Ansari A.A.,Kebbi State University of Science and Technology |
Sitaram K.,University of Guyana
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2011
Present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 on dried earthworm powder collected from culture of Eisenia fetida in vermicomposting units and focused on the effect of the dried earthworm on microbes determining the anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties of the worms, as well as the chemical composition of worms obtain from vermicomposting units. The earthworm powder was also subjected to analysis of nitrogen and potassium using standard procedures. Antimicrobial disc hffusion suspecting tests were carried out against Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) as well as the fungus Candida albicans with the following treatments: Control, earthworm powder in water (1:1), earthworm powder in water (1:2) and earthworm powder in acetone (1:2). The technique involves using disk diffusion susceptibility testing where disks from both the pure and &luted honey as well as the antibiotic disk erythromycin (control) were impregnated onto the surface of the Mueller Hinton agar. The study conclusively proved that the earthworm powder (all hlutions) has antifungal properties which would be effective in treating fungal infections, such as candidosis whereas did not indicate the anti-microbial properties which may be attributed to hfferent composition of elements in earthworm powder obtained from vermicomposting unit rather than garden soil. ANOVA analysis (Single factor) at p = 0.05, proved that differences between the different concentrations of earthworm powder treatment containing colonies of C. albicans was significant, inhcating the effect of earthworm powder by inhibiting the growth of the fungus C. albicans. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.
Rajeshkumar S.,University of Guyana |
Mini J.,BHSEC Newark |
Munuswamy N.,University of Madras
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2013
Distribution of heavy metals and its associated oxidative stress, ultrastructure and expression of HSP 70 were studied in varies tissues of Chanos chanos collected from polluted sites compared with the fish collected from less polluted sites of Kaattuppalli Island. The concentrations of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese and iron were quantified in gills and liver. The results showed marked differences between the two sites as well as significant variations within the tissues. The decreasing trend of metals in the tissues of fish sampled from both polluted and less polluted sites was in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. Overall, the highest metal concentrations were found in the fish collected from polluted sites. Similarly increase of antioxidant enzymes biomarkers due to heavy metals was also evident in gills and liver of the fish collected from polluted sites. These tissues were further investigated by scanning and electron microscopy and the results were compared with the reference less polluted sites. The presence of large lipid droplets in liver and increase of mucous cells in gills were some of the most noticeable alterations observed and were related to heavy metal contaminants. It is concluded that scanning, ultrastructural and useful of HSP70 biomarkers for heavy metal induced oxidative stress, and demonstrate that precautions need to be taken in polluted sites of Kaattuppalli Island in order to prevent heavy metal pollution that can occur in the future. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Luciano-Montalvo C.,University of Puerto Rico at Cayey |
Boulogne I.,University of Guyana |
Gavillan-Suarez J.,University of Puerto Rico at Cayey
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013
Background: The TRAMIL program aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, which is a " biodiversity hotspot" due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. The antibacterial activity was examined for thirteen plant species from several genera that were identified as a result of TRAMIL ethnopharmacological surveys or were reported in ethnobotanical accounts from Puerto Rico. The aim of this study was to validate the traditional use of these plant species for the treatment of bacterial infections, such as conjunctivitis, fever, otitis media and furuncles.Methods: An agar disc diffusion assay was used to examine five bacterial strains that are associated with the reported infections, including Staphylococcus saprophyticus (ATCC 15305), S. aureus (ATCC 6341), Escherichia coli (ATCC 4157), Haemophilus influenzae (ATCC 8142), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 7700) and Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 6896), as well as the fungus Candida albicans (ATCC 752). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined for each of the extracts that showed inhibitory activity.Results: The decoctions of Pityrogramma calomelanos, Tapeinochilus ananassae, and Syzygium jambos, as well as the juice of Gossypium barbadense, showed > 20% growth inhibition against several bacteria relative to the positive control, which was the antibiotic Streptomycin. Extracts with the best antimicrobial activities were S. jambos that showed MIC = 31 μg/mL and MBC = 1.0 mg/mL against P. vulgaris and T. ananassae that showed MIC = 15 μg/mL against S. aureus.Conclusion: This report confirms the traditional use of P. calomelanos for the treatment of kidney infections that are associated with stones, as well as the antimicrobial and bactericidal effects of T. ananassae against P. vulgaris and S. saprophyticus and the effects of S. jambos against S. aureus and S. saprophyticus. © 2013 Luciano-Montalvo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Tewari B.B.,University of Guyana
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2010
Complexation reactions of methionine and penicillamine with copper(II) and cobalt(II) have been studied in the solution phase using a paper ionophoretic technique. This method is based on the movement of a spot of metal ion in an electric field with the complexants added in the background electrolyte at pH 8.5. The concentration of primary ligand methionine was kept constant, while that of the secondary ligand penicillamine was varied. A plot of log[penicillamine] versus mobility was used to obtain information on the mixed complexes and to calculate stability constants. The stability constants of the complexes copper(II)-methionine-penicillamine and cobalt(II)-methionine- penicillamine have been found to be 3.65 ± 0.03 and 3.05 ± 0.07 (logarithm stability constant values), respectively, at a temperature of 35 °C and ionic strength of 0.1 M. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Tewari B.B.,University of Guyana
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2012
Complexation reactions of sarcosine with mercury(II), nickel(II) and lead(II) have been studied in the solution phase using a paper ionophoretic technique. This method is based on movement of a spot of metal ion in an electric field at various pHs of background electrolyte. A graph of pH versus mobility was used to obtain information on the metal complexes and to calculate stability constants. The stability constants of the ML + and ML 2 complexes of mercury(II), nickel(II) and lead(II) - sarcosine have been found to be (7.95 ± 0.02; 6.79 ± 0.06), (6.69 ± 0.01; 5.29 ± 0.04) and (4.34 ± 0.02; 2.69 ± 0.07) (logarithm stability constant values), respectively at a temperature of 35 ° C and ionic strength of 0.1 M.