Guelph, Canada
Guelph, Canada

The University of Guelph, also known as U of G, is a comprehensive public research university in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. It was established in 1964 after the amalgamation of Ontario Agricultural College, the Macdonald Institute, and the Ontario Veterinary College, and has since grown to an institution of more than 21,000 students and academic staff. Wikipedia.


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Humanitys plans to further explore space require the development of bio-regenerative life support systems and in particular plant cultivation. Plants contribute to all major life support functions by producing food and oxygen, reducing carbon dioxide and recycling water and waste. Moreover, fresh crops also have a positive impact on crew psychological well-being. EDEN ISS aims to adapt, integrate and demonstrate plant cultivation technologies and operations procedures for safe food production on-board the International Space Station and for future human space exploration missions. The consortium will demonstrate operational capability of controlled environment agriculture technologies and procedures for safe food production in space. A mobile test facility will be built to provide realistic interfaces analogous to ISS. A one-year demonstration campaign at the Neumayer III Antarctic station will provide extensive testing and validation capability to increase the technology readiness level of key subsystems to 6. Further developing these technologies and operations procedures, including food quality and safety measurements, will also contribute to Europes interest in resource efficient crop cultivation, saving energy, countering the climate change and securing the supply of healthy and safe food. The interdisciplinary nature of EDEN ISS combines research in space engineering, horticulture, food science and microbiology. Leading space industries (Thales Alenia Space Italia, Airbus Defense and Space, Telespazio), research organizations (DLR, CNR, AWI), SMEs (Liquifer, Heliospectra, EnginSoft, Aero Sekur) and academia (Wageningen UR, University of Guelph, Limerick Institute of Technology) from six European countries (Germany, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands) and Canada join forces in a unique consortium to prepare the ground for further innovative research and development in human spaceflight and terrestrial applications.


Whitfield C.,University of Guelph | Stephen Trent M.,University of Texas at Austin
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Lipopolysaccharide molecules represent a unique family of glycolipids based on a highly conserved lipid moiety known as lipid A. These molecules are produced by most gram-negative bacteria, in which they play important roles in the integrity of the outer-membrane permeability barrier and participate extensively in host-pathogen interplay. Few bacteria contain lipopolysaccharide molecules composed only of lipid A. In most forms, lipid A is glycosylated by addition of the core oligosaccharide that, in some bacteria, provides an attachment site for a long-chain O-antigenic polysaccharide. The complexity of lipopolysaccharide structures is reflected in the processes used for their biosynthesis and export. Rapid growth and cell division depend on the bacterial cell's capacity to synthesize and export lipopolysaccharide efficiently and in large amounts. We review recent advances in those processes, emphasizing the reactions that are essential for viability. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.


Schattat M.H.,University of Guelph
The Plant cell | Year: 2012

Stroma-filled tubules named stromules are sporadic extensions of plastids. Earlier, photobleaching was used to demonstrate fluorescent protein diffusion between already interconnected plastids and formed the basis for suggesting that all plastids are able to form networks for exchanging macromolecules. However, a critical appraisal of literature shows that this conjecture is not supported by unequivocal experimental evidence. Here, using photoconvertible mEosFP, we created color differences between similar organelles that enabled us to distinguish clearly between organelle fusion and nonfusion events. Individual plastids, despite conveying a strong impression of interactivity and fusion, maintained well-defined boundaries and did not exchange fluorescent proteins. Moreover, the high pleomorphy of etioplasts from dark-grown seedlings, leucoplasts from roots, and assorted plastids in the accumulation and replication of chloroplasts5 (arc5), arc6, and phosphoglucomutase1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that a single plastid unit might be easily mistaken for interconnected plastids. Our observations provide succinct evidence to refute the long-standing dogma of interplastid connectivity. The ability to create and maintain a large number of unique biochemical factories in the form of singular plastids might be a key feature underlying the versatility of green plants as it provides increased internal diversity for them to combat a wide range of environmental fluctuations and stresses.


Flockhart D.T.,University of Guelph
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America.


Allen-Vercoe E.,University of Guelph
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2013

Ever-more-powerful 'omics'-based technologies are allowing us to pry deeper and more clearly into the workings of the human gut microbiota. Culture of the component microbes has fallen somewhat behind these efforts for a number of reasons, not least of which being the perceived difficulty in growing microbial species that have previously eluded all efforts to tame them. However, recent advances in the field are beginning to bring success in this area, allowing holistic study of microbes and microbial communities in defined systems. Innovative approaches to the culture and study of the human microbiota will ultimately guide medical practice, as the importance of a robust gut microbial ecosystem in the maintenance of health is increasingly realized. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mason G.J.,University of Guelph
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2010

Approximately 26 billion animals, spanning over 10 000 species, are kept on farms and in zoos, conservation breeding centers, research laboratories and households. Captive animals are often healthier, longer-lived and more fecund than free-living conspecifics, but for some species the opposite is true. Captivity is a very long way from the ideal 'common garden' often assumed by evolutionary and ecological researchers using data for captive animals. The use of comparative methods to investigate the fundamental biological causes of these species differences would help to improve husbandry and enclosure design, and might even reveal relationships between susceptibilities to poor captive welfare and susceptibilities to anthropogenic threat in the wild. Studies of these species differences could also inspire and facilitate 'evo-mecho' research into the functions of behavioral control mechanisms. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Spriet L.L.,University of Guelph
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Fat and carbohydrate are important fuels for aerobic exercise and there can be reciprocal shifts in the proportions of carbohydrate and fat that are oxidized. The interaction between carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation is dependent on the intracellular and extracellular metabolic environments. The availability of substrate, both from inside and outside of the muscle, and exercise intensity and duration will affect these environments. The ability of increasing fat provision to downregulate carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, diaphragm and peripheral skeletal muscle has been well studied. However, the regulation of fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise in the face of increasing carbohydrate availability and exercise intensity has not been well studied until recently. Research in the past 10 years has demonstrated that the regulation of fat metabolism is complex and involves many sites of control, including the transport of fat into the muscle cell, the binding and transport of fat in the cytoplasm, the regulation of intramuscular triacylglycerol synthesis and breakdown, and the transport of fat into the mitochondria. The discovery of proteins that assist in transporting fat across the plasma and mitochondrial membranes, the ability of these proteins to translocate to the membranes during exercise, and the new roles of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in regulating skeletal muscle lipolysis are examples of recent discoveries. This information has led to the proposal of mechanisms to explain the downregulation of fat metabolism that occurs in the face of increasing carbohydrate availability and when moving from moderate to intense aerobic exercise. © The Author(s) 2014.


Dalgleish D.G.,University of Guelph
Soft Matter | Year: 2011

A review is made of the different structural principles involved in the assembly of the casein micellar particles present in mammalian milks. The properties of the constituent casein proteins are described, and how these can lead to different structural models. The evidence for particular models is given, and it is concluded that a model based on calcium phosphate nanoclusters is the most appropriate in view of electron microscopic and scattering experiments. A modification of the nanocluster model is presented, which allows many of the known structural properties of the micelles to be incorporated. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Spriet L.L.,University of Guelph
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5–13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (<3 mg/kg body mass, ~200 mg) are also ergogenic in some exercise and sport situations, although this has been less well studied. Lower caffeine doses (1) do not alter the peripheral whole-body responses to exercise; (2) improve vigilance, alertness, and mood and cognitive processes during and after exercise; and (3) are associated with few, if any, side effects. Therefore, the ergogenic effect of low caffeine doses appears to result from alterations in the central nervous system. However, several aspects of consuming low doses of caffeine remain unresolved and suffer from a paucity of research, including the potential effects on high-intensity sprint and burst activities. The responses to low doses of caffeine are also variable and athletes need to determine whether the ingestion of ~200 mg of caffeine before and/or during training and competitions is ergogenic on an individual basis. © 2014, The Author(s).


Brown L.S.,University of Guelph
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2014

Since the discovery of proteorhodopsins, the ubiquitous marine light-driven proton pumps of eubacteria, a large number of other eubacterial rhodopsins with diverse structures and functions have been characterized. Here, we review the body of knowledge accumulated on the four major groups of eubacterial rhodopsins, with the focus on their biophysical characterization. We discuss advances and controversies on the unique eubacterial sensory rhodopsins (as represented by Anabaena sensory rhodopsin), proton-pumping proteorhodopsins and xanthorhodopsins, as well as novel non-proton ion pumps. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinal Proteins - You can teach an old dog new tricks. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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