Gujrat, Pakistan

University of Gujrat
Gujrat, Pakistan

The University of Gujrat is one of the new major public sector universities in Punjab. The university was established under Act IX of 2004 by Government of Punjab, Pakistan on 23 February 2004 to cater for the higher education needs of the population of Central Punjab which includes districts of Gujrat, Sialkot and Gujranwala in addition to city of Wazirabad. These districts are popularly known as the Export Triangle of Pakistan due to various manufacturing industries operating in the area. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founder of Aligarh Muslim University had named the region around Gujrat as "Khita-e-Younan", or "territory resembling ancient Greece", in reference to the high number of educational institutes present in the area in the 19th century. The University is promoting research and development culture in the area. A large number of students from Bhimber Azad Kashmir also study in the university.The Main Campus has been named after a local Sufi saint Hafiz Muhammad Hayat. Situated prominently in the University of Gujrat campus, the shrine of Hafiz Hayat is an exquisite complex in terms of its architecture, site planning and landscape design. It is located on a mound six feet high above the Terre plain. The site contains a haveli, summerhouse , mosque, four tombs of varying dimensions, several graves, seven wells and numerous old trees. The mound on which the construction was carried out belonged to the Raja Kaladhvi and was surrounded by a dense forest at that time. Hafiz Hayat settled in the area and helped people with his spiritual charisma. Although the exact dates are not known yet according to popular belief it was at the time of Emperor Jahangir. The saint donated his entire land holding to the then state authorities for the cause of education. The main campus of UOG has been constructed on that very land donated by Hafiz Muhammad Hayat. Wikipedia.

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A small scale vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) generator is designed and the magnetic levitation method is used to increase the efficiency of this type of wind turbine. Magnetic levitation is inserted by using rare earth permanent magnets, the repelling force of magnets are used to suspend the rotating part of both the turbine and generator. Moreover, this design of simple generator which can easily drive without a geared mechanism, lessen cost and the complexity of the system by reducing the quantity of driving components. Three phase output is obtained from the designed generator which is converted into direct current through a three-phase rectifier to charge the batteries. The performance of proposed prototype is also tested experimentally. From the results it is found that the designed wind turbine performs optimally and efficiently as predicted by the developed design process. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Majid A.,University of Gujrat | Dar A.,University of Gujrat
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2014

The density functional theory based calculations of Cr, Nd and Cr/Nd co-doped wurtzite GaN generated using GGA and TB-mBJ exchange correlation functionals are being reported. All the structures were geometrically optimized and fully relaxed. The dopants introduced new energy levels in the forbidden energy gap, whose hybridization and interaction are discussed in detail to explain electronic and ferromagnetic properties of the materials. The 3d-3d interaction seems to be responsible for double exchange interaction in Cr:GaN whereas spin polarization caused by 4f-5d-CB interaction causes ferromagnetism in Nd:GaN. A model is proposed to explain the ferromagnetic ordering and 3d-4f exchange interactions in new codoped system Cr/Nd:GaN according to which 4f-5d-CB-3d interaction via 4f-5d, 4f-2p and 2p-3d coupling plays role. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Iqbal T.,University of Gujrat
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2015

The propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is investigated experimentally using a 1D metallic grating fabricated on a higher refractive index substrate (Gallium Phosphide, GaP). The experimentally measured value propagation length of the SPP (L SPP ) at 785nm wavelength is 13.33±0.13μm, which is close to the theoretical value of the L SPP on an ideal Au-thin film. The SPP resonance observed in far-field measurements confirms the underlying process and the related effects on the L SPP measured by scanning near field optical microscope (SNOM). Far-field measurements shows that L SPP is associated with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the SPP resonance which in-turn associated with in-plane directional scattering of the SPP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Khan I.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ibrar A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Abbas N.,University of Gujrat
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Contemporary medicinal chemistry faces diverse challenges from several directions, including the need for both potency and specificity of any therapeutic agent. Therefore, in the present perspective, the triazolothiadiazoles and triazolothiadiazines with broad spectrum biological profile have matured into indispensable heterocyclic scaffolds. This review article is an effort to summarize medicinal chemistry investigations over the last decade, in search for new N-bridged heterocycles which can be a rich source of promising biological activities. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Khalil H.B.,University of Gujrat | Zaidi S.J.H.,University of Gujrat
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Energy is the basic need of modern life. Pakistan is an energy deficient country. Energy crisis is making bad impacts and destroying the economy. The current study investigates the relationship between the energy and demand supply in Pakistan. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the real reasons behind the current energy crisis. We want to find supplementary and alternate energy sources to cut down the load on the national energy mix. We select different areas and conduct our research and find the best possible renewable energy sources. In this paper we proposed the solution and best available indigenous resource in energy demanding areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Iqbal T.,University of Gujrat | Afsheen S.,University of Gujrat
Plasmonics | Year: 2015

This paper reports the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and associated plasmonic band gap (PBG) while using TM plane wave interacting with 1D metallic grating on higher refractive index GaP substrate. A simple method is introduced to estimate the PBG which is crucial for many plasmonic devices. The PBG is estimated by measuring the transmission spectra obtained through the plasmonic grating structures when slit width is varied while periodicity and the thickness of the gold (Au) film remained fixed. The PBG is observed for the grating devices whose slit width is less than one third of the periodicity which is caused by the presence of a higher plasmonic mode. The PBG is absent for the grating device whose slit width is slightly less than half and greater than one third of the periodicity. Such grating devices support only a fundamental plasmonic mode because the profile/shape of the slit in the grating device is more like a sinusoidal nature. Furthermore, such grating offers intermediate scattering to the incident light and the SPP as well which in turn couple more incident energy to the SPPs. Far-field modelling results also support the results obtained through experiment. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Iqbal T.,University of Gujrat
Plasmonics | Year: 2016

The excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) through one-dimentional (1D) metallic (Au) grating on higher refractive index -GaP substrate is investigated. Such grating devices find potential applications in real world, only if the coupling efficiency (η) of a free-space transverse-magnetic plane-wave into a SPPs mode is maximum. A simple and robust technique is used to estimate the η, by simply measuring the transmission through the grating while varying slit width (a) but period (Λ) and the thickness (t) remain fixed. When the wave vector (k0) of the incident light is matched to that of SPP, highest η is achieved. It is found that Λ/3 < a < Λ/2 yields a maximum η where the intermediate scattering couples more incident energy to SPPs. These gratings are designed in such a way that they support only the fundamental plasmonic mode yielding higher η. Scanning near-field optical measurements also confirm and corroborate the observations of far-field and near-field modeling (COMSOL multiphysics) results. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Nabi A.,University of Gujrat
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2016

The electronic, structural and magnetic properties of Mn doped cadmium sulfide Cd1- xMnxS (x = 6.25% and x = 3.125%) are studied using spin-polarized density functional theory, in the framework of Local Density Approximation (LDA), Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), their extensions via on-site Hubbard U interactions and Tran Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) model potential. The Ferromagnetic interactions are studied between two Mn atoms via S atom due to strong p-d hybridization and d-d interactions. The ferromagnetic (FM) and anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) coupling properties between these atoms are studied with and without sulfur vacancies. The magnetic moments on Cd, S and Mn-atom are studied in detail by using different charge analysis techniques. The p-d hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment on Mn from its free space charge value and produces small local magnetic moments on the nonmagnetic Cd and S host sites. Mn doped CdS provides p-type semiconductor with d-states at top of the valence band edge, these states are responsible for a very useful luminescent and magneto-optical Mn:CdS material. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Majid A.,University of Gujrat
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2013

Cerium ions were implanted into wurtzite GaN/sapphire thin films at doses 3 × 1014 and 2 × 1015 cm-2. The samples were annealed at 900 °C and studied using photoluminescence (PL), Raman, optical transmission spectroscopy and Hall measurement techniques. Near band emission signs were found absent for implanted samples and two new luminescence centers were recorded. Detailed temperature dependence PL measurements were carried out to find possible origin of these centers. The observed luminescence lines are assigned to the radiative recombination of electrons bound to the complex CeGa-VN and isoelectronic CeGa traps with holes from valance band. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

To mimic binding to biological membranes, the extent of interaction of the efficient food dye Sunset Yellow with a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, was probed by quantifying its absorption and fluorescence emission spectra as a function of premicellar to post-micellar surfactant concentration. The characteristics of the partition behaviour and spectral-luminescent properties of Sunset Yellow-surfactant have been evaluated qualitatively as well as quantitatively for various cetyltrimethylammonium bromide concentrations. With the help of mathematical models, the water-micelle partition coefficient, the Sunset Yellow-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide binding constant, the binding capacity, and the degree of counterion binding were calculated at 25 °C under various pH conditions. The solubilisation of Sunset Yellow is also discussed from the thermodynamics viewpoint by considering the standard free energy change of dye solubilisation and the Sunset Yellow-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide binding energy. The high values of all these interactions indicate that the dye, being organic in nature, is partitioned largely from the aqueous environment to the palisade layer of the micelle. The solubilisation of the dye is enhanced by switching the pH to suppress the self-aggregation of dye molecules. Combined with electrostatic forces, the hydrophobic interactions also play a promising role in the solubilisation of Sunset Yellow in the outer core of the micellar interior. © 2014 Society of Dyers and Colourists.

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