Guayaquil, Ecuador

University of Guayaquil
Guayaquil, Ecuador

The University of Guayaquil , known colloquially as the Estatal , is a public university located in Guayaquil, Guayas Province, Ecuador. It is the oldest university in the city and has the largest student body. It operates six extension universities throughout the country. Wikipedia.

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Rizo L.C.,University of Guayaquil | Hernandez E.C.M.,University of Guayaquil
IMSCI 2016 - 10th International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics and Informatics, Proceedings | Year: 2016

Given the updated international difficulties in the completion of studies process, theoretical and practical studies developed in this field are surprisingly scarce. Particularly, at the School of Languages and Linguistics at the University of Guayaquil has been a limited quantity of students that support their diploma thesis after completing their credits. Consequently, this paper faces the problem of the insufficiencies in the culmination of studies process in relation to the management of the academic and scientific formation. Thus, the objective is: to improve the completion of studies or degree-obtaining processes in university education, through the implementation of a praxiological proposal of academic formation and formative research integration. Accordingly, the author's experiences systematization is the methodology mainly used. The essential logic for the management of the academic formation and formative research integration was revealed as the main proposal, therefore this is the solution to the problem diagnosed. This is based on a curricular structure, in which each of the subjects was interrelated to each of the essential stages of the scientific research. As main results obtained, the students were able to solve real-life problems diagnosed at educative institutions, also they drew up the draft of their theses.

Loor M.,Ghent University | Loor M.,University of Guayaquil | De Tre G.,Ghent University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2017

Experience-based evaluations, i.e., evaluations resulting from what one has learned or understood about a particular topic by experience, are an important component in modern information management. This is especially the case when data from social media or crowdsourcing are involved. In this paper, techniques for handling and comparing experience-based (fuzzy) evaluations are proposed and studied. Since such evaluations could be fairly subjective, their comparison could be affected not only by the magnitude of each appraisal, but also by its context – herein, by ‘context of an evaluation’ is meant the conditions that arise when the evaluation is carried out, which mainly depend on the experience of an evaluator about the topic under consideration. Therefore, to characterize in a better way the connotative meaning in each experience-based evaluation, an augmented appraisal degree, AAD for short, is proposed as a novel generalization of a membership (or non-membership) degree. Along with the definition of an AAD, an augmented framework is described. The augmented framework includes several concepts, operators and functions that support different methods of computation with (collections of) AADs. We pay special attention to the description, use, potential benefits and applications of this augmented framework. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Velazquez-Araque L.,University of Guayaquil | Cardenas J.,University of Guayaquil
WMSCI 2016 - 20th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Proceedings | Year: 2016

In Ecuador, there is a constant need to pursuit energy independence, have created a new industry focused on energy generation by harnessing renewable sources. Biomass is established as the third leading source for producing electricity as the main source for the generation of thermal energy. However, the problems related to the low density of the different types of biomass and the difficulty in carrying and storing have caused the need to generate solids with higher density and stronger hardness known as pellets and briquettes. This paper develops an analysis of the possibilities of pelletizing the Ecuadorian cocoa pod husk and its use as biofuel. Several pellets configurations were proposed based on the diameter and length ratio. An experimental setup was established to crush and screen the cocoa pod husk in order to obtain less than 1.5 mm particle size. Then the pellets were made using a small scale pellet machine and finally burned in a combustion chamber for the evaluation of the energy potential by means of the high heat value and ash content. Finally, the selection of the most energy efficient pellet configuration is made taking into consideration international pellet quality standards as well. This large-scale project would represent a cost savings in the Ecuadorian industrial sector leading further to lowering smog emissions into the environment from burning fossil fuels and also it would prevent the cocoa pod husk as a focus for the spread of Phytophthora species which is a main cause of economic losses in the cocoa industry.

Zambrano Mora P.,University of Guayaquil | Bustamante Pesantes K.E.,University of Guayaquil
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales | Year: 2017

Introduction: Justicia secunda Vahl. leaves are widely used by rural populations from the Ecuadorian coast for medicinal purposes, but the properties attributed to it have not been verified. A study was conducted of hydroalcoholic, alcoholic and etheric leaf extracts. Objectives: Characterize the crude drug and several extracts of J. secunda to determine the presence of metabolites or active principles with medicinal potential, and analyze their possible usefulness to produce pharmaceutical products. Methods: An analysis was conducted of the physicochemical parameters of the crude drug. The leaves were collected at night and dried to constant weight in a stove at 30 °C ± 1 °C for 5 days. They were then crushed in a mortar and weighed. The extracts were obtained by maceration in various organic solvents, such as 90% ethanol, diethyl ether and a 50 % v/v hydroalcoholic solution. For phytochemical analysis, qualitative techniques were applied to determine the main metabolites present in the extracts. Gravimetric techniques were used for determination of total ashes, total solids and percentage of humidity. Results: It was found that content of total ashes and residual humidity in the crude drug are within the limits established by USP 37 for items of botanical origin. Additionally, alkaloids, coumarins and phenolic glucosides were found to be present in the hydroalcoholic extract; tannins, phenolic glucosides and triterpenes and/or steroids in the alcoholic extract; and alkaloids and triterpenes and/or steroids in the etheric extract. Conclusion: The great variety of chemical components present in the leaves of J. secunda grants them high potential for medicinal use as antiseptic, antiinflammatory and antioxidant, among others. © 2017, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

Monterrosa-Castro A.,University of Cartagena | Romero-Perez I.,Grupo de Investigacion Salud de la Mujer | Marrugo-Florez M.,Grupo de Investigacion Salud de la Mujer | Fernandez-Alonso A.M.,Hospital Torrecardenas | And 2 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of mid-aged Colombian women using the Cervantes Scale (CS). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 1,739 healthy women aged 40 to 59 years were asked to simultaneously fill out the CS and a questionnaire containing general female demographic data. The CS includes four domains: menopause and health (15 items), psychological (9 items), sexuality (4 items), and couple relationship (3 items). In addition, the menopause and health domain includes three subdomains: vasomotor symptoms, health, and aging. The global CS score may range from 0 to 155 (from better to worse QoL). RESULTS: Multiple linear regression determined that CS scores (global and domains) significantly increased (therefore, worse QoL) with age, menopause status, body mass index, parity, race, and marital and working status. The CS displayed a high internal consistency as Cronbach α values for the global and domain scores were above 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report QoL assessment using the CS among mid-aged Latin American women from Colombia in whom age, menopause status, body mass index, and other personal factors influenced QoL. © 2012 by The North American Menopause Society.

Fernandez-Alonso A.M.,Hospital Torrecardenas | Trabalon-Pastor M.,Hospital Torrecardenas | Vara C.,Hospital Torrecardenas | Chedraui P.,University of Guayaquil | Perez-Lopez F.R.,University of Zaragoza
Maturitas | Year: 2012

Background: Studies assessing life satisfaction and feelings of loneliness in mid-aged women are scarce. Objective: To assess loneliness, life satisfaction and related factors in mid-aged Spanish women. Method: This was a cross sectional study in which 182 women aged 40 to 65 completed the menopause rating scale (MRS), the University of California at Los Angeles loneliness scale (UCLA-LS), the life satisfaction index A (LSI-A), and a general socio-demographic questionnaire containing personal/partner data. Internal consistency of each tool was also computed. Results: Median [interquartile range] age of the sample was 51 [9.0] years. A 55.5% were postmenopausal, 47.3% had increased body mass index (BMI) values, 57.7% were abdominally obese, 1.6% had hypertension and 86.3% had a stable partner. In addition, 4.9% used hormone therapy and 19.2% psychotropic drugs. Multiple linear regression analysis found that higher UCLA-LS scores (more loneliness) correlated with MRS psychological scores, partner alcohol abuse, living in urban areas, lower LSI-A scores (less life satisfaction) and not having a stable partner. Lower LSI-A scores (worse life satisfaction) correlated with severe female economical problems, BMI values and UCLA-LS and MRS psychological scores. Conclusion: Loneliness and life satisfaction in this mid-aged female sample was influenced by personal and partner issues which seem to play a much more relevant role than biological aspects. More research is warranted in this regard. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vassalle C.,CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology | Simoncini T.,University of Pisa | Chedraui P.,University of Guayaquil | Perez-Lopez F.R.,University of Zaragoza
Gynecological Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading determinant of mortality and morbidity in women. However, a full understanding of the basic and clinical aspects of CVD in women is far from being accomplished. Sexual dimorphism in CVD has been reported both in humans and experimental animals. Menopause is a risk factor for CVD due to the reduction of endogenous estrogen, although the mechanisms underlying are poorly understood. Estrogens act through binding to vascular estrogen receptors and by non-genomic mechanisms. Advances in this field are essential to improve CVD diagnostic and clinical strategies in women, and to develop sex-specific prevention plans as much as female-oriented treatment algorithms. This paper reviews pathophysiology of CVD in women and its potential clinical implications. Particular emphasis is given to biochemical markers and to indicators of cardiovascular dysfunction and damage. Estimation of these parameters, central to cardiovascular pathophysiology, could represent a particularly relevant tool in female patients. More research is needed to identify women who will profit most of early intervention. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Objective Few Latin American studies have described menopausal symptoms in detail by means of a standardized assessment tool. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and their impact over quality of life among mid-aged Latin American women. Method In this cross-sectional study, 8373 otherwise healthy women aged 40-59 years from 12 Latin American countries were asked to fill out the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a questionnaire containing personal sociodemographic data. Menopause status (pre-, peri- and postmenopausal) was defined according to the criteria of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop. Results Of all the studied women, 90.9% had at least one menopausal symptom (complaint) that they rated. Muscle and joint discomfort, physical and mental exhaustion and depressive mood were highly prevalent and rated as severe-very severe (scores of 3 and 4), at a higher rate than vasomotor symptoms (15.6%, 13.8% and 13.7% vs. 9.6%, respectively). Of premenopausal women (40-44 years), 77.0% reported at least one rated complaint, with 12.9% displaying MRS scores defined as severe (>16). The latter rate increased to 26.4% in perimenopausal, 31.6% in early postmenopausal and 29.9% among late postmenopausal women. As measured with the MRS, the presence of hot flushes increased the risk of impairment of overall quality of life in both premenopausal (odds ratio 12.67; 95% confidence interval 9.53=16.83) and peri/postmenopausal women (odds ratio 9.37; 95% confidence interval 7.85=11.19). Conclusion In this large, mid-aged, female Latin American series, muscle/joint discomfort and psychological symptoms were the most prevalent and severely rated menopausal symptoms. The symptoms appear early in the premenopause, significantly impair quality of life and persist 5 years beyond the menopause. © 2012 International Menopause Society.

Gomez E.A.,University of Guayaquil | Kato H.,Hokkaido University | Hashiguchi Y.,Central University of Ecuador | Hashiguchi Y.,Kochi University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Gomez E.A.,University of Guayaquil | Kato H.,Hokkaido University | Mimori T.,Kumamoto University | Hashiguchi Y.,Central University of Ecuador | Hashiguchi Y.,Kochi University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

Distribution of the vector species is a major risk factor for the endemicity of leishmaniasis. In the present study, the vertical distribution of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis, the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Ecuadorian Andes, was surveyed at different altitudes (300-2500. m above sea level) of the Andean slope. The vector species Lu. ayacuchensis was identified at an altitude of 650. m and a higher areas, and higher distribution ratio of the species was observed at higher altitudes. In addition, high ratios of L. (L.) mexicana infection were detected in higher areas, but none in lower populations of sand flies. Since an association between sand fly populations and vector competence is suggested in Lu. ayacuchensis, haplotype analysis was performed on the species from different altitudes of the study areas; however, no apparent difference was observed among populations. These results suggested that Lu. ayacuchensis in Andean slope areas of Ecuador has the potential to transmit L. (L.) mexicana and spread leishmaniasis in these areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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