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Great Falls, MT, United States

The University of Great Falls , a private Roman Catholic university located in Great Falls, Montana, is accredited by the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges. The mission of the University of Great Falls "is to provide students with the opportunity to obtain a liberal education for living and for making a living." Wikipedia.

Coggins III P.E.,University of Great Falls
Computers in the Schools | Year: 2013

The purpose of this aricle is to present several implications and recommendations regarding what elementary school children, aged 9-12 years, know about computer passwords and what they know about why computer passwords are important. Student knowledge can then be used to make relevant curriculum decisions based in conjunction with applicable state and national standards. Weak computer password construction, use, and knowledge have been identified as areas of high risk for data security. By identifying what children know about passwords, an appropriate curriculum can be designed to help children develop strong password habits that will minimize unauthorized data access via computer technology. This is especially important because elementary school children today will become industry computer users tomorrow. By instilling appropriate computer password habits in children today, curriculum can be designed to follow them through the education experience and into industry. Relevant standards from the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), ISTE National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS•S), and the Association for Computing Machinery's Computer Science Teachers Association K-12 (CSTA K-12) are referenced. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Sawka M.N.,U.S. Army | Leon L.R.,U.S. Army | Montain S.J.,U.S. Army | Sonna L.A.,University of Great Falls
Comprehensive Physiology | Year: 2011

This article emphasizes significant recent advances regarding heat stress and its impact on exercise performance, adaptations, fluid electrolyte imbalances, and pathophysiology. During exerciseheat stress, the physiological burden of supporting high skin blood flow and high sweating rates can impose considerable cardiovascular strain and initiate a cascade of pathophysiological events leading to heat stroke. We examine the association between heat stress, particularly high skin temperature, on diminishing cardiovascular/aerobic reserves as well as increasing relative intensity and perceptual cues that degrade aerobic exercise performance. We discuss novel systemic (heat acclimation) and cellular (acquired thermal tolerance) adaptations that improve performance in hot and temperate environments and protect organs from heat stroke as well as other dissimilar stresses. We delineate how heat stroke evolves from gut underperfusion/ischemia causing endotoxin release or the release of mitochondrial DNA fragments in response to cell necrosis, to mediate a systemic inflammatory syndrome inducing coagulopathies, immune dysfunction, cytokine modulation, and multiorgan damage and failure. We discuss how an inflammatory response that induces simultaneous fever and/or prior exposure to a pathogen (e.g., viral infection) that deactivates molecular protective mechanisms interacts synergistically with the hyperthermia of exercise to perhaps explain heat stroke cases reported in low-risk populations performing routine activities. Importantly, we question the "traditional" notion that high core temperature is the critical mediator of exercise performance degradation and heat stroke. Source

Packer R.R.,Washington State University | Packer R.R.,University of Great Falls | Howell D.N.,Washington State University | McPherson S.,Washington State University | Roll J.M.,Washington State University
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology | Year: 2012

The influence of reinforcer magnitude and reinforcer delay on smoking abstinence was studied using an analog model of contingency management. Participants (N = 103, 74% men) visited our laboratory 3 times daily for 5 days and received money for providing a breath sample that indicated smoking abstinence (carbon monoxide level ≥6 parts per million). Using a factorial design, we assigned participants randomly to 1 of 4 groups that could earn a total of either $207.50 (high-magnitude condition) or $70.00 (low-magnitude condition), and received earnings either at each visit (no-delay condition) or in a single lump sum 1 week following the study (delay condition). High-magnitude reinforcement, regardless of delay, was associated with higher rates of abstinence than was low-magnitude reinforcement. High magnitude of reinforcement provided immediately but in incremental amounts was associated with longer intervals to relapse during treatment in comparison with high-magnitude reinforcement provided in a single lump sum after a delay. Low rates of responding in the low-magnitude conditions made interpretation of the impact of delay in those conditions difficult. These findings further demonstrate that high magnitude of reinforcement results in better outcomes than does low magnitude of reinforcement, and that a delay to reinforcement can be detrimental-even when a high magnitude of reinforcement is provided. © 2012 American Psychological Association. Source

Knab J.J.,University of Great Falls
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems | Year: 2015

This correspondence derives expressions for the total satellite transponder power, transponder gain, and all the terminals' transmit links power taking into account all of the system parameters such as uplink and downlink satellite antenna gains, the ground terminals' receive gain and noise temperature, path losses and fades, data rates, required Eb/No, etc. Both orthogonal waveforms as well as self-interfering waveforms such as pseudonoise spread spectrum in presence of jamming are included. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Hogan J.D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Hogan J.D.,Texas A&M University | Blum M.J.,Tulane University | Gilliam J.F.,North Carolina State University | And 2 more authors.
Ecology | Year: 2014

Successful dispersal can enhance both individual fitness and population persistence, but the process of dispersal is often inherently risky. The interplay between the costs and benefits of dispersal are poorly documented for species with complex life histories due to the difficulty of tracking dispersing individuals. Here we investigate variability in dispersal histories of a freshwater fish, Awaous stamineus, across the species' entire geographic range in the Hawaiian archipelago. Like many animals endemic to tropical island streams, these gobies have an amphidromous life cycle in which a brief marine larval phase enables dispersal among isolated freshwater habitats. Using otolith microchemistry, we document three distinct marine dispersal pathways, all of which are observed on every island. Surprisingly, we also find that 62% of individuals complete their life cycle entirely within freshwater, in contrast to the assumption that amphidromy is obligate in Hawaiian stream gobies. Comparing early life history outcomes based on daily otolith growth rings, we find that individuals with marine dispersal have shorter larval durations and faster larval growth, and their growth advantage over purely freshwater counterparts continues to some degree into adult life. These individual benefits of maintaining a marine dispersal phase presumably balance against the challenge of finding and reentering an island stream from the ocean. The facultative nature of amphidromy in this species highlights the selective balance between costs and benefits of dispersal in life history evolution. Accounting for alternative dispersal strategies will be essential for conservation of the amphidromous species that often dominate tropical island streams, many of which are at risk of extinction. © 2014 by the Ecological Society of America. Source

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