Guayaquil, Ecuador
Guayaquil, Ecuador

The University of Guayaquil , known colloquially as the Estatal , is a public university located in Guayaquil, Guayas Province, Ecuador. It is the oldest university in the city and has the largest student body. It operates six extension universities throughout the country. Wikipedia.


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Marrugo-Florez M.,Grupo de Investigacion Salud de la Mujer | Romero-Perez I.,Grupo de Investigacion Salud de la Mujer | Fernandez-Alonso A.M.,Hospital Torrecardenas | Chedraui P.,University of Guayaquil | And 2 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality, menopausal symptom intensity, and correlates (including ethnicity) among middle-aged women. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study involved 1,078 Colombian women aged 40 to 59 years who completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), and a general questionnaire exploring sociodemographic data. RESULTS: The median [interquartile range] age of the whole sample was 49.0 [9.0] years. Among the participants, 45.4% were postmenopausal, 57.2% had increased body mass index values, 13.9% were black, 20.7% had hypertension, 74.1% had a stable partner, and 3.8% used hormone therapy. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 57.1% (PSQI global score ≥5). Significant correlations between PSQI global scores and MRS total and subscale scores were found. Multiple linear regression analysis found that higher PSQI scores (poorer quality of sleep) correlated with higher MRS psychological and somatic subscale scores (more severe symptoms), smoking habit, and hypertension. Menopause status and black ethnicity were excluded from the final regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Despite study limitations, poor sleep quality is highly prevalent in this large middle-aged Colombian female sample and is related to menopausal symptom severity, tobacco use, and presence of hypertension. © 2012 by The North American Menopause Society.


Monterrosa-Castro A.,University of Cartagena | Romero-Perez I.,Grupo de Investigacion Salud de la Mujer | Marrugo-Florez M.,Grupo de Investigacion Salud de la Mujer | Fernandez-Alonso A.M.,Hospital Torrecardenas | And 2 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of mid-aged Colombian women using the Cervantes Scale (CS). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 1,739 healthy women aged 40 to 59 years were asked to simultaneously fill out the CS and a questionnaire containing general female demographic data. The CS includes four domains: menopause and health (15 items), psychological (9 items), sexuality (4 items), and couple relationship (3 items). In addition, the menopause and health domain includes three subdomains: vasomotor symptoms, health, and aging. The global CS score may range from 0 to 155 (from better to worse QoL). RESULTS: Multiple linear regression determined that CS scores (global and domains) significantly increased (therefore, worse QoL) with age, menopause status, body mass index, parity, race, and marital and working status. The CS displayed a high internal consistency as Cronbach α values for the global and domain scores were above 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report QoL assessment using the CS among mid-aged Latin American women from Colombia in whom age, menopause status, body mass index, and other personal factors influenced QoL. © 2012 by The North American Menopause Society.


Fernandez-Alonso A.M.,Hospital Torrecardenas | Trabalon-Pastor M.,Hospital Torrecardenas | Vara C.,Hospital Torrecardenas | Chedraui P.,University of Guayaquil | Perez-Lopez F.R.,University of Zaragoza
Maturitas | Year: 2012

Background: Studies assessing life satisfaction and feelings of loneliness in mid-aged women are scarce. Objective: To assess loneliness, life satisfaction and related factors in mid-aged Spanish women. Method: This was a cross sectional study in which 182 women aged 40 to 65 completed the menopause rating scale (MRS), the University of California at Los Angeles loneliness scale (UCLA-LS), the life satisfaction index A (LSI-A), and a general socio-demographic questionnaire containing personal/partner data. Internal consistency of each tool was also computed. Results: Median [interquartile range] age of the sample was 51 [9.0] years. A 55.5% were postmenopausal, 47.3% had increased body mass index (BMI) values, 57.7% were abdominally obese, 1.6% had hypertension and 86.3% had a stable partner. In addition, 4.9% used hormone therapy and 19.2% psychotropic drugs. Multiple linear regression analysis found that higher UCLA-LS scores (more loneliness) correlated with MRS psychological scores, partner alcohol abuse, living in urban areas, lower LSI-A scores (less life satisfaction) and not having a stable partner. Lower LSI-A scores (worse life satisfaction) correlated with severe female economical problems, BMI values and UCLA-LS and MRS psychological scores. Conclusion: Loneliness and life satisfaction in this mid-aged female sample was influenced by personal and partner issues which seem to play a much more relevant role than biological aspects. More research is warranted in this regard. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Vassalle C.,CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology | Simoncini T.,University of Pisa | Chedraui P.,University of Guayaquil | Perez-Lopez F.R.,University of Zaragoza
Gynecological Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading determinant of mortality and morbidity in women. However, a full understanding of the basic and clinical aspects of CVD in women is far from being accomplished. Sexual dimorphism in CVD has been reported both in humans and experimental animals. Menopause is a risk factor for CVD due to the reduction of endogenous estrogen, although the mechanisms underlying are poorly understood. Estrogens act through binding to vascular estrogen receptors and by non-genomic mechanisms. Advances in this field are essential to improve CVD diagnostic and clinical strategies in women, and to develop sex-specific prevention plans as much as female-oriented treatment algorithms. This paper reviews pathophysiology of CVD in women and its potential clinical implications. Particular emphasis is given to biochemical markers and to indicators of cardiovascular dysfunction and damage. Estimation of these parameters, central to cardiovascular pathophysiology, could represent a particularly relevant tool in female patients. More research is needed to identify women who will profit most of early intervention. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.


Brock P.M.,UK Institute of Zoology | Brock P.M.,University of Leeds | Hall A.J.,University of St. Andrews | Goodman S.J.,University of Leeds | And 3 more authors.
Animal Conservation | Year: 2013

Infectious disease threatens biodiversity and human health on a global scale, and disease emergence may become more common as humans further encroach on habitats and modify environments. To accurately assess the risk of disease emergence in free-ranging populations of vertebrates, we require an understanding of the dynamics of immunity in the wild. We applied techniques from the emergent discipline of ecological immunology to describe immune activity and dynamics in the endangered Galapagos sea lion Zalophus wollebaeki, which is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and fluctuations in food supply driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We compared immune activity from shortly after birth until 2 years of age between two Galapagos sea lion colonies: one heavily influenced by humans and the other on an uninhabited island, using a generalized linear model framework. Controlling for development, immune activity was higher in the human-impacted colony, as assessed with both humoural and cellular immune components and cumulative and snapshot measures of immune activity. We discuss the possibility that sea lions in the human-impacted colony are under greater immunostimulatory pressure than those in the comparison colony, which could have implications for individual fitness, colony stability and the risk of disease emergence. The study demonstrates the utility of a generalized and widely applicable approach to quantifying immune activity in wild vertebrates, as it highlights important aspects of the system for targeted analysis and further study. © 2012 The Zoological Society of London.


Objective Few Latin American studies have described menopausal symptoms in detail by means of a standardized assessment tool. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and their impact over quality of life among mid-aged Latin American women. Method In this cross-sectional study, 8373 otherwise healthy women aged 40-59 years from 12 Latin American countries were asked to fill out the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a questionnaire containing personal sociodemographic data. Menopause status (pre-, peri- and postmenopausal) was defined according to the criteria of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop. Results Of all the studied women, 90.9% had at least one menopausal symptom (complaint) that they rated. Muscle and joint discomfort, physical and mental exhaustion and depressive mood were highly prevalent and rated as severe-very severe (scores of 3 and 4), at a higher rate than vasomotor symptoms (15.6%, 13.8% and 13.7% vs. 9.6%, respectively). Of premenopausal women (40-44 years), 77.0% reported at least one rated complaint, with 12.9% displaying MRS scores defined as severe (>16). The latter rate increased to 26.4% in perimenopausal, 31.6% in early postmenopausal and 29.9% among late postmenopausal women. As measured with the MRS, the presence of hot flushes increased the risk of impairment of overall quality of life in both premenopausal (odds ratio 12.67; 95% confidence interval 9.53=16.83) and peri/postmenopausal women (odds ratio 9.37; 95% confidence interval 7.85=11.19). Conclusion In this large, mid-aged, female Latin American series, muscle/joint discomfort and psychological symptoms were the most prevalent and severely rated menopausal symptoms. The symptoms appear early in the premenopause, significantly impair quality of life and persist 5 years beyond the menopause. © 2012 International Menopause Society.


Gomez E.A.,University of Guayaquil | Kato H.,Hokkaido University | Hashiguchi Y.,Central University of Ecuador | Hashiguchi Y.,Kochi University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Palomeque E.F.,University of Guayaquil
EVS 2010 - Sustainable Mobility Revolution: 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition | Year: 2010

In the following work presents the development and construction of a digital controller that can control the charging during regenerative braking, a battery of a hybrid vehicle, using digital techniques with the help of Matlab 7.4, labview, Microbasic for dsPIC 30F4011, DC motor, 24 v (top) and an H-bridge MOSFETs built.


Landrum L.R.,Arizona State University | Cornejo X.,University of Guayaquil
Brittonia | Year: 2016

Psidium guayaquilense from western Ecuador is described and illustrated. It is most similar to P. acidum, having in common with it non-angular, rounded seeds, anthers with a few subequal glands and peduncles with wings. Psidium guayaquilense differs from P. acidum in various ways, most notably in the principal marginal veins mainly 1–3 mm from margin (versus 3–10 mm or more from margin in P. acidum); closed calyx with a prominent apiculum (versus without an apiculum or with only a weak apiculum); ovules per locule 12–40 (versus 50–70); style 8–10 mm long (versus 12–16 mm); fruit 1.5–3 cm in diameter (versus 2–5 cm); fruit wall 0.5–2.5 mm thick (versus 4–13 mm); seeds usually 4–6 (versus 20–60 or more). © 2016 The New York Botanical Garden


Gomez E.A.,University of Guayaquil | Kato H.,Hokkaido University | Mimori T.,Kumamoto University | Hashiguchi Y.,Central University of Ecuador | Hashiguchi Y.,Kochi University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

Distribution of the vector species is a major risk factor for the endemicity of leishmaniasis. In the present study, the vertical distribution of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis, the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Ecuadorian Andes, was surveyed at different altitudes (300-2500. m above sea level) of the Andean slope. The vector species Lu. ayacuchensis was identified at an altitude of 650. m and a higher areas, and higher distribution ratio of the species was observed at higher altitudes. In addition, high ratios of L. (L.) mexicana infection were detected in higher areas, but none in lower populations of sand flies. Since an association between sand fly populations and vector competence is suggested in Lu. ayacuchensis, haplotype analysis was performed on the species from different altitudes of the study areas; however, no apparent difference was observed among populations. These results suggested that Lu. ayacuchensis in Andean slope areas of Ecuador has the potential to transmit L. (L.) mexicana and spread leishmaniasis in these areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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