Georgetown, Guyana

University of Guyana
Georgetown, Guyana

The University of Guyana, in Georgetown, Guyana, is a public university established in 1963 by the Guyanese government. Wikipedia.

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Rajeshkumar S.,University of Guyana | Mini J.,BHSEC Newark | Munuswamy N.,University of Madras
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2013

Distribution of heavy metals and its associated oxidative stress, ultrastructure and expression of HSP 70 were studied in varies tissues of Chanos chanos collected from polluted sites compared with the fish collected from less polluted sites of Kaattuppalli Island. The concentrations of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese and iron were quantified in gills and liver. The results showed marked differences between the two sites as well as significant variations within the tissues. The decreasing trend of metals in the tissues of fish sampled from both polluted and less polluted sites was in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. Overall, the highest metal concentrations were found in the fish collected from polluted sites. Similarly increase of antioxidant enzymes biomarkers due to heavy metals was also evident in gills and liver of the fish collected from polluted sites. These tissues were further investigated by scanning and electron microscopy and the results were compared with the reference less polluted sites. The presence of large lipid droplets in liver and increase of mucous cells in gills were some of the most noticeable alterations observed and were related to heavy metal contaminants. It is concluded that scanning, ultrastructural and useful of HSP70 biomarkers for heavy metal induced oxidative stress, and demonstrate that precautions need to be taken in polluted sites of Kaattuppalli Island in order to prevent heavy metal pollution that can occur in the future. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Ansari A.A.,Kebbi State University of Science and Technology | Sitaram K.,University of Guyana
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2011

Present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 on dried earthworm powder collected from culture of Eisenia fetida in vermicomposting units and focused on the effect of the dried earthworm on microbes determining the anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties of the worms, as well as the chemical composition of worms obtain from vermicomposting units. The earthworm powder was also subjected to analysis of nitrogen and potassium using standard procedures. Antimicrobial disc hffusion suspecting tests were carried out against Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) as well as the fungus Candida albicans with the following treatments: Control, earthworm powder in water (1:1), earthworm powder in water (1:2) and earthworm powder in acetone (1:2). The technique involves using disk diffusion susceptibility testing where disks from both the pure and &luted honey as well as the antibiotic disk erythromycin (control) were impregnated onto the surface of the Mueller Hinton agar. The study conclusively proved that the earthworm powder (all hlutions) has antifungal properties which would be effective in treating fungal infections, such as candidosis whereas did not indicate the anti-microbial properties which may be attributed to hfferent composition of elements in earthworm powder obtained from vermicomposting unit rather than garden soil. ANOVA analysis (Single factor) at p = 0.05, proved that differences between the different concentrations of earthworm powder treatment containing colonies of C. albicans was significant, inhcating the effect of earthworm powder by inhibiting the growth of the fungus C. albicans. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Misir P.,University of Guyana
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care | Year: 2015

The continuing paucity of effective interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma is troubling, given that stigma has long been recognized as a significant barrier to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. Ineffectual HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions are the product of inadequate conceptual frameworks and methodological tools. And while there is a paucity of effective interventions to reduce stigma, there is no shortage of conceptual frameworks intending to offer a comprehensive understanding of stigma, ranging from sociocognitive models at the individual level to structural models at the macrolevel. Observations highlighting inadequacies in the individualistic and structural models are offered, followed by the theory of structuration as a possible complementary conceptual base for designing HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

Luciano-Montalvo C.,University of Puerto Rico at Cayey | Boulogne I.,University of Guyana | Gavillan-Suarez J.,University of Puerto Rico at Cayey
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: The TRAMIL program aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, which is a " biodiversity hotspot" due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. The antibacterial activity was examined for thirteen plant species from several genera that were identified as a result of TRAMIL ethnopharmacological surveys or were reported in ethnobotanical accounts from Puerto Rico. The aim of this study was to validate the traditional use of these plant species for the treatment of bacterial infections, such as conjunctivitis, fever, otitis media and furuncles.Methods: An agar disc diffusion assay was used to examine five bacterial strains that are associated with the reported infections, including Staphylococcus saprophyticus (ATCC 15305), S. aureus (ATCC 6341), Escherichia coli (ATCC 4157), Haemophilus influenzae (ATCC 8142), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 7700) and Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 6896), as well as the fungus Candida albicans (ATCC 752). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined for each of the extracts that showed inhibitory activity.Results: The decoctions of Pityrogramma calomelanos, Tapeinochilus ananassae, and Syzygium jambos, as well as the juice of Gossypium barbadense, showed > 20% growth inhibition against several bacteria relative to the positive control, which was the antibiotic Streptomycin. Extracts with the best antimicrobial activities were S. jambos that showed MIC = 31 μg/mL and MBC = 1.0 mg/mL against P. vulgaris and T. ananassae that showed MIC = 15 μg/mL against S. aureus.Conclusion: This report confirms the traditional use of P. calomelanos for the treatment of kidney infections that are associated with stones, as well as the antimicrobial and bactericidal effects of T. ananassae against P. vulgaris and S. saprophyticus and the effects of S. jambos against S. aureus and S. saprophyticus. © 2013 Luciano-Montalvo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tewari B.B.,University of Guyana
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Complexation reactions of sarcosine with mercury(II), nickel(II) and lead(II) have been studied in the solution phase using a paper ionophoretic technique. This method is based on movement of a spot of metal ion in an electric field at various pHs of background electrolyte. A graph of pH versus mobility was used to obtain information on the metal complexes and to calculate stability constants. The stability constants of the ML + and ML 2 complexes of mercury(II), nickel(II) and lead(II) - sarcosine have been found to be (7.95 ± 0.02; 6.79 ± 0.06), (6.69 ± 0.01; 5.29 ± 0.04) and (4.34 ± 0.02; 2.69 ± 0.07) (logarithm stability constant values), respectively at a temperature of 35 ° C and ionic strength of 0.1 M.

A new method paper electrophoresis, involving the use of a ionophoretic technique is described for the study of Be(II) and Co(II) biologically important binary complexes with norvaline in solution. The stability constants of ML and ML 2 complexes of Be(II) - norvaline and Co(II) - norvaline systems have been found to be (7.19 ± 0.02, 5.93 ± 0.09) and (4.61 ± 0.12, 2.83 ± 0.05) (logarithm stability constant values), respectively at ionic strength of 0.1 mol L -1 and a temperature of 35°C.

Complexation reactions of methionine and penicillamine with copper(II) and cobalt(II) have been studied in the solution phase using a paper ionophoretic technique. This method is based on the movement of a spot of metal ion in an electric field with the complexants added in the background electrolyte at pH 8.5. The concentration of primary ligand methionine was kept constant, while that of the secondary ligand penicillamine was varied. A plot of log[penicillamine] versus mobility was used to obtain information on the mixed complexes and to calculate stability constants. The stability constants of the complexes copper(II)-methionine-penicillamine and cobalt(II)-methionine- penicillamine have been found to be 3.65 ± 0.03 and 3.05 ± 0.07 (logarithm stability constant values), respectively, at a temperature of 35 °C and ionic strength of 0.1 M. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Ansari A.A.,Kebbi State University of Science and Technology | Sukhraj K.,University of Guyana
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Present investigations were carried out during the year 2006 - 2007 at University of Guyana, Georgetown focusing on recycling organic waste using vermitechnology and use of vermicompost and vermiwash obtained from the vermitech in varied combinations for exploring the effect on soil and productivity of Okro (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Guyana. The soil quality was monitored during the experiment along with plant growth parameters of Okra. The study revealed that combination organic fertilizers vermicompost and vermiwash combination compared with control and chemical fertilizers had great influence on plant growth parameters. The average yield of Okro (A. esculentus) during trial showed a significantly greater response in comparison with the control by 64.27%. The fruits were found to have a greater percentage of fats and protein content when compared with those grown with chemical fertilizers by 23.86 and 19.86% respectively. The combination treatment vermiwash and vermicompost combination was also found to have a significant influence on the biochemical characteristics of the soil with marked improvement in soil micronutrients. The combination treatment was the found to be better suggesting qualitative improvement in the physical and chemical properties of the soil, which is substantiated by composite, index {Rank 1 for vermicompost and vermiwash combination with composite index of 9}. This biological method of crop cultivation is sustainable and improves soil health rather than conventional methods based on the earlier observations. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Removal of p-aminophenol (PAP) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous solution have been studied through adsorption on bismuth, lead and manganese ferrocyanides (125 μm British Sieve Standard mesh size) at pH range 1.0-10.0 and room temperature (27 ± 1°C). The progress of adsorption was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of PAP and PNP solutions at their corresponding λmax = 220 and 330 nm, respectively. At neutral pH, PNP was found to more adsorbed than PAP on all three metal ferrocyanides studied. Manganese ferrocyanide and bismuth ferrocyanide were found to have maximum and minimum adsorption, respectively for both adsorbents. The adsorption followed the Langmuir type of adsorption in the concentration range of 10-4 to 10-5 mol/L of PAP and PNP solutions. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Tyrell E.,University of Guyana
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2013

Objective: To assess the socioeconomic impact of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Guyana. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study of 50 persons with chronic LF attending the Filariasis Clinic who were selected as the cases; and 50 persons with chronic skin conditions but no chronic LF, attending the Skin Clinic who were selected as the controls. The two groups were assessed using semi-structured interviews. Results: Socioeconomic impact was statistically significant, especially with respect to 'having to change jobs' and experiencing major emotional and financial changes (P < 0.05). Fifty-six per cent of cases reported a major change since their diagnosis, whereas only 32% of controls did. Cases were less likely to be able to dress themselves and walk inside and outside the house than controls; they were three times more likely to spend money on transportation than controls (OR, 3.04 95% CI 1.11, 8.44). Conclusion: Patients with chronic LF face a considerable burden, which should be addressed as part of the Elimination Programme. One way in which this can be done is to provide free transportation for patients with chronic LF to and from Filariasis Clinics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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