposition techniques over a 36-year time period, i.e., between 1975 and 2011. The study employed the Johansen cointegration technique to estimate the long-run relationship between the variables, Granger causality test to find the influencing directions while variance decomposition was used to compare the influencing magnitude between the variables. The study was limited to a few variables, including greenhouse gas emissions (such as agricultural methane emissions; agricultural nitrous oxide emissions; CO2 emissions and combustible renewables and waste); GDP per unit of energy use and energy consumption, in order to manage robust data analysis. Finding suggests that energy consumption acts as an important driver for increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Pakistan. The results indicate that on average, causality runs from energy consumption to greenhouse gas emissions but not vice versa. Energy consumption does not Granger cause agricultural nitrous oxide emissions via both routes which confirm 'neutrality causal hypotheses' between the variables. Greenhouse gas emissions are closely associated with economic growth per unit of energy use and energy consumption in Pakistan. Variance decomposition analysis shows that among all the greenhouse gas emissions, combustible renewables and waste exerted the largest contribution to changes in energy consumption in Pakistan. The results suggest that consuming energy by industries is becoming more increasing by every coming day, but it signifies the fact that emissions caused by consuming the energy is causing harm to the society by enlarge, and it reaches to the conclusion where we are heading toward a systematic fatal disorder of our society. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hussain M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Hussain M.,University of Haripur | Zaidi S.M.H.,Pakistan Tobacco Company | Malik R.N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Sharma B.D.,University of California at Berkeley
Environmental Research | Year: 2014

This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO2e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO2e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO2e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO2e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO2e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of organic fertilizers. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Beaney K.E.,University College London | Cooper J.A.,University College London | Shahid S.U.,University of Punjab | Ahmed W.,University of Haripur | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Numerous risk prediction algorithms based on conventional risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) are available but provide only modest discrimination. The inclusion of genetic information may improve clinical utility. Methods: We tested the use of two gene scores (GS) in the prospective second Northwick Park Heart Study (NPHSII) of 2775 healthy UK men (284 cases), and Pakistani case-control studies from Islamabad/Rawalpindi (321 cases/228 controls) and Lahore (414 cases/219 controls). The 19-SNP GS included SNPs in loci identified by GWAS and candidate gene studies, while the 13-SNP GS only included SNPs in loci identified by the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium. Results: In NPHSII, the mean of both gene scores was higher in those who went on to develop CHD over 13.5 years of follow-up (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=7x10-3). In combination with the Framingham algorithm the GSs appeared to show improvement in discrimination (increase in area under the ROC curve, 19-SNP p=0.48, 13-SNP p=0.82) and risk classification (net reclassification improvement (NRI), 19-SNP p=0.28, 13-SNP p=0.42) compared to the Framingham algorithm alone, but these were not statistically significant. When considering only individuals who moved up a risk category with inclusion of the GS, the improvement in risk classification was statistically significant (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=0.04). In the Pakistani samples, risk allele frequencies were significantly lower compared to NPHSII for 13/19 SNPs. In the Islamabad study, the mean gene score was higher in cases than controls only for the 13-SNP GS (2.24 v 2.34, p=0.04). There was no association with CHD and either score in the Lahore study. Conclusion: The performance of both GSs showed potential clinical utility in European men but much less utility in subjects from Pakistan, suggesting that a different set of risk loci or SNPs may be required for risk prediction in the South Asian population. © 2015 Beaney et al.


Mahmood-Ul-Hassan M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Salim M.,University of Haripur
Mammalia | Year: 2015

Although over 50 bat species have been recorded in Pakistan, more are expected to inhabit the country. We recorded two new hitherto unrecorded bat species, i.e., Miniopterus fuliginosus and Myotis formosus in northwestern Pakistan. M. fuliginosus was captured from Barcharai Daim in Malakand district, while M. formosus was captured from Chinai Ghaz in Dir, Wach Khwar in Swat and Barcharai Diam in Malakand districts, respectively. This paper describes external, cranial, and bacular measurements of captured specimens of these two species. © 2015 by De Gruyter 2015.


Syed M.A.,University of Haripur | Bana N.F.,Triple A Living Communities Inc
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly infectious, vaccine preventable disease. The incidence of the disease has greatly been reduced since the introduction of the diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccine. Pertussis resurgence has been observed in highly vaccinated populations of Western countries since 1990s. Poor vaccine quality, waning vaccine induced immunity, pathogen adaptation, and enhanced surveillance as well as advancements in diagnostic facilities are some of the reasons considered responsible for the increased reporting of pertussis cases. Pertussis may have been ignored and unnoticed due to its atypical manifestations in partially immunized population or people with waning immunity. We review the reports of pertussis resurgence from different countries and attempt to investigate reasons behind the reappearance of the disease. Pertussis is still an under reported disease and the available data from the developing countries is not a true picture of the story. Therefore, developing countries need to improve their surveillance systems. © 2014, Saudi Medical Journal. All rights reserved.


Bibi Y.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Zia M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Qayyum A.,University of Haripur
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization. © 2015, Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.

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