Havana, Cuba

University of Habana

Havana, Cuba

The University of Havana or UH is a university located in the Vedado district of Havana, Cuba. Founded in 1728, the University of Havana is the oldest university in Cuba, and one of the first to be founded in the Americas. Originally a religious institution, today the University of Havana has 15 faculties at its Havana campus and distance learning centers throughout Cuba. Wikipedia.

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The electrical conductivity behavior of the [(Pb 0.88Sm 0.08)(Ti 0.99Mn 0.01)O 3]/ polyetherketoneketone ceramic/polymer composite is studied in a wide temperature and frequency ranges around the glass transition of the polymer phase (T g). The universal relaxation law is applied to model the experimental response. The dc conductivity (σ dc) and the hopping frequency (ω H) follow an Arrhenius dependence. The activation energy values for σ dc are associated to oxygen migration. The contribution of the conductive processes to the dielectric relaxation is analyzed, considering the oxygen vacancies concentration in the ceramic phase. It is also considered the structural change around T g and its influence on the dielectric relaxation. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

De Jesus Llibre Rodriguez J.,University of Habana
MEDICC Review | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT Dementia is a syndrome that has great repercussions for quality of life of patients and their families, as well as a high social cost. A [2009] systematic review of research evidence and consensus of expert opinions showed that 36 million people live with dementia worldwide, with 4.6 million new cases every year (similar to the global incidence of nonfatal stroke). The prevalence of dementia in older Cubans is high, with rates ranging from 6.4% to 10.2%, or about 130,000 persons (1.1% of the total population). This number is expected to rise to 260,000 by 2030. The age-standardized annual incidence of dementia is also high: 21 per 1000 population, with 28,750 new cases annually. Dementia is the leading cause of disability among older adults and is the main cause of dependency, financial burden and caregiver stress. In this review, we highlight the importance of epidemiological research to obtain greater knowledge of the disease, improve health services, promote actions for prevention and early diagnosis, and implement a national strategy to address dementia in the Cuban population, itself now immersed in two processes: accelerated demographic aging and epidemiologic transition.

Iniguez L.,University of Habana
MEDICC Review | Year: 2013

This paper describes the evolution of basic indicators of health services, human resources, and infrastructure, starting with a general account of processes under way since the mid-1990s aimed at health sector recovery and focused on improving quality of service, system efficiency and effectiveness, while maintaining equity. Using this background, a description is provided of objectives and essential elements of transformations currently under way in the national health system, based on processes of reorganization, consolidation and regionalization of services. Finally, implications of territorial redistribution for health system reform are discussed, focusing on tensions between rationalization and equity in real or perceived access.

Angulo-Valdes J.A.,University of Habana | Hatcher B.G.,Cape Breton University
Marine Policy | Year: 2010

Global decline of marine resources has triggered a worldwide demand for changing the way ocean resources are managed. Ecosystem-based management approaches have emerged using marine protected areas (MPA) as the main tool. Several classifications of marine protected areas benefits have been made, but all have focused only on the benefits to humans, neglecting many important benefits accrued to nature. This paper presents a new comprehensive classification of MPA benefits that will provide scientists and managers with an inclusive framework to accurately identify and account for all possible benefits derived from MPAs. The paper also analyses the methods available for valuing these benefits. A total of 99 benefits were identified within nine main categories: fishery, non-fishery, management, education/research, cultural, process, ecosystem, population and species benefits. These categories are arranged in two main divisions (direct and indirect benefits), which, at the same time, fall within the realms of benefits to humans and to nature. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cruz A.L.,University of Habana
Journal of Genetic Counseling | Year: 2013

This brief report provides an overview of the history and current status of genetic services in Cuba. In 1971, the University of Medical Sciences of Havana began to train doctors in medical genetics according to the medicine development plan in Cuba. With the aim of introducing genetic services to the population, two main issues were identified: the impact of neural tube defects as a cause of infantile mortality, and a founder effect resulting in a high frequency of sickle cell anemia, which increased the mortality rate and impacted the quality of peoples' lives. The impact of consanguinity is variable; it depends on the isolation of the population, with rates of 1 to 11% in different regions for first and second cousin marriages. From 1981, the services of medical genetics began to expand to the entire country, according to a government directive, and the need to design a program for the specialty became evident. From 1995 to 2000, two Masters-level programs were designed by professors of the Department of Medical Genetics, University of Medical Sciences of Havana, and authorized by the Ministry of Higher Education. One program in medical genetics was designed for physicians with other specialties, and the second program was designed to train professionals to become genetic counselors. The majority of graduates from the latter program are working at the primary level of healthcare © 2013 National Society of Genetic Counselors, Inc.

Fernandez-De-Cossio Diaz J.,University of Habana | Fernandez-De-Cossio J.,Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

We derive a new efficient algorithm for the computation of the isotopic peak center-mass distribution of a molecule. With the use of Fourier transform techniques, the algorithm accurately computes the total abundance and average mass of all the isotopic species with the same number of nucleons. We evaluate the performance of the method with 10 benchmark proteins and other molecules; results are compared with BRAIN, a recently reported polynomial method. The new algorithm is comparable to BRAIN in accuracy and superior in terms of speed and memory, particularly for large molecules. An implementation of the algorithm is available for download. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Vera R.,University of Habana
Database : the journal of biological databases and curation | Year: 2013

The Java BioWareHouse (JBioWH) project is an open-source platform-independent programming framework that allows a user to build his/her own integrated database from the most popular data sources. JBioWH can be used for intensive querying of multiple data sources and the creation of streamlined task-specific data sets on local PCs. JBioWH is based on a MySQL relational database scheme and includes JAVA API parser functions for retrieving data from 20 public databases (e.g. NCBI, KEGG, etc.). It also includes a client desktop application for (non-programmer) users to query data. In addition, JBioWH can be tailored for use in specific circumstances, including the handling of massive queries for high-throughput analyses or CPU intensive calculations. The framework is provided with complete documentation and application examples and it can be downloaded from the Project Web site at http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh. A MySQL server is available for demonstration purposes at hydrax.icgeb.trieste.it:3307. Database URL: http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh.

Peniche H.,University of Habana | Peniche C.,University of Habana
Polymer International | Year: 2011

Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide that finds diverse applications in medicine and pharmacy because of its excellent biological qualities: it is biocompatible, biodegradable, mucoadhesive and non-toxic, and exhibits antimicrobial, antiviral and immunoadjuvant properties. It can be easily processed in diverse forms, such as films, threads, tablets, membranes and microparticles/nanoparticles, allowing the design of a variety of medical and pharmacological devices adaptable to end purposes. In particular, chitosan nanoparticles have become of great interest as polymeric platforms for the development of new pharmacological and therapeutic drug release systems with improved biodistribution and increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity. Chitosan nanoparticles have been found appropriate for non-invasive routes of drug administration: oral, nasal, pulmonary and ocular routes. These applications are facilitated by the absorption-enhancing effect of chitosan. Additionally, chitosan nanoparticles have been proposed as non-viral vectors in gene therapy and have shown adjuvant effect in vaccines. This paper reviews the main procedures developed for preparing chitosan nanoparticles. Moreover, it illustrates the state of the art of chitosan nanoparticle applications in drug delivery. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Retained low-density lipoproteins (LDL) by arterial glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are more susceptible to reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidation, contributing to oxidative stress and atherosclerosis. Recently, we reported the properties of the chimeric mouse/human monoclonal antibody chP3R99-LALA to bind sulfated GAG, to inhibit LDL-chondroitin sulfate binding, and to avoid LDL oxidation in vitro. Here, we hypothesized that chP3R99-LALA treatment might reduce aortic oxidative stress in a therapeutic setting. Redox biomarkers and serum lipids were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Subcutaneous administration of five doses (100 μg) of chP3R99-LALA, after Lipofundin administration (2 mL/kg/day, i.v.) during 8 days, reduced atherosclerotic lesion development, which was not associated with a serum lipid modulation. In contrast, the treatment with chP3R99-LALA reduced (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde and protein oxidation, induced a restoration of reduced glutathione level, of the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and of endothelial nitric oxide level. Thus, the antiatherogenic effect of chP3R99-LALA treatment seems to be associated with a reduction of aortic oxidative stress. These results contribute in understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with chP3R99-LALA atheroprotection and support the use of anti-GAG antibody-based immunotherapy as a potential tool to treat the atherosclerosis.

Allende G.B.,University of Habana | Still G.,University of Twente
Mathematical Programming | Year: 2013

Bilevel programs (BL) form a special class of optimization problems. They appear in many models in economics, game theory and mathematical physics. BL programs show a more complicated structure than standard finite problems. We study the so-called KKT-approach for solving bilevel problems, where the lower level minimality condition is replaced by the KKT- or the FJ-condition. This leads to a special structured mathematical program with complementarity constraints. We analyze the KKT-approach from a generic viewpoint and reveal the advantages and possible drawbacks of this approach for solving BL problems numerically. © 2012 The Author(s).

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