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Greifswald, Germany

The University of Greifswald is a public research university located in Greifswald, Germany, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.Founded in 1456 , it is one of the oldest universities in Europe, with generations of notable alumni and staff having studied or worked in Greifswald. As the fourth-oldest university in present Germany, it was temporarily also the oldest university of the Kingdoms of Sweden and Prussia , respectively. Approximately two thirds of the 12,000 students are from outside the state. Due to the small-town atmosphere, the pronounced architectural presence of the alma mater across town, and the young, academic flair in the streets, Greifswald is often described as a "university with a town built around it" rather than a town with a university. Wikipedia.


Greinacher A.,University of Greifswald
Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program | Year: 2010

The many comorbidities in the severely ill patient also make thrombocytopenia very common (∼40%) in intensive care unit patients. The risk of bleeding is high with severe thrombocytopenia and is enhanced in intensive care patients with mild or moderately low platelet counts when additional factors are present that interfere with normal hemostatic mechanisms (eg, platelet function defects, hyperfibrinolysis, invasive procedures, or catheters). Even if not associated with bleeding, low platelet counts often influence patient management and may prompt physicians to withhold or delay necessary invasive interventions, reduce the intensity of anticoagulation, order prophylactic platelet transfusion, or change anticoagulants due to fear of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. One approach to identify potential causes of thrombocytopenia that require specific interventions is to consider the dynamics of platelet count changes. The relative decrease in platelet counts within the first 3 to 4 days after major surgery is informative about the magnitude of the trauma or blood loss, whereas the dynamic of the platelet count course thereafter shows whether or not the physiologic compensatory mechanisms are working. A slow and gradual fall in platelet counts developing over 5 to 7 days is more likely to be caused by consumptive coagulopathy or bone marrow failure, whereas any abrupt decrease (within 1-2 days) in platelet counts manifesting after an initial increase in platelet counts approximately 1 to 2 weeks after surgery strongly suggests immunologic causes, including heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, other drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia, and posttransfusion purpura.


Friedrich N.,University of Greifswald
Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Diabetes represents one of the most important global health problems because it is associated with a large economic burden on the health systems of many countries. Whereas the diagnosis and treatment of manifest diabetes have been well investigated, the identification of novel pathways or early biomarkers indicative of metabolic alterations or insulin resistance related to the development of diabetes is still in progress. Over half of the type 2 diabetes patients show manifestations of diabetes-related diseases, which highlight the need for early screening markers of diabetes. During the last decade, the rapidly growing research field of metabolomics has introduced new insights into the pathology of diabetes as well as methods to predict disease onset and has revealed new biomarkers. Recent epidemiological studies first used metabolism to predict incident diabetes and revealed branched-chain and aromatic amino acids including isoleucine, leucine, valine, tyrosine and phenylalanine as highly significant predictors of future diabetes. This review summarises the current findings of metabolic research regarding diabetes in animal models and human investigations. © 2012 Society for Endocrinology.


Kuhl O.,University of Greifswald
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

It is well known that an acidic hydrogen atom can form hydrogen bonds to a hydrogen bond acceptor, a Lewis base. It is considerably less known that the proton can coordinate two or more atoms conveniently in bonding modes that cannot be described as hydrogen bonding. Agostic interactions, bridging hydrides, 3-centre-2-electron bonds in boranes, bifurcated hydrogen atoms, they are all elements of the coordination chemistry of the proton and, of course, the hydrogen bond comes in more than one facette as well. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Klein S.,University of Greifswald
AAPS Journal | Year: 2010

Simulation of gastrointestinal conditions is essential to adequately predict the in vivo behavior of drug formulations. To reduce the size and number of human studies required to identify a drug product with appropriate performance in both the fed and fasted states, it is advantageous to be able to pre-screen formulations in vitro. The choice of appropriate media for such in vitro tests is crucial to their ability to correctly forecast the food effect in pharmacokinetic studies. The present paper gives an overview of the development and composition of biorelevant dissolution media that can be used for the in vitro simulation of different dosing conditions (fasted and fed states). In addition, the application of these media to predicting food effects is described in several case examples. © 2010 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.


Von Bohlen Und Halbach O.,University of Greifswald
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2011

Biologists long believed that, once development is completed, no new neurons are produced in the forebrain. However, as is now firmly established, new neurons can be produced at least in two specific forebrain areas: the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampal formation. Neurogenesis within the adult DG occurs constitutively throughout postnatal life, and the rate of neurogenesis within the DG can be altered under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The process of adult neurogenesis within the DG is a multi-step process (proliferation, differentiation, migration, targeting, and synaptic integration) that ends with the formation of a post-mitotic functionally integrated new neuron. Various markers are expressed during specific stages of adult neurogenesis. The availability of such markers allows the time-course and fate of newly born cells to be followed within the DG in a detailed and precise fashion. Several of the available markers (e.g., PCNA, Ki-67, PH3, MCM2) are markers for proliferative events, whereas others are more specific for early phases of neurogenesis and gliogenesis within the adult DG (e.g., nestin, GFAP, Sox2, Pax6). In addition, markers are available allowing events to be distinguished that are related to later steps of gliogenesis (e.g., vimentin, BLBP, S100beta) or neurogenesis (e.g., NeuroD, PSA-NCAM, DCX). © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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