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Grenoble, France

Wirths S.,PGi | Geiger R.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Geiger R.,ETH Zurich | Von Den Driesch N.,PGi | And 12 more authors.
Nature Photonics

Large-scale optoelectronics integration is limited by the inability of Si to emit light efficiently, because Si and the chemically well-matched Ge are indirect-bandgap semiconductors. To overcome this drawback, several routes have been pursued, such as the all-optical Si Raman laser and the heterogeneous integration of direct-bandgap III-V lasers on Si. Here, we report lasing in a direct-bandgap group IV system created by alloying Ge with Sn without mechanically introducing strain. Strong enhancement of photoluminescence emerging from the direct transition with decreasing temperature is the signature of a fundamental direct-bandgap semiconductor. For Tâ €‰â ‰â €‰90K, the observation of a threshold in emitted intensity with increasing incident optical power, together with strong linewidth narrowing and a consistent longitudinal cavity mode pattern, highlight unambiguous laser action. Direct-bandgap group IV materials may thus represent a pathway towards the monolithic integration of Si-photonic circuitry and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Borel F.,CNRS Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology | Hachi I.,CNRS Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology | Palencia A.,University Of Grenoble Alpes | Gaillard M.-C.,Institute dImagerie Biomedicale | Ferrer J.-L.,CNRS Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology
FEBS Journal

Mu-crystallin (CRYM), first described as a structural component of the eye lens in marsupials, has been characterized as an NADPH-dependent cytosolic T3 thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) binding protein. More recently, CRYM has also been associated with ketimine reductase activity. Here, we report three crystal structures: mouse CRYM (mCRYM) in its apo form, in a form complexed with NADPH, and in a form with both NADPH and triiodothyronine bound. Comparison of the apo and NADPH forms reveals a rearrangement of the protein upon NADPH binding that reduces the degrees of freedom of several residues and traps the conformation of the binding pocket in a more T3 competent state. These findings are in agreement with the cooperative mechanism identified using isothermal titration calorimetry. Our structure with T3 reveals for the first time the location of the hormone binding site and shows its detailed interactions. T3 binding involves mainly hydrophobic interactions. Only five residues, either directly or through bridging water molecules, are hydrogen bonded to the hormone. Using in silico docking analysis, a series of ring-containing hydrophobic molecules were identified as potential mCRYM ligands, suggesting that the specificity for the recognition of the hydrophobic part of the hormone might be low. This is in agreement with the ketimine reductase activity that has been identified for ovine CRYM, as it demonstrates how a protein known as a thyroid hormone transporter can accommodate the ringed molecules required for its ketimine reductase activity. In the light of our results, a putative role of CRYM in thyroid hormone metabolism is also discussed. © 2014 FEBS. Source

Perfettini H.,IRD | Perfettini H.,University Of Grenoble Alpes | Avouac J.P.,California Institute of Technology
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth

We model seismic and aseismic slip on the Japan megathrust in the area of the Mw9.0, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake based on daily time series from 400 GPS stations of the GEONET network and campaign measurements of six sea floor displacements. The coseismic and postseismic slip distributions are inverted simultaneously using principal component analysis-based inversion method (PCAIM). Exploring a wide range of boundary conditions and regularization constraints, we found the coseismic slip distribution to be quite compact with a peak slip between 30 and 50 m near the trench. Our model shows deep afterslip fringing the downdip edge of the coseismic rupture but also a dominant zone of shallow afterslip. Afterslip over the first 279 days following the main shock represents about 40% of the coseismic moment. We compare the coseismic and postseismic models with an interseismic coupling model derived from inland and sea bottom measurements determined in a self-consistent manner. Assuming that seismic and aseismic slip had to match the long-term slip rate along the megathrust, the recurrence time of Mw9.0 earthquakes is estimated to 100-300 years, while historical and paleotsunami records suggest a return period more of the order of 1000 years. The discrepancy is smaller if the shallower portion of the megathrust is assumed to produce both aseismic slip, as the afterslip model suggests, and seismic slip during occasional large tsunamigenic earthquakes. ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Francois B.,University Of Grenoble Alpes | Francois B.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Renewable Energy

When considering 100% renewable scenarios, backup generation is needed for stabilizing the network when Climate Related Energy (CRE) such as wind, solar or run-of-the river hydropower are not sufficient for supplying the load. Several studies show that, over relatively short time period (less than 10 years), backup generation needs are reduced by dissipating power densities either in space through grids or time through storage. This study looks at the impact of low time frequency variations of CRE with a specific focus on the time variability induced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) teleconnection pattern during winter season. A set of eleven regions in Europe and Tunisia is used for highlighting space variability of the winter NAO's impact. For each of these regions, we combine data from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model and the European Climate Assessment & Dataset for estimating solar-power, wind-power, run-of-the-river hydro-power and the energy load over the 1980–2012 time period. Results show that NAO's impact on winter penetration rate depends on both the considered energy source and the location. They also highlight a non-linear relation between the NAO's impact on CRE penetration rates and the level of equipment used for harvesting the CRE sources. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

Lacroix P.,University Of Grenoble Alpes | Lacroix P.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Earth, Planets and Space

The Gorkha earthquake (Nepal, 2015, M w 7.9) triggered many landslides. The most catastrophic mass movement was a debris avalanche that buried several villages in the Langtang valley. In this study, questions are raised about its volume and initiation. I investigate the possibility of high-resolution digital surface models computed from tri-stereo SPOT6/7 images to resolve this issue. This high-resolution dataset enables me to derive an inventory of 160 landslides triggered by this earthquake. I analyze the source of errors and estimate the uncertainties in the landslide volumes. The vegetation prevents to correctly estimate the volumes of landslides that occured in vegetated areas. However, I evaluate the volume and thickness of 73 landslides developing in vegetated-free areas, showing a power law between their surface areas and volumes with exponent of 1.20. Accumulations and depletion volumes are also well constrained for larger landslides, and I find that the main debris avalanches accumulated 6.95 × 106 m3 of deposits in the valley with thicknesses reaching 60 m, and 9.66 × 106 m3 in the glaciated part above 5000 m asl. The large amount of sediments is explained by an initiation of the debris avalanche due to serac falls and snow avalanches from five separate places between 6800 and 7200 m asl over 3 km length. © 2016 Lacroix. Source

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