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Mangilao Village, Guam

University of Guam is a four-year land-grant institution, located in the village of Mangilao on the island of Guam in the Western Pacific Ocean. It is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges and offers thirty-four degree programs at the undergraduate level and eleven master’s level programs.Of the University’s 3,387 students, 91% are of Asian-Pacific Islander ethnicity, and nearly 69% are full-time . A full-time faculty of about 180 supports the University’s mission of "Ina, Diskubre, Setbe"— which translates to "To Enlighten, to Discover, to Serve." Wikipedia.

Archaeological investigations at the Ritidian site in Guam provide a series of radiocarbon dates spanning the potential range of human presence in the region. Paired marine and terrestrial samples offer a basis for δR calculation, as well as evaluation of the utility of different types of marine samples for 14C dating of archaeological contexts. The results indicate an early period of temporary fishing camp activity in the context of higher sea level and little or no stable beach, followed by larger-scale residential activity in the context of lower sea level and an extensive stable beach landform. © 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

BACKGROUND: Studies were conducted on experimental cabbage plantings in 2009 and on experimental and commercial plantings in 2010, comparing farmers' current chemical standard pesticide practices with an integrated pest management (IPM) program based on the use of neem (Aza-Direct) and DiPel (Bacillus thuringiensis). In experimental plantings, the IPM program used six or eight applications of neem and DiPel on a rotational basis. The standard-practice treatments consisted of six or eight applications of carbaryl and malathion or control treatment. RESULTS: The IPM treatments reduced pest populations and damage, resulting in a better yield than with the standard chemical or control treatment. When IPM treatment included three applications of neem plus three applications of DiPel (on a rotational basis in experimental fields), it again reduced the pest population and damage and produced a better yield than the standard practice. The lower input costs of the IPM program resulted in better economic returns in both trials. CONCLUSIONS: The IPM components neem and DiPel are suitable for use in an IPM program for managing insect pests on cabbage (Brassica spp.). © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Carson M.T.,University of Guam
Geoarchaeology | Year: 2014

A paleo-terrain approach can situate ancient sites within their original landscape settings, as illustrated in a case study of the Mariana Islands in the western Pacific. This example combines computer-aided terrain modeling with site-specific excavations to reconstruct the shapes and configurations of landforms during the period of first human settlement of Remote Oceania, 1500-1000 B.C. The results support new understanding of humanity's first contact with the Remote Oceanic environment. The same approach can be applied in other settings to advance programs of site-discovery and general studies of ancient site settings and ecology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Licmosphenia Mereschkowsky is distinguished from Licmophora C.A. Agardh on the basis of a septum with an apical aperture. Nine species have been named; hardly any have been reported since they were first described. Three species that clearly fit Mereschkowsky's generic definition have been found in samples from filamentous seaweeds in Guam and observed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Two are very similar to Mereschkowsky's Licmosphenia peragalli and Licmosphenia vanheurckii, but different enough to be proposed as new species, Licmosphenia peragallioides sp. nov. and Licmosphenia albertmannii sp. nov., along with Licmosphenia leuduger-fortmorelii sp. nov. Valves of these species are structurally similar to one another and to Licmophora aff. ehrenbergii (Kützing) Grunow and Licmophora abbreviata C.A. Agardh. All have wide striae of apically elongated areolae, and all have three rimoportulae per frustule: on the head pole of each valve but on the foot pole of only one. They differ in the shape of the valve and septum and can be distinguished on the basis of septum structure alone. A summary is provided of all other named Licmosphenia species, including a key for their identification. Comparison with Licmophora shows that the fine structure of the three new species is similar to species with coarse striae, e.g., Licmophora ehrenbergii and Licmophora abbreviata, but other species in both genera have finer striae, which in Licmophora are known to have different ultrastructure. At present there is insufficient evidence to emend the generic description of Licmosphenia or to decide if it should be included in Licmophora. © 2013 Copyright The International Society for Diatom Research.

Volcanically active islands abound in the tropical Pacific and harbor complex coral communities. Whereas lava streams and deep ash deposits are well-known to devastate coral communities through burial and smothering, little is known about the effect of moderate amounts of small particulate ash deposits on reef communities. Volcanic ash contains a diversity of chemical compounds that can induce nutrient enrichments triggering changes in benthic composition. Two independently collected data sets on the marine benthos of the pristine and remote reefs around Pagan Island, Northern Mariana Islands, reveal a sudden critical transition to cyanobacteria-dominated communities in 2009-2010, which coincides with a period of continuous volcanic ash eruptions. Concurrently, localized outbreaks of the coral-killing cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota displayed a remarkable symbiosis with filamentous cyanobacteria, which supported the rapid overgrowth of massive coral colonies and allowed the sponge to colonize substrate types from which it has not been documented before. The chemical composition of tephra from Pagan indicates that the outbreak of nuisance species on its reefs might represent an early succession stage of iron enrichment (a.k.a. "black reefs") similar to that caused by anthropogenic debris like ship wrecks or natural events like particulate deposition from wildfire smoke plumes or desert dust storms. Once Pagan's volcanic activity ceased in 2011, the cyanobacterial bloom disappeared. Another group of well-known nuisance algae in the tropical Pacific, the pelagophytes, did not reach bloom densities during this period of ash eruptions but new species records for the Northern Mariana Islands were documented. These field observations indicate that the study of population dynamics of pristine coral communities can advance our understanding of the resilience of tropical reef systems to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. © 2012 Tom Schils.

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