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Groningen, Netherlands

The University of Groningen , located in the city of Groningen, was founded in 1614. It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands as well as one of its largest. Since its inception more than 200,000 students have graduated. It is a member of the distinguished international Coimbra Group of European universities.In April 2013, according to the results of the International Student Barometer, the University of Groningen, for the third time in a row, has been voted the best University of the Netherlands. In 2014 the university celebrates its 400th anniversary and has planned various activities in and around the city of Groningen. For one month, from 15 May till 15 June, Groningen is immersed in a festive program RUG400 around the theme "For Infinity" .The University of Groningen has ten faculties, nine graduate schools, 27 research centres and institutes, and more than 175 degree programmes. Wikipedia.


Patent
Brainlabs B.V., University of Groningen and Academisch Ziekenhuis Groningen | Date: 2014-01-31

The present invention relates to new biomarkers and new sets of biomarkers for diagnosing a mood disorder, preferably depression or monitoring the effectiveness of therapy for said mood disorder.


Jonkers I.,University of Groningen | Lis J.T.,Cornell University
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Recent advances in sequencing techniques that measure nascent transcripts and that reveal the positioning of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) have shown that the pausing of Pol II in promoter-proximal regions and its release to initiate a phase of productive elongation are key steps in transcription regulation. Moreover, after the release of Pol II from the promoter-proximal region, elongation rates are highly dynamic throughout the transcription of a gene, and vary on a gene-by-gene basis. Interestingly, Pol II elongation rates affect co-transcriptional processes such as splicing, termination and genome stability. Increasing numbers of factors and regulatory mechanisms have been associated with the steps of transcription elongation by Pol II, revealing that elongation is a highly complex process. Elongation is thus now recognized as a key phase in the regulation of transcription by Pol II. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


The number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that contributes to blood formation and the dynamics of their clonal contribution is a matter of ongoing discussion. Here, we use cellular barcoding combined with multiplex high-throughput sequencing to provide a quantitative and sensitive analysis of clonal behavior of hundreds of young and old HSCs. The majority of transplanted clones steadily contributes to hematopoiesis in the long-term, although clonal output in granulocytes, T cells, and B cells is substantially different. Contributions of individual clones to blood are dynamically changing; most of the clones either expand or decline with time. Finally, we demonstrate that the pool of old HSCs is composed of multiple small clones, whereas the young HSC pool is dominated by fewer, but larger, clones. Source


Otto S.,University of Groningen
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

Dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) are molecular networks in which the network members exchange building blocks. The resulting product distribution is initially under thermodynamic control. Addition of a guest or template molecule tends to shift the equilibrium towards compounds that are receptors for the guest.This Account gives an overview of our work in this area. We have demonstrated the template-induced amplification of synthetic receptors, which has given rise to several high-affinity binders for cationic and anionic guests in highly competitive aqueous solution. The dynamic combinatorial approach allows for the identification of new receptors unlikely to be obtained through rational design. Receptor discovery is possible and more efficient in larger libraries. The dynamic combinatorial approach has the attractive characteristic of revealing interesting structures, such as catenanes, even when they are not specifically targeted. Using a transition-state analogue as a guest we can identify receptors with catalytic activity.Although DCLs were initially used with the reductionistic view of identifying new synthetic receptors or catalysts, it is becoming increasingly apparent that DCLs are also of interest in their own right. We performed detailed computational studies of the effect of templates on the product distributions of DCLs using DCLSim software. Template effects can be rationalized by considering the entire network: the system tends to maximize global host-guest binding energy. A data-fitting analysis of the response of the global position of the DCLs to the addition of the template using DCLFit software allowed us to disentangle individual host-guest binding constants. This powerful procedure eliminates the need for isolation and purification of the various individual receptors. Furthermore, local network binding events tend to propagate through the entire network and may be harnessed for transmitting and processing of information. We demonstrated this possibility in silico through a simple dynamic molecular network that can perform AND logic with input and output in the form of molecules.Not only are dynamic molecular networks responsive to externally added templates, but they also adjust to internal template effects, giving rise to self-replication. Recently we have started to explore scenarios where library members recognize copies of themselves, resulting in a self-assembly process that drives the synthesis of the very molecules that self-assemble. We have developed a system that shows unprecedented mechanosensitive self-replication behavior: depending on whether the solution is shaken, stirred or not agitated, we have obtained a hexameric replicator, a heptameric replicator or no replication, respectively. We rationalize this behavior through a mechanism in which replication is promoted by mechanically-induced fragmentation of self-assembled replicator fibers. These results represent a new mode of self-replication in which mechanical energy liberates replicators from a self-inhibited state. These systems may also be viewed as self-synthesizing, self-assembling materials. These materials can be captured photochemically, converting a free-flowing fiber solution into a hydrogel through photo-induced homolytic disulfide exchange. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Coenraads P.-J.,University of Groningen
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

A 33-year-old woman presents with redness of the hands and reports the intermittent occurrence of tiny vesicles, scaling, and fissuring, accompanied by itching on the palms, fingers, and dorsal sides of the hands. She has two young children and works as a nurse in a nearby hospital. She has a history of childhood eczema and a contact allergy to nickel. How should this case be managed? Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

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