The University of Groningen , located in the city of Groningen, was founded in 1614. It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands as well as one of its largest. Since its inception more than 200,000 students have graduated. It is a member of the distinguished international Coimbra Group of European universities.In April 2013, according to the results of the International Student Barometer, the University of Groningen, for the third time in a row, has been voted the best University of the Netherlands. In 2014 the university celebrates its 400th anniversary and has planned various activities in and around the city of Groningen. For one month, from 15 May till 15 June, Groningen is immersed in a festive program RUG400 around the theme "For Infinity" .The University of Groningen has ten faculties, nine graduate schools, 27 research centres and institutes, and more than 175 degree programmes. Wikipedia.
University of Groningen | Date: 2016-12-02
The invention relates to a method for providing analogs of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), in particular oligosaccharides containing terminal sialic acid. The method comprises the steps of: a) providing a source of non-digestible galactooligosaccharides (GOS) containing at least two terminally bonded -linked galactose residues; b) providing a sialic acid donor having (2-3)-sialylated O-glycans; c) contacting said GOS with said sialic acid donor in the presence of an enzyme having trans-sialidase activity in an enzyme reaction mixture; and d) isolating from said enzyme reaction mixture a fraction comprising at least 20 percent by weight of disialylated galactooligosaccharides (di-Sia-GOS) based on the dry matter.
Matis Ohf. and University of Groningen | Date: 2015-01-12
The present invention relates to the identification, production and use of thermostable alginate lyase enzymes that can be used to partially degrade alginate to yield oligosaccharides or to give complete degradation of alginate to yield (unsaturated) mono-uronates.
Sulfateq B.V. and University of Groningen | Date: 2017-04-26
The present invention relates to compounds for the treatment of chronic obstructive airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma or bronchiectasis. The present invention further relates to drug delivery devices suitable to be used in the treatment of chronic obstructive airway diseases such as a nebulizer comprising the present compounds. Specifically, the present invention relates to (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-yl)(piperazin-1-yl)methanone or N,6-dihydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxamide or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or base thereof for use in the treatment of chronic obstructive airway diseases, preferably chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma or bronchiectasis, more preferably chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
University of Groningen | Date: 2015-06-05
A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially tangentially to its sidewall. A powder channel extends through a powder dose supply region of the inhaler tangentially into the chamber. An air outlet axially extends from a discharge and connects to a discharge channel that extends to a mouthpiece. The polygonal sidewall comprises at least six straight line segments, each straight line segments being spaced at the same first distance from an adjacent one forming the plurality of air supply channels. The air supply channels have the same width. The powder channel is defined by two straight line segments which are spaced from each other at a second dis tance which is larger than the first distance.
University of Groningen | Date: 2017-04-05
Sets of displacements of corresponding points between a first image and a second and third image are determined. Directional components in two directions of each set of displacements are fitted to two respective fitting planes. From the directional components, the relative displacements, each indicating a difference between the displacement of corresponding points and a calculated displacement of corresponding points on the respective fitting plane are calculated. An orientation of a sample plane for each image and the angle and the axis of rotation of the sample plane is calculated by requiring that for at least two types of physical parameters, the value resulting from the first set of displacements is identical to the value resulting from the second set of displacements. Three-dimensional surface topography data are determined from the calculated orientations and the angle and axis of rotation of the sample plane and the first or second relative displacements.
University of Groningen | Date: 2017-04-12
A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially tangentially to its sidewall. A powder channel extends through a powder dose supply region of the inhaler tangentially into the chamber. An air outlet axially extends from a discharge and connects to a discharge channel that extends to a mouthpiece. The polygonal sidewall comprises at least six straight line segments, each straight line segments being spaced at the same first distance from an adjacent one forming the plurality of air supply channels. The air supply channels have the same width. The powder channel is defined by two straight line segments which are spaced from each other at a second distance which is larger than the first distance.
University of Groningen | Date: 2017-07-12
The present invention provides novel compounds of formula (I) that are useful as inhibitors of the PD-1/PD-L1 protein/ protein interaction.
van Heel A.J.,University of Groningen
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2013
Identifying genes encoding bacteriocins and ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) can be a challenging task. Especially those peptides that do not have strong homology to previously identified peptides can easily be overlooked. Extensive use of BAGEL2 and user feedback has led us to develop BAGEL3. BAGEL3 features genome mining of prokaryotes, which is largely independent of open reading frame (ORF) predictions and has been extended to cover more (novel) classes of posttranslationally modified peptides. BAGEL3 uses an identification approach that combines direct mining for the gene and indirect mining via context genes. Especially for heavily modified peptides like lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, glycocins and others, this genetic context harbors valuable information that is used for mining purposes. The bacteriocin and context protein databases have been updated and it is now easy for users to submit novel bacteriocins or RiPPs. The output has been simplified to allow user-friendly analysis of the results, in particular for large (meta-genomic) datasets. The genetic context of identified candidate genes is fully annotated. As input, BAGEL3 uses FASTA DNA sequences or folders containing multiple FASTA formatted files. BAGEL3 is freely accessible at http://bagel.molgenrug.nl.
Otto S.,University of Groningen
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012
Dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) are molecular networks in which the network members exchange building blocks. The resulting product distribution is initially under thermodynamic control. Addition of a guest or template molecule tends to shift the equilibrium towards compounds that are receptors for the guest.This Account gives an overview of our work in this area. We have demonstrated the template-induced amplification of synthetic receptors, which has given rise to several high-affinity binders for cationic and anionic guests in highly competitive aqueous solution. The dynamic combinatorial approach allows for the identification of new receptors unlikely to be obtained through rational design. Receptor discovery is possible and more efficient in larger libraries. The dynamic combinatorial approach has the attractive characteristic of revealing interesting structures, such as catenanes, even when they are not specifically targeted. Using a transition-state analogue as a guest we can identify receptors with catalytic activity.Although DCLs were initially used with the reductionistic view of identifying new synthetic receptors or catalysts, it is becoming increasingly apparent that DCLs are also of interest in their own right. We performed detailed computational studies of the effect of templates on the product distributions of DCLs using DCLSim software. Template effects can be rationalized by considering the entire network: the system tends to maximize global host-guest binding energy. A data-fitting analysis of the response of the global position of the DCLs to the addition of the template using DCLFit software allowed us to disentangle individual host-guest binding constants. This powerful procedure eliminates the need for isolation and purification of the various individual receptors. Furthermore, local network binding events tend to propagate through the entire network and may be harnessed for transmitting and processing of information. We demonstrated this possibility in silico through a simple dynamic molecular network that can perform AND logic with input and output in the form of molecules.Not only are dynamic molecular networks responsive to externally added templates, but they also adjust to internal template effects, giving rise to self-replication. Recently we have started to explore scenarios where library members recognize copies of themselves, resulting in a self-assembly process that drives the synthesis of the very molecules that self-assemble. We have developed a system that shows unprecedented mechanosensitive self-replication behavior: depending on whether the solution is shaken, stirred or not agitated, we have obtained a hexameric replicator, a heptameric replicator or no replication, respectively. We rationalize this behavior through a mechanism in which replication is promoted by mechanically-induced fragmentation of self-assembled replicator fibers. These results represent a new mode of self-replication in which mechanical energy liberates replicators from a self-inhibited state. These systems may also be viewed as self-synthesizing, self-assembling materials. These materials can be captured photochemically, converting a free-flowing fiber solution into a hydrogel through photo-induced homolytic disulfide exchange. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Verovskaya E.,University of Groningen
Blood | Year: 2013
The number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that contributes to blood formation and the dynamics of their clonal contribution is a matter of ongoing discussion. Here, we use cellular barcoding combined with multiplex high-throughput sequencing to provide a quantitative and sensitive analysis of clonal behavior of hundreds of young and old HSCs. The majority of transplanted clones steadily contributes to hematopoiesis in the long-term, although clonal output in granulocytes, T cells, and B cells is substantially different. Contributions of individual clones to blood are dynamically changing; most of the clones either expand or decline with time. Finally, we demonstrate that the pool of old HSCs is composed of multiple small clones, whereas the young HSC pool is dominated by fewer, but larger, clones.