Granada, Spain
Granada, Spain

The University of Granada is a public university located in the city of Granada that enrolls approximately 80,000 students, thereby becoming the fourth largest university in Spain. UGR also has campuses in Northern Africa , thus being the only European university with campuses in two continents. Founded in 1531 by Emperor Charles V, UGR has almost 500 years of history and it is one of the most famous universities in Spain.According to several rankings, the University of Granada ranks among top ten best Spanish universities and holds first place in Translation and Interpreting studies. In addition, UGR plays a major role in scientific output, placing high in national ranks and being one of the best world universities in computing and mathematics studies. The university has an important heritage thanks to its policy of using buildings of historical and cultural value. The Madrasah of Granada represents one such example. Furthermore, the university has major new facilities committed to innovation, such as the Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud.Every year, over 2,000 European students enroll in UGR through the Erasmus Programme, making it the most popular European destination. The university's Center for Modern Languages receives over 10,000 international students each year. UGR also has been recently voted best Spanish university by international students. Wikipedia.

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Stichting Vumc and University of Granada | Date: 2015-04-21

Disclosed are small ncRNAs that may be used as biomarkers for classifying the health status of an individual. The disclosure also provides screening methods for identifying ncRNA biomarkers.

Servicio Andaluz De Salud and University of Granada | Date: 2017-02-01

The invention relates to an aqueous melatonin composition exhibiting surprising long-term stability and allowing high concentrations of said water-insoluble active ingredient. The properties of said composition render it useful as an injectable, for example, for the intravenous administration thereof.

Gomez J.M.,CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas | Gomez J.M.,University of Granada | Gonzalez-Megias A.,University of Granada | Mendez M.,Rey Juan Carlos University
Nature | Year: 2016

The psychological, sociological and evolutionary roots of conspecific violence in humans are still debated, despite attracting the attention of intellectuals for over two millennia. Here we propose a conceptual approach towards understanding these roots based on the assumption that aggression in mammals, including humans, has a significant phylogenetic component. By compiling sources of mortality from a comprehensive sample of mammals, we assessed the percentage of deaths due to conspecifics and, using phylogenetic comparative tools, predicted this value for humans. The proportion of human deaths phylogenetically predicted to be caused by interpersonal violence stood at 2%. This value was similar to the one phylogenetically inferred for the evolutionary ancestor of primates and apes, indicating that a certain level of lethal violence arises owing to our position within the phylogeny of mammals. It was also similar to the percentage seen in prehistoric bands and tribes, indicating that we were as lethally violent then as common mammalian evolutionary history would predict. However, the level of lethal violence has changed through human history and can be associated with changes in the socio-political organization of human populations. Our study provides a detailed phylogenetic and historical context against which to compare levels of lethal violence observed throughout our history. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.

Reolid M.,University of Jaén | Nagy J.,University of Oslo | Rodriguez-Tovar F.J.,University of Granada
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010

Foraminiferal analysis proves to be a useful tool for the interpretation of major factors controlling the eco-sedimentary environment. Changes in benthic foraminiferal features, including morphogroups, are mainly affected by variations in nutrient availability and oxygenation rate. The integration of foraminiferal data with total organic carbon (TOC) values, together with differentiation of oxygen restricted biofacies (ORB) based on sedimentological features and macroinvertebrate composition, will improve the interpretations derived. Upper Jurassic shelf deposits from Svalbard (Norway) are revealed to be particularly sensitive to the record of fluctuations in nutrients and oxygenation, showing two extreme cases in TOC content. High TOC concentrations are characterized by low values of the Shannon-Weaver Index (H') and α-diversity index in foraminifera, pointing to a low diversity and dominance of r-mode epifaunal foraminifera (Trochammina). Moreover, differentiated ORB can be characterized by parallel lamination in shales, and an absence of macrobenthic invertebrates (including trace fossils). Unfavourable benthic conditions are interpreted, mainly related with a high consumption of oxygen by microbes in the sediment associated to the degradation of the organic matter. Low TOC values are related to higher values of diversity (H' and α-diversity index), and foraminiferal assemblages dominated by infaunal forms. The differentiated ORBs are characterized by coarse fabrics, scarcity or absence of parallel lamination, presence of trace fossils and abundance of macroinvertebrate shelly epifauna. This is related to a better pore water circulation and higher oxygenation degree, congruent with the comparatively more favourable conditions in the infaunal habitats. Ecostratigraphic trends along the studied section allow the differentiation of stratigraphic intervals reflecting variations in parameters related to the sea-level dynamics. Transgressive phases reveal upward trends in palaeoenvironmental parameters, characterized by: decreasing grain-size, and increasing in both TOC values and epifaunal foraminifera. Differentiated ORB reveals diminution in abundance and diversity of trace fossils and benthic shelly macroinvertebrates upwards. Maximum flooding intervals show the maintenance or accentuation of the previously registered features (the thinnest fabrics, and the highest values in TOC and in opportunistic epifaunal foraminifera), with ORB dominated by parallel lamination. A regressive phase is characterized by coarsening-upwards sediments, decreasing TOC values and increasing infaunal foraminifera. ORB reveals a diminution in parallel lamination together with an increase in trace fossil abundance and diversity, as well as in benthic shelly macroinvertebrates. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Pulido A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pulido A.,University of Granada | Laufs P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2010

Leaf development entails the transition from a small group of undifferentiated cells to a structure of defined size and shape, highly organized into different cell types with specialized functions. During this developmental sequence, patterning, growth, and differentiation have to be tightly coordinated by intricate regulatory networks in which small RNAs [microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs)] have emerged during the last years as essential players. In this review, after having given an overview of miRNA and ta-siRNA biogenesis and mode of action, their contribution to the life of a leaf from initiation to senescence is described. MiRNA and ta-siRNA are not merely regulators of gene expression patterns, but, by acting both locally and at the whole organ scale, they have an essential role in the coordination of complex developmental processes and are fully integrated in genetic networks and signalling pathways.

Amaro J.E.,University of Granada | Barbaro M.B.,University of Turin | Caballero J.A.,University of Seville | Donnelly T.W.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Williamson C.F.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We evaluate the quasielastic double differential neutrino cross sections obtained in a phenomenological model based on the superscaling behavior of electron scattering data. We compare our results with the recent experimental data for neutrinos of MiniBooNE and estimate the contribution of the vector meson-exchange currents in the 2p-2h sector. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Garcia-Recio C.,University of Granada | Nieves J.,University of Valencia | Tolos L.,University of Groningen
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

The energies and widths of several D0 meson bound states for different nuclei are obtained using a D-meson selfenergy in the nuclear medium, which is evaluated in a selfconsistent manner using techniques of unitarized coupled-channel theory. The kernel of the meson-baryon interaction is based on a model that treats heavy pseudoscalar and heavy vector mesons on equal footing, as required by heavy quark symmetry. We find D0 bound states in all studied nuclei, from 12C up to 208Pb. The inclusion of vector mesons is the keystone for obtaining an attractive D-nucleus interaction that leads to the existence of D0-nucleus bound states, as compared to previous studies based on SU(4) flavor symmetry. In some cases, the half widths are smaller than the separation of the levels, what makes possible their experimental observation by means of a nuclear reaction. This can be of particular interest for the future P̄ANDA@FAIR physics program. We also find a D+ bound state in 12C, but it is too broad and will have a significant overlap with the energies of the continuum. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Prados A.,University of Seville | Lasanta A.,University of Seville | Hurtado P.I.,University of Granada
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We analyze the fluctuations of the dissipated energy in a simple and general model where dissipation, diffusion, and driving are the key ingredients. The full dissipation distribution, which follows from hydrodynamic fluctuation theory, shows non-Gaussian tails and no negative branch, thus violating the fluctuation theorem as expected from the irreversibility of the dynamics. It exhibits simple scaling forms in the weak- and strong-dissipation limits, with large fluctuations favored in the former case but strongly suppressed in the latter. The typical path associated with a given dissipation fluctuation is also analyzed in detail. Our results, confirmed in extensive simulations, strongly support the validity of hydrodynamic fluctuation theory to describe fluctuating behavior in driven dissipative media. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Manzano D.,University of Granada | Manzano D.,University of Innsbruck
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Recently, several works have analysed the efficiency of photosynthetic complexes in a transient scenario and how that efficiency is affected by environmental noise. Here, following a quantum master equation approach, we study the energy and excitation transport in fully connected networks both in general and in the particular case of the Fenna-Matthew-Olson complex. The analysis is carried out for the steady state of the system where the excitation energy is constantly "flowing" through the system. Steady state transport scenarios are particularly relevant if the evolution of the quantum system is not conditioned on the arrival of individual excitations. By adding dephasing to the system, we analyse the possibility of noise-enhancement of the quantum transport. © 2013 Daniel Manzano.

Garcia-Retamero R.,University of Granada | Garcia-Retamero R.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Dhami M.K.,University of Surrey
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2013

The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers. © 2013 Copyright The Experimental Psychology Society.

Amaro J.E.,University of Granada | Barbaro M.B.,University of Turin | Caballero J.A.,University of Seville | Donnelly T.W.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We evaluate quasielastic double-differential antineutrino cross sections obtained in a phenomenological model based on the superscaling behavior of electron scattering data and estimate the contribution of the vector meson-exchange currents in the two-particle-two-hole sector. We show that the impact of meson-exchange currents for charge-changing antineutrino reactions is much larger than in the neutrino case. © 2012 American Physical Society.

del Aguila F.,University of Granada | Chala M.,University of Granada | Santamaria A.,University of Valencia | Wudka J.,University of California at Riverside
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Many Standard Model extensions predict doubly-charged scalars; in particular, all models with resonances in charged lepton-pair channels with non-vanishing lepton number; if these are pair produced at the LHC, the observation of their decay into l±l±W∓W∓ will be necessary in order to establish their lepton-number violating character, which is generally not straightforward. Nonetheless, the analysis of events containing four charged leptons (including scalar decays into one or two taus as well as into W bosons) makes it possible to determine whether the doubly-charged excitation belongs to a multiplet with weak isospin T=0, 1/2, 1, 3/2 or 2 (assuming there are no excitations with charge >2); though discriminating between the isosinglet and isodoublet cases is possible only if charged-current events cannot produce the doubly-charged isosinglet. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Gomez J.M.,University of Granada
Systematic Biology | Year: 2012

Understanding the origin of diversity is a fundamental problem in biology. Evolutionary diversification has been intensely explored during the last years due to the development of molecular tools and the comparative method. However, most studies are conducted using only information from extant species. This approach probably leads to misleading conclusions, especially because of inaccuracy in the estimation of extinction rates. It is critical to integrate the information generated by extant organisms with the information obtained from the fossil record. Unfortunately, this integrative approach has been seldom performed, and thus, our understanding of the factors fueling diversification is still deficient. Ecological interactions are a main factor shaping evolutionary diversification by influencing speciation and extinction rates. Most attention has focused on the effect of antagonistic interactions on evolutionary diversification. In contrast, the role of mutualistic interactions in shaping diversification has been much less explored. In this study, by combining phylogenetic, neontological, and paleontological information, we show that a facultative mutualistic plant-animal interaction emerging from frugivory and seed dispersal has most likely contributed to the diversification of our own lineage, the primates. We compiled diet and seed dispersal ability in 381 extant and 556 extinct primates. Using well-established molecular phylogenies, we demonstrated that mutualistic extant primates had higher speciation rates, lower extinction rates, and thereby higher diversification rates than nonmutualistic ones. Similarly, mutualistic fossil primates had higher geological durations and smaller per capita rates of extinction than nonmutualistic ones. As a mechanism underlying this pattern, we found that mutualistic extinct and extant primates have significantly larger geographic ranges, which promotes diversification by hampering extinction and increasing geographic speciation. All these outcomes together strongly suggest that the establishment of a facultative mutualism with plants has greatly benefited primate evolution and fueled its taxonomic diversification. © 2012 The Author(s).

Tejeda-Lorente A.,University of Granada | Porcel C.,University of Jaén | Herrera-Viedma E.,University of Granada
Information Sciences | Year: 2014

Recommender systems evaluate and filter the great amount of information available on the Web, so they could be used in an academic environment to help users in their searches of relevant information. In the literature, a lot of approaches for generating personalized recommendations of information items in such environment can be found. Usually, these approaches use user profiles and/or features of items to predict those relevant items, but they do not take into account the quality of these items. To overcome this problem, in this paper we propose a new recommender system based on quality. This system uses the quality of the items to estimate their relevance. The system measures the item quality and takes into account this measure like a new factor to be considered in the recommendation process. In such a way, we present a recommender system based on items' quality, to help users to access relevant research resources. This recommender systems is developed by using a fuzzy linguistic approach and it has been tested satisfactorily in a university digital library. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Plastino A.R.,University of Granada | Cabello A.,University of Seville
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

Recent experiments have shown that nature violates noncontextual inequalities regardless of the state of the physical system. So far, all these inequalities involve measurements of dichotomic observables. We show that state-independent quantum contextuality can also be observed in the correlations between measurements of observables with genuinely continuous spectra, highlighting the universal character of the effect. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Oduor A.M.O.,University of Granada | Lankau R.A.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Strauss S.Y.,University of California at Davis | Gomez J.M.,University of Granada
New Phytologist | Year: 2011

Rapid post-introduction evolution has been found in many invasive plant species, and includes changes in defence (resistance and tolerance) and competitive ability traits. Here, we explored the post-introduction evolution of a trade-off between resistance to and tolerance of herbivory, which has received little attention. In a common garden experiment in a native range, nine invasive and 16 native populations of Brassica nigra were compared for growth and defence traits. Invasive populations had higher resistance to, but lower tolerance of, herbivore damage than native populations. Invasive populations survived better and produced more seeds than native ones when released from herbivores; but fitness was equivalent between the regions under ambient herbivory. The invasive populations grew taller, and produced more biomass and lighter seeds than natives, irrespective of insecticide treatment. In addition to supporting the idea of post-introduction rapid evolution of plant traits, our results also contribute to an emerging pattern of both increasing resistance and growth in invasive populations, contrary to the predictions of earlier theories of resistance-growth trade-offs. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

Megias G.D.,University of Turin | Amaro J.E.,University of Seville | Barbaro M.B.,University of Granada | Caballero J.A.,University of Turin | Donnelly T.W.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We compare the predictions of the SuperScaling model for charged-current quasielastic muonic neutrino and antineutrino scattering from 12C with experimental data spanning an energy range up to 100 GeV. We discuss the sensitivity of the results to different parametrizations of the nucleon vector and axial-vector form factors. Finally, we show the differences between electron and muon (anti)neutrino cross sections relevant for the νSTORM facility. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-6 | Award Amount: 15.92M | Year: 2008

There is now an increasingly solid body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that the binding of small molecular weight compounds, peptides and antibodies (Abs) to fusion-intermediate conformations of gp41 leads to an inhibition of HIV cell entry. The principal aim of this project is to exploit this information by establishing a platform where gp41-derived vaccine candidates will be designed to elicit neutralising Abs. Several families of immunogens which mimic gp41 in its fusion intermediate conformations are already available and others will be designed using modelisation approaches. Candidates will be submitted to a thorough biophysical characterisation followed by a preclinical development in order to identify the most promising for clinical evaluation. A crucial selection parameter is the capacity of antigens to elicit neutralising Abs using internationally standardized assays. Since sexual transmission accounts for more than 90% of HIV infection, the capacity of Abs to inhibit infection at the mucosal level will also be determined. This cross-disciplinary project gathers top European scientists with expertise in protein engineering and characterisation, adjuvantation, formulation for systemic and mucosal delivery, evaluation of functional antibody response, efficacy testing in animal models, medium to large scale vaccine production as well as conduct of clinical trials in both developed and third-world countries. In contrast to previous more empirical attempts, this project is based on the rational exploitation of the knowledge on the mechanism of HIV entry and is thus a promising approach to generate a protective vaccine. It will be the first European project targeting intermediate conformations of gp41 and it could complement/synergize other international strategies focusing on the membrane proximal region of gp41 or gp140 trimer to induce neutralising Abs or aiming at reducing the viral load by eliciting a cellular immunity against HIV.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-ARTEMIS | Phase: SP1-JTI-ARTEMIS-2009-1 | Award Amount: 24.36M | Year: 2010

The proposed RECOMP (Reduced certification cost for trusted multi-core platforms) research project will establish methods, tools and platforms for enabling cost-efficient certification and re-certification of safety-critical systems and mixed-criticality systems, i.e. systems containing safety-critical and non-safety-critical components. RECOMP recognizes the fact that the increasing processing power of embedded systems is mainly provided by increasing the number of processing cores. The increased numbers of cores is commonly regarded as a design challenge in the safety-critical area, as there are no established approaches to achieve certification. At the same time there is an increased need for flexibility in the products in the safety-critical market. This need for flexibility puts new requirements on the customization and the upgradability of both the non-safety and safety-critical critical part. The difficulty with this is the large cost in both effort and money of the re-certification of the modified software, which means that companies cannot fully leverage the advantages of modular software system. RECOMP will provide reference designs and platform architectures together with the required design methods and tools for achieving cost-effective certification and re-certification of mixed-criticality, component based, multi-core systems. The aim of RECOMP is to define a European standard reference technology for mixed-criticality multi-core systems supported by the European tool vendors participating in RECOMP. The RECOMP project will bring clear benefits in terms of cross-domain implementations of mixed-criticality systems in all domains addressed by project participants: automotive systems, aerospace systems, industrial control systems, lifts and transportation systems. RECOMP will thus provide solutions that will allow European industry to increase its market share in the growing market of mixed-criticality systems.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: MSCA-NIGHT-2014 | Award Amount: 422.42K | Year: 2014

Researchers Square is designed to increase the awareness of research as a solution to the numerous challenges faced by people all around the world and mainly in Europe. The idea of the project, Better Living through Science: from Social Sciences and Humanities to Maths and Technology, has been conceived in times of crisis, a moment where becomes clearer that we must join efforts to find innovative solutions to encourage young peoples interest in research. It responds also to the challenge of building bridges between researchers and general public, showing that science could give answer to the societal challenges that we are facing in Europe. The project is the third experience of Andalusia in the ERN. Fundacin Descubre will coordinate this project, based in its experience through the last 5 years working with relevant projects in Spain and in its consortium experience in the two editions of this project in Andalusia. The consortium is composed by eight Andalusian universities, the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the Ministry of Economy, Innovation, Science and Employment (CEICE), the Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training (IFAPA) and two of the most important botanical institutions, all dedicated to higher education, research and science popularization in Andalusia. The projects major strength is the high mobilization of researchers, the support and involvement of Municipalities and the numerous activities taking place on main busy streets and historical buildings of the eight Andalusian cities, which will have a high social impact in the region. Given the projects dimensions, it will be developed with a high mobilization of personnel and technical resources and with the collaboration of the local institutions, NGOs, private companies, teachers and civil associations. The communication campaign aims at reach every third citizen of Andalusia, and with activities in city-center venues more than 53.000 attendees are expected.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-16-2014 | Award Amount: 15.99M | Year: 2015

Terrestrial and marine ecosystems provide essential services to human societies. Anthropogenic pressures, however, cause serious threat to ecosystems, leading to habitat degradation, increased risk of collapse and loss of ecosystem services. Knowledge-based conservation, management and restoration policies are needed to improve ecosystem benefits in face of increasing pressures. ECOPOTENTIAL makes significant progress beyond the state-of-the-art and creates a unified framework for ecosystem studies and management of protected areas (PA). ECOPOTENTIAL focuses on internationally recognized PAs in Europe and beyond in a wide range of biogeographic regions, and it includes UNESCO, Natura2000 and LTER sites and Large Marine Ecosystems. Best use of Earth Observation (EO) and monitoring data is enabled by new EO open-access ecosystem data services (ECOPERNICUS). Modelling approaches including information from EO data are devised, ecosystem services in current and future conditions are assessed and the requirements of future protected areas are defined. Conceptual approaches based on Essential Variables, Macrosystem Ecology and cross-scale interactions allow for a deeper understanding of the Earths Critical Zone. Open and interoperable access to data and knowledge is assured by a GEO Ecosystem Virtual Laboratory Platform, fully integrated in GEOSS. Support to transparent and knowledge-based conservation and management policies, able to include information from EO data, is developed. Knowledge gained in the PAs is upscaled to pan-European conditions and used for planning and management of future PAs. A permanent stakeholder consultancy group (GEO Ecosystem Community of Practice) will be created. Capacity building is pursued at all levels. SMEs are involved to create expertise leading to new job opportunities, ensuring long-term continuation of services. In summary, ECOPOTENTIAL uses the most advanced technologies to improve future ecosystem benefits for humankind.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-2-2-01 | Award Amount: 7.99M | Year: 2008

Current evidence on the effect of diet on mental performance (MP) is largely based on animal, retrospective studies, and short-term nutritional intervention studies in humans. NUTRIMENTHE will significantly improve this knowledge through studying the role, mechanisms, risks & benefits of specific nutrients & food components to respond to specific needs and improve the MP of children. The research will include quantification of the nutrient effects of early programming on later cognitive and mental disorders, effects of food on mental state and MP such as mood, activation, attention, motivation, effort, perception, memory & intelligence and the effects of food on mental illness. NUTRIMENTHE will establish: A team of leading international scientists (paediatricians, neurospsychologists, psychiatrics) from top academic centres and a leading Food Multinational, providing a critical mass of experts in the effect of diet on childrens MP Epidemiologic studies to analyse the long-term effects of pre- & early postnatal diet on childrens mental performance & illness Follow-up of randomised clinical intervention trials with specific nutrients initiated during pregnancy, infancy & childhood Quantitative requirements of n-3 LCPUFAs in children with restricted diet Quantitative assessment of the interaction between nutrition & genetic variation with respect to MP Development of a neuropsychological battery for an EU common assessment of MP Consistent & clear pan-European recommendations on dietary requirement for children An increase the EU public knowledge, specifically parents, teachers & industry, laying the basis for appropriate health claims about how diet influences MP in children Establish the economic opportunity for further product development within EU Development of a professional & public engaging dissemination programme, to increase excellence & innovation potentials & training in nutrition research linked to cognitive- & neuroscience

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IAPP | Award Amount: 1.92M | Year: 2013

The Contemporary Art world and market lack the basic information support and analytical tools that are widely available in similar environments and even for Pre-impressionist and Modern art. The huge amount of information (magazines, fairs, galleries etc.) available in various languages, creates chaos and is not summarised in any useful way which takes into account the different weight that phenomena may have in different environments. As a consequence the Contemporary art world and market are increasingly nontransparent, fragmented, oligopolistic and difficult to newcomers. This is especially true for Europeans, whose local worlds and markets are loosing appeal, and who lack the tools to look at developing countries. On the other side, the creation of appropriate analytical tools requires to concentrate knowledge now scattered in different areas (art economics, art history), further deepen and widen it, use it in a way typical of a private company. The partners in this project will develop the necessary sinergies to meet such challenge through an intense transfer of knowledge program and very close interaction. The project will lay ground for a whole new suite of studies on the art market, open new business opportunities, set a model useful also outside the Contemporary Art World.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 4.57M | Year: 2011

The central goal of the COHERENCE network is the training of Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) and Experienced Researchers (ERs) to the highest level of international excellence within the rapidly growing field of electronically highly excited (Rydberg) gases and aggregates. The systems range from single atoms to large mesoscopic ensembles with full control over motional and internal degrees of freedom. Recent scientific progress has primarily been made by a number of European experimental and theoretical groups which are all assembled within the network. The field of Rydberg gases is at the crossroads between various scientific areas, including condensed matter physics, biophysics, molecular physics, quantum optics and quantum information, surface science, plasma physics, and laser technology. As perspective applications of Rydberg systems are already in sight, two optics and laser development companies have joined the network delivering technological expertise and in-depth training in business matters. The elaborate and well-structured training programme includes a schedule of workshops, schools, and conferences. The training will be strongly focused on the individual researchers by assigning each of them an international Thesis Advisory Board and by designing Individual Career Development Plans. Based on the interdisciplinary character of the research, the training content will include a blend of broad scientific, technological, and complimentary skills providing excellent perspectives for successful careers in both academia and industry. ESRs will also profit from the extensive exchage programme among the participating teams based on cotutelles, short- and long-term secondments. The COHERENCE network will thus ensure that Europe maintains the leading role within an important area of research and will stimulate transformation of the generated knowledge into new technologies.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: SESAR-RIA | Phase: Sesar-01-2015 | Award Amount: 599.87K | Year: 2016

Automation effects on arousal could be predicted differently depending on the Attentional Theory. The classical Theory (Kahneman, 1973) considers the level of arousal reliant only on psychological factors (stress, fatigue and emotions). Automation would only affect the task complexity by allocating part of the cognitive processing to the system. Alternative theories such as Malleable Attentional Resources Theory (MART) (Young and Stanton, 2002) assumes that automation would also affect the level of arousal and be dependent on controllers expectations: when the ATCo expects that the task is easy in the near future, she/he will reduce the arousal levels and get bored or sleepy (overconfidence on automation). On the contrary, fears of automation failing would increase stress and also the level of arousal causing disorientation, overacting or erratic behaviour. Based on these theories, AUTOPACE proposes basic research on a Psychological Model to quantitatively predict how automation would impact on human performance based on cognitive resources modeling (demanded and available), tasks characteristics (automation), psychological factors modeling (fatigue, stress and emotions) and ATCo expectations (overconfidence vs fears of automation). A catalogue of training strategies to support the controller being in-the-loop will be explored. For the classical Theory, the strategies only for keeping attention on the main task avoiding out-of-the-loop effect. For the MART the coach will be also for coping with stress. A reviewed Curricula and ATCo Selection will be initiated. Expert Judgment from Psychologists, ATM Experts and Controllers Trainers supported by Literature Research will look at future competences and training strategies. The research on Psychological Modeling will be also sustained with Analytical Studies by using an existing prototype for demanded resources. AUTOPACE points at research paths suggested in Ergonomics in design Issue (Hancock et all, April 2013).

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-NIGHT | Award Amount: 165.22K | Year: 2012

As part of the Innovation policy of Andalusian Region, Fundacin Descubre ( with the University of Almeria, University of Cordoba, University of Granada, University of Huelva, University of Malaga, Pablo de Olavide University, University of Seville, Jaen University and National Research Council (CSIC), the Association of Promoters and Producers of Renewable Energy and the Economy, Innovation and Science Regional Goverment have decided to participate on the ResearchersNight 2012 call. ANDARES is a proposal based on the objective to enhance public recognition of Andalusian researchers and their work based in one unique activity, which involves eight Universities and Research Centers in our region. Discover Foundation aims to participate in this call like one of the pillars of his public performances in 2012 with the aim of: 1. Bringing science and research to the general public, our activity pretend show the reseachers problems and feelings in their life and we will try to explain by our proposal how is important the research activity for the society nowadays and for the global economic situation 2. Promote the scientific studies among young people 3. Invite social groups particularly interested in the topic of research projects involve on the activity (Alzheimer, renewable energy, environmental movement, business associations related to renewable energy ) With this activity, the researchers could show their work to people with high interest in the areas of knowledge presented in the different micro-talks presented on the event (patients, employers in the sector of renewable energies)such as Project presentations made by participants, whose will allow us to move Andalusian society with greater clarity and force the value of investment in dissemination of the European Union, national and regional governments and the important role that researchers play in our present and future of Andalusian society

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: EeB.NMP.2013-4 | Award Amount: 7.73M | Year: 2013

Buildings Operational stage represents 80% of buildings life-cycle cost of which 50% is consequence of the energy use. Up to 90% of the buildings life cycle carbon emissions occur during their operational phase, mainly as consequence of the HVAC, lighting and appliances energy use. Therefore, energy and cost saving strategies addressing this building operation phase will have a major impact in the building life cycle cost. Energy IN TIME (EiT) project goes beyond existing building control techniques, developing an integrated control & operation approach, that will combine state of the art modelling techniques with the development of an innovative simulation-based control technique with the overarching objective of automating the generation of optimal operational plans tailored to the actual building and users requirements. This approach will allow reducing system inefficiencies and contributing to improve building energy efficiency and comfort. The target for Energy IN TIME solution will be existing non-residential buildings, which present the building typologies that guaranties higher impact and room for improvement due to the variety and quantity of facilities and equipment covered and the operational management model used in them. A control tool will be implemented in the building energy management systems to be automatically and remotely operated. The methodology for the enhancing solution implementation will be defined for existing buildings and for its implementation in new buildings since its initial commissioning. The Energy IN TIME project work plan is divided into nine work packages: WP1: Requirements & System Architecture; WP2: Simulation Reference Model; WP3: Whole building Intelligent Control System.; WP4: Diagnosis & Continuous Commissioning; WP5: Energy Decision Support Tool. ; WP6: System Integration & Pilot-Scale Validation.; WP7: Demonstration to implement the designed and developed systems; WP8: Dissemination & exploitation; WP9 Coordination.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2008-2.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.65M | Year: 2009

The discovery of porous hybrid materials constructed from inorganic nodes and organic multifunctional linkers has established a new area of inorganic-organic hybrids (Metal-Organic Frameworks, MOFs) with extraordinary performance as compared to traditional porous solids such as zeolites and activated carbon. NanoMOF will focus beyond discovery and integrate MOFs into products with industrial impact within a strong cooperation of established MOF research institutions and industrial end users. The extraordinary properties of MOFs are expected to lead to a significant ecologic and economic impact in three areas: 1) Clean air, pollution, and toxicity risks of gaseous chemicals are environmental concerns with specific materials needs for selective adsorption in porous materials and advanced filter systems. Industrial feed gases and exhaust gases require a high purity to ensure durable processes and avoid pollution. The integration of MOFs into textile products will be used to develop air permeable personal protective clothing. For industrial and house-hold fuel cell reformer units novel MOF-based sulphur removal systems will be developed. 2) Safe delivery of highly toxic electronic grade gases (etching gases, dopants) is crucial for tool operation in semiconductor and solar industry. 3) Catalysis is an ecologically relevant and economically attractive technology. The replacement of liquid acids by solid state catalysts avoids the production of toxic liquid waste. MOF catalysts for (trans)esterification processes are designed for the conversion of fatty acids and triglycerides into valuable products for the oleochemical industry. The integration of MOFs into industrial relevant processes and products is supported by advanced modelling, simulation and process monitoring techniques. The project aims for a higher integration of MOFs into products with a high added value in order to propel Europe into an internationally leading position in the industrial use of MOFs.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: MSCA-NIGHT-2016 | Award Amount: 368.01K | Year: 2016

Open Researchers is the fifth experience of Andalusia in the European Researchers Night. The project is designed to increase the awareness of research as a solution to the numerous challenges faced by citizens all around the world and mainly in Europe. The idea of the project, The future is today: understandable ground-breaking science for a better living, has been conceived in a time of change, a moment where becomes clearer that we must join efforts to find sustainable, equal, innovative and creative solutions to give answer to the societal challenges. To this end, according to the RRI, it is essential to promote young peoples interest in Science and Research by opening it to general public through its main protagonists, researchers. The projects major strength is the numerous activities taking place on main streets, museums, theatres, and historical buildings of the eight Andalusian cities, the high mobilization of researchers and the involvement of Municipalities, which will have a high social impact in the region. Given the projects dimensions in a wide region with 8.3 million people, it will be developed with a high and effective presence in terms of human and technical resources, and with the collaboration of the main local institutions, NGOs, private companies, teachers and civil associations. The communication campaign aims at reach every third citizen of Andalusia, and with activities in city-centre venues around 65.000 attendees each year are expected. Fundacin Descubre will coordinate this project, based in its experience through the last 7 years working with relevant projects in Spain and fundamentally in its consortium experience in the four editions of this project in Andalusia. The consortium is composed by nine Andalusian universities, the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Andalusian Foundation Progress and Health, and the Royal Botanical Garden of Crdoba, all dedicated to higher education, research and Science popularization.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-03-2015 | Award Amount: 6.19M | Year: 2016

Understanding mechanisms underlying comorbid disorders poses a challenge for developing precision medicine tools. Psychiatric disorders are highly comorbid, and are among the last areas of medicine, where classification is driven by phenomenology rather than pathophysiology. We will study comorbidity between the most frequent psychiatric conditions, ADHD, mood/anxiety, and substance use disorders, and a highly prevalent somatic disease, obesity. ADHD, a childhood-onset disorder, forms the entry into a lifelong negative trajectory characterized by these comorbidities. Common mechanisms underlying this course are unknown, despite their relevance for early detection, prevention, and treatment. Our interdisciplinary team of experts will integrate epidemiologic/genetic approaches with experimental designs to address those issues. We will determine disease burden of comorbidity, calculate its socioeconomic impact, and reveal risk factors. We will study biological pathways of comorbidity and derive biomarkers, prioritizing two candidate mechanisms (circadian rhythm and dopaminergic neurotransmission), but also leveraging large existing data sets to identify new ones. A pilot clinical trial to study non-pharmacologic, dopamine-based and chronobiological treatments will be performed, employing innovative mHealth to monitor and support patients daily life. Integration of findings will lead to prediction algorithms enhancing early diagnosis and prevention of comorbidity. Finally, we will screen to repurpose existing pharmacological compounds. Integrating complementary approaches based on large-scale, existing data and innovative data collection, we maximize value for money in this project, leading to insight into the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity triad with its huge burden for healthcare, economy, and society. This will facilitate early detection and non-invasive, scalable, and low-cost treatment, creating opportunities for substantial and immediate societal impact.

CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration, University of Seville and University of Granada | Date: 2012-02-22

The present invention relates to a group of polycationic amphiphilic cyclooligosaccharides, which, owing to the molecular structure thereof, can be used to transport molecules within cells. Furthermore, the present invention also relates to the use of said compounds in the preparation of a drug, to the use of this drug for gene therapy and to a pharmaceutical composition that comprises one of said compounds.

University of Granada and Fundacion Para Progreso Del Soft Computing | Date: 2010-07-30

This invention relates to a method and an automatic system for assisting a forensic anthropologist in the task of identification by means of craniofacial superimposition. First, the system automatically builds a three-dimensional model from a device providing partial views of the skull. Said model is then superimposed onto a photograph of the disappeared person, modelling the inherent uncertainty to the pairing of two separate objects: a skull and a face. Finally, the system emits a recommendation from the result of the identification process to the forensic anthropologist.

Menendez R.,Lancaster University | Gonzalez-Megias A.,University of Granada | Jay-Robert P.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Marquez-Ferrando R.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2014

Aim: Mountain regions are particularly well-suited for investigating the impact of climate change on species ranges because they encompass both upper and lower limits of species distribution. Here, we investigate changes in the elevational distribution of dung beetle species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in two separate mountain regions in Europe. Location: South-western Alps (France) and Sierra Nevada (Spain). Methods: We compared historical and current data on dung beetle distributions along elevation gradients for 30 species in the SW Alps and 19 species in the Sierra Nevada. We tested for significant changes between survey periods in three parameters: mean elevation and upper and lower range limits. Results: We found up-slope range shifts for 63% and 90% of the species in the SW Alps and Sierra Nevada, respectively. Up-slope range shifts resulted mainly from expansion of upper range limits in the SW Alps and from changes of both range limits in the Sierra Nevada. The magnitudes of range shifts were consistent with the level of warming experienced in each region, but they also reflected the asymmetrical warming observed along the elevation gradients. Smaller changes were observed for species reaching their historical range limits at the higher elevations, associated with a non-significant increase in temperature between periods. Main conclusions: The differences observed between regions are related to the geographical position of each mountain range, which determines the characteristics (including thermal tolerance) of the regional species pool, and the level of warming, which determines whether maximum thermal tolerance has been exceeded for the majority of species in the region. Our results highlight the importance of considering both the biogeography of the mountain and the species pool under study when assessing the sensitivity of species to future climate change in mountain regions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2011.2.2-03 | Award Amount: 11.56M | Year: 2012

Nutrition during early development has an important impact on later health, particularly through greater obesity risk, as demonstrated by FP6 EARNEST. EarlyNutrition explores the current key hypotheses on likely causes and pathways to prevention of early life origins of obesity (specifically adiposity) and associated disorders. We bring extraordinary expertise and study populations of 470,000 individuals to investigate: The fuel mediated in utero hypothesis The accelerated postnatal weight gain hypothesis The mismatch hypothesis. Scientific and technical expertise in placental biology, epigenetics and metabolomics will provide understanding at the cellular and molecular level, and refined strategies for intervention in pregnancy and early post natal life to prevent obesity. Using existing cohort studies, ongoing and novel intervention studies and a basic science programme, we will provide the scientific foundations for evidence based recommendations for optimal EarlyNutrition that incorporate long-term health outcomes, focusing on 4 Target Groups: women before pregnancy; pregnant women; infants (incl. breastfeeding); young children. Evidence is produced from animal and placental studies (Theme 1; T1), prospective cohort studies (T2), and randomised controlled trials in pregnant women and infants (T3). T4 covers scientific strategic integration, recommendation development and dissemination, including systematic reviews and behaviour change approaches. A strong multi-disciplinary team of international leaders in the field including collaborators from USA and Australia achieves balance and complementarity. The projects impact comprises definitive evidence on early nutrition effects on health, enhanced EU and global policies, major economic benefits through obesity prevention and value-added nutritional products, and practical recommendations on optimal nutrition in Target Groups. Wide dissemination will be achieved through active engagement with stakeholders.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2008.10.1.1 | Award Amount: 2.96M | Year: 2009

This project fulfills the requirements of the topic Energy Future emerging technologies which covers all areas of the Theme Energy. In particular, this project aims at developing an emerging technology which consists in a new alternative sustainable solution to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This objective fits the EU strategy to reducing greenhouse gases emissions by developing an environmentally safe carbon capture and geological storage policy. Indeed, most of the subterranean technologies consist in injecting CO2 as a gas at high pressures, leading inevitably to the possible problem of the leakage. In response to this issue, the transformation of CO2 into carbonate is now considered as an interesting solution for CO2 sequestration. 2 major options are under scrutiny. One is a physico-chemical approach in certain types of rocks. The other one is based on the abilities of a number of bacteria to precipitate carbonates, which in turn extends the geological sequestration opportunities beyond the strict deep underground ones. This project targets bacterial metabolic pathways enabling significant carbonate precipitation. In particular, CO2SolStock specific objectives are:1.To explore emerging alternative sustainable solutions related to microbiological pathways of carbonatation for CO2 sequestration; 2.To map out a scientific evaluation of the various routes and promises, from the surface to the deepest habitats; 3.To establish a tool-kit enabling scientific evaluation; 4.To validate the technology with at least 2 validated proof of concept tests for bacterial metabolism supported CO2 sequestration. The work programme consists in 7 WPs from literature scrutiny to demonstration, with transversal dissemination and management tasks. Outputs comprises tool-kit for bio-based stock tailored for various habitats and at least 2 systems ready for development towards industrial applications.The project involves 5 partners: 4 European universities & 1 SME.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: ICT-2013.9.9 | Award Amount: 72.73M | Year: 2013

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest challenges facing 21st century science. If we can rise to the challenge, we can gain profound insights into what makes us human, develop new treatments for brain diseases and build revolutionary new computing technologies. Today, for the first time, modern ICT has brought these goals within sight. The goal of the Human Brain Project, part of the FET Flagship Programme, is to translate this vision into reality, using ICT as a catalyst for a global collaborative effort to understand the human brain and its diseases and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The Human Brain Project will last ten years and will consist of a ramp-up phase (from month 1 to month 36) and subsequent operational phases.\nThis Grant Agreement covers the ramp-up phase. During this phase the strategic goals of the project will be to design, develop and deploy the first versions of six ICT platforms dedicated to Neuroinformatics, Brain Simulation, High Performance Computing, Medical Informatics, Neuromorphic Computing and Neurorobotics, and create a user community of research groups from within and outside the HBP, set up a European Institute for Theoretical Neuroscience, complete a set of pilot projects providing a first demonstration of the scientific value of the platforms and the Institute, develop the scientific and technological capabilities required by future versions of the platforms, implement a policy of Responsible Innovation, and a programme of transdisciplinary education, and develop a framework for collaboration that links the partners under strong scientific leadership and professional project management, providing a coherent European approach and ensuring effective alignment of regional, national and European research and programmes. The project work plan is organized in the form of thirteen subprojects, each dedicated to a specific area of activity.\nA significant part of the budget will be used for competitive calls to complement the collective skills of the Consortium with additional expertise.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.4-2 | Award Amount: 7.73M | Year: 2013

This project will improve the consortium capacity of assessment of volcanic hazards in Supersites of Southern Italy by optimising and integrating existing and new observation/monitoring systems, by a breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes and by increasing the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities. More than 3 million of people are exposed to potential volcanic hazards in a large region in the Mediterranean Sea, where two among the largest European volcanic areas are located: Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. This project will fully exploit the unique detailed long-term in-situ monitoring data sets available for these volcanoes and integrate with Earth Observation (EO) data, setting the basic tools for a significant step ahead in the discrimination of pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of volcanic phenomena observed on these volcanoes, which can be assumed as archetypes of closed conduit and open conduit volcano, together with the long-term multidisciplinary data sets give an exceptional opportunity to improve the understanding of a very wide spectrum of geo-hazards, as well as implementing and testing a large variety of innovative models of ground deformation and motion. Important impacts on the European industrial sector are expected, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors/systems. Specific experiments and studies will be carried out to improve our understanding of the volcanic internal structure and dynamics, as well as to recognise signals related to impending unrest or eruption. Hazard quantitative assessment will benefit by the outcomes of these studies and by their integration into the cutting edge monitoring approaches thus leading to a step-change in hazard awareness and preparedness and leveraging the close relationship between scientists, SMEs, and end-users.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: ECSEL-IA | Phase: ECSEL-02-2014 | Award Amount: 139.30M | Year: 2015

The proposed pilot line project WAYTOGO FAST objective is to leverage Europe leadership in Fully Depleted Silicon on Insulator technology (FDSOI) so as to compete in leading edge technology at node 14nm and beyond preparing as well the following node transistor architecture. Europe is at the root of this breakthrough technology in More Moore law. The project aims at establishing a distributed pilot line between 2 companies: - Soitec for the fabrication of advanced engineered substrates (UTBB: Ultra Thin Body and BOx (buried oxide)) without and with strained silicon top film. - STMicroelectronics for the development and industrialization of state of the art FDSOI technology platform at 14nm and beyond with an industry competitive Power-Performance-Area-Cost (PPAC) trade-off. The project represents the first phase of a 2 phase program aiming at establishing a 10nm FDSOI technology for 2018-19. A strong added value network is created across this project to enhance a competitive European value chain on a European breakthrough and prepare next big wave of electronic devices. The consortium gathers a large group of partners: academics/institutes, equipment and substrate providers, semiconductor companies, a foundry, EDA providers, IP providers, fabless design houses, and a system manufacturer. E&M will contribute to the objective of installing a pilot line capable of manufacturing both advanced SOI substrates and FDSOI CMOS integrated circuits at 14nm and beyond. Design houses and electronics system manufacturer will provide demonstrator and enabling IP, to spread the FDSOI technology and establish it as a standard in term of leading edge energy efficient CMOS technology for a wide range of applications battery operated (consumer , healthcare, Internet of things) or not. Close collaboration between the design activities and the technology definition will tailor the PPAC trade-off of the next generation of technology to the applications needs.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.3.1 | Award Amount: 870.60K | Year: 2008

In the framework of FP6, the European Commission supported the formation of a European Network on Silicon on Insulator Technology, Devices and Circuits, whose main goal was to create a discussion forum for the exchange of ideas and results on the topic of Silicon-On-Insulator technologies in Europe, and to facilitate the synergy between research groups which enables the use of Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology as an effective tool to push the limits of CMOS and prepare for post-CMOS. Today, EUROSOI network comprises more than 30 partners all over Europe, with expertise in all the fields of the SOI technology. EUROSOI network has already made possible a big part of this path by successfully organizing and achieving during the last three years an important number of events such as the EUROSOI roadmap and state of the art documents, workshops, training events, scientific exchanges.The first goal of the present proposal is upgrading and maintaining this important forum, providing upgraded versions of the State-of-the-Art report, Roadmap, facilitating scientific exchanges between partners, organizing workshops and later on, to use it as a launching platform for other important objectives:Creation of a Permanent European School on SOI Technology.Fostering and co-ordinating the initiatives and activities required to successfully face some of the challenges identified and listed in the EUROSOI Roadmap for the future. Creation of a consortium to elaborate new research project proposals addressing specific challenges identified in the Roadmap.Development of a research-dedicated platform in order to address circuit design aspects, focussing on the advantage of SOI technology for Low Power applications. This platform will provide, through the integration at some point in EUROPRACTICE, prototyping and Multi-Projects-Wafers (MPW) in SOI open to European research groups and Fabless Semiconductor companies (SMEs) using LETI SOI process in two-three years.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.3.1 | Award Amount: 5.46M | Year: 2008

NANOSIL Network of Excellence aims to integrate at the European level the excellent European research laboratories and capabilities in order to strengthen scientific and technological excellence in the field of nanoelectronic materials and devices for terascale integrated circuits (ICs) and disseminate the results in a wide scientific and industrial community.NANOSIL will explore and assess the science and technological aspects of nanodevices and operational regimes relevant to n\4 technology node and beyond. It will provide a forward-look for the industry, enabling informed decisions to be taken on technology development in order to speed up technological innovation. It will encompass flagship projects on nanoscale CMOS and post-CMOS. The activities will thus be centred on the More Moore and Beyond-CMOS domains but natural links will also been established with the other ENIAC areas. Within the Network there are all the critical facilities and expertise to occupy and transcend this space. We will propose innovative concepts, technologies and device architectures- with fabrication down to the finest features, and utilising a wide spectrum of advanced deposition and processing capabilities, extensive characterisation and world leading device modelling. This work will be carried out through a network of joint processing, characterisation and modelling platforms. The consortium will work closely with and take steering from European industry. It will feed back data and know-how on materials and devices that deliver the required performance. This critical interaction will strengthen European integration in nanoelectronics, help in decision-making by industry and ensure that Europe remains at the forefront of nanoelectronics for the next 2 3 decades.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: REGIONS-1;REGIONS-2009-1 | Award Amount: 3.02M | Year: 2010

Most countries in European Union are suffering severe water scarcity caused by a negative balance between water resources and water demands. A sustainable management of hydrological resources results totally necessary, as it is established by the European Water Framework Directive (60/2000/EC), which makes compulsory for every water management authority in EU to prepare a river basin management plan by the end of this year 2009. In order to fulfil these obligations and considering the complexity of water bodies control and the undefined future scenario provided by climate change, there is an imperative demand of the use of integrated management tools and methods, such as computerized models. Thus, integrated Water Resources Management must be faced from a multisectorial point of view, involving scientific research, social and economic aspects and administrative proceedings. The NOVIWAM project will tackle these challenges by synthesizing the different perspectives of research institutions, authorities and entrepreneurs, introducing them into promotion of interregional co-operation. Based on several top level research results in water management and leaded by a consolidated cluster managed by a regional authority with exclusive competences on a major European river, the project will establish an European network to strengthen synergies between regional, national and EU initiatives addressing the Integrated Management RTD and innovation challenges. NOVIWAM aims to establish long-lasting links between clusters throughout the regions, and allow the triple-helix components to benefit from the scale economies deriving from this multilevel and interregional co-operation. Mentoring activities are strongly considered, as specific needs of clusters from a candidate country (Albania) and insularity problems (Cyprus), have been included. NOVIWAM will produce a Joint Action Plan (JAP) at European level with specific measures and calendar beyond the end of the project.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2007. | Award Amount: 4.58M | Year: 2008

Disruption of hormonal signalling in fetal life can irreversibly affect human development and reproductive health at a later age. Of considerable concern in Europe is a decline in male semen quality and a high prevalence of congenital malformations and hormone-dependent cancers. Although it appears plausible that environmental chemicals with endocrine activity may be involved in the causation of these disorders, there is no evidence for adverse effects of individual substances at relevant human exposure levels. However, there are indications that combinations of chemicals play a cumulative role. CONTAMED aims to explore the hypothesis that combined exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in fetal life may lead to adverse delayed impacts on human reproductive health. To achieve this goal, CONTAMED will combine epidemiological approaches with laboratory science. The work plan for CONTAMED is organised in three major strands focusing on human studies, animal models and in vitro assays including metabolomics. The project will deliver new epidemiological insights into associations between cumulative exposure and reproductive health, improved toxicological risk assessment for the anticipation of reproductive effects of chemicals, validated biomarkers for cumulative exposures and new mechanistic information about the ways in which chemicals may disrupt sexual differentiation during development. CONTAMED will provide the knowledge necessary to set the scene for Europe-wide human health impact studies of cumulative exposures to endocrine active chemicals and their possible role in the deterioration of reproductive health in Europe. Finally, the project will analyze the implications of new scientific findings for the European Environment and Health Action Plan and the Community Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 5.00M | Year: 2015

A collective effort is needed to create the environmental research infrastructure for answering pressing questions in a world of rapid social, economic and environmental change. The overall aim of the eLTER project is to advance the European network of Long-Term Ecosystem Research sites and socio-ecological research platforms to provide highest quality services for multiple use of a distributed research infrastructure. eLTERs major objectives and methods are to: (1) identify user needs for the research infrastructure in relation to major societal challenges through consultations with scientific, policy and business stakeholders and horizon scanning; (2) streamline the design of a cost-efficient pan-European network, able to address multiple ecosystem research issues, in collaboration with related global and European research infrastructures, e.g. LifeWatch; (3) develop the organisational framework for data integration and enable virtual access to the LTER data by enabling data publishing through distributed Data Nodes and by providing access to data on key research challenges through a Data Integration Platform; (4) foster the societal relevance, usability and multiple use of information, data and services through new partnerships with the providers of remotely sensed data, analytical services and scenario testing models, and via the adoption of new measurement technologies. The LTER-Europe network and the European Critical Zone community will collaborate to achieve these goals. 162 sites in 22 countries will provide data on long-term trends in environmental change, some reaching back 100 years. Test cases using these data will address a range of environmental and social issues to push innovation in network level services and steer conceptual developments. The envisaged LTER Infrastructure will enable European-scale investigation of major ecosystems and socio-ecological systems, and support knowledge-based decision making at multiple levels.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 14.99M | Year: 2015

ASTERICS (Astronomy ESFRI & Research Infrastructure Cluster) aims to address the cross-cutting synergies and common challenges shared by the various Astronomy ESFRI facilities (SKA, CTA, KM3Net & E-ELT). It brings together for the first time, the astronomy, astrophysics and particle astrophysics communities, in addition to other related research infrastructures. The major objectives of ASTERICS are to support and accelerate the implementation of the ESFRI telescopes, to enhance their performance beyond the current state-of-the-art, and to see them interoperate as an integrated, multi-wavelength and multi-messenger facility. An important focal point is the management, processing and scientific exploitation of the huge datasets the ESFRI facilities will generate. ASTERICS will seek solutions to these problems outside of the traditional channels by directly engaging and collaborating with industry and specialised SMEs. The various ESFRI pathfinders and precursors will present the perfect proving ground for new methodologies and prototype systems. In addition, ASTERICS will enable astronomers from across the member states to have broad access to the reduced data products of the ESFRI telescopes via a seamless interface to the Virtual Observatory framework. This will massively increase the scientific impact of the telescopes, and greatly encourage use (and re-use) of the data in new and novel ways, typically not foreseen in the original proposals. By demonstrating cross-facility synchronicity, and by harmonising various policy aspects, ASTERICS will realise a distributed and interoperable approach that ushers in a new multi-messenger era for astronomy. Through an active dissemination programme, including direct engagement with all relevant stakeholders, and via the development of citizen scientist mass participation experiments, ASTERICS has the ambition to be a flagship for the scientific, industrial and societal impact ESFRI projects can deliver.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRASUPP-6-2014 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2016

The COOP\ project is motivated by the interest of several Research Infrastructures in Europe to benefit from extending international collaboration with other Research Infrastructures in their areas of expertise at global, worldwide level. The general goal of COOP\ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI Research Infrastructures related to marine science, Arctic research and biodiversity with international counterparts and to leverage international scientfic cooperation and data exchange with non-EU countries aiming at creating a common ground for the development of a global network of research infrastructures that are able to address Global environmental challenges. The project will be the central hub for worldwide collaboration of the RIs involved, coordinating all their common activities and fostering international agreements. As the EC communication emphasized, Global Challenges are very important drivers for research and innovation, and COOP\ will focus on them, and, according to the experience in COOPEUS (FP7), will try to reinforce the cross-disciplinary view, adding participants for other regions. COOP\ will use the methodology of case studies to assess the cooperation capabilities of international RIs, and to learn how to cope with global environmental challenges. This cross-disciplinary and global collaboration among Research Infrastructures tha is required to address these challenges implies a significant effort on common practices including access and sharing of data. COOP\ will promote an open coordination framework for Global Cooperation, with initial participation from relevant RI from EU, US, Canada, Australia and Brazil, and providing support to new agreements on reciprocal use or access to RI, openness, joint development of new resources including co-financing.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 3.11M | Year: 2008

In this ITN we investigate the mechanism of mineral reequilibration (phase transformation) in the presence of a fluid phase in a wide range of minerals and rocks, under a range of chemical and physical conditions, using both natural and experimental samples. Interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation is a recently defined mechanism which applies to a wide range of mineral transformation phenomena. We apply these principles in individual projects to better understand the mechanisms of processes important in earth sciences and in industry, including metasomatic reactions in rocks, chemical weathering, mineral replacement mechanisms in CO2 sequestration, the aqueous durability of nuclear waste materials, remediation of contaminated water by mineral reaction, and the preservation of stone-based cultural heritage. The research methods bring together a range of complementary expertise, from field-related studies to nano-scale investigations of reaction interfaces using state-of-the-art high resolution analytical methods. The application of fundamental principles of mineral reequilibration to a wide range of applications, together with industrial involvement at all levels will ensure that the project provides a strong platform for training.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2012.6.3-1 | Award Amount: 5.30M | Year: 2013

Organized crime is becoming more diverse in its activities and methods including greater levels of collaboration between criminal groups, greater mobility in and around the EU, a diversification of illicit activity, and a growing dependence on a dynamic infrastructure, anchored in key locations and facilitated by widespread use of the Internet (the Director of Europol, in his foreword to the OCTA 2011 report). An important means for law enforcement in combatting such crime is strategic early warning which is heavily depending on an efficient and effective environmental scanning. Fro this, the e-POOLICE project willin close collaboration with law enforcement partners, as well as criminological and legal expertsdevelop a prototype of an environmental scanning system implementing solutions applying the most promising technological advances and breakthroughs as provided by the RTD partners. The solutions will be tested an evaluated through running realistic use case scenarios that are developed by our user partners. Central to the solution is development of an environmental knowledge repository of all relevant information and knowledge, including scanned information and derived, learned or hypothesized knowledge, as well as the metadata needed for credibility and confidence assessment, traceability, and privacy protection management. For effective and efficient utilization, as well as for interoperability, the repository will apply a standard representation form for all information and knowledge. For effective and efficient scanning of the raw information sources, the project will develop an intelligent environmental radar that will utilize the knowledge repository for focusing the scanning. A key part of this process is semantic filtering for identification of data items that constitutes weak signals of emerging organized crime threats, exploiting fully the concept of crime hubs, crime indicators, and facilitating factors, as understood by our user partners.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.1.10.;INFRA-2011-1.1.11. | Award Amount: 10.44M | Year: 2011

InGOS will support and integrate the observing capacity of Europe for non-CO2 greenhouse gases (NCGHG: CH4, N2O, SF6, H2 and halocarbons). The emissions of these gases are very uncertain and it is unknown how future climate change will feedback into the land use coupled emissions of CH4 and N2O. The NCGHG atmospheric abundances will increase further in the future and the emissions of these gases are an attractive target for climate change mitigation policies. InGOS aims to improve the existing European observation system so that this will provide us insight into the concentration levels and European and extra-European emissions of the NCGHGs. The data from the network will enable to better constrain the emissions of NCGHGs within the EU and show whether emission reduction policies are effective. The data from the network is designed to allow to detect the spatial and temporal distribution (hotspots) of the sources and to detect changes in emissions due to mitigation and feedbacks with climate change. To strengthen the European observation system, the project has several objectives: Harmonize and standardize the measurements. Provide capacity building in new member states and countries with inadequate existing infrastructure. Support existing observation sites and transfer of selected sites into supersites. Integrate and further integrate marine observations of the NCGHGs with land-based observations Improve measurement methods by testing new innovative techniques and strategies. Test advanced isotope techniques for application in the network to enable attribution of the atmospheric fractions to source categories Integrate data for network evaluation by using inverse modeling and data-assimilation methods and developments in bottom up inventories Link the network to remote sensing data of column abundances from in-situ and satellite observations Prepare for the integration of the NCGHG network with the Integrated Carbon Observation System

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.43M | Year: 2009

The EU is the most important producer of olives in the world, from 2001-2007, 2,2 million tonnes of olive oil were produced in about 12.000 olive mills, which accounts for the 80% of the world production. These producers are mainly SMEs placed in the basin of the Mediterranean Sea, being Spain, Italy and Greece the biggest producers. Olive oil consumption is growing worldwide thanks to the acknowledgement of its benefits on health. Although the EU is the main olive oil consumer, the demand in countries like USA and Syria has increased significantly in recent years. On the other hand, non-European countries like Turkey, Syria and Tunisia enter the market and harden competition, threatening EU producers dominant position. Besides the market expansion, the olive oil sector in the EU will have to solve some long-standing environmental problems to keep its predominant situation. During the olive processing, large amounts of highly pollutant liquid wastes are generated. This poses serious problems to olive oil mills since waste management involves additional costs and logistical problems, especially for the SMEs. About 50 litres of drinkable water are required to was 100 k of olives. Hence, an enormous amount of drinkable water in Mediterranean countries is consumed by this process (about 5 billions of litres a year). Such huge amount of water is mostly required in rural areas which, in contrast, very often exhibit serious shortage of water. The main objective of ALGATEC project is the treatment and reuse of WW generated in small olive oil mills, with high pollutant content, by means of an affordable and compact photobioreactor using microalgae, capable to recover and recycle the majority of the drinkable water used in the process of olives washing. Furthermore, their problem of the disposal of wastewater will be reduced because the reutilisation of the WW will diminish the overall volume of wastewater, with both economical and environmental benefits.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2009.;ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 8.93M | Year: 2010

The GHG-Europe project aims to improve our understanding and capacity for predicting the European terrestrial carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) budget by applying a systematic, comprehensive and integrative approach. GHG-Europe quantifies the annual to decadal variability of the carbon and GHG budgets of terrestrial ecosystems in EU27 plus Switzerland and in six data-rich European regions via data-model integration, diagnostic and predictive modelling. Models are calibrated by multi-site observations. Research includes CO2, CH4 and N2O in forests, croplands, grasslands, shrublands, peatlands and soils. Via an integrated approach, GHG Europe scales up consistently from local to regional and continental scale via scale dependent error propagation and systematic quantification of uncertainties, model validation at different scales and top-down verification by atmospheric inversion models. At regional and European scale lateral C transport by land use, trade and rivers are included. Variability in C and GHG budgets is attributed to natural (climate) and anthropogenic drivers (N deposition, land use, past and present management) by synthesis of past and emerging experiments, targeted observations in hot spots and hot moments and model sensitivity analyses. For this purpose, observations are extended to under-sampled regions and ecosystems with likely high importance for the European C budget: forests and land use change in Eastern Europe and Mediterranen shrublands. The future vulnerability of carbon pools and risks of positive feedbacks in the climate-carbon system are assessed by scenario analyses with biophysical models and by integrating feedbacks with socio-economic changes and EU climate and land use policies. GHG-Europe uses a bidirectional interaction with stakeholders to provide regular and timely scientific advice targeted to the emerging needs of the UNFCCC process and for implementing post-2012 climate commitments in Europe.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2012.2.2-3 | Award Amount: 2.81M | Year: 2012

Environmental crime is a threat to environmental, social and economic sustainability and is in conflict with key commitments and strategies of the European Union, including the Europe 2020 Strategy. EFFACE will propose effective and feasible policy options for the EU to combat environmental crime. The recently adopted Environmental Crime Directive, the Ship-Source Pollution Directive, and the new provisions of the Lisbon Treaty have created new instruments and opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of EU measures against environmental crime through harmonisation and co-ordination. However, utilisation of these opportunities suffers from a serious lack of information on environmental crime: e.g. harmonisation measures based on the new Article 83(2) TFEU depend on the availability of reliable information on the impacts of environmental crime. EFFACE will help to address this gap by generating relevant information. Drawing on a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches and data and an in-depth investigation of different types of environmental crime, EFFACE will provide an assessment of the main costs, impacts and causes of environmental crime in the EU, including those linked to the EU, but occurring outside its territory, complemented by a comprehensive analysis of the status quo in terms of existing instruments, actors and institutions. A SWOT analysis will identify strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities associated with the EUs current efforts to combat environmental crime. Feasible policy options for harmonisation and better co-ordination of actors will then be developed with the help of, i.a., typologies of different approaches to harmonisation, sanctioning and strategic enforcement. These policy options will consider the use of policy mixes and innovative approaches to govern such mixes. Stakeholder involvement in EFFACE through interactive policy analysis will promote mutual learning with and among a broad range of stakeholders.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH.2013.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 6.38M | Year: 2014

The multi-disciplinary CUPESSE project carries out a comparative analysis of both the demand and supply side of youth unemployment in ten Member States of the EU and Associated Countries (i.e. Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom). These ten countries represent the main empirical scope of the project, but whenever possible, the analysis is extended to include all European countries. CUPESSE has five main objectives. The first objective is to obtain a more refined understanding of the supply side of young adults employment by concentrating on how the inter-generational accumulation of social capital and cultural capital in the context of family organisation influences the economic self-sufficiency and entrepreneurship of young people in Europe. The second objective is to examine how supply-side factors and demand-side factors affect the unemployment of young adults. In this context we are particularly interested in the degree to which the attitudes and skills of young adults match with employers demands. The third objective is to understand the implications of young adults unemployment in the longer term, including the effects on the unemployed individuals and on society as a whole. The fourth objective is to investigate the degree to which flexicurity policies, policies supporting business start-ups and self-employment, and policies promoting education and training platforms are embraced by the European states and to assess their impacts on young adults unemployment. The fifth objective of the CUPESSE project is to present ideas for new policy measures and formulate strategy for overcoming youth unemployment in Europe. To attain this goal, the project brings together theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches from four academic disciplines, namely economics, political science, psychology, and sociology.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2011.2.4-02 | Award Amount: 7.58M | Year: 2012

Total Diet Studies (TDS) allow getting information on real dietary exposure to food contaminants consumption (heavy metals, mycotoxins, POPs...) and estimating chronic exposure to pesticide residues in food and food additives intake. TDS consider total exposure from whole diets and are based on food contamination as consumed rather than contamination from raw commodities, thus ensuring a realistic exposure measure. TDS facilitate risk assessment (RA) and health monitoring (HM). Some EU Member States (MS) and Candidate Countries (CC) have no TDS programme or use various methods to collect data, which were not examined yet to tell whether they are comparable or not. This is of interest for EFSA or WHO-FAO. Similarly it is important to harmonise methods to assess dietary exposure risks in MS, CC and at the European level compared with other world regions. The methods proposed will aim for food sampling, standard analytical procedures, exposure assessment modelling, priority foods and selected chemical contaminants consistency across MS and CC. Various approaches and methods to identify sampling and analyses will be assessed and best practice defined. Contaminants and foods which contribute most to total exposure in European populations will be defined. Priority will be given to training and support in EU MS and CC currently without TDS. It will demonstrate best practice in creating a TDS programme using harmonised methods in regions previously lacking TDS, and ensure consistency of data collected. A database will be set up describing existing EU studies and collating harmonised exposure measures and designed to allow risk assessors and managers handling dietary exposure more accurately and more specifically. TDSEXPOSURE will spread excellence in TDS throughout stakeholders and establish a legacy of harmonised methods for sampling and analysis, and science-based recommendations for future global studies.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2013.2.2-02 | Award Amount: 13.01M | Year: 2013

Emerging evidence indicates that the gut microbiome contributes to our ability to extract energy from the diet and influences development and function of the immune, endocrine and nervous systems, which regulate energy balance and behaviour. This has led to hypothesize that developing microbiome-based dietary interventions can be cost-effective measures to prevent diet-related and behavioural disorders. Yet this approach is restricted in practice by a lack of understanding of the specific species that contribute to these disorders and their interactions with host and lifestyle determinants. To progress beyond the state of the art, the MyNewGut proposal aims to: (1) shed light on the contribution of the human microbiome to nutrient metabolism and energy expenditure; (2) identify microbiome-related features that contribute to or predict obesity and associated disorders in human epidemiological studies; (3) understand how the microbiome is influenced by environmental factors and its role in brain and immune development and function in humans; and (4) provide proof-of-concept of the disease risk-reduction potential of dietary intervention with new foods/ingredients targeting the gut microbiome in humans. To this end, a translational multidisciplinary research strategy will be developed, combining experts in omic-technologies and all other scientific disciplines required. Consequently, the MyNewGut proposal will contribute to developing new approaches to prevent diet-related diseases (metabolic syndrome and obesity) and behavioural disorders through lifestyle changes, intake of pro- and prebiotics and semi-personalised and innovative food products. This will ultimately contribute to increasing the competitiveness of the European food industry and provide consumers with reliable claims on foods. Results will also help inform new strategies on public health, support EU legislation and improve the position of the EU in the field of food-related disease prevention.

News Article | November 2, 2016

Scientists from the UGR, the CIDAF, and the Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals at Canada have proven that the consumption of high oleic canola oil enriched with Omega-3 reduces the concentration of triglycerides in the blood A team of scientists from the University of Granada (UGR), the Research and Development Functional Food Centre (CIDAF, from its abbreviation in Spanish, centre in which the UGR collaborates with other companies and institutions) and the Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals at Canada has shown that consuming canola oil (an improved form of rapeseed, with less than 2% erucic acid) enriched with Omega-3 reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Researchers have once again proven that the famous Omega-3 is a potent regulator of cholesterol metabolism. This time, scientists analyzed the plasma from 84 volunteer patients, who presented at least one symptom of metabolic syndrome, after eating different types of oils with different fatty acid composition. That way, they found that said fatty acid reduces the PCSK9 concentration in plasma. PCSK9 is a protein associated with high levels of LDL cholesterol in blood and with other cardiovascular diseases. The consumption of high oleic, Omega-3 enriched canola oil not only significantly reduced the concentration of triglycerides, but also resulted in a significant reduction (a 10%) of the PCSK9 protein concentration in plasma, compared to the other dietary treatments. The mechanism of action of this protein is based on the destruction of the receptors of LDL cholesterol, preventing the uptake of LDL by the cells and increasing their plasma concentrations, resulting in an increased risk of atherosclerosis and other related diseases. These results, from the trial called "Canola Oil Multicentre Trial Intervention (COMIT)", represent the first line of scientific evidence on changes in the PCSK9 protein plasma concentration after ingestion of different types of fat from the diet. "In conclusion, we can state that although the mechanism of action for the consumption of different fatty acids on plasma concentrations of PCSK9 is being investigated, we should not forget the importance of dietary fat in the prevention of the risk of cardiovascular diseases" Celia Rodríguez, UGR and CIDAF researcher, lead author of the study, says. The results from this work have been presented at the Conference from International Academy of Nutrition and Aging and the International Experimental Biology Conference, and they have been published in two international journals: Lipids and Vascular Pharmacology.

News Article | December 12, 2016

The researcher at the University of Granada, Abbott laboratories and the Biomedical Research Center (Institute of Biotechnology), have proven that in mice and humans, hydrogen sulfide produced by the cells is used by a mitochondrial enzyme called sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, which participates in energy production by the cells of each tissue. Lead author Luis Carlos López García explains that hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas that can cause death at high concentrations. "In recent years, there have been some studies that have shown that hydrogen sulfide at physiological concentrations is a cellular marker that performs important physiological functions. At high concentrations, this 'sewage gas' inhibits the production of energy at a cellular level, but at low concentrations it stimulates it." The enzyme sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase also uses the coenzyme Q10 (Q10) in its reaction, so that when there is a deficit in Q10, the levels of the enzyme are drastically reduced, thus limiting its activity. This defect contributes to the bioenergetic deficit associated with deficiency in Q10, but it also causes an increase in intracellular hydrogen sulfide levels, which leads to changes in the levels of glutathione and certain brain neurotransmitters, in blood pressure and in the modification of some proteins. Therefore, the study, published in the journal Embo Molecular Medicine, proves the physiological importance of hydrogen sulfide, which is produced and used by each of our cells. "In addition, our study identifies the alteration of hydrogen sulfide metabolism as a new pathological mechanism associated with Q10 deficiency," López García explains. "Finally, this work opens the door to new studies and applications of hydrogen sulfide metabolism, both from a pathological and therapeutic point of view." More information: Marta Luna‐Sánchez et al. CoQ deficiency causes disruption of mitochondrial sulfide oxidation, a new pathomechanism associated with this syndrome, EMBO Molecular Medicine (2016). DOI: 10.15252/emmm.201606345

Chronic aortic aneurysms are permanent and localized dilations of the aorta that remain asymptomatic for long periods of time but continue to increase in diameter before they eventually rupture. Left untreated, the patients prognosis is dismal, since the internal bleeding of the rupture brings about sudden death. Although successful treatment cures the disease, the risky procedures can result in paraplegia from spinal cord ischaemia or even death, particularly for aneurysms extending from the thoracic to the abdominal aorta and thus involving many segmental arteries to the spinal cord, i.e. thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms of Crawford type II. Although various strategies have achieved a remarkable decrease in the incidence of paraplegia, it is still no less than 10 to 20%. However, it has been found that the deliberate occlusion of the segmental arteries to the paraspinous collateral network finally supplying the spinal cord does not increase rates of permanent paraplegia. A therapeutic option, minimally invasive segmental artery coil embolization has been devised which proceeds in a staged way to occlude groups of arteries under highly controlled conditions after which time must be allowed for arteriogenesis to build a robust collateral blood supply. PAPA-ARTiS is a phase II trial to demonstrate that a staged treatment approach can reduce paraplegia and mortality dramatically. It can be expected to have both a dramatic impact on the individual patients quality of life if saved from a wheelchair, and also upon financial systems through savings in; 1) lower costs in EU health care; 2) lower pay-outs in disability insurance (est. at 500k in Year 1), and; 3) loss of economic output from unemployment. Approx. 2500 patients a year in Europe undergo these high risk operations with a cumulative paraplegia rate of over 15%; therefore >100M per year in costs can be avoided and significantly more considering the expected elimination of type II endoleaks.

Salido E.,University of La Laguna | Pey A.L.,University of Granada | Rodriguez R.,University of La Laguna | Lorenzo V.,University of La Laguna
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2012

Glyoxylate detoxification is an important function of human peroxisomes. Glyoxylate is a highly reactive molecule, generated in the intermediary metabolism of glycine, hydroxyproline and glycolate mainly. Glyoxylate accumulation in the cytosol is readily transformed by lactate dehydrogenase into oxalate, a dicarboxylic acid that cannot be metabolized by mammals and forms tissue-damaging calcium oxalate crystals. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, a peroxisomal enzyme in humans, converts glyoxylate into glycine, playing a central role in glyoxylate detoxification. Cytosolic and mitochondrial glyoxylate reductase also contributes to limit oxalate production from glyoxylate. Mitochondrial hydroxyoxoglutarate aldolase is an important enzyme of hydroxyproline metabolism. Genetic defect of any of these enzymes of glyoxylate metabolism results in primary hyperoxalurias, severe human diseases in which toxic levels of oxalate are produced by the liver, resulting in progressive renal damage. Significant advances in the pathophysiology of primary hyperoxalurias have led to better diagnosis and treatment of these patients, but current treatment relies mainly on organ transplantation. It is reasonable to expect that recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disease will result into better targeted therapeutic options in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metabolic Functions and Biogenesis of peroxisomes in Health and Disease. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Babacan S.D.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Molina R.,University of Granada | Katsaggelos A.K.,Northwestern University
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2011

In this paper, we address the super resolution (SR) problem from a set of degraded low resolution (LR) images to obtain a high resolution (HR) image. Accurate estimation of the sub-pixel motion between the LR images significantly affects the performance of the reconstructed HR image. In this paper, we propose novel super resolution methods where the HR image and the motion parameters are estimated simultaneously. Utilizing a Bayesian formulation, we model the unknown HR image, the acquisition process, the motion parameters and the unknown model parameters in a stochastic sense. Employing a variational Bayesian analysis, we develop two novel algorithms which jointly estimate the distributions of all unknowns. The proposed framework has the following advantages: 1) Through the incorporation of uncertainty of the estimates, the algorithms prevent the propagation of errors between the estimates of the various unknowns; 2) the algorithms are robust to errors in the estimation of the motion parameters; and 3) using a fully Bayesian formulation, the developed algorithms simultaneously estimate all algorithmic parameters along with the HR image and motion parameters, and therefore they are fully-automated and do not require parameter tuning. We also show that the proposed motion estimation method is a stochastic generalization of the classical Lucas-Kanade registration algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approaches are very effective and compare favorably to state-of-the-art SR algorithms. © 2011 IEEE.

Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud | Ibanez-Alamo J.D.,University of Granada
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2012

Altered predation risk in urban environments may contribute to animals becoming successfully urbanized by individuals from rural habitats. Escape behaviour has evolved to allow an individual to escape once captured by a predator. We tested whether altered predation risk in urban environments is associated with colonization of such habitats by comparing escape behaviour of 1132 individual birds belonging to 15 species from nearby rural and urban populations when captured by a human. Raptors (of which the Eurasian sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus, was one of the most common species) were more common in rural than in urban habitats, whereas cats, Felis catus, showed the opposite pattern. There were consistent differences in escape behaviour between habitats, showing divergence in behaviour from the ancestral rural state. Urban birds wriggled less, showed higher tonic immobility, more often lost feathers, were less aggressive by biting less often, and emitted fear screams and alarm calls more often than rural birds. Furthermore, differences in escape behaviour between habitats were related to susceptibility to predation by sparrowhawks, as expected if differences in behaviour were due to differences in predation risk. Finally, an analysis of differences in escape behaviour between rural and urban birds revealed a significant relationship with time since urbanization, suggesting that escape behaviour has changed in urban environments over time. These findings suggest that release from predation and change in predator community associated with urbanization has altered the antipredator behaviour of birds colonizing towns and cities. © 2012 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Peralta-Sanchez J.M.,CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas | Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud | Martin-Platero A.M.,University of Granada | Soler J.J.,CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas
Functional Ecology | Year: 2010

The use of feathers as nest lining material has traditionally been explained by the thermoregulatory properties of feathers. Feather nest lining could additionally affect nest detectability by predators, or play a role in a sexually selected context. Furthermore, feather nest lining harbours microorganisms that may influence environmental conditions where eggs and nestlings develop. Microorganisms growing on nest lining feathers could affect the bacterial load of eggshells because they occupy space and/or produce antimicrobial substances against other bacteria, including egg pathogens. Feathers of different colours are known to differ in their bacterial community (i.e. feather degrading bacteria) and, thus, colour composition of nest lining feather could also affect the bacterial environment of avian nests. Here we tested this hypothesis in the barn shallow (Hirundo rustica) by exploring the relationship between eggshell bacterial loads and number of feathers, and the effect of experimentally modified colour composition of nest lining feathers on eggshell bacterial load. In agreement with the hypothesis we found that, before treatment, the number of nest lining feathers (mainly that of unpigmented-white colour) predicted eggshell bacterial load, and that, at the end of the incubation period, eggshells of experimental nests with white feathers had a lower bacterial density than those in experimental nests with black feathers. We failed to detect a relationship between bacterial load and hatching success. However, since evidence of that relationship exists for other species, these results would explain the previously detected experimental effect of colour composition of nest lining feathers on hatching success of swallows. Nest design in general, and the use of nest-lining white feathers in particular, may therefore have important consequences for reproductive success of birds. The reduced eggshell bacterial loads of experimental white nests would explain preferences by barn swallows for feathers of white colour. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 British Ecological Society.

Duarte J.,University of Granada | Francisco V.,University of Coimbra | Perez-Vizcaino F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Food and Function | Year: 2014

One of the main mechanisms by which dietary flavonoids are thought to influence cardiovascular disease is via protection of the bioactivity of the endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). Additionally, flavonoids may also interfere with the signalling cascades of inflammation and prevent overproduction of NO and its deleterious consequences in shock and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the present paper we review the evidence of the effects of flavonoids on NO. Flavonoids exert complex actions on the synthesis and bioavailability of NO which may result both in enhanced or decreased NO levels: (1) in cell free systems, several flavonoids may scavenge NO via its pro-oxidant properties by increasing superoxide. However, under conditions of oxidative stress, flavonoids may also protect NO from superoxide-driven inactivation. (2) In intact healthy tissues, some flavonoids increase eNOS activity in endothelial cells. Paradoxically this effect involves a pro-oxidant effect which results in Ca2+-dependent activation of eNOS. As inhibitors of PI3K, flavonoids may potentially inhibit the PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of eNOS. (3) Under conditions of inflammation and oxidative stress, flavonoids may prevent the inflammatory signalling cascades via inhibition of NFκB and thereby downregulate iNOS. On the other hand, they also prevent the overexpression of ROS generating enzymes, reducing superoxide and peroxynitrite levels, and hence preventing superoxide-induced NO inactivation and eNOS uncoupling. Therefore, the final effect of flavonoids on NO levels will depend on the flavonoid structure and the concentrations used, on the cell type under study and particularly on the presence of inflammatory/oxidative conditions. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Ramos J.,University of the Basque Country | Forcada J.,University of the Basque Country | Hidalgo-Alvarez R.,University of Granada
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Cationic polymer particles and nanogels are being used in emerging biomedical technologies due to the strong interaction between nucleic acids and cationic polymer colloids, the acid-swellable behavior of the nanoparticle/nanogel, and the ability to form oriented bonds with proteins, among other aspects. One of the most challenging applications is the use of cationic nanogels as carriers or vectors for in vivo siRNA delivery. The use of RNA interference to treat or prevent a variety of diseases, is a challenge in the biomedical field of therapeutics. New nanogel architectures or nanostructures should be envisaged for the adequate and controlled cell-specific siRNA release. Adequate nanogel sizes and shells are required for Improved stealth properties for the nanogels, avoiding recognition by the immune system (phagocytes), and enhancement of tumor accumulation, taking advantage of the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect in tumors. The design of new nanogels sensitive to or able to respond to other in vivo stimuli different from the pH, temperature, or ionic strength is needed.

Ricci-Cabello I.,University of Oxford | Ricci-Cabello I.,CIBER ISCIII | Olalla Herrera M.,University of Granada | Artacho R.,University of Granada
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2012

The growing prevalence of metabolic syndrome as well as its impact on public health has garnered increased attention in recent years. As a result, metabolic syndrome is now considered one of the world's leading public health problems. Bioactive peptides deriving from milk proteins may play an important role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and its complications via several mechanisms, such as the satiety response, the regulation of insulinemia levels and blood pressure, the uptake of free radicals, and alteration of the lipid profile. These peptides can be incorporated into functional foods or administered via nutraceuticals to decrease the risk of obesity, atherogenesis, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Recent findings have generated considerable scientific and commercial interest in milk-derived bioactive peptides, leading to numerous publications on the effectiveness of these substances. This review summarizes the current knowledge on bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins and examines the potential value of these peptides in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome and its complications. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

Grasso M.,University Paris - Sud | Anguiano M.,University of Granada
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

Neutron 2p and 1f spin-orbit splittings were recently measured in the isotones S37 and Si35 by (d,p) transfer reactions. Values were reported by using the major fragments of the states. An important reduction of the p splitting was observed, from S37 to Si35, associated with a strong modification of the spin-orbit potential in the central region of the nucleus Si35. We analyze 2p and 1f neutron spin-orbit splittings in the N=20 isotones Ca40,S36, and Si34. We employ several Skyrme and Gogny interactions to reliably isolate pure spin-orbit and tensor-induced contributions, within the mean-field approximation. We use interactions (i) without the tensor force, (ii) with the tensor force and with tensor parameters adjusted on top of existing parametrizations, nd (iii) with the tensor force and with tensor and spin-orbit parameters adjusted simultaneously on top of existing parametrizations. We predict in cases (ii) and (iii) a non-negligible reduction of both p and f splittings, associated with neutron-proton tensor effects, from Ca40 to S36. The two splittings are further decreased for the three types of interactions, going from S36 to Si34. This reduction is produced by the spin-orbit force and is not affected by tensor-induced contributions. For both reductions, from Ca40 to S36 and from S36 to Si34, we predict in all cases that the modification is more pronounced for p than for f splittings. The measurement of the centroids for neutron 2p and 1f states in the nuclei S36 and Si34 would be interesting to validate this prediction experimentally. We show the importance of using interactions of type (iii), because they provide p and f splittings in the nucleus Ca40 which are in agreement with the corresponding experimental values. ©2015 American Physical Society.

Slavakis K.,University of Minnesota | Kopsinis Y.,University of Granada | Theodoridis S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | McLaughlin S.,Heriot - Watt University
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

This paper considers a sparse signal recovery task in time-varying (time-adaptive) environments. The contribution of the paper to sparsity-aware online learning is threefold; first, a generalized thresholding (GT) operator, which relates to both convex and non-convex penalty functions, is introduced. This operator embodies, in a unified way, the majority of well-known thresholding rules which promote sparsity. Second, a non-convexly constrained, sparsity-promoting, online learning scheme, namely the adaptive projection-based generalized thresholding (APGT), is developed that incorporates the GT operator with a computational complexity that scales linearly to the number of unknowns. Third, the novel family of partially quasi-nonexpansive mappings is introduced as a functional analytic tool for treating the GT operator. By building upon the rich fixed point theory, the previous class of mappings establishes also a link between the GT operator and a union of linear subspaces; a non-convex object which lies at the heart of any sparsity promoting technique, batch or online. Based on this functional analytic framework, a convergence analysis of the APGT is provided. Extensive experiments suggest that the APGT exhibits competitive performance when compared to computationally more demanding alternatives, such as the sparsity-promoting affine projection algorithm (APA)- and recursive least-squares (RLS)-based techniques. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

De Blas J.,University of Notre Dame | Chala M.,University of Granada | Santiago J.,University of Granada
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

The Large Hadron Collider can do precision physics at a level that is competitive with electroweak precision constraints when probing physics beyond the Standard Model. We present a simple yet general parametrization of the effect of an arbitrary number of lepton-quark contact interactions on any dilepton observable at hadron colliders. This parametrization can be easily adopted by the experimental collaborations to put bounds on arbitrary combinations of lepton-quark contact interactions. We compute the corresponding bounds from current dilepton resonance searches at the LHC and find that they are competitive with and often complementary to indirect constraints from electroweak precision data. We combine all current constraints in a global analysis to obtain the most stringent bounds on lepton-quark contact interactions. We also show that the high-energy phase of the LHC has a unique potential in terms of discovery and discrimination power among different types of lepton-quark contact interactions. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Arranz M.J.,King's College London | Rivera M.,King's College London | Rivera M.,University of Granada | Munro J.C.,Optimal Medicine Ltd.
CNS Drugs | Year: 2011

This review presents the findings of pharmacogenetic studies exploring the influence of gene variants on antipsychotic treatment response, in terms of both symptom improvement and adverse effects, in patients with schizophrenia.Despite numerous studies in the field, replicating findings across different cohorts that include subjects of different ethnic groups has been challenging. It is clear that non-genetic factors have an important contribution to antipsychotic treatment response. Differing clinical, demographic and environmental characteristics of the cohorts studied have added substantial complexity to the interpretation of the positive and negative findings of many studies.Pharmacogenomic genome-wide investigations are beginning to yield interesting data although they have failed to replicate the most robust findings of candidate gene studies, and are limited by the sample size, especially given the need for studying homogeneous cohorts.Most of the studies conducted on cohorts treated with single antipsychotics have investigated clozapine, olanzapine or risperidone response. These studies have provided some of the most replicated associations with treatment efficacy. Serotonergic system gene variants are significantly associated with the efficacy of clozapine and risperidone, but may have less influence on the efficacy of olanzapine. Dopamine D3 receptor polymorphisms have been more strongly associated with the efficacy of clozapine and olanzapine, and D2 genetic variants with the efficacy of risperidone.Serotonin influences the control of feeding behaviour and has been hypothesized to have a role in the development of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Numerous studies have linked the serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2C)-759-CT polymorphism with weight gain. The leptin gene variant,-2548-GA, has also been associated with weight gain in several studies. Pharmacogenetic studies support the role of cytochrome P450 enzymes and dopamine receptor variants in the development of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders, with a contribution of serotonergic receptors and other gene variants implicated in the mechanism of action of antipsychotics. Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis has been associated with polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex gene (HLA). © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

Espin A.M.,University of Granada | Branas-Garza P.,Middlesex University | Herrmann B.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Gamella J.F.,University of Granada
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Costly punishment of cheaters who contribute little or nothing to a cooperating group has been extensively studied, as an effective means to enforce cooperation. The prevailing view is that individuals use punishment to retaliate against transgressions ofmoral standards such as fairness or equity.However, there ismuch debate regarding the psychological underpinnings of costly punishment. Some authors suggest that costly punishment must be a product of humans' capacity for reasoning, self-control and long-term planning, whereas others argue that it is the result of an impulsive, present-oriented emotional drive. Here, we explore the inter-temporal preferences of punishers in a multilateral cooperation game and show that both interpretations might be right, aswe can identify two different types of punishment: punishment of free-riders by cooperators, which is predicted by patience (future orientation); and free-riders' punishment of other free-riders, which is predicted by impatience (present orientation). Therefore, the picture is more complex as punishment by free-riders probably comes not from a reaction against a moral transgression, but instead from a competitive, spiteful drive.Thus, punishment grounded onmoralsmay be related to lasting or delayed psychological incentives, whereas punishment triggered by competitive desires may be linked to short-run aspirations. These results indicate that the individual's time horizon is relevant for the type of social behaviour she opts for. Integrating such differences in inter-temporal preferences and the social behaviour of agents might help to achieve a better understanding of how human cooperation and punishment behaviour has evolved. © 2012 The Royal Society.

Melian B.,University of La Laguna | Verdegay J.L.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2011

The fluctuations that have taken place in the worldwide economy over the past few years make it difficult to estimate the costs of the equipment that have to be used in order to design a telecommunications network. The literature is replete with prescriptive integer programming models for various network design problems that do not take into account the problems inherent vagueness due to equipment costs. This paper considers the real-world wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network design problem. The vagueness that appears in this problem is assumed and handled by means of fuzzy-set-based methodologies. A fuzzy integer linear programming model is then proposed to be used as an auxiliary model to solve the former problem. With the purpose to obtain cost-effective network designs, this model is then solved using Cplex, which is a commercial high-performance optimization engine. © 2011 IEEE.

Alonso J.J.,University of Malaga | Alonso J.J.,University of Granada
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2015

Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the character of the spin-glass (SG) state of a site-diluted dipolar Ising model. We consider systems of dipoles randomly placed on a fraction x of all L3 sites of a simple cubic lattice that point up or down along a given crystalline axis. For x 0.65 these systems are known to exhibit an equilibrium spin-glass phase below a temperature Tsgx. At high dilution and very low temperatures, well deep in the SG phase, we find spiky distributions of the overlap parameter q that are strongly sample dependent. We focus on spikes associated with large excitations. From cumulative distributions of q and a pair correlation function averaged over several thousands of samples we find that, for the system sizes studied, the average width of spikes, and the fraction of samples with spikes higher than a certain threshold, does not vary appreciably with L. This is compared with the behavior found for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Cabrerizo F.J.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Perez I.J.,University of Granada | Herrera-Viedma E.,University of Granada
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2010

To solve group decision-making problems we have to take in account different aspects. On the one hand, depending on the problem, we can deal with different types of information. In this way, most group decision-making problems based on linguistic approaches use symmetrically and uniformly distributed linguistic term sets to express experts' opinions. However, there exist problems whose assessments need to be represented by means of unbalanced linguistic term sets, i.e., using term sets which are not uniformly and symmetrically distributed. On the other hand, there may be cases in which experts do not have an in-depth knowledge of the problem to be solved. In such cases, experts may not put their opinion forward about certain aspects of the problem and, as a result, they may present incomplete information. The aim of this paper is to present a consensus model to help experts in all phases of the consensus reaching process in group decision-making problems in an unbalanced fuzzy linguistic context with incomplete information. As part of this consensus model, we propose an iterative procedure using consistency measures to estimate the incomplete information. In addition, the consistency measures are used together with consensus measures to guided the consensus model. The main novelty of this consensus model is that it supports the management of incomplete unbalanced fuzzy linguistic information and it allows to achieve consistent solutions with a great level of agreement. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Perez-Vizcaino F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Duarte J.,University of Granada
Molecular Aspects of Medicine | Year: 2010

Flavonols, and specially quercetin, are widely distributed in plants and are present in considerable amounts in fruits and vegetables. In addition to their anti-oxidant effect, flavonols interfere with a large number of biochemical signaling pathways and, therefore, physiological and pathological processes. There is solid evidence that, in vitro, quercetin and related flavonols exert endothelium-independent vasodilator effects, protective effect on nitric oxide and endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress, platelet antiaggregant effects, inhibition of LDL oxidation, reduction of adhesion molecules and other inflammatory markers and prevention of neuronal oxidative and inflammatory damage. The metabolites of quercetin show partial protective effects on endothelial function and LDL oxidation. Quercetin produces undisputed antihypertensive and antiatherogenic effects, prevents endothelial dysfunction and protects the myocardium from ischemic damage. It has no clear effects on serum lipid profile and on insulin resistance. Human intervention trials with isolated flavonols demonstrate an antihypertensive effect. The meta-analysis of epidemiological studies show an inverse association between flavonol (together with flavone) intake and coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore, although there is no solid proof yet, a substantial body of evidence suggests that quercetin may prevent the most common forms of cardiovascular disease contributing to the protective effects afforded by fruits and vegetables. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kob W.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Roldan-Vargas S.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Roldan-Vargas S.,University of Granada | Berthier L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory
Nature Physics | Year: 2012

The viscosity of glass-forming liquids increases by many orders of magnitude if their temperature is lowered by a mere factor of 2-3. Recent studies suggest that this widespread phenomenon is accompanied by spatially heterogeneous dynamics, and a growing dynamic correlation length quantifying the extent of correlated particle motion. Here we use a novel numerical method to detect and quantify spatial correlations that reveal a surprising non-monotonic temperature evolution of spatial dynamical correlations, accompanied by a second length scale that grows monotonically and has a very different nature. Our results directly unveil a dramatic qualitative change in atomic motions near the mode-coupling crossover temperature, which involves no fitting or indirect theoretical interpretation. These findings impose severe new constraints on the theoretical description of the glass transition, and open several research perspectives, in particular for experiments, to confirm and quantify our observations in real materials. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Grasso M.,University Paris - Sud | Anguiano M.,University of Granada
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

Recent ground-state-focused studies of the tensor effects in the mean-field framework are our starting point. On the basis of phenomenological arguments, we indicate regions for acceptable values of the parameters that are associated with the tensor effective forces within both the Skyrme and the Gogny models. We identify acceptable signs and values of the parameters by making an adjustment on the neutron 1f spin-orbit splitting for the nuclei 40Ca, 48Ca, and 56Ni. The first nucleus is not used to adjust the tensor parameters because it is spin-saturated, but is employed to tune the spin-orbit strength. One of the main conclusions of this work is that some existing Skyrme parametrizations containing the tensor force should not be employed because the wrong sign of the tensor parameters does not lead to the correct behavior (by comparing with the experimental results). This study also allows us to better constrain the tensor parameters in the Gogny case, where much less work is published and boundaries and signs for the parameters have not been analyzed so far. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Herrero A.,University of Granada | Rigling A.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Zamora R.,University of Granada
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Rear edge populations, those residing at the low-latitude margins of species ranges, represent a critical genetic diversity for species conservation, management, and evolutionary potential. The present study analyses climate-radial growth relations for Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra at their dry distribution limit in the Mediterranean basin. The study was conducted in native relict forests of the two species in SE Spain, analyzing radial growth variability and climate-growth relations over time and between different ecological conditions. The lack of strong precipitation signals found could be due to high tree density, appropriate microclimatic conditions and/or high local adaptation. However, previous September temperatures exerted a negative impact on radial growth at all sites, presumably as a result of a prolonged summer drought. By contrast, high temperatures during winter and spring boosted radial growth at most locations. Both the negative and positive effects of temperature have gained relevancy in the last decades and can determine future performance of these Mediterranean pinewoods. Besides common patterns, recorded site-specific signals in climate-growth relationships reveal the influence of different ecological conditions. In this respect, tree-growth variability increased at low elevation coupled with increasing aridity, indicating higher vulnerability to rapid climate changes at low elevations. In contrast, the lack of strong precipitation signals and positive effects of temperatures at high elevation, could buffer the impact of drought and favor the persistence of P. sylvestris and P. nigra rear edge populations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Narayan P.,University of Cambridge | Orte A.,University of Cambridge | Orte A.,University of Granada | Clarke R.W.,University of Cambridge | And 7 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

In recent genome-wide association studies, the extracellular chaperone protein, clusterin, has been identified as a newly-discovered risk factor in Alzheimer's disease. We have examined the interactions between human clusterin and the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid-β 1-40 peptide (Aβ 1-40), which is prone to aggregate into an ensemble of oligomeric intermediates implicated in both the proliferation of amyloid fibrils and in neuronal toxicity. Using highly sensitive single-molecule fluorescence methods, we have found that Aβ 1-40 forms a heterogeneous distribution of small oligomers (from dimers to 50-mers), all of which interact with clusterin to form long-lived, stable complexes. Consequently, clusterin is able to influence both the aggregation and disaggregation of Aβ 1-40 by sequestration of the Aβ oligomers. These results not only elucidate the protective role of clusterin but also provide a molecular basis for the genetic link between clusterin and Alzheimer's disease. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Babacan S.D.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Luessi M.,Harvard University | Molina R.,University of Granada | Katsaggelos A.K.,Northwestern University
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

Recovery of low-rank matrices has recently seen significant activity in many areas of science and engineering, motivated by recent theoretical results for exact reconstruction guarantees and interesting practical applications. In this paper, we present novel recovery algorithms for estimating low-rank matrices in matrix completion and robust principal component analysis based on sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) principles. Starting from a matrix factorization formulation and enforcing the low-rank constraint in the estimates as a sparsity constraint, we develop an approach that is very effective in determining the correct rank while providing high recovery performance. We provide connections with existing methods in other similar problems and empirical results and comparisons with current state-of-the-art methods that illustrate the effectiveness of this approach. © 2012 IEEE.

Arias J.L.,University of Granada | Reddy L.H.,University Paris - Sud | Reddy L.H.,Sanofi S.A. | Couvreur P.,University Paris - Sud
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2011

Gemcitabine, an anticancer nucleoside analogue, undergoes rapid enzymatic degradation following intravenous injection. This necessitates the administration of a high order of doses to observe a required therapeutic response, while such high doses result in significant side effects. To improve the intravenous delivery of gemcitabine and simultaneously enhance its antitumor activity, we have investigated its incorporation into a drug nanoplatform based on the biodegradable polymer chitosan. Two gemcitabine loading methods have been investigated: (i) entrapment into the polymeric network (entrapment procedure): drug incorporation prior to the coacervation process that leads to the formation of gemcitabine-loaded chitosan (GemChit) nanoparticles; and (ii) surface deposition onto already formed chitosan nanoparticles after incubation in gemcitabine solution (adsorption procedure). The former method produced much higher gemcitabine loading values and a sustained release profile. The main factors determining the gemcitabine loading and release kinetic have also been analyzed. Following intravenous injection, the GemChit formulation displayed a significantly improved antitumor activity comparatively to free gemcitabine, which was further confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry studies, suggesting the potential of this chitosan-based gemcitabine nanomedicine for the effective treatment of tumors. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Quesada-Perez M.,University of Jaén | Maroto-Centeno J.A.,University of Jaén | Forcada J.,University of the Basque Country | Hidalgo-Alvarez R.,University of Granada
Soft Matter | Year: 2011

In this work, the classical theory of polymer/polyelectrolyte gel swelling is reviewed. This formalism is easy to understand and has been widely applied to gels and microgel particles. Nevertheless, its limitations and obscure aspects should be known before use. The case of temperature-sensitive gels is discussed in some detail because it deserves particular clarification. The application to experimental swelling data (of both gels and microgels) is also reviewed. In this way, strengths and weaknesses of this approach can be elucidated. Moreover, other formalisms are also outlined. Many of them are inspired by the classical one. Their improvements are briefly commented in this case. Others are based on different grounds. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Perez I.J.,University of Granada | Cabrerizo F.J.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Herrera-Viedma E.,University of Granada
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

The aim of this paper is to present a new model of decision support system for group decision making problems based on a linguistic approach and dynamic sets of alternatives. The model incorporates a mechanism that allows to manage dynamic decision situations in which some information about the problem is not constant in time. We assume that the set of alternatives can change during the decision making process. The model is presented in a mobile and dynamic context where the experts' preferences can be incomplete. The linguistic approach is used to represent both the experts' preferences about the alternatives and the agreement degrees to manage the change of some alternatives. A prototype of such mobile decision support system in which the experts use mobile devices to provide their linguistic preferences at anytime and anywhere has been implemented. In such a way, we provide a new linguistic group decision making framework that is mobile and dynamic. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ramos J.,University of Granada | Forcada J.,University of the Basque Country
Langmuir | Year: 2011

Due to the existing interest in new hybrid particles in the colloidal range based on both magnetic and polymeric materials for applications in biotechnological fields, this work is focused on the preparation of magnetic polymer nanoparticles (MPNPs) by a single-step miniemulsion process developed to achieve better control of the morphology of the magnetic nanocomposite particles. MPNPs are prepared by surfactant-free miniemulsion polymerization using styrene (St) as a monomer, hexadecane (HD) as a hydrophobe, and potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator in the presence of oleic acid (OA)-modified magnetite nanoparticles. The effect of the type of cross-linker used [divinylbenzene (DVB) and bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (BMEP)] together with the effect of the amount of an aid stabilizer (dextran) on size, particle size distribution (PSD), and morphology of the hybrid nanoparticles synthesized is analyzed in detail. The mixture of different surface modifiers produces hybrid nanocolloids with various morphologies: from a typical core-shell composed by a magnetite core surrounded by a polymer shell to a homogeneously distributed morphology where the magnetite is uniformly distributed throughout the entire nanocomposite. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Rodriguez F.J.,University of Granada | Lozano M.,University of Granada | Garcia-Martinez C.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Gonzalez-Barrera J.D.,University of La Laguna
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

In this paper, an artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed to solve the maximally diverse grouping problem. This complex optimisation problem consists of forming maximally diverse groups with restricted sizes from a given set of elements. The artificial bee colony algorithm is a new swarm intelligence technique based on the intelligent foraging behaviour of honeybees. The behaviour of this algorithm is determined by two search strategies: an initialisation scheme employed to construct initial solutions and a method for generating neighbouring solutions. More specifically, the proposed approach employs a greedy constructive method to accomplish the initialisation task and also employs different neighbourhood operators inspired by the iterated greedy algorithm. In addition, it incorporates an improvement procedure to enhance the intensification capability. Through an analysis of the experimental results, the highly effective performance of the proposed algorithm is shown in comparison to the current state-of-the-art algorithms which address the problem. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Moreno-Torres J.G.,University of Granada | Llora X.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Goldberg D.E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Bhargava R.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

There is an underlying assumption on most model building processes: given a learned classifier, it should be usable to explain unseen data from the same given problem. Despite this seemingly reasonable assumption, when dealing with biological data it tends to fail; where classifiers built out of data generated using the same protocols in two different laboratories can lead to two different, non-interchangeable, classifiers. There are usually too many uncontrollable variables in the process of generating data in the lab and biological variations, and small differences can lead to very different data distributions, with a fracture between data. This paper presents a genetics-based machine learning approach that performs feature extraction on data from a lab to help increase the classification performance of an existing classifier that was built using the data from a different laboratory which uses the same protocols, while learning about the shape of the fractures between data that motivated the bad behavior. The experimental analysis over benchmark problems together with a real-world problem on prostate cancer diagnosis show the good behavior of the proposed algorithm. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Molero-Chamizo A.,University of Granada | Molero-Chamizo A.,University of Huelva
Brain Research | Year: 2013

Abstract Previous experiments have shown that changes in the time of day between taste pre-exposure and conditioning prevent the latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion. The effect of these changes in circadian context between pre-exposure and conditioning on the magnitude of the learned aversion appears to be similar to the effect of changes in spatial context on this type of learning. To elucidate the brain areas involved in this circadian dependence of latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion, the effect of excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus, a region related to spatial-contextual modulation in this learning process, was analyzed. The latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion in animals with hippocampal lesions, that were pre-exposed and conditioned to the same or different time of day, was compared with the response of animals exposed to either conditions ("same" or "different") but had undergone amygdala lesions or sham lesions. The results showed that selective dorsal hippocampus lesion eliminated the circadian dependence of latent inhibition of taste aversion. A change in the time of day between pre-exposure and conditioning did not prevent latent inhibition in animals with hippocampal lesions. In contrast, this change prevented latent inhibition in the amygdala-lesioned and sham groups. These findings suggest that the hippocampus contains a selective mechanism that modulates the contextual dependency of the latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion without interfering with the effect of taste pre-exposure itself. This study may help to understand the possible common involvement of the hippocampus in different types of contextual control of associative learning. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Herrero A.,University of Granada | Herrero A.,University of Alcalá | Zamora R.,University of Granada
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The expected and already observed increment in frequency of extreme climatic events may result in severe vegetation shifts. However, stabilizing mechanisms promoting community resilience can buffer the lasting impact of extreme events. The present work analyzes the resilience of a Mediterranean mountain ecosystem after an extreme drought in 2005, examining shoot-growth and needle-length resistance and resilience of dominant tree and shrub species (Pinus sylvestris vs Juniperus communis, and P. nigra vs J. oxycedrus) in two contrasting altitudinal ranges. Recorded high vegetative-resilience values indicate great tolerance to extreme droughts for the dominant species of pine-juniper woodlands. Observed tolerance could act as a stabilizing mechanism in rear range edges, such as the Mediterranean basin, where extreme events are predicted to be more detrimental and recurrent. However, resistance and resilience components vary across species, sites, and ontogenetic states: adult Pinus showed higher growth resistance than did adult Juniperus; saplings displayed higher recovery rates than did conspecific adults; and P. nigra saplings displayed higher resilience than did P. sylvestris saplings where the two species coexist. P. nigra and J. oxycedrus saplings at high and low elevations, respectively, were the most resilient at all the locations studied. Under recurrent extreme droughts, these species-specific differences in resistance and resilience could promote changes in vegetation structure and composition, even in areas with high tolerance to dry conditions. © 2014 Herrero, Zamora.

Herrera-Viedma E.,University of Granada | Cabrerizo F.J.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Kacprzyk J.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Pedrycz W.,University of Alberta
Information Fusion | Year: 2014

In the consensus reaching processes developed in group decision making problems we need to measure the closeness among experts' opinions in order to obtain a consensus degree. As it is known, to achieve a full and unanimous consensus is often not reachable in practice. An alternative approach is to use softer consensus measures, which reflect better all possible partial agreements, guiding the consensus process until high agreement is achieved among individuals. Consensus models based on soft consensus measures have been widely used because these measures represent better the human perception of the essence of consensus. This paper presents an overview of consensus models based on soft consensus measures, showing the pioneering and prominent papers, the main existing approaches and the new trends and challenges. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Martinez M.A.,University of La Rioja | Herrera M.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Lopez-Gijon J.,University of Granada | Herrera-Viedma E.,University of Granada
Scientometrics | Year: 2014

Citation classics identify those highly cited papers which are an important reference point in a research field. To identify a paper as a citation classic we have to fix a citation threshold value. Usually, this threshold value should not be the same for all research fields because each field presents its respective citation pattern. Studies of citation classics in the literature define particular criteria and methods to set citation thresholds, which are often set arbitrarily and designed ad-hoc, and do not allow the scientific community to validate and compare their results. In this paper we introduce the concept of H-Classics to overcome this problem and provide scientific community a standardization of key constructs. We present a new and systematic method to identify citation classics. This identification method of highly cited papers is based on the H-index and thank to the properties of H-index it is sensitive to the own characteristics of any research discipline and also its evolution. Therefore, the concept of H-Classics allows to systematize search procedure of citation classics for any field of research. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Calixto M.,University of Granada | Perez-Bernal F.,University of Huelva
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We study the entanglement properties of the shape phase transitions between different geometric limits of two coupled equivalent molecular benders modeled with the two-dimensional limit of the vibron model. This system has four possible geometric configurations: linear, cis-bent, trans-bent, and nonplanar. We show how the entanglement, accessed through the calculation of the linear entropy, between benders and between rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom changes sensitively in the critical regions of this two-fluid bosonic model. The numeric calculation is complemented with a variational approach to the ground-state wave function in terms of symmetry-adapted coherent states. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Spina E.,Messina University | de Leon J.,University of Kentucky | de Leon J.,University of Granada | de Leon J.,University of the Basque Country
Journal of Neural Transmission | Year: 2015

A critical review of the limited available evidence and the authors’ experience and judgment are used to summarize the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genetic variants in the pharmacokinetics of and clinical response to psychotropic medications. CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms and their contributions to the metabolism of psychotropic drugs are reviewed. CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genotyping have limited current clinical utility. CYP2C9 genotyping has no utility in psychiatry. Psychiatrists should master tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) prescription, and if they use TCAs, they should have expertise in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping and in TCA therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to safely dose TCAs. Practice guidelines recommend dose changes, TDM or alternate drugs for (1) CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers (UM) taking citalopram or escitalopram; (2) CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (PMs) taking sertraline; (3) CYP2D6 PMs taking venlafaxine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, risperidone or zuclopenthixol; and (4) CYP2D6 UMs taking venlafaxine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, risperidone, zuclopenthixol or atomoxetine. According to the prescribing information, CYP2D6 PMs should receive 75 % of the average long-acting aripiprazole dose and pimozide doses >4 mg/day should not be prescribed without CYP2D6 genotyping. In a situation of limited evidence, there is need to use the available pharmacological mechanistic information for better personalizing treatment in psychiatry. This is best done by combining CYP genotyping with TDM. Clozapine and risperidone concentration-to-dose ratios are provided as two examples of this approach of how to integrate CYP genotyping and TDM in psychiatry. New studies are needed to verify that CYP2C19 PM genotyping may have potential to identify clozapine PMs and explain the lower clozapine metabolic capacity in East Asians. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Branas-Garza P.,Middlesex University | Kovarik J.,University of the Basque Country | Neyse L.,University of Granada
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Gene-culture co-evolution emphasizes the joint role of culture and genes for the emergence of altruistic and cooperative behaviors and behavioral genetics provides estimates of their relative importance. However, these approaches cannot assess which biological traits determine altruism or how. We analyze the association between altruism in adults and the exposure to prenatal sex hormones, using the second-to-fourth digit ratio. We find an inverted U-shaped relation for left and right hands, which is very consistent for men and less systematic for women. Subjects with both high and low digit ratios give less than individuals with intermediate digit ratios. We repeat the exercise with the same subjects seven months later and find a similar association, even though subjects' behavior differs the second time they play the game. We then construct proxies of the median digit ratio in the population (using more than 1000 different subjects), show that subjects' altruism decreases with the distance of their ratio to these proxies. These results provide direct evidence that prenatal events contribute to the variation of altruistic behavior and that the exposure to fetal hormones is one of the relevant biological factors. In addition, the findings suggest that there might be an optimal level of exposure to these hormones from social perspective. © 2013 Brañas-Garza et al.

Jimenez-Vicente J.,University of Granada | Mediavilla E.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Mediavilla E.,University of La Laguna | Munoz J.A.,University of Valencia | Kochanek C.S.,Ohio State University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Using microlensing measurements for a sample of 27 image pairs of 19 lensed quasars we determine a maximum likelihood estimate for the accretion disk size of an average quasar of rs = 4.0+2.4 - 3.1 lt-day at rest frame 〈λ〉 = 1736 Å for microlenses with a mean mass of 〈M〉 = 0.3 M. This value, in good agreement with previous results from smaller samples, is roughly a factor of five greater than the predictions of the standard thin disk model. The individual size estimates for the 19 quasars in our sample are also in excellent agreement with the results of the joint maximum likelihood analysis. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Johnson S.,University of Warwick | Dominguez-Garcia V.,University of Granada | Donetti L.,University of Granada | Munoz M.A.,University of Granada
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Why are large, complex ecosystems stable? Both theory and simulations of current models predict the onset of instability with growing size and complexity, so for decades it has been conjectured that ecosystems must have some unidentified structural property exempting them fromthis outcome. We show that trophic coherence - a hitherto ignored feature of food webs that current structural models fail to reproduce - is a better statistical predictor of linear stability than size or complexity. Furthermore, we prove that a maximally coherent network with constant interaction strengths will always be linearly stable. We also propose a simple model that, by correctly capturing the trophic coherence of food webs, accurately reproduces their stability and other basic structural features. Most remarkably, our model shows that stability can increase with size and complexity. This suggests a key to May's paradox, and a range of opportunities and concerns for biodiversity conservation. © 2014, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Carmona A.,ETH Zurich | Delgado A.,University of Notre Dame | Delgado A.,CERN | Quiros M.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies | Santiago J.,University of Granada
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: We show that the recently reported excess in resonant diboson production can be explained in the context of non-custodial composite Higgs models. Dibosons are generated via the s-channel exchange of massive vector bosons present in these models. We discuss the compatibility of the signal excess with other diboson experimental searches. We also discuss the tension between diboson production and other experimental tests of the model that include electroweak precision data, dilepton, dijet and top pair production and show that there is a region of parameter space in which they are all compatible with the excess. © 2015, The Author(s).

Araujo L.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Merelo J.J.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2011

The natural mate-selection behavior of preferring individuals which are somewhat (but not too much) different has been proved to increase the resistance to infection of the resulting offspring, and thus fitness. Inspired by these results we have investigated the improvement obtained from diversity induced by differences between individuals sent and received and the resident population in an island model, by comparing different migration policies, including our proposed multikulti methods, which choose the individuals that are going to be sent to other nodes based on the principle of multiculturality; the individual sent should be different enough to the target population, which will be represented through a proxy string (computed in several possible ways) in the emitting population. We have checked a set of policies following these principles on two discrete optimization problems of diverse difficulty for different sizes and number of nodes, and found that, in average or in median, multikulti policies outperform the usual policy of sending the best or a random individual; however, the size of this advantage changes with the number of nodes involved and the difficulty of the problem, tending to be greater as the number of nodes increases. The success of this kind of policies will be explained via the measurement of entropy as a representation of population diversity for the policies tested. © 2006 IEEE.

Reddy L.H.,University Paris - Sud | Reddy L.H.,Sanofi S.A. | Arias J.L.,University of Granada | Nicolas J.,University Paris - Sud | Couvreur P.,University Paris - Sud
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

Precise control over the synthesis conditions and surface functionalization of MNPs is crucial because it governs their physicochemical properties, their colloidal stability, and their biological behavior/fate. For pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes, magnetic platforms should possess very small size and narrow size distribution together with high magnetization values. Alternatively, great interest has been recently devoted to the development of metal-doped iron oxides with enhanced magnetic properties. The control over the characteristics and structure of the gel can be easily obtained by fixing the hydroxylation and condensation conditions, as well as the kinetics of the growing process. In particular, the pH, the temperature, the nature and concentration of the salt precursors, and the nature of the solvent have been described to influence the synthesis process. Practically, NP formation occurs when the metal precursor is suspended in polyol and heated up to its boiling point, under stirring.

Ruiz-Cruz M.D.,University of Malaga | Sanz de Galdeano C.,University of Granada
Lithos | Year: 2013

Garnet from diamondiferous granulites of Ceuta (Betic-Rif cordillera, Spain and Morocco) contains a variety of inclusion types. To better understand the evolution of these rocks during the ultrahigh pressure event, two samples (1 and 2) were selected for the detailed study of garnet. Primary inclusions of apatite, quartz, coesite, rutile and retrograded pyroxene, and exsolution microstructures of rutile characterize garnet from sample 1, whereas exsolution microstructures of quartz, coesite, apatite and rutile, and inclusions formed from a melt characterize garnet from sample 2, indicating that peak metamorphic conditions were recorded by sample 2. In contrast, the chemical patterns of garnet suggest an inverse situation. Garnet from sample 1 has high Ca- and low Mn contents and high XMg, characteristic of growth at high pressure and temperature whereas garnet from sample 2 shows high Mn and low Ca contents and low XMg, characteristic of garnet formed at lower temperature and pressure. The contrasting compositions are interpreted as reflecting differences in the position of the metamorphic path followed by both samples relative to the solidus: Garnets from sample 1 are interpreted as formed below the solidus whereas garnets from sample 2 are interpreted as formed in the presence of a melt, which caused notable enrichment of garnet in Mn and depletion in Ca relative to garnet from sample 1. Due to extensive low-pressure Hercynian melting that caused generalized migmatization and melt mobilization, whole-rock composition of the samples notably changed, thus preventing the accurate estimation of the physical conditions characterizing the older ultrahigh pressure event. Estimations based on experimental determinations of the phosphorous solubility in garnet suggest that peak pressure conditions were on the order of 6-7GPa, which put the origin of the studied crustal rocks at depths greater than 200km. © 2013 The Authors.

Lobo F.J.,University of Granada | Ridente D.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering
Marine Geology | Year: 2014

This study is a review of Quaternary Milankovitch cycles as recorded on modern continental shelves worldwide. On the background of the many existing examples, we focus on selected case studies from Mediterranean (Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas) and Atlantic (gulfs of Mexico and Cádiz) margins that represent general and peculiar characters of Middle-Upper Pleistocene sequences forming under the control of composite 100 and 20. ka Milankovitch cycles. The most pervasive stratigraphic pattern displayed by shelf deposits is referred to the 100. ka sea-level cycle, and consists of fairly uniform depositional sequences mostly composed by regressive deposits forming during the falling limb of the sea-level curve. These are generally classified as Falling Stage Systems Tract (FSST) and display a regressive facies architecture reflecting the dominant control of sea level. On many margins, FSST units may show slight though significant differences with respect to Highstand Systems Tract (HST) and Lowstand Systems Tract (LST) regressive units, more closely reflecting environmental changes and the local variability of depositional systems. In contrast with the theoretical and overall scale-independent model developed to predict composite stratigraphic cycles and sequences, the Middle-Upper Pleistocene stratigraphic record from numerous shelf settings shows a subdued signature of the higher-frequency (20. ka) Milankovitch cyclicity. However, when detectable, the 20. ka architectural pattern is characterized by a relatively greater spatial and temporal variability compared to 100. ka sequences. This fact likely reflects the increasing importance of factors controlling the depositional environment (e.g., seafloor morphology, oceanographic regime, sediment input and dispersal, etc) with respect to sea-level change during the shorter intervals encompassed by 20. ka. cycles. On this basis, two end-member cases have been distinguished, depending on the generation or not of high-frequency sequence boundaries, a prerequisite to qualify the higher-frequency motifs as depositional sequences. These two end members are comprehensive of the highly variable patterns displayed by Middle-Upper Pleistocene shelf sequences, which in turn reflect the interplay between the geological setting, the dominant sea-level control and the effective response of sedimentary systems. The variable stratigraphic patterns of Milankovitch cycles represent conceptual and practical constraints as to the classification of high-frequency Quaternary sequences under the general schemes of the standard sequence stratigraphy model. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

The Ronda peridotite is a group of lherzolite slabs (1.5 to 2 km thick) in southern Spain. Despite clear evidence that pre-Alpine events affected pre-Permo-Triassic units from the Alborán domain (internal zone of the Betic-Rif Cordillera, Spain, and Morocco), numerous papers continue to emphasize Alpine metamorphic and structural evolution. Here, we evaluate the pre-Cenozoic evolution of the Ronda peridotite by reporting new petrographic and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating of meta-sedimentary rocks from the Jubrique zone (Alpujárride Complex, Betic Cordillera, Spain) directly overlying the Ronda peridotite. Field inspection and petrographical study revealed generalized migmatitic textures and a gradual transition mainly defined by garnet content (from ∼30 to <3 wt.%) and size (from 1.5 cm to <0.5 mm) in the overlying granulite-gneiss sequence, suggesting that most garnet grew as a consequence of the peridotite emplacement. Garnet shows notable variations in composition and inclusion types, which are interpreted as reflecting different stages of garnet growth. Diamond-bearing garnets are only well-preserved in gneisses from the uppermost part of the sequence, whereas the large garnets from rocks overlying the peridotite mainly record later thermal events. SHRIMP zircon dating indicates two age peaks at 330 ± 9 and 265 ± 4 Ma. The oldest age characterizes rims overgrowing detrital cores and reflects an early Hercynian metamorphism; the younger age characterizes zircon with magmatic oscillatory zoning, reflecting anatexis. On the basis of these data and of previous dating of monazite included in the large garnets, we conclude that the peridotite was emplaced either shortly before or during early Hercynian times, ∼330 Ma. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Stolarski D.,CERN | Stolarski D.,Carleton University | Vega-Morales R.,University of Granada
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

Interpreting the excesses around 750 GeV in the diphoton spectra to be the signal of a new heavy scalar φ decaying to photons, we point out the possibility of looking for correlated signals with virtual photons. In particular, we emphasize that the effective operator that generates the φ→γγ decay will also generate decays of φ→2ℓγ (2ℓ≡2e,2ν) and φ→4ℓ (4ℓ≡2e2μ,4e,4μ) independently of the φ couplings to Zγ and ZZ. Depending on the relative sizes of these effective couplings, we show that the virtual diphoton component can make up a sizable, and sometimes dominant, contribution to the total φ→2ℓγ and φ→4ℓ partial widths. We also discuss modifications to current experimental cuts in order to maximize the sensitivity to these virtual photon effects. Finally, we briefly comment on prospects for channels involving other Standard Model fermions as well as more exotic decay possibilities of the putative resonance. © 2016 authors.

Gonzalez-Moles M.,University of Granada | Scully C.,Eastman Dental Institute | Ruiz-Avila I.,Hospital Clinico San Cecilio
Oral Diseases | Year: 2012

The development of multiple oral tumours, seen in up to 30% of patients with a primary oral squamous cell carcinoma, is sometimes attributable to the presence of genetically altered premalignant fields and has important prognostic implications. Molecular techniques available for the definitive diagnosis of such a field (loss of heterozygosity analysis of 3p, 9p and 17p and study of TP53 tumour suppressor gene mutation) are expensive, complex and not universally available, hampering their routine application. Nevertheless, molecular diagnosis is essential for modern assessment of the risk of multiple tumours and for decisions on the appropriate preventive and therapeutic approaches. This article reviews current knowledge on molecular findings in premalignant fields in the oral cavity and oropharynx and provides an update on criteria for their identification, discussing the clinical and therapeutic implications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Perez I.J.,University of Granada | Cabrerizo F.J.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Herrera-Viedma E.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part A:Systems and Humans | Year: 2010

The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system model with two important characteristic: 1) mobile technologies are applied in the decision process and 2) the set of alternatives is not fixed over time to address dynamic decision situations in which the set of solution alternatives could change throughout the decision-making process. We implement a prototype of such mobile decision support system in which experts use mobile phones to provide their preferences anywhere and anytime. To get a general system, experts' preferences are assumed to be represented by different preference representations: 1) fuzzy preference relations; 2) orderings; 3) utility functions; and 4) multiplicative preference relations. Because this prototype incorporates both selection and consensus processes, it allows us to model group decision-making situations. The prototype incorporates a tool for managing the changes on the set of feasible alternatives that could happen throughout the decision process. This way, the prototype provides a new approach to deal with dynamic group decision-making situations to help make decisions anywhere and anytime. © 2006 IEEE.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada | Castro N.F.,University of Minho | Onofre A.,University of Minho
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

We use the recent measurements of top quark decay asymmetries in ATLAS and the t-channel single top cross section in CMS to set the first combined LHC limits on the Wtb vertex. This combination allows us to obtain much better limits than the separate measurements. The resulting constraints are comparable, although still weaker, than the ones obtained using Tevatron data with much more statistics. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada | Onofre A.,University of Minho
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

Single top production processes are usually regarded as the ones in which Vtb can be directly measured at hadron colliders. We show that the analysis of the single top rapidity distribution in t-channel and tW production can also set direct limits on Vtd. At LHC with 10fb-1 at 14 TeV, the combined limits on Vtd may be reduced by almost a factor of 2 when the top rapidity distribution is used. This also implies that the limits on Vtb can also be reduced by 15%, since both parameters, as well as Vts, must be simultaneously obtained from a global fit to data. At Tevatron, the exploitation of this distribution would require very high statistics. © 2011 American Physical Society.

De Blas J.,University of Notre Dame | Lizana J.M.,University of Granada | Perez-Victoria M.,University of Granada
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We study in a model-independent way new neutral and charged vector bosons that could give observable signals with leptonic final states at the LHC. We show, in particular, that a charged vector W′ decaying into lepton plus neutrino is accompanied by at least an extra neutral vector boson Z′, nearly degenerate with the charged one. Conversely, a Z′ boson with significant isospin violation cannot exist without a companion W′. To take advantage of these generic correlations, we perform a combined analysis of LHC data in the dilepton and lepton-plus-missing-energy channels, which allows us to improve the limits from independent analyses. We also develop some tools to easily deal with cases in which several heavy vector bosons with similar masses interfere. Finally, we develop a theoretically consistent framework for the study of the sequential Z′ and W′ benchmarks. © 2013 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.

Peula-Garcia J.M.,University of Malaga | Ortega-Vinuesa J.L.,University of Granada | Bastos-Gonzalez D.,University of Granada
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2010

In this paper, we demonstrate that in addition to the nature of the ions the nature of the surface is also of vital importance in order to elucidate the origin of Hofmeister effects. Specifically, we show that for the solid/water interface when the surface turns from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, an inversion in the Hofmeister series occurs. Results were recorded from colloidal-stability experiments performed with seven different anions located at different positions in the Hofmeister series and working with four colloidal systems that varied in their surface-charge sign and hydrophobic/philic degree. A mechanism based on the structural modifications that ions and surfaces induced in water is proposed to explain all these results. The existence of hydration forces on hydrophilic systems enables us to explain the data and to reinforce our arguments concerning the relevance of considering the water structure around both the ions and the interfaces on Hofmeister effects. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Del Aguila F.,University of Granada | De Blas J.,University of Notre Dame
Fortschritte der Physik | Year: 2011

We briefly review the limits on new interactions implied by electroweak precision data. Special attention is payed to the bounds on the Higgs boson mass. We also comment on the required cancellation among the new contributions to precisely measured electroweak observables in any Standard Model extension, if the new particles have to evade the indirect constraints on their couplings and masses but still remain at the LHC reach. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Guo Z.-H.,University of Granada | Roig P.,University Paris - Sud
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

We have studied the one-meson radiative tau decays τ⊃- →ντπ⊃-(K⊃-)γ, computing the structure-dependent contributions within a Lagrangian approach based on the large-NC limit of QCD that ensures the proper low-energy limit dictated by chiral symmetry. Upon imposing the short-distance QCD constraints to the form factors, we are able to predict the structure-dependent radiation without any free parameter and, therefore, the relevant observables for the decay τ⊃-→ντπ⊃-γ: the photon energy spectrum, the invariant mass spectrum of the meson-photon system, and the integrated decay rate. We also discuss the remaining uncertainties in these observables for the τ⊃-→ντK⊃-γ decay. According to our results, the present facilities could detect these rare decays for the first time in the near future, allowing for a stringent test of our predictions. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: AAT-2007-3.5-02 | Award Amount: 26.46M | Year: 2008

The HIRF SE research project has the goal of providing the aeronautics industry with a framework which can be used during the development phase to mitigate the EM aspects. In addition it will provide a considerable reduction in the certification/qualification tests required on air vehicle. The HIRF SE main objectives can be summarized by the two followings items: Full validated and integrated solutions to model, to simulate numerically and to test air vehicles for EM aspects during design and certification; To build (from past and ongoing works) an integrated approach with an open and evolutionary architecture. The HIRF Synthetic Environment expected results can be summarized by the following items: Capability to deal with the increased use of composite materials and structures by the airframe industry. The HIRF SE framework will include the most advanced computational models for the numerical simulation of the EM characteristics and performance of composite materials. Capability to deal with the complete internal and external electromagnetic environment (present and foreseen). The HIRF SE tool will be able to simulate a wide spread typology and number of EM (internal and external) interference sources. To take advantage of a large community to develop and issue a work on modelling of excellence. The result will be to develop and issue a work of excellence on EM modelling by gathering a large team of scientists, academic and industrial engineers, cooperating to build a reference tool of their own. A developed methodology/tool well recognized inside the civil aviation community in accordance with certification bodies. Taking into account the HIRF Synthetic Environment main objectives and the following expected results it is possible to affirm the HIRF SE project addresses the scope of work described in the FP7 Work Programme.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.74M | Year: 2014

The main goal of the project is to provide excellent initial training to young researchers in the field of high energy particle physics, paving the road for new discoveries about the fundamental nature of the Universe at a time when new discoveries are expected, and when the new Standard Model of Particle Physics is going to be forged. The research goal of HiggsTools is the investigation of electroweak symmetry breaking. This question lies at the very frontier of knowledge of theoretical particle physics and phenomenology and, in fact, the primary goal of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is to unveil the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. During the period of the network it is certain that the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking will be further decoded and that the theoretical ideas that date back to 1964 will either be confirmed or supplemented through the discovery of new additional particles that contribute to it. The experiments at the LHC have already made an impressive step forward in answering this question, by discovering a particle that is looking more and more like a Higgs boson. It remains an open question, however, whether this is the Higgs boson of the Standard Model of particle physics, or possibly the lightest of several bosons predicted in some theories that go beyond the Standard Model. Finding the answer to this question will take time. The outcome of the Higgs studies at the LHC will either carve our present understanding of electroweak interactions in stone or will be the beginning of a theoretical revolution. We will therefore create a cohort of 21 early-stage researchers (ESR) who will all be in the network for the same 36 month period and therefore be able to obtain the full benefit from the training provided by the network. We request 500 person-months for early-stage researchers (ESR) in accordance with the rules of the People FP7 Programme. The remaining 256 person-months will be funded from local sources.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.2-2 | Award Amount: 11.59M | Year: 2012

Sustainable governance of our biological resources requires reliable scientific knowledge that meets the needs of society. Current biodiversity observation systems and environmental datasets are unbalanced in coverage and not integrated, limiting integrative analyses and implementation of environmental policies. EU BON presents an innovative approach towards integration of biodiversity information systems from on-ground to remote sensing data, for addressing policy and information needs in a timely and customized manner. EU BON will provide integration between social networks of science and policy and technological networks of interoperating IT infrastructures, resulting in a new open-access platform for sharing biodiversity data and tools, and greatly advance biodiversity knowledge in Europe. EU BONs 30 partners from 18 countries are members of networks of biodiversity data-holders, monitoring organisations, and leading scientific institutions. EU BON will build on existing components, in particular GBIF, LifeWatch infrastructures, and national biodiversity data centres. EU BON will 1) enable greater interoperability of data layers and systems through adoption of new standards; 2) advance data integration by new (modelling) technologies; 3) increase data mobilisation via scientific communities, citizen scientists, and potential data users; 4) develop strategies for future harmonizing and mainstreaming of biodiversity recording and monitoring; 5) improve analytical tools and services interpreting biodiversity data; 6) support the science-policy interface by timely information and scenario development; 7) link integrated, customized information to relevant stakeholders, and 8) strengthen overall European capacities and infrastructures for environmental information management. EU BONs deliverables include a comprehensive European Biodiversity Portal for all stakeholder communities, and strategies for a global implementation of GEO BON and supporting IPBES.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.13M | Year: 2015

ACTRIS-2 addresses the scope of integrating state-of-the-art European ground-based stations for long term observations of aerosols, clouds and short lived gases capitalizing work of FP7-ACTRIS. ACTRIS-2 aims to achieve the construction of a user-oriented RI, unique in the EU-RI landscape. ACTRIS-2 provides 4-D integrated high-quality data from near-surface to high altitude (vertical profiles and total-column), relevant to climate and air-quality research. ACTRIS-2 develops and implements, in a large network of stations in Europe and beyond, observational protocols that permit harmonization of collected data and their dissemination. ACTRIS-2 offers networking expertise, upgraded calibration services, training of users, trans-national access to observatories and calibration facilities, virtual access to high-quality data products. Through joint research activities, ACTRIS-2 develops new integration tools that will produce scientific or technical progresses reusable in infrastructures, thus shaping future observation strategies. Innovation in instrumentation is one of the fundamental building blocks of ACTRIS-2. Associated partnership with SMEs stimulates development of joint-ventures addressing new technologies for use in atmospheric observations. Target user-groups in ACTRIS-2 comprise a wide range of communities worldwide. End-users are institutions involved in climate and air quality research, space agencies, industries, air quality agencies. ACTRIS-2 will improve systematic and timely collection, processing and distribution of data and results for use in modelling, in particular towards implementation of atmospheric and climate services. ACTRIS-2 invests substantial efforts to ensure long-term sustainability beyond the term of the project by positioning the project in both the GEO and the on-going ESFRI contexts, and by developing synergies with national initiatives.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 2.54M | Year: 2010

A critical agenda for earth and life sciences is to determine how diverse tropical marine ecosystems such as coral reefs will respond to global environmental change. This will require long-term environmental and ecological data that rarely exist for living coral reefs. In contrast, the fossil record provides abundant examples that can be mined to predict future outcomes. The THROUGHFLOW network will train a cohort of eleven ESRs to enable them to reconstruct past environments and patterns of biotic change using up-to-date technologies within a collaborative interdisciplinary framework. The training program will explore the past record of change on coral reefs in SE Asia in response to reorganization of ocean currents during the Cenozoic. This region contains both the Indo-West Pacific Center of Biodiversity (the most diverse shallow marine ecosystems on Earth) and the Indonesian Throughflow (a primary control of global climate). THROUGHFLOW will reconstruct the history of these two features and develop a model for how coral reefs respond to regional environmental change. Practical training will include eleven integrated research projects and a series of joint training activities to facilitate collaboration and provide access to a variety of expertise. THROUGHFLOW will bring important new data to bear on long-standing scientific controversies, and the results will be relevant to a broad audience including industry and policy makers working to predict and plan for the effects of ongoing anthropogenic environmental change. By providing rigorous training in a range of applied techniques in geology and biodiversity, THROUGHFLOW will produce researchers able to pursue successful careers in academia or industry and will enhance the power of the European research community to tackle pressing issues related to the effects of ongoing environmental change on the biosphere.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 4.07M | Year: 2013

The design, construction, maintenance, use and end-of-life management of road pavements and railways is associated with a number of important impacts on the environment; namely the consequences of energy consumption, unsustainable use of materials/resources, waste generation and release of hazardous substances into the environment. It is estimated that over 80% of all these environmental impacts are defined during the design phase of a product, including road pavements and railways. SUP&R (Sustainable Pavement & Rail) ITN,through a coherent research and training approach involving close collaboration between research institutions and industrial stakeholders across Europe, will allow this step change in the sustainability of road and rail infrastructure to be addressed by targeting the following overall aim: To setup a multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral network in order to form a new generation of engineers versed in sustainable technologies and to provide, to both academia and industry, design procedures and sustainability assessment methodologies to certify the sustainability of the studied technologies to the benefit of the European community SUP&R ITN includes an intensive four year training programme which will be international, multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral. The young researchers will be trained through individual research projects, with a strong collaborations of partners from the private sector that will allow to jointly investigated strategies to overcome the existing barriers and deliver long-term benefits in terms of: 1. Eco-designed road and rail infrastructure that maximises the recycling of waste materials and ensures best performance characteristics to suit the diverse set of European environments; 2. Reduced installation, maintenance and operating costs as well as long term sustainable solutions; 3. A bespoke sustainability assessment tool, tailored to needs of product development in the road pavement and rail infrastructure sector.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.1.4 | Award Amount: 4.67M | Year: 2012

The overall purpose of MUSES is to foster corporate security by reducing the risks introduced by user behaviour.Data security and privacy are of fundamental importance to organizations, where they are defined and managed via Security Policies. Most security incidents are caused by organization insiders, either by their lack of knowledge or inadequate or malicious behaviour.Nowadays, information is highly distributed amongst corporate servers, the cloud and multiple per-sonal devices like PDAs, tablets and smart phones. These are not only information holders but also user interfaces to access corporate information. Besides, the Bring Your Own Device practice is becoming more common in large organisations, posing new security threats and blurring the limits between corporate and personal use.In this situation enforcement of Security Policies is increasingly difficult, as any strategy with a chance to succeed must take into account several changing factors: information delocalisation, access from heterogeneous devices and mixing of personal and professional activities. Besides, any mechanism or control must be user friendly and provide non-intrusive, clear feedback on the risk being incurred at any time.MUSES will provide a device independent, user-centric and self-adaptive corporate security system, able to cope with the concept of seamless working experience on different devices, in which a user may start a session on a device and location and follow up the process on different devices and locations, without corporate digital asset loss.During project development, metrics of usability, context risk evaluation, user current trust situation and device exposure level will be defined and several guidelines for design of secure applications, company policies and context-based security requirements will be produced. A real-time trust and risk analysis engine will also be developed with security mechanisms hard to compromise once installed on the target platforms

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 1.06M | Year: 2016

MAKERS will bring together leaders from business, academia and policy to study issues related to the drivers and dynamics of sustaining the competitiveness of EU manufacturing sectors. The projects innovative research, training and mobility activities will address key concerns related to the historic opportunity for the EU to lead a manufacturing renaissance that not only upgrades existing manufacturing competences but, more importantly, develops new technological capabilities across EU regions to support regional industrial resilience for more distributed and sustainable socio-economic growth and prosperity. MAKERS will create a multi-stakeholder platform to discuss the current understanding of issues related to manufacturing renaissance, including (1) the role of small, medium and large manufacturing firms and local production systems plugged into local-global value chains; (2) what are the drivers and processes for innovation, technological capabilities and technology transfer from research intuitions to firms; (3) trends in reshoring and nearshoring and the potentials for re-industrialisation and shorter value chains; (4) the impact of the socio-economic-environmental sustainability agenda on EU competitiveness; (5) skills requirements and training; and finally (6) how policy can ensure the competitiveness of EU manufacturing sectors for more distributed and sustainable socio-economic growth and prosperity. MAKERS training programme comprises: 1) annual summer schools that will cover the breadth of the issues above and address methodological requirements; 2) work package-specific Business/Academia/Policy (BAP) workshops; 3) dissemination activities within the network in conjunction with mobility, such as presentations at faculty seminar series, and doctoral level guest lectures; 4) dissemination activities at events outside the network, such as presentations at international conferences, policy fora and multi-media engagement.

Ruiz-Cruz M.D.,University of Malaga | Sanz De Galdeano C.,University of Granada
Mineralogical Magazine | Year: 2012

Diamond and coesite occur in granulites of the Internal Zone of the Rif belt in northwest Africa. Diamond, identified by optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, Raman spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence and microstructural electron backscattered diffraction, is present as inclusions up to 20 μm across in garnet, K-feldspar, coesite relics and quartz. Thermobarometric estimates yield P >4.3 GPa and T >1100°C, which corresponds to a depth of formation >150 km. The estimates suggest that the diamond-bearing peridotites and adjacent crustal rocks experienced similar P-T conditions. If this is correct, there is an old (undated) core in the Betic-Rif cordillera and the current models of the tectonic evolution of the area, which are based on 'full Alpine' evolution, must be revised. This discovery provides further valuable information about the complex geotectonic environment of the southeast Spain and north Moroccan collisional orogen. © 2012 Mineralogical Society.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 3.46M | Year: 2009

Medical imaging (MI) is at the heart of many of todays improved diagnostic and treatment technologies. Computer-based solutions are vastly more capable of both quantitative measurement of the medical condition and the pre-processing tasks of filtering, sharpening, and focusing image detail. Bio-inspired and Soft Computing (BC, SC) techniques have been successfully applied in each of the fundamental steps of medical image processing and analysis (e.g. restoration, segmentation, registration or tracking). The natural partnership of humans and intelligent systems and machines in MI is to provide the clinician with powerful tools to take better decisions regarding diagnostic and treatment. The main goal of the network is to create a training programme where the enrolled early-stage researchers (ESRs) will be exposed to a wide variety of SC and BC techniques, as well as to the challenge of applying them to different situations and problems within the different MI stages. A personalised, exhaustive and complementary programme will consist of: i) a personalised research plan based on individual research projects; ii) local and network-wide specific training courses, both in face-to-face and virtual modalities; iii) the networks complementary skills courses, workshops and final conference; and iv) the international research stays among the different partners. The collaboration of experts from the area of MI with those working on BC and SC applications to computer vision will generate new and viable methods and solutions from the combined ideas of these communities. The presence of both research and technical partners in the network, including hospitals and companies, will provide the appropriate framework for application domain focused research. The trained ESRs will acquire a strong background for the development of intelligent systems based on BC-SC providing flexible application-oriented solutions to current MI problems in the clinical and research field.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.2.1 | Award Amount: 3.96M | Year: 2011

The goal of the proposed research is to enable a generational leap in the techniques and scalability of motion synthesis systems. Motion synthesis is a key component of future robotic and cognitive systems to enable their physical interaction with humans and physical manipulation of their environment. Existing motion synthesis algorithms are severely limited in their ability to cope with real-world objects such as flexible objects or objects with many degrees of freedom. The high dimensionality of the state and action space of such objects defies existing methods for perception, control and planning and leads to poor generalisability of solutions in such domains. These limitations are a core obstacle of current robotic research.We propose to solve these problems by learning and exploiting appropriate topological representations and testing them on challenging domains of flexible, multi-object manipulation and close contact robot control and computer animation. Topological representations describe motion in terms of more abstract, more appropriate, and better generalizing features: for instance, an embracing motion can better be described, controlled and planned in coordinates quantifying the `wrappedness of arms or fingers around the object (as opposed to joint angle coordinates). Such topological representations exist on different levels of abstraction and reduce the dimensionality of the state and action spaces. This proposal investigates existing topological metrics (similar to the mentioned `wrappedness) and uses data driven methods to discover new mappings that capture key invariances. Given topological representations, we will develop methods for sensing, control and planning using on these representations.This proposal, for the first time, aims to achieve this at all the three levels of sensing, representation and action generation -- by developing novel object-action representations for sensing based on manipulation manifolds and refining metamorphic manipulator design in a complete cycle. The methods and hardware developed will be tested on challenging real world robotic manipulation problems ranging from domains with many rigid objects to articulated carton folding or origami and all the way to full body humanoid interactions with flexible objects. The results of this project provide the necessary key technologies for future robots and computer vision systems to enable fluent interaction with their environment -- as well as provide answers to the basic scientific question of the `right representation in sensorimotor control.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES | Award Amount: 606.90K | Year: 2013

The overall aim of the proposal is to implement an exchange program and to promote a mutual and beneficial transfer of knowledge between Europe (Spain, Portugal, Italy and France) and Latin America (Argentina and Mexico) in the field of Gender Studies, in order to enrich the theoretical framework, to consolidate the institutional dimension of the different research programs having gender as focus and to set up new research activities. The proposal focuses issues of gender and citizenship, which are crucial both for the advancement of gender theories and of gender policies. Specific objectives of the proposal are in fact: a) The opening of interdisciplinary, original and innovative research perspectives; b) The contribution to the assessment and the definition of gender policies at international, national and local level in the two continents; c) the establishment of a network that will allow the reciprocal transfer of knowledge between Europe and Latin America The three objectives are extremely relevant, both for the ERA the European Research Area-, considering that the field of Gender Studies is still underdeveloped in comparison with the United States, and for the EU policy that has put gender equality as a main goal to reach. The exchange program will allow senior and junior researchers to take part in PhD courses, Master programs, Intensive programs, Summer Schools; will encourage co-direction of PhD and will produce publication of books and articles in peer reviewed journals. Outreach activities are foreseen outside the academic world reaching politicians, stakeholders and the general public with the aim of suggesting strategies and proposing recommendations for promoting gender equality.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2017

Sustainable Multi-functional Automated Resilient Transport Infrastructures ETN, will bring together a stimulating platform where the stakeholders of the transport infrastructure sector will work alongside world-wide experts in smartening of systems (developers of high-tech sensors, advanced monitoring equipment, automated structures, etc.,) with direct support from the roads, railways and airports managers. This environment will enable talented graduates to conceive the transport infrastructure network of the future and will provide them with world-wide extended training in each of the four pillars supporting the SMARTI vision: designed to last by maximising recycling and minimizing impact (Sustainable), conceived not for transport purposes only and towards optimisation of land use (Multi-functional), equipped for communicating with managers and users, to allow a more intuitive use and a simplified management (Automated), built to be adaptable to natural and anthropogenic hazards (Resilient). The consortium will combine and share expertise to offer advanced scientific training structured into network-wide thematic taught modules combined with original research supported by secondments that will expose fellows to both academia and industry and will also allow them with the possibility to be award with Doctoratus Europeus. The training programme will be enriched by specific modules to support job creation by enabling the fellows with business, entrepreneurship, communication, project management and other transferrable skills. A tailored Dissemination strategy will evaluate the variety of channels and means appropriate to allow the fellows to be prepared and successful in reaching both scientific and larger public audiences. As a result, SMARTI ETN will create a new generation of highly-skilled and appealing professionals that will be in great demand in this rapidly expanding field and will benefit Europe and developing countries

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-06-2014 | Award Amount: 4.71M | Year: 2015

The multidisciplinary project will address key technical issues that must be tackled to support the implementation of planned geological disposal projects for higher-level radioactive wastes across the EU. Our current understanding of the impact of microbial metabolism on the safety of geological repositories remains tenuous, even though microorganisms may have controlling influences on wasteform evolution in situ, multibarrier integrity and ultimately radionuclide migration from the repository. This proposal targets a number of high urgency and high importance topics identified in the most recent IGD-TP Strategic Research Agenda, focusing specifically on the influence of microbial processes on waste forms and their behavior, and the technical feasibility and long-term performance of repository components. The project will bring together, for the first time, 15 European groups working on the impact of microbial processes on safety cases for geological repositories across the EU, focusing on key questions posed by waste management organisations. The emphasis will be on quantifying specific measureable impacts of microbial activity on safety cases under repository-relevant conditions, thus altering the current view of microbes in repositories and leading to significant refinements of safety case models currently being implemented to evaluate the long-term evolution of radwaste repositories. The integration of society and policy oriented studies in the project will also extend the impact of the project outside the scientific and technical domain, while a study of expert conceptualization, public perception and risk communication concerning microbial influences in geological disposal, will improve awareness of microbial issues on a broader level. The programme will help the EU claim international leadership in the understanding of the impact of microbial processes on geodisposal, and indeed other technological areas pertinent to the exploitation of the subsurface.

Ramos J.,University of Granada | Imaz A.,University of the Basque Country | Forcada J.,University of the Basque Country
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2012

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL) are temperature-responsive polymers which show a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 32 °C in aqueous solutions. Nanogels based on these temperature sensitive polymers swell at low temperatures and collapse at high ones, showing a volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) near physiological temperature. This unique behavior makes these nanogels attractive for biotechnological applications. PNIPAM is the building block of a huge amount of nanogels reported in the literature. However, PVCL is especially interesting due to the fact that it is very stable against hydrolysis and biocompatible. In this mini-review, various synthesis procedures together with the functionalization of different PNIPAM- and PVCL-based nanogels are revised and compared. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Mayorga-Vega D.,University of Granada | Merino-Marban R.,University of Malaga | Viciana J.,University of Granada
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine | Year: 2014

The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sitand-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson's zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter-Schmidt's psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sitand-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0.16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterionrelated validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sitand-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.

Parry G.,University of the West of England | Bustinza O.F.,University of Granada | Vendrell-Herrero F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2012

Since the rise of music on the internet the record industry has reported falling total sales revenues. This has occurred at a time when technology has radically increased choice, availability and the opportunity for the consumer to purchase music. To date, pay-per-unit music sales channels have been more successful than music subscription services. As the music industry has moved from a product to a service business model, does the loss of sales indicate they have not taken their customers with them? This paper provides a description of different Music Consumer Attitudes, an independent variable in this research, based upon quantitative analysis of more than 5000 valid survey responses. Consumer Purchasing Behaviour and Music Discovery Methods are treated as dependant variables. An empirical study using Structural Equations Model was carried out to test the relationship between consumer groups and purchasing preference in relation to tangible products and intangible 'service' purchases. Moreover, consumer typology and propensity to actively engage with music communities was analysed and thus their willingness to co-produce value was explored. The most important findings were, first, all consumers view pay per unit positively. And second, a group of consumers representing just under half the sample was identified that would engage with a monthly subscription music service and could co-produce solutions in this channel. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Arias J.L.,University of Granada | Reddy L.H.,University Paris - Sud | Reddy L.H.,Sanofi S.A. | Couvreur P.,University Paris - Sud
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

Magnetic nanoparticles have been introduced in the cancer arena to optimize the accumulation of the drug dose into the tumor interstitium by means of a magnetic gradient. As a result, the chemotherapeutic agent may exhibit an enhanced anticancer efficacy and a negligible systemic toxicity. In these contexts, we have used the coacervation methodology for the design of magnetite/chitosan (core/shell) nanocomposites. The heterogeneous structure of these multifunctional nanoparticles allows the possibility of their use in drug delivery thanks to their excellent responsiveness to magnetic gradients. A detailed characterization of these nanocomposites (including electron microscopy observations, infrared spectrometry, electrophoresis, and thermodynamic analysis) suggested a complete polymeric coverage of the magnetite nuclei. The magnetic responsiveness of the magnetite/chitosan nanoparticles was quantitatively investigated by the hysteresis cycle and qualitatively confirmed by microscopic visualization of the performance of the nanocomposite suspensions under exposure to a 1.1 T permanent magnet. This nanodevice has been used to enhance the intravenous delivery of the anticancer agent gemcitabine to the cancer tissue. Compared to the surface adsorption technique, gemcitabine entrapment into the polymeric shell yielded higher drug loading values, and a slower drug release profile. Heating characteristics of the nanocomposites have been investigated in a high frequency alternating magnetic gradient: a stable maximum temperature of 45 °C was successfully achieved within 30 min. Finally, an in vivo proof of concept using Prussian blue staining has further confirmed the magnetic targeting capabilities of this magnetite/chitosan core/shell nanodevice. Thus, the here described stimuli-sensitive nanomedicine possesses important characteristics, such as magnetically targeted drug delivery, high drug loading and low burst release, as well as hyperthermia inducing capability, indicating its potential for effective therapy of cancer. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Medina J.M.,University of Minho | Diaz J.A.,University of Granada
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2012

We examine the functional role of S-cone signals on reaction time (RT) variability in human color vision. Stimuli were selected along red-green and blue-yellow cardinal directions and at random directions in the isoluminant plane of the color space. Trial-to-trial RT variability was not statistically independent but correlated across experimental conditions and exhibited 1/f noise spectra with an exponent close to unity in most of the cases. Regarding contrast coding, 1/f noise for random chromatic stimuli at isoluminance was similar to that for achromatic stimuli, thus suggesting that S-cone signals reduce variability of higher order color mechanisms. If we regard spatial coding, the effect of S-cone density in the retina on RT variability was investigated. The magnitude of 1/f noise at 16 min of arc (S-cone free zone) was higher than at 90 min of arc in the blue-yellow channel, and it was similar for the red-green channel. The results suggest that S-cone signals are beneficial and they modulate 1/f noise spectra at postreceptoral stages. The implications related to random multiplicative processes as a possible source of 1/f noise and the optimal information processing in color vision are discussed. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

University of the Basque Country, University of Granada and TU Eindhoven | Date: 2011-03-18

The present invention relates to a biocompatible cationic nanogel comprising a polymer network, said polymer network comprising polymer units interconnected with one another through a cross-linking agent, wherein said polymer network can be obtained by polymerizing N-vinylcaprolactam and a cross-linking agent in a dispersed medium, in the presence of a cationic initiator and a cationic or non-ionic emulsifier. The invention also relates to methods for obtaining the mentioned nanogels as well as to pharmaceutical compositions comprising them.

University of the Basque Country, TU Eindhoven and University of Granada | Date: 2013-01-23

The present invention relates to a biocompatible cationic nanogel comprising a polymer network, said polymer network comprising polymer units interconnected with one another through a cross-linking agent, wherein said polymer network can be obtained by polymerizing N-vinylcaprolactam and a cross-linking agent in a dispersed medium, in the presence of a cationic initiator and a cationic or non-ionic emulsifier. The invention also relates to methods for obtaining the mentioned nanogels as well as to pharmaceutical compositions comprising them.

News Article | February 16, 2017

Researchers from the UGR and UMA have designed a technique that aims to model high-level data abstractions to make computers learn to differentiate the brain of a healthy person from that of an ill person by extracting the affected regions Alzheimer's disease, which currently affects more than 40 million people, is the most common neurodegenerative disease in elder people. Early diagnosis is crucial both to treat the disease and to help the development of new medicines, as it hasn't been possible to find a cure so far. The development of Alzheimer's has been proven to be closely linked to structural changes -related to the gray matter, responsible for processing information- and functional ones -related to the white matter, which connects the different regions of the brain through fibers- in the brain connectivity network, since a significant loss of fibers also causes functional alternations, such as memory loss. However, diagnosis remains a challenge in spite of the scientific advances made, and to date it hasn't been possible to determine how functional cerebral activity deteriorates the structural one and vice versa, which is a key element to better understand the development of this type of diseases. In this regard, computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is an important tool since it helps physicians to understand multimedia content obtained in tests carried out in patients, which allows a simpler and more effective application of the treatment. One such procedure is medical imaging, which provides high resolution "live" information on the subject matter and allows the use of information related to the disease contained in the image. The BioSip research team, belonging to the University of Malaga, in collaboration with a group of researchers from the University of Granada, has been studying biomedical images and signals for years. Researchers Andrés Ortiz, Jorge Munilla, Juan Górriz and Javier Ramírez (from the universities of Málaga and Granada) have recently published, in the renowned International Journal Of Neural Systems, a similar article called Ensembles of deep learning architectures for the early diagnosis of the Alzheimer's disease. Said study presents a method for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's by the fusion of functional and structural images based on the use of the deep learning technique. This Artificial Intelligence (AI) technique aims to model high-level data abstractions in order to enable computers to differentiate the brain of a healthy person from that of an ill person, by automatically extracting the affected regions of interest. As the researchers explain, "the study uses deep learning techniques to calculate brain function predictors and magnetic resonance imaging to prevent Alzheimer's disease. To do this, we have used different neural networks with which to model each region of the brain to combine them afterwards". The study explores the construction of classification methods based on the Deep Learning architectures applied to brain regions defined by the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL), a digital atlas of the human brain. To this end, images of the gray matter of each area of the brain have been divided according to the regions separated in different sectors by the AAL, which have been used to train deep learning neural networks specialized in the different regions of the brain. The knowledge acquired by said networks is subsequently combined by different fusion techniques presented in this paper. The result of this work is a powerful classification architecture that combines supervised and unsupervised learning to automatically extract the most relevant features of a set of images. The proposed method has been evaluated using a large database from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The results of this work, which has included patients with other cognitive deficits that can develop Alzheimer's within two years, show the potential of AI techniques to reveal patterns associated with the disease. The accuracy rates obtained for the diagnosis allow to take a great step in the knowledge of the neurodegenerative process involved in the development of the disease, besides being useful as a starting point for the development of more effective medical treatments. On the other hand, the techniques developed may serve as a starting point for the improvement of accuracy in the diagnosis of other dementias such as Parkinson's disease. In addition, the methods developed are being used for the improvement of diagnosis and for researching the biological origin of learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, in a project funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.

News Article | February 15, 2017

The researchers, led by the UGR, have proven that large blocks of land, about 300 km long and 150 km wide, have rotated clockwise (in the case of the Baetic System) and counterclockwise (in the case of the Rif mountain range, in the north of Morocco) A team of Andalusian scientists, led by the University of Granada (UGR), has been able to reconstruct for the first time what the Gibraltar Arc was like 9 million years ago. It's one of the most narrowest landforms on Earth. The researchers have been able to prove that, since then, large blocks of land, with sizes of about 300 kilometers long and 150 kilometers wide, have rotated clockwise (in the case of the Baetic System mountain range) and counterclockwise (in the case of the Rif mountain range, in the north of Morocco). Said movements have completely reshaped the Gibraltar Arc, since they have been carried out at a very high speed: 6 degrees per million years (in total, 53 degrees for the block of the Western Baetic System), and are compatible with both the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar about 5 million years ago as with the current movements measured with GPS. As Ana Crespo-Blanc, professor from the Department of Geodynamics at the UGR and lead researcher of the project, explains, the Gibraltar Arc is a geological region corresponding to the arched mountain range that surrounds the sea of Alborán (located between the Iberian peninsula and Africa), and it is formed by the Baetic System (south of Spain), the Strait of Gibraltar and the Rif (north of Morocco). The team of geologists, belonging to the universities of Granada, Pablo de Olavide (Seville) and the Andalusian Earth Sciences Institute (IACT from its abbreviation in Spanish), has analyzed the existing connection between the different episodes of deformation that the Baetic and Rif mountain ranges have suffered (which include folds and ridges), as well as the paleomagnetism data of previous publications. "This work, published in the journal Tectonophysics, is the first in the world that shows both the homogeneity of block rotations and the speed of said rotations for the Gibraltar Arc. It allows to reconcile many apparently contradictory data, particularly in relation to the kinematic markers of the movements associated with large geological structures such as faults systems 9 million years ago", professor Crespo-Blanc explains. Their research culminates with a reconstruction of the Gibraltar Arc 9 million years ago, at a key moment in the tectonic history of the collision between Africa and Iberia, shortly before the closure of the connection between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and when the Gibraltar Arc was situated more to the East than at present.

News Article | October 6, 2015

An American research led by John Calder, a doctoral student at the University of Wyoming's Department of Geology and Geophysics, studied charcoal deposits from 12 different lakes in the state. These lakes surround northern Colorado's Mount Zirkel Wilderness. The team discovered that various parts of the area were destroyed by wildfires during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). This period dates back 1,000 years ago and lasted 300 years when North America started to experience a significant rise in temperature. The research found that the recent temperature increase is almost similar to that of MWP, which led to many of the most notable wildfires in the nation's history. Since the catastrophic 1988 wildfires in Yellowstone National Park, data showed an increased frequency of wildfires in western America. "Using Yellowstone fire history as a baseline for comparison, our minimum estimate of 50 percent of (Mount Zirkel) sites burned within a century at the beginning of the MWP exceeds any century-scale estimate of Yellowstone burning for the past 750 years," the research read. Tracing the wildfire evidence in the last 2,000 years, the areas burnt down by large wildfires seemed to happen only a few times. The findings suggest that wildfires of such magnitude used to be infrequent. The researchers fear that the increase in areas burned by wildfires in recent years is directly proportional to the risk of individual landscapes succumbing to the temperature rise if the warming trend continues. The findings suggest that even the slightest change in regional warming can cause potentially large wildfires, added Calder. The team found that the Rocky Mountain region has an amplified temperature rise of 1.25 degrees in the last century. If the temperature rise persists, wildfires can also rise to catastrophic proportions. In September 2015, a report from the United States Forest Service showed that the recent years have seen longer fire seasons. The extension can be traced to the increased frequency and severity of recent wildfires. The research was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal on Oct. 5, 2015. It was co-written by University of Wyoming researchers and with Gonzalo Jimenez-Moreno of the University of Granada in Spain.

Cabrera-Vique C.,University of Granada | Bouzas P.R.,University of Granada | Oliveras-Lopez M.J.,Pablo De Olavide University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Multi-element analysis of extra virgin olive oils from two Protected Designation of Origin each one belonging to two different Spanish province, Granada and Jaén, was carried out by ETA-AAS previous sample dilution with methyl-isobutylketone. Analytical conditions were optimised and reliability of the method was checked. Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni are the trace elements observed with corresponding values 14.28 ± 11.16, 27.31 ± 20.91, 91.70 ± 64.48, 34.60 ± 15.08 and 19.49 ± 10.08 μg/kg. Their statistical description shows their important variability even being under the international standards. Moreover, there were found significant differences between Cu, Cr, Fe and Ni content according to the geographical origin of the oils but not for Mn content. A multivariate discriminant analysis was performed so 95.55% of the samples were correctly classified. Then, the dependency of the trace element content of extra virgin olive oils on their geographical origin can be used for their local characterisation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Neu M.R.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Boukhalfa H.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Merroun M.L.,University of Granada
MRS Bulletin | Year: 2010

Microorganisms moderate local chemical conditions and alter forms of metals indirectly or directly to meet their cellular, species, and consortia needs.The diversity of microorganisms and the complexity of biogeochemical systems ensures that bacterially mediated processes yield a wide range of products, which await discovery by material scientists. Few types of materials produced by environmental bacteria have been analyzed by modern chemical and material science methods. Research on actinide biomaterials has focused on the biomineralization of a few chemical forms of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. The materials produced are molecular complexes, microcrystalline minerals (most commonly oxides and phosphates) within cells and biofilms, and mineral adsorbates. The actinide biomaterials that emerge from this new research area will impact nuclear waste isolation and increase our understanding of environmental and geological metal cycles and may yield new bioremediation methods and industrially useful materials.

Michalczuk R.,University of Cambridge | Bowden-Jones H.,Imperial College London | Verdejo-Garcia A.,University of Cambridge | Verdejo-Garcia A.,University of Granada | Clark L.,University of Cambridge
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2011

Background Pathological gambling (PG) is a form of behavioural addiction that has been associated with elevated impulsivity and also cognitive distortions in the processing of chance, probability and skill. We sought to assess the relationship between the level of cognitive distortions and state and trait measures of impulsivity in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers.Method Thirty pathological gamblers attending the National Problem Gambling Clinic, the first National Health Service clinic for gambling problems in the UK, were compared with 30 healthy controls in a case-control design. Cognitive distortions were assessed using the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Trait impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P, which includes scales of urgency, the tendency to be impulsive in positive or negative mood states. Delay discounting rates were taken as a state measure of impulsive choice.Results Pathological gamblers had elevated impulsivity on several UPPS-P subscales but effect sizes were largest (Cohen's d>1.4) for positive and negative urgency. The pathological gamblers also displayed higher levels of gambling distortions, and elevated preference for immediate rewards, compared to controls. Within the pathological gamblers, there was a strong relationship between the preference for immediate rewards and the level of cognitive distortions (R 2=0.41).Conclusions Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and we hypothesize that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Triguero I.,University of Granada | Garcia S.,University of Jaén | Herrera F.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks | Year: 2010

Nearest prototype methods are a successful trend of many pattern classification tasks. However, they present several shortcomings such as time response, noise sensitivity, and storage requirements. Data reduction techniques are suitable to alleviate these drawbacks. Prototype generation is an appropriate process for data reduction, which allows the fitting of a dataset for nearest neighbor (NN) classification. This brief presents a methodology to learn iteratively the positioning of prototypes using real parameter optimization procedures. Concretely, we propose an iterative prototype adjustment technique based on differential evolution. The results obtained are contrasted with nonparametric statistical tests and show that our proposal consistently outperforms previously proposed methods, thus becoming a suitable tool in the task of enhancing the performance of the NN classifier. © 2010 IEEE.

Martinez-Finkelshtein A.,University of Almeria | Martinez-Finkelshtein A.,University of Granada | Rakhmanov E.A.,University of South Florida
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2011

We investigate the asymptotic zero distribution of Heine-Stieltjes polynomials - polynomial solutions of second order differential equations with complex polynomial coefficients. In the case when all zeros of the leading coefficients are all real, zeros of the Heine-Stieltjes polynomials were interpreted by Stieltjes as discrete distributions minimizing an energy functional. In a general complex situation one deals instead with a critical point of the energy. We introduce the notion of discrete and continuous critical measures (saddle points of the weighted logarithmic energy on the plane), and prove that a weak-* limit of a sequence of discrete critical measures is a continuous critical measure. Thus, the limit zero distributions of the Heine-Stieltjes polynomials are given by continuous critical measures. We give a detailed description of such measures, showing their connections with quadratic differentials. In doing that, we obtain some results on the global structure of rational quadratic differentials on the Riemann sphere that have an independent interest. The problem has a rich variety of connections with other fields of analysis; some of them are briefly mentioned in the paper. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Fernandez-Sanchez E.J.,University of Granada
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Depth information has been used in computer vision for a wide variety of tasks. Since active range sensors are currently available at low cost, high-quality depth maps can be used as relevant input for many applications. Background subtraction and video segmentation algorithms can be improved by fusing depth and color inputs, which are complementary and allow one to solve many classic color segmentation issues. In this paper, we describe one fusion method to combine color and depth based on an advanced color-based algorithm. This technique has been evaluated by means of a complete dataset recorded with Microsoft Kinect, which enables comparison with the original method. The proposed method outperforms the others in almost every test, showing more robustness to illumination changes, shadows, reflections and camouflage.

Sanchez-Perez T.,Centro Andaluz Of Biologia Molecular Y Medicina Regenerativa Cabimer | Ortiz-Ferron G.,Centro Andaluz Of Biologia Molecular Y Medicina Regenerativa Cabimer | Ortiz-Ferron G.,University of Granada | Lopez-Rivas A.,Centro Andaluz Of Biologia Molecular Y Medicina Regenerativa Cabimer
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2010

Breast tumor cells are often resistant to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/APO-2 L). Here, we describe the sensitization by microtubule-interfering agents (MIAs) to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in breast tumor cells through a mitotic arrest and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent mechanism. MIA treatment resulted in BubR1-dependent mitotic arrest leading to the sustained activation of JNK and the proteasome-mediated downregulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) expression. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 abrogated MIA-induced mitotic arrest and downregulation of cFLIP and Mcl-1 and reduced the apoptosis caused by the combination of MIAs and TRAIL. Silencing of cFLIP and Mcl-1 expression by RNA interference resulted in a marked sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, in FLIP-overexpressing cells, MIA-induced sensitization to TRAIL-activated apoptosis was markedly reduced. In summary, our results show that mitotic arrest imposed by MIAs activates JNK and facilitates TRAIL-induced activation of an apoptotic pathway in breast tumor cells by promoting the proteasome-mediated degradation of cFLIP and Mcl-1. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Zafra-Ruano A.,University of Granada | Luque I.,University of Granada
FEBS Letters | Year: 2012

The recognition of proline-rich sequences by protein-protein interaction modules is essential for many cellular processes. Nonetheless, in spite of the wealth of structural and functional information collected over the last two decades, polyproline recognition is still not well understood. The patent inconsistency between the generally accepted description of SH3 interactions, based primarily on the stacking of hydrophobic surfaces, and their markedly exothermic character is a clear illustration of the higher complexity of these systems. Here we review the structural and thermodynamic evidence revealing the need for a revision of the current binding paradigm, incomplete and clearly insufficient for a full understanding of binding affinity and specificity, to include interfacial water molecules as universal and relevant elements in polyproline recognition. © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bolivar M.P.R.,University of Granada
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2016

Many of the challenges to be faced by smart cities surpass the capacities, capabilities, and reaches of their traditional institutions and their classical processes of governing, and therefore new and innovative forms of governance are needed to meet these challenges. According to the network governance literature, governance models in public administrations can be categorized through the identification and analysis of some main dimensions that govern in the way of managing the city by governments. Based on prior research and on the perception of city practitioners in European smart cities, this paper seeks to analyze the relevance of main dimensions of governance models in smart cities. Results could shed some light regarding new future research on efficient patterns of governance models within smart cities. © 2016 ACM.

Jimenez M.L.,University of Granada | Delgado A.V.,University of Granada | Lyklema J.,Wageningen University
Langmuir | Year: 2012

In this article, we investigate experimentally a wide range of situations where charge inversion (i.e., overcompensation of the surface charge of a colloidal particle by the countercharge) can occur. To that end, the electrophoretic mobility of sodium montmorillonite, silica, and polystyrene latex as functions of pH and concentration of different salts is presented, and conditions are established where charge inversion occurs. The reason for this study is to provide experimental evidence for distinguishing between two existing models for the explanation of charge inversion. One of these is the specific adsorption of ions located in the Stern layer in combination with a Gouy-Chapman diffuse part of the double layer. The other ion-correlation theories explain the phenomenon in terms of purely physical arguments based on Coulombic pair interactions between ions and surface charges and on excluded volume effects. In distinguishing between these two interpretations, the influence of the pH plays a central role because of its effect on the hydrolysis of multivalent cations. In our experiments, it is found that although 1-2 and 2-2 electrolytes provoke a decrease in the absolute values of the electrophoretic mobilities when their concentration in solution is increased, they never lead to charge inversion, whatever the surface charge or the pH. However, in the case of salts of trivalent cations, electrokinetic charge reversal is often observed above a certain critical electrolyte concentration. In addition, the extent of overcharging increases when the concentration is raised above the critical value. This trend occurs for any system in which the surface charge is pH-independent, as in polystyrene latex and montmorillonite. Most of the results presented here are compatible with the specific adsorption of hydrolyzed metal ions as the main driving force for charge inversion. At low pH, when the hydrolysis of trivalent cations is likely to be absent, overcharging can be attributed to ion correlation effects. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Ruiz-Agudo E.,University of Granada | Putnis C.V.,University of Munster | Putnis A.,University of Munster
Chemical Geology | Year: 2014

Reactions occurring at mineral-fluid interfaces are important in all geochemical processes and essential for the cycling of elements within the Earth. Understanding the mechanism of the transformation of one solid phase to another and the role of fluids is fundamental to many natural and industrial processes. Problems such as the interaction of minerals with CO2-saturated water, the durability of nuclear waste materials, the remediation of polluted water, and mineral reactions that can destroy our stone-based cultural heritage, are related by the common feature that a mineral assemblage in contact with a fluid may be replaced by a more stable assemblage. © 2014.

Frias-Aceituno J.V.,University of Granada | Rodriguez-Ariza L.,University of Granada | Garcia-Sanchez I.M.,University of Salamanca
Business Strategy and the Environment | Year: 2014

The complexity of the business world has led to growing demands being made of companies regarding the information provided on their financial performance, corporate governance and contribution to developing sustainability. In response, some leading companies have begun to publish integrated reporting, in the form of a document providing a coherent summary of this information, thus facilitating stakeholder engagement. This paper examines the validity of the hypotheses of the theories of agency and of signalling, and analyses the political costs and those borne by owners in voluntarily developing this new type of business document. More specifically, in order to determine their prevalence among the suggested reasons for these paradigms, we analyse the effect of industry concentration, together with other factors, in the development of integrated reporting. The analysis of a non-balanced sample of 1590 international companies for the years 2008-2010, in which a logistic regression methodology is applied to panel data, reveals the negative impact of industry concentration on the development of a more pluralist report, simultaneously taking into account stakeholders, sustainability and the long-term viewpoint, as well as questions of responsible investment, business ethics and transparency. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Garcia-Sanchez I.-M.,University of Salamanca | Frias-Aceituno J.-V.,University of Granada | Rodriguez-Dominguez L.,University of Salamanca
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

This paper contributes to previous country-level analyses of non-financial reporting in the public sector by studying public transparency in relation to sustainability, as well as by assessing the determinants of sustainability disclosure practices in Spanish municipalities. We have carried out a content analysis of the websites of 102 Spanish local governments. Subsequently, we have employed different statistical techniques (biplots and dependence models) to analyse the extent of disclosure and to determine the impact of certain contextual and political factors on transparency in matters of sustainability. When compared to the amount of information that is revealed concerning financial issues, disclosure practices regarding social and environmental information are rather scarce. We have also observed that several political factors, more specifically, the presence of conservative governments and political rivalry, may become genuine barriers to municipal transparency. Based on these findings, we can make two policy recommendations. First, it seems necessary to establish national policies, laws or recommendations that generate similar levels of transparency among local governments in order to avoid social dilemmas. In this sense, similar accountability processes limit non-sustainable behaviours, playing a similar role to that of markets for the private sector. Second, accountability processes should focus on the addition of information concerning social and environmental actions and on informing of the effects of municipalities on them, going beyond the strictly economic dimension. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Frias-Aceituno J.V.,University of Granada | Rodriguez-Ariza L.,University of Granada | Garcia-Sanchez I.M.,University of Salamanca
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

In recent years, companies' responsibilities towards society have expanded significantly, and former business models have been revised in line with a more pluralist approach, which takes stakeholders, sustainability, business ethics and transparency into account. These considerations are increasingly reflected in corporate sustainability reporting, i.e., statements reflecting the impact of business practices related to economic, environmental and social perspectives. However, the data contained in such documents are reported independently of the financial aspects, implying a disconnection between the three pillars of business strategy. In order to avoid this shortcoming, some leading companies have developed integrated reporting, which expresses the interconnections between a firm's strategy, governance, performance and prospects, as well as the contexts within which it operates. The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of one of the most important institutional factors, the legal system, on the development of integrated reports. The analysis of a non-balanced sample of 750 international companies for the years 2008-2010, in which a logit methodology is applied to panel data, reveals the impact of this institutional factor. The results show that companies located in civil law countries, and where indices of law and order are high, are more likely to create and publish a broad range of integrated reports, thus favouring decision-taking by the different stakeholders. On the basis of these findings, two policy recommendations are proposed: first, it may be necessary to establish national laws and protection mechanisms to promote and ensure holistic transparency. Second, managers must be able to decide on the appropriate disclosure practices in the context of their own legal environment in order to obtain maximum benefits from their decisions. The results should be considered as having only preliminary value due to the limited number of firms that disclose this typology of reporting, and because of the limitations of the data sample. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Moreno-Rueda G.,University of Granada
Journal of Avian Biology | Year: 2015

Parasites greatly impact host fitness. The immune system is fundamental to combat endoparasites, and survival increases with greater investment in immunity. Some ectoparasites, by contrast, are reportedly combated by the use of the uropygial gland, an organ exclusive to birds, which secretes an oily substance (preen oil) that is spread on plumage. However, both mounting an immune response against a parasite and producing uropygial gland secretion depend on the same resources, a situation which may induce trade-offs between the two antiparasitic functions. In this study, I experimentally test whether immune response is traded off against uropygial gland size in the house sparrow Passer domesticus. In the experiment, a group of sparrows were injected with an antigen (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), which stimulates the immune system, while the other group received a sham injection. The uropygial gland of LPS-treated birds decreased significantly more than that of the control birds after treatment. Nevertheless, the effect of the treatment was limited to house sparrows with low body mass, suggesting that heavy house sparrows were able to produce an immune response while maintaining a relatively large uropygial gland. Given that uropygial gland size is strongly related to production of preen oil, these results suggest that preen oil production declines in birds in poor body condition when resources are preferentially diverted to other demanding functions, such as the immune system. Considering that the uropygial gland is involved in several fitness-related processes in birds, the trade-off between immune response and uropygial gland size may have important consequences for bird life histories. © 2014 The Author.

Lauri D.,University of Manchester | Lennox B.,University of Manchester | Camacho J.,University of Granada
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2014

The intuitive and simple ideas that support model predictive control (MPC) along with its capabilities have been the key to its success both in industry and academia. The contribution this paper makes is to further enhance the capabilities of MPC by easing its application to industrial batch processes. Specifically, this paper addresses the problem of ensuring the validity of predictions when applying MPC to such processes. Validity of predictions can be ensured by constraining the decision space of the MPC problem. The performance of the MPC control strategy relies on the ability of the model to predict the behaviour of the process. Using the model in the region in which it is valid improves the resulting performance. In the proposed approach four validity indicators on predictions are defined: two of them consider all the variables in the model, and the other two consider the degrees of freedom of the controller. The validity indicators are defined from the latent variable model of the process. Further to this, these are incorporated as constraints in the MPC optimization problem to bound the decision space and ensure the proper use of the model. Finally, the MPC cost function is modified to enable fine case-specific tuning if desired. Provided the indicators are quadratic, the controller yields a quadratic constrained quadratic programming problem for which efficient solvers are commercially available. A fed-batch fermentation example shows how MPC ensuring validity of predictions improves performance and eases tuning of the controller. The target in the example provided is end-point control accounting for variations in the initial measurable conditions of the batch. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lopez-Perez M.V.,University of Granada | Perez-Lopez M.C.,University of Granada | Rodriguez-Ariza L.,University of Granada
Computers and Education | Year: 2011

New information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide educators and learners with an innovative learning environment to stimulate and enhance the teaching and learning process. In this context, novel educational concepts such as blended learning are being developed. In the present paper, we present the results obtained from a blended learning experience carried out at the University of Granada. A total of 17 groups took part, with 1431 students registered for the 2009-2010 academic year. In this study, we use objective outcomes and the students' perceptions regarding the blended learning activities performed. The study shows that the use of blended learning has a positive effect in reducing dropout rates and in improving exam marks. Moreover, the students' perceptions on blended learning are interrelated, with their final marks depending on the blended learning activities, and on the students' age, background and class attendance rate. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Objectives. Decision models for health technology appraisal are defined by their structure and data. Often there are alternatives for how the model might be specified and what data to include, and criteria are required to guide these choices. This study uses multiparameter evidence synthesis (MPES) to synthesize data from diverse sources and test alternative model structures. The methods are illustrated by a comparison of blood ketone testing versus urine ketone testing for young people with Type 1 diabetes. Methods. Two approaches were compared. A simple statistical model (Model 1) was used to estimate the difference in the rates of adverse events from the outcome data of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). MPES (Model 2) was constructed to synthesize data on outcome and process variables from the RCT with data from nonrandomized studies on specificity and sensitivity. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using alternative model specifications for the MPES, and the consistency of the data was evaluated. Results. Model 1 estimated that the mean difference in the rate of adverse events per day was 0.0011 (95% confidence interval 0.0005-0.00229) lower with blood ketone testing. Model 2 estimated a similar outcome but also estimated parameters for which there were no direct data, including the prevalence of high ketone levels and the sensitivity and specificity of the tests as used in the home. Conclusions. Model 1, which used only outcome data from an RCT, showed that blood ketone testing is more effective but did not explain why this is so. Model 2, estimated by MPES, suggested that the blood test is more accurate and that patients are more likely to comply with the protocol.

Blazquez-Sanchez N.,University of Granada
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2016

Sun exposure in childhood is the main risk determinant for skin cancer in adulthood. Several questionnaires have been used to examine behaviour patterns in terms of sun exposure in childhood, but none have been subjected to a rigorous analysis of their measurement properties. To evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire adapted to investigate children’s sun exposure behaviour, a two-stage validation study was carried out. First, in a transverse study, the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 333 children recruited from schools, and the validity and internal consistency were analysed. Second, 32 children recruited in a hospital setting were interviewed for the test–retest analysis. All the items in the ‘Photoprotection habits’ category were significantly correlated. Principal components analysis showed that two components accounted for over 53% of the variance. The Cronbach’s α-coefficient was 0.63 for the first component and 0.43 for the second. In the stability analysis, the percentage of absolute agreement exceeded 70% for all the questions. The Questionnaire on Habits RElated to Sun exposure during Infancy (CHRESI) questionnaire examines sun protection habits by children. Its proven reliability, validity and stability make it a useful tool both in epidemiologic research and in the development and evaluation of campaigns to reduce the risk of skin cancer. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Coimbra R.,University of Granada | Immenhauser A.,Ruhr University Bochum | Oloriz F.,University of Granada
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2014

Chemostratigraphy applied to ancient marine carbonates is commonly based on one-dimensional (stratigraphic) sections or core data. As demonstrated from modern oceans, this approach underestimates the spatial complexity of physico-chemical seawater properties. Here, a several-hundred-kilometer long transect consisting of seven Upper Jurassic sections from settings ranging from (proximal) neritic middle shelf to the epioceanic (distal) fringe across the southern and eastern palaeomargins of the Iberian sub-plate reveals variability in sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical records. The comparison of isotopic and elemental data from different carbonate materials (matrix micrite, carbonate cements in veinlets, belemnite rostra, and ammonite shells) reveals differential diagenetic pathways. Microfacies, cathodoluminescence and geochemical data retrieved from biostratigraphically well constrained sections reveal that epioceanic matrix micrite geochemical data provide valuable proxies for palaeo-seawater properties. Our data are reviewed in the context of published Late Jurassic records. The outcome shows a higher level of complexity including the potential admixture of marine, continental, and diagenetic geochemical signals in the epicontinental record. The stratigraphic trend in carbon isotopes of epioceanic sections agrees upon that of Upper Jurassic reference sections from the northern Tethyan margins, while oxygen isotope ratios are relatively 18O-enriched. Palaeo-seawater temperatures across the transect investigated were estimated using δ18O as tentative proxy for interpreting distance from shore, differences in water masses, relative depth variations, and potential local forcing factors. Palaeoenvironmental conditions evaluated through the combined record of isotope (δ18O), elemental (Mn), and skeletal content contrast with relative fluctuations in sea level. Site-specific changes in palaeoceanographic parameters such as water depth, seawater temperature, salinity and upwelling are considered in comparison to examples from ancient and modern oceans. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Cobo M.J.,University of Granada | Lopez-Herrera A.G.,University of Granada | Herrera-Viedma E.,University of Granada | Herrera F.,University of Granada
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Science mapping aims to build bibliometric maps that describe how specific disciplines, scientific domains, or research fields are conceptually, intellectually, and socially structured. Different techniques and software tools have been proposed to carry out science mapping analysis. The aim of this article is to review, analyze, and compare some of these software tools, taking into account aspects such as the bibliometric techniques available and the different kinds of analysis. © 2011 ASIS&T.

Lopez-Gomez M.,University of Basel | Lopez-Gomez M.,University of Granada | Sandal N.,University of Aarhus | Stougaard J.,University of Aarhus | Boller T.,University of Basel
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

In this study the interplay between the symbiotic and defence signalling pathways in Lotus japonicus was investigated by comparing the responses to Mesorhizobium loti, the symbiotic partner of L. japonicus, and the elicitor flg22, a conserved peptide motif present in flagellar protein of a wide range of bacteria. It was found that defence and symbiotic pathways overlap in the interaction between L. japonicus and M. loti since similar responses were induced by the mutualistic bacteria and flg22. However, purified flagellin from M. loti did not induce any response in L. japonicus, which suggests the production of other elicitors by the symbiotic bacteria. Defence responses induced by flg22 caused inhibition of rhizobial infection and delay in nodule organogenesis, as demonstrated by the negative effect of flg22 in the formation of spontaneous nodules in the snf1 L. japonicus mutant, and the inhibition of NSP1 and NSP2 genes. This indicates the antagonistic effect of the defence pathway on the nodule formation in the initial rhizobium-legume interaction. However, the fact that flg22 did not affect the formation of new nodules once the symbiosis was established indicates that after the colonization of the host plant by the symbiotic partner, the symbiotic pathway has prevalence over the defensive response. This result is also supported by the down-regulation of the expression levels of the flg22 receptor FLS2 in the nodular tissue. © 2011 The Author(s).

Gomez-Romero M.,University of Granada | Segura-Carretero A.,University of Granada | Fernandez-Gutierrez A.,University of Granada
Phytochemistry | Year: 2010

The consumption of tomatoes and tomato products has been associated with a reduction in the risk of contracting some types of cancer and other chronic diseases. These beneficial properties may be attributed to the presence of key metabolites and the interactions among them. We have developed and validated an analytical method for the comprehensive profiling of semi-polar metabolites in the methanol extract of three cultivars of raw tomatoes (Daniela, Raf and Rambo) grown in Almería, in south-east Spain. Diode-array and time-of-flight/ion-trap mass spectrometry detectors were used to ensure the wide detection of metabolites with highly divergent properties. The masses thus detected were assigned by matching their accurate mass-signals with tomato compounds reported in the literature, and supplemented by UV and MS/MS information, reference compounds and existing metabolite databases. In this way we were able to identify tentatively 135 compounds belonging to various structural classes, 21 of which are to our knowledge reported for the first time in the tomato fruit. Among the metabolites identified, the most abundant were phenolic compounds. This class of secondary metabolites is attracting considerable attention from producers and consumers due to their antioxidant activity and nutritional properties. Their quantitative analysis was achieved by using closely related derivatives for each family. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mendoza N.,University of Granada | Motos M.A.,University of Granada
Gynecological Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a disorder caused by a mutation of the gene encoding the androgen receptor (AR; Xq11-q12). The prevalence of AIS has been estimated to be one case in every 20,000 to 64,000 newborn males for the complete syndrome (CAIS), and the prevalence is unknown for the partial syndrome (PAIS). The symptoms range from phenotypically normal males with impaired spermatogenesis to phenotypically normal women with primary amenorrhea. Various forms of ambiguous genitalia have been observed at birth. The diagnosis is confirmed by determining the exact mutation in the AR gene. PAIS individuals require precise diagnosis as early as possible so that the sex can be assigned, treatment can be recommended, and they can receive proper genetic counseling. After birth, differential diagnosis should be performed using other forms of abnormal sexual differentiation of primary amenorrhea. The treatment of AIS is based on reinforcement sexual identity, gonadectomy planning, and hormone replacement therapy. The prognosis for CAIS is good if the testicular tissue is removed at the appropriate time. For PAIS, the prognosis depends on the ambiguity of the genitalia and physical and psychosocial adjustment to the assigned sex. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Del Aguila F.,University of Granada | Chala M.,University of Granada
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

The only possible doubly-charged scalar decays into two Standard Model particles are into pairs of same-sign charged leptons, H ±± → l ± l ±, l = e, μ, τ, or gauge bosons, H±± → W ± W ±; being necessary the observation of both to assert the violation of lepton number. However, present ATLAS and CMS limits on doubly-charged scalar production are obtained under specific assumptions on its branching fractions into dileptons only. Although they can be extended to include decays into dibosons and lepton number violating processes. Moreover, the production rates also depend on the type of electroweak multiplet H±± belongs to. We classify the possible alternatives and provide the Feynman rules and codes for generating the corresponding signals for pair and associated doubly-charged scalar production, including the leading contribution from the s-channel exchange of electroweak gauge bosons as well as the vector-boson fusion corrections. Then, using the same analysis criteria as the LHC collaborations we estimate the limits on the H ±± mass as a function of the electroweak multiplet it belongs to, and obtain the bounds on the lepton number violating processes pp → H±±H∓∓ → ℓ ± ℓ ± W ∓ W ∓ and pp → H±±H ∓ → ℓ ± ℓ ± W ∓ Z, ℓ = e, μ, implied by the ATLAS and CMS doubly-charged scalar searches. © 2014 The Author(s).

Broniowski W.,Jan Kochanowski University | Broniowski W.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Ruiz Arriola E.,University of Granada
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We argue that relativistic nuclear collisions may provide experimental evidence of α clustering in light nuclei. A light α-clustered nucleus has a large intrinsic deformation. When collided against a heavy nucleus at very high energies, this deformation transforms into the deformation of the fireball in the transverse plane. The subsequent collective evolution of the fireball leads to harmonic flow reflecting the deformation of the initial shape, which can be measured with standard methods of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We illustrate the feasibility of the idea by modeling the C12-Pb208 collisions and point out that very significant quantitative and qualitative differences between the α-clustered and uniform C12 nucleus occur in such quantities as the triangular flow, its event-by-event fluctuations, or the correlations of the elliptic and triangular flows. The proposal offers a possibility of studying low-energy nuclear structure phenomena with "snapshots" made with relativistic heavy-ion collisions. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Triguero I.,University of Granada | Garcia S.,University of Jaén | Herrera F.,University of Granada
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2011

Nearest neighbor classification is one of the most used and well known methods in data mining. Its simplest version has several drawbacks, such as low efficiency, high storage requirements and sensitivity to noise. Data reduction techniques have been used to alleviate these shortcomings. Among them, prototype selection and generation techniques have been shown to be very effective. Positioning adjustment of prototypes is a successful trend within the prototype generation methodology. Evolutionary algorithms are adaptive methods based on natural evolution that may be used for searching and optimization. Positioning adjustment of prototypes can be viewed as an optimization problem, thus it can be solved using evolutionary algorithms. This paper proposes a differential evolution based approach for optimizing the positioning of prototypes. Specifically, we provide a complete study of the performance of four recent advances in differential evolution. Furthermore, we show the good synergy obtained by the combination of a prototype selection stage with an optimization of the positioning of prototypes previous to nearest neighbor classification. The results are contrasted with non-parametrical statistical tests and show that our proposals outperform previously proposed methods. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fontana L.,Yeshiva University | Fontana L.,University of Granada | Zhao E.,Yeshiva University | Amir M.,Yeshiva University | And 3 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2013

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans increases with age. It is unknown whether this association is secondary to the increased incidence of risk factors for NAFLD that occurs with aging, reflects the culmination of years of exposure to lifestyle factors such as a high-fat diet (HFD), or results from physiological changes that characterize aging. To examine this question, the development of NAFLD in response to a fixed period of HFD feeding was examined in mice of different ages. Mice aged 2, 8, and 18 months were fed 16 weeks of a low-fat diet or HFD. Increased body mass and insulin insensitivity occurred in response to HFD feeding irrespective of the age of the mice. The amount of HFD-induced hepatic steatosis as determined biochemically and histologically was also equivalent among the three ages. Liver injury occurred exclusively in the two older ages as reflected by increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels, positive terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling, and caspase activation. Older mice also had an elevated innate immune response with a more pronounced polarization of liver and adipose tissue macrophages into an M1 phenotype. Studies of cultured hepatocytes from young and old mice revealed that aged cells were selectively sensitized to the Fas death pathway. Conclusion: Aging does not promote the development of hepatic steatosis but leads to increased hepatocellular injury and inflammation that may be due in part to sensitization to the Fas death pathway and increased M1 macrophage polarization. © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Colacio E.,University of Granada | Ruiz J.,University of Granada | Lorusso G.,University of Zaragoza | Brechin E.K.,University of Edinburgh | Evangelisti M.,University of Zaragoza
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

A novel diphenoxo-bridged Gd3+-Mn2+ dimer is proposed as a good candidate for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration. The large MCE is enhanced by the ferromagnetic interaction between the two metal ions. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Arias-Aranda D.,University of Granada | Romerosa-Martinez M.M.,University of Granada
Food Policy | Year: 2010

This paper presents the results of an analysis of the relationship between public sector research and industrial development in the functional foods sector in a peripheral region of the European Union: Andalusia (Spain). Results show that the innovation system and its component parts have made a qualitative and quantitative leap forward in the last decade, which means that the gap is diminishing compared to similar regions in the European Union, mainly due to a relatively intense effort from the public research sector. In order to take advantage of the potential of the Andalusian region, the public authorities will have to focus their efforts and funds on fostering relations between regional social players that lead to the creation of durable links; increasing the entrepreneurial spirit of university students/researchers; promoting and improving the quantity and quality of international excellence research groups; and stimulating the creation of scientific and technological parks where spin-off companies can contribute to increasing wealth and employment in the region. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Castro J.,University of Granada | Moreno-Rueda G.,Konrad Lorenz Institute For Vergleichende Verhaltensforschung | Moreno-Rueda G.,University of Granada | Hodar J.A.,University of Granada
Conservation Biology | Year: 2010

There is an intense debate about the effects of postfire salvage logging versus nonintervention policies on regeneration of forest communities, but scant information from experimental studies is available. We manipulated a burned forest area on a Mediterranean mountain to experimentally analyze the effect of salvage logging on bird-species abundance, diversity, and assemblage composition. We used a randomized block design with three plots of approximately 25 ha each, established along an elevational gradient in a recently burned area in Sierra Nevada Natural and National Park (southeastern Spain). Three replicates of three treatments differing in postfire burned wood management were established per plot: salvage logging, nonintervention, and an intermediate degree of intervention (felling and lopping most of the trees but leaving all the biomass). Starting 1 year after the fire, we used point sampling to monitor bird abundance in each treatment for 2 consecutive years during the breeding and winter seasons (720 censuses total). Postfire burned-wood management altered species assemblages. Salvage logged areas had species typical of openand early-successional habitats. Bird species that inhabit forests were still present in the unsalvaged treatments even though trees were burned, but were almost absent in salvage-logged areas. Indeed, the main dispersers of midand late-successional shrubs and trees, such as thrushes (Turdus spp.) and the European Jay (Garrulus glandarius) were almost restricted to unsalvaged treatments. Salvage logging might thus hamper the natural regeneration of the forest through its impact on assemblages of bird species. Moreover, salvage logging reduced species abundance by 50% and richness by 40%, approximately. The highest diversity at the landscape level (gamma diversity) resulted from a combination of all treatments. Salvage logging may be positive for bird conservation if combined in a mosaic with other, less-aggressive postfire management, but stand-wide management with harvest operations has undesirable conservation effects. © 2009 Society for Conservation Biology.

Garcia D.,University of Oviedo | Zamora R.,University of Granada | Amico G.C.,CONICET
Conservation Biology | Year: 2010

Seed dispersal by animals is considered a pivotal ecosystem function that drives plant-community dynamics in natural habitats and vegetation recovery in human-altered landscapes. Nevertheless, there is a lack of suitable ecological knowledge to develop basic conservation and management guidelines for this ecosystem service. Essential questions, such as how well the abundance of frugivorous animals predicts seeding function in different ecosystems and how anthropogenic landscape heterogeneity conditions the role of dispersers, remain poorly answered. In three temperate ecosystems, we studied seed dispersal by frugivorous birds in landscape mosaics shaped by human disturbance. By applying a standardized design across systems, we related the frequency of occurrence of bird-dispersed seeds throughout the landscape to the abundance of birds, the habitat features, and the abundance of fleshy fruits. Abundance of frugivorous birds in itself predicted the occurrence of dispersed seeds throughout the landscape in all ecosystems studied. Even those landscape patches impoverished due to anthropogenic disturbance received some dispersed seeds when visited intensively by birds. Nonetheless, human-caused landscape degradation largely affected seed-deposition patterns by decreasing cover of woody vegetation or availability of fruit resources that attracted birds and promoted seed dispersal. The relative role of woody cover and fruit availability in seed dispersal by birds differed among ecosystems. Our results suggest that to manage seed dispersal for temperate ecosystem preservation or restoration one should consider abundance of frugivorous birds as a surrogate of landscape-scale seed dispersal and an indicator of patch quality for the dispersal function; woody cover and fruit resource availability as key landscape features that drive seedfall patterns; and birds as mobile links that connect landscape patches of different degrees of degradation and habitat quality via seed deposition. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

De Los Santos F.,University of Granada | Franzese G.,University of Barcelona
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

We study, by Monte Carlo simulations, a coarse-grained model of a water monolayer between hydrophobic walls at partial hydration, with a wall-to-wall distance of about 0.5 nm. We analyze how the diffusion constant parallel to the walls, D∥, changes and correlates to the phase diagram of the system. We find a locus of D∥ maxima and a locus of D ∥ minima along isotherms, with lines of constant D ∥ resembling the melting line of bulk water. The two loci of D∥ extrema envelope the line of temperatures of density maxima at constant P. We show how these loci are related to the anomalous volume behavior due to the hydrogen bonds. At much lower T, confined water becomes subdiffusive, and we discuss how this behavior is a consequence of the increased correlations among water molecules when the hydrogen bond network develops. Within the subdiffusive region, although translations are largely hampered, we observe that the hydrogen bond network can equilibrate, and its rearrangement is responsible for the appearance of density minima along isobars. We clarify that the minima are not necessarily related to the saturation of the hydrogen bond network. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

De Leon J.,University of Kentucky | De Leon J.,University of Granada
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2011

Many naturalistic studies agree that adverse drug reactions (ADRs), particularly cognitive deficits, frequently occur when medications with anticholinergic activity are used in geriatric patients. However, the studies disagree on which anticholinergic drugs may have clinical relevance. The three most important methods to establish clinically relevant anticholinergic activity are: 1) the drug's affinity for muscarinic receptors, demonstrated by in vitro studies and a profile compatible with antagonist properties; 2) serum anticholinergic activity measured by radioreceptor assay; and 3) the presence of typical antimuscarinic ADRs, such as dry mouth and constipation, in patient studies or clinical trials. More recently, brain imaging of muscarinic receptors and scales for quantifying antimuscarinic activity were developed. A comprehensive approach can be crafted only by paying attention to the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic mechanisms of these drugs. ADR studies on drugs with anticholinergic activity should not only consider central muscarinic receptor blockade, but also peripheral receptor blockade. The ability to cross the blood-brain barrier is important in the drug's ADR profile. Patient personal characteristics, drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and probably genetic variations may contribute to increased ADR risk through pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanisms. Sophisticated clinical designs and the evidence-based medicine approach cannot succeed unless the list of drugs of anticholinergic activity is agreed upon, and the studies include a sophisticated pharmacological approach guided by our current understanding of their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic mechanisms. If one agrees that antimuscarinic ADRs are probably dose-related, future studies must consider all drugs, administration routes, doses, muscarinic receptor affinity, DDIs, and brain access. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.

Camacho J.,University of Granada | Ferrer A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2012

Cross-validation has become one of the principal methods to adjust the meta-parameters in predictive models. Extensions of the cross-validation idea have been proposed to select the number of components in principal components analysis (PCA). The element-wise k-fold (ekf) cross-validation is among the most used algorithms for principal components analysis cross-validation. This is the method programmed in the PLS_Toolbox, and it has been stated to outperform other methods under most circumstances in a numerical experiment. The ekf algorithm is based on missing data imputation, and it can be programmed using any method for this purpose. In this paper, the ekf algorithm with the simplest missing data imputation method, trimmed score imputation, is analyzed. A theoretical study is driven to identify in which situations the application of ekf is adequate and, more importantly, in which situations it is not. The results presented show that the ekf method may be unable to assess the extent to which a model represents a test set and may lead to discard principal components with important information. On a second paper of this series, other imputation methods are studied within the ekf algorithm. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Rueda F.J.,University of Granada | MacIntyre S.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2010

The dynamics of negatively buoyant river plumes in a small multi-basin kettle lake with steep bathymetry (Toolik Lake, AK) are simulated using a Cartesian hydrodynamic model based on the solution of the three-dimensional shallow water equations. To validate the model, model predictions are compared with results from previous analytical and laboratory studies and with field observations. The grid resolution adopted for the Toolik Lake model is 0.5 m (= Δz) in the vertical and 20 m (= Δx) in the horizontal, so that the ratio of the bottom slope S0 to Δz/Δx is lower than 4 in 99% of the computational domain. With that resolution, the model represents correctly the rate of mixing between lake and river water and the speed of propagation of downslope gravity currents. The model provides accurate predictions of the temperature structure (RMSE = 0.25 °C) and of eddy diffusivities at the depths of the intrusions of incoming water. Measurements and modelling show similar fractions and depth distribution of river water on a cross-basin transect, which suggests that the mixing dynamics of the plume as it transits between basins are well resolved. Thus, the stage is set to quantify the ecological consequences of storm events in small lakes with several interconnected basins using coupled biological measurements and 3D modelling. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Villacorta P.J.,University of Granada | Verdegay J.L.,University of Granada
Journal of Statistical Software | Year: 2016

Markov chains are well-established probabilistic models of a wide variety of real systems that evolve along time. Countless examples of applications of Markov chains that successfully capture the probabilistic nature of real problems include areas as diverse as biology, medicine, social science, and engineering. One interesting feature which characterizes certain kinds of Markov chains is their stationary distribution, which stands for the global fraction of time the system spends in each state. The computation of the stationary distribution requires precise knowledge of the transition probabilities. When the only information available is a sequence of observations drawn from the system, such probabilities have to be estimated. Here we review an existing method to estimate fuzzy transition probabilities from observations and, with them, obtain the fuzzy stationary distribution of the resulting fuzzy Markov chain. The method also works when the user directly provides fuzzy transition probabilities. We provide an implementation in the R environment that is the first available to the community and serves as a proof of concept. We demonstrate the usefulness of our proposal with computational experiments on a toy problem, namely a time-homogeneous Markov chain that guides the randomized movement of an autonomous robot that patrols a small area. © 2016, American Statistical Association. All rights reserved.

Santos X.,University of Barcelona | Poquet J.M.,University of Granada
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2010

Wildfires are recognized as natural disturbances that have shaped landscape structure and ecosystem composition in many regions of the world. As ectotherms, many Mediterranean reptiles are expected to benefit from the thermal quality of open areas created by fires. However, not all the reptile species respond positively to this pattern. We have explored the response to fire of a Mediterranean reptile community in a protected area of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. We visually searched for reptiles at 102 sites, including unburnt, recently burnt (2003), and old burnt (1985-1986) localities. The number of reptiles and species richness was higher at burnt sites, and both were related to several variables of the habitat structure. Accordingly, between the two most common species in recently burnt sites, Podarcis hispanica declined in old fire habitats whereas Psammodromus algirus did not. Snakes did not differ between burnt and unburnt areas, although the ambush predator viper Vipera latastei was found more frequently in unburnt habitats. Our results imply that there are different succession trajectories for Mediterranean reptile species according to their habitat preferences, life history traits, and dietary specialization. The study area has been drastically human-altered in the last 100 years by agriculture, pine reforestation, agricultural abandonment, and wildfires. These land use changes drastically alter the vegetation cover, favoring some reptiles and damaging others, and finally can promote local extinctions of sensitive species to habitat shifts. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Hurtado P.I.,University of Granada | Garrido P.L.,University of Granada
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Phase transitions not allowed in equilibrium steady states may happen, however, at the fluctuating level. We observe for the first time this striking and general phenomenon measuring current fluctuations in an isolated diffusive system. While small fluctuations result from the sum of weakly correlated local events, for currents above a critical threshold the system self-organizes into a coherent traveling wave which facilitates the current deviation by gathering energy in a localized packet, thus breaking translation invariance. This results in Gaussian statistics for small fluctuations but non-Gaussian tails above the critical current. Our observations, which agree with predictions derived from hydrodynamic fluctuation theory, strongly suggest that rare events are generically associated with coherent, self-organized patterns which enhance their probability. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada | Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Coimbra | Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,Institute Fisica Of Cantabria Csic Uc | Benbrik R.,Institute Fisica Of Cantabria Csic Uc | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We obtain constraints on the mixing of vectorlike quarks coupling predominantly to the third generation. We consider all (seven) relevant types of vectorlike quarks, individually. The constraints are derived from oblique corrections and Z→bb̄ measurements at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) Collider and the Stanford Linear Collider. We investigate the implications of these constraints on LHC phenomenology, concerning the decays of the heavy quarks and their single production. We also explore indirect effects of heavy quark mixing in top and bottom couplings. A remarkable effect is the possibility of explaining the anomalous forward-backward asymmetry in Z→bb̄ at the LEP with a hypercharge -5/6 doublet. We also study the impact of the new quarks on single Higgs production at the LHC and Higgs decay. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Gomez-Torrecillas J.,University of Granada
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

The present text surveys some relevant situations and results where basic Module Theory interacts with computational aspects of operator algebras. We tried to keep a balance between constructive and algebraic aspects. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Chala M.,University of Granada | Santiago J.,University of Granada
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

New vectorlike quarks with electric charge 2/3 and -1/3 can be singly produced at hadron colliders through the exchange of a color octet vector resonance in models of strong electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that electroweak symmetry breaking effects can have a significant impact on the decay pattern of these new quarks. In particular, single production of charge -1/3 fermion resonances, mediated by a color octet vector resonance, typically results in an Hbb̄ final state with a sizeable cross section and very distinctive kinematics. We consider the leading H→bb̄ decay and show that the 4b signal can be very efficiently disentangled from the background: heavy octet masses of up to 3 TeV can be tested with the data already collected at the LHC and up to 5 TeV with an integrated luminosity of 100 fb-1 at √s=14 TeV. We also discuss the kinematical differences between the Hbb̄ production in models of strong electroweak symmetry breaking and supersymmetric models and the implications on the phenomenology of nonminimal composite Higgs models. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Cayuela L.,University of Granada | De la Cruz M.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique | Ruokolainen K.,University of Turku
Ecography | Year: 2011

Researchers in ecology commonly use multivariate analyses (e.g. redundancy analysis, canonical correspondence analysis, Mantel correlation, multivariate analysis of variance) to interpret patterns in biological data and relate these patterns to environmental predictors. There has been, however, little recognition of the errors associated with biological data and the influence that these may have on predictions derived from ecological hypotheses. We present a permutational method that assesses the effects of taxonomic uncertainty on the multivariate analyses typically used in the analysis of ecological data. The procedure is based on iterative randomizations that randomly re-assign non identified species in each site to any of the other species found in the remaining sites. After each re-assignment of species identities, the multivariate method at stake is run and a parameter of interest is calculated. Consequently, one can estimate a range of plausible values for the parameter of interest under different scenarios of re-assigned species identities. We demonstrate the use of our approach in the calculation of two parameters with an example involving tropical tree species from western Amazonia: 1) the Mantel correlation between compositional similarity and environmental distances between pairs of sites, and; 2) the variance explained by environmental predictors in redundancy analysis (RDA). We also investigated the effects of increasing taxonomic uncertainty (i.e. number of unidentified species), and the taxonomic resolution at which morphospecies are determined (genus-resolution, family-resolution, or fully undetermined species) on the uncertainty range of these parameters. To achieve this, we performed simulations on a tree dataset from southern Mexico by randomly selecting a portion of the species contained in the dataset and classifying them as unidentified at each level of decreasing taxonomic resolution. An analysis of covariance showed that both taxonomic uncertainty and resolution significantly influence the uncertainty range of the resulting parameters. Increasing taxonomic uncertainty expands our uncertainty of the parameters estimated both in the Mantel test and RDA. The effects of increasing taxonomic resolution, however, are not as evident. The method presented in this study improves the traditional approaches to study compositional change in ecological communities by accounting for some of the uncertainty inherent to biological data. We hope that this approach can be routinely used to estimate any parameter of interest obtained from compositional data tables when faced with taxonomic uncertainty. © 2011 The Authors.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada | Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,CERN
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

New colour octets stand out among the new physics proposals to explain the anomalous forward-backward asymmetry measured in t t ̄ t\overline{t} production by the CDF experiment at the Tevatron. We perform a fit to t t ̄ t\overline{t} observables at the Tevatron and the LHC, including total cross sections, various asymmetries and the top polarisation and spin correlations, to find the most likely parameters of a light colour octet to be consistent with data. In particular, an octet coupling only to right-handed quarks gives a good fit to all measurements. The implications from the general fit are drawn in terms of predictions for top polarisation observables whose measurements are yet not very precise, and observables which simply have not been measured. © 2014 The Author(s).

Reguera S.,University of Granada | Zamora-Camacho F.J.,University of Granada | Moreno-Rueda G.,University of Granada
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2014

Altitudinal gradients offer a good opportunity to study organisms' adaptations to clinal environmental variables. Regarding altitude, the most influential variables on organisms are temperature and ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation, the first decreasing and the second increasing with altitude. Both variables affect ectotherms' biology, as ectotherms depend on environmental temperature for thermoregulation, frequently being heliotherms. Here, we studied dorsal coloration in the lizard Psammodromus algirus (Linnaeus, 1758) along a wide altitudinal gradient (2200m) in Sierra Nevada (south-east Spain). We hypothesize that the skin will be darker with altitude, i.e. in environments with lower temperatures and higher UV radiation intensity. Results show that individual dorsal colorations became darker at high altitude. We propose two non-mutually exclusive explanations for this result: (1) darker dorsal surface would favour faster warming at high altitudes, where temperature is lower, and (2) darker dorsal surface would protect against UV radiation, stronger at high altitudes. We found significant relationships between both temperature and UV radiation and population dorsal darkness, giving mixed support for the two explanations. Moreover, dorsal hue was positively correlated with substrate hue, suggesting that hue evolved to maximize crypsis. Our study therefore suggests that geographical variation in dorsal coloration in this lizard is adaptive, and darkness coloration might have evolved in response to adverse conditions (low temperature and high UV radiation) at high altitudes. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London.

Torres P.J.,University of Granada
Journal of Mathematical Biology | Year: 2015

We perform an analytical study of the dynamics of a multi-solute model for water transport across a cell membrane under periodic fluctuations of the extracellular solute molalities. Under the presence of non-permeating intracellular solute, water volume experiences periodic oscillations if and only if the extracellular non-permeating solute molality is positive in the average. On the other hand, in the absence of non-permeating intracellular solute, a sufficient condition for the existence of an infinite number of periodic solutions of the model is provided. Such sufficient condition holds automatically in the case of only one permeating solute. The proofs are based on classical tools from the qualitative theory of differential equations, namely Brouwer degree, upper and lower solutions and comparison arguments. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Olivares A.,University of Granada
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Ellipsoid fitting algorithms are widely used to calibrate Magnetic Angular Rate and Gravity (MARG) sensors. These algorithms are based on the minimization of an error function that optimizes the parameters of a mathematical sensor model that is subsequently applied to calibrate the raw data. The convergence of this kind of algorithms to a correct solution is very sensitive to input data. Input calibration datasets must be properly distributed in space so data can be accurately fitted to the theoretical ellipsoid model. Gathering a well distributed set is not an easy task as it is difficult for the operator carrying out the maneuvers to keep a visual record of all the positions that have already been covered, as well as the remaining ones. It would be then desirable to have a system that gives feedback to the operator when the dataset is ready, or to enable the calibration process in auto-calibrated systems. In this work, we propose two different algorithms that analyze the goodness of the distributions by computing four different indicators. The first approach is based on a thresholding algorithm that uses only one indicator as its input and the second one is based on a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) that estimates the calibration error for a given calibration set using a weighted combination of two indicators. Very accurate classification between valid and invalid datasets is achieved with average Area Under Curve (AUC) of up to 0:98.

Nogales F.F.,University of Granada | Preda O.,University of Granada | Nicolae A.,University of Granada
Histopathology | Year: 2012

We review the current knowledge on human yolk sac tumours (YSTs) 50years after their initial description. Their complex nomenclature and histogenesis stress the fact that they are not a discrete entity, but represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms, for which the term primitive endodermal tumours would be more appropriate, accounting for their capacity to differentiate into various extraembryonal and somatic cell types. Different histological patterns of human YSTs correlate with the developmental potential of primitive endoderm and mesenchyme, but they are also similar to some murine experimental tumours. Exceptionally, YSTs replicate the tubular structures of the human yolk sac and allantois. Endodermal somatic differentiation reproduces pulmonary, intestinal and hepatic tissues and are identical with some, embryonal-type endodermal, gastric and lung carcinomas, which are indistinguishable from YSTs. YSTs may show an overgrowth of their mesenchymal (sarcomatous) and epithelial components (such as mucinous carcinoma or carcinoid) and also be a source of haematological malignancies. YSTs associated with non-germ cell tumours probably originate from malignant pluripotent somatic stem cells. Only AFP and glypican-3 are characteristic immunohistochemical markers. Pluripotent antibodies (SALL4, Lin28, IMP-3) help in differential diagnoses, while some differentiation markers (CDX2, TTF-1, HepPar1) facilitate recognition of unusual variants of YSTs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jirglova H.,University of Granada | Maldonado-Hodar F.J.,University of Granada
Langmuir | Year: 2010

The influence of cationic, anionic, and nonionic surfactants (S) on the characteristics of carbon xerogels was analyzed. The polymerization of resorcinol (R) and formaldehyde (F) was developed in an aqueous solution of S without any additional catalyst. The gels obtained were dried in air to obtain organic xerogels and then carbonized to carbon xerogels. The prepared samples were characterized by FTIR, TG, SEM, and N2 and CO2 adsorption. The formation of RF-S copolymers was observed for cationic and nonionic surfactants, but this was not observed for anionic S, probably because of repulsive electrostatic interactions between the two organic phases. Nevertheless, anionic S leads to a greater morphological transformation with the formation of nonporous needle particles associated with the higher pH induced by this S. Carbon xerogels are microporous materials with interesting molecular sieve behavior. The RF-S composites undergo greater shrinkage than do the pure RF xerogel; consequently, a narrower microporosity is obtained. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Bartrum S.,University of Edinburgh | Bastero-Gil M.,University of Granada | Berera A.,University of Edinburgh | Cerezo R.,University of Granada | And 2 more authors.
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

The amplitude of primordial curvature perturbations is enhanced when a radiation bath at a temperature T > H is sustained during inflation by dissipative particle production, which is particularly significant when a non-trivial statistical ensemble of inflaton fluctuations is also maintained. Since gravitational modes are oblivious to dissipative dynamics, this generically lowers the tensor-to-scalar ratio and yields a modified consistency relation for warm inflation, as well as changing the tilt of the scalar spectrum. We show that this alters the landscape of observationally allowed inflationary models, with for example the quartic chaotic potential being in very good agreement with the Planck results for nearly-thermal inflaton fluctuations, whilst essentially ruled out for an underlying vacuum state. We also discuss other simple models that are in agreement with the Planck data within a renormalizable model of warm inflation. © 2014 The Authors.

Colacio E.,University of Granada | Ruiz-Sanchez J.,University of Granada | White F.J.,University of Edinburgh | Brechin E.K.,University of Edinburgh
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Three triply bridged MII-DyIII dinuclear complexes, [Ni(μ-L)(μ-OAc)Dy(NO3)2] 1, [Zn(μ-L)(μ-OAc) Dy(NO3)2] 2, and [Ni(μ-L)(μ-NO3) Dy(NO3)2]•2CH3OH 3 were prepared with a new and flexible compartmental ligand, N,N′,N″-trimethyl-N,N″- bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)diethylene triamine (H2L), containing N3O2-inner and O4-outer coordination sites. These complexes have diphenoxo/acetate (1 and 2) or diphenoxo/nitrate (3) asymmetric bridging fragments. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibit ferromagnetic interaction between Ni2+ and Dy3+ ions and frequency dependence of the out-of-phase (π″M) alternating current (ac) susceptibility signal characteristic of single-molecule-magnet behavior. The energy barriers Δ/kB for compound 3 under zero and 1000 Oe applied direct current (dc) magnetic fields were estimated from the Arrhenius plots to be 7.6 and 19.1 K, respectively. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Alvarez-Valero A.M.,University of Granada | Waters D.J.,University of Oxford
Journal of Petrology | Year: 2010

Crustal xenoliths from the NeogeneVolcanic Province (NVP) of the Betic Cordillera, SE Spain, constitute an unusual suite of high-grade melt-bearing metapelitic rocks derived in two stages from metasediments surrounding crustal magma chambers. Microstructures and age relationships indicate that a first stage of migmatization and melt extraction was overprinted by a sequence of melt-bearing reaction microstructures. The preservation of melt as glass requires only a short residence time before eruption of the xenoliths in the host melt. The P-T conditions of the melting processes have been constrained by metamorphic modelling of mineral assemblages, phase compositions and reaction sequences in local compositional domains in the system NCKFMASHTO using THERMOCALC software. The calculations predict that within the El Hoyazo and Mazarrón volcanic suites, Grt-Bt-Sil (± Crd, Pl) enclaves containing a distinctive fibrolite-melt intergrowth formed over the temperature range 700-770°C at 5 kbar, and that these were overprinted by corona structures around garnet containing Spl-Crd-Kfs-melt at 775°C, 4·8 kbar, and newly grown spinel with melt haloes (only at El Hoyazo) at 835°C and 5·8 kbar. At Mar Menor, the xenoliths show garnet replaced by Opx, Crd, Spl and melt at 810-840°C, 2-2·5 kbar; aluminous xenoliths containing andalusite were replaced by Spl + Crd under the same conditions.The P-T distribution, size and relative abundance of the various xenolith types are best explained by the formation of the melt-bearing assemblages in a transiently heated wall-rock profile adjacent to a magma chamber or conduit, followed by collapse of the wall and brief residence of the resulting fragments as xenoliths in a dacitic magma at c. 850°C. The difference in pressure between the locations reflects the depth of magma chambers in the crust.The predominance of smaller, hotter enclaves in the Mar Menor occurrence may reflect less favourable conditions for developing thermally softened wall-rock profiles along high thermal radients at shallower depth. © The Author 2010.

Grimes D.I.F.,University of Reading | Pardo-Iguzquiza E.,University of Granada
Geographical Analysis | Year: 2010

Rainfall can be modeled as a spatially correlated random field superimposed on a background mean value; therefore, geostatistical methods are appropriate for the analysis of rain gauge data. Nevertheless, there are certain typical features of these data that must be taken into account to produce useful results, including the generally non-Gaussian mixed distribution, the inhomogeneity and low density of observations, and the temporal and spatial variability of spatial correlation patterns. Many studies show that rigorous geostatistical analysis performs better than other available interpolation techniques for rain gauge data. Important elements are the use of climatological variograms and the appropriate treatment of rainy and nonrainy areas. Benefits of geostatistical analysis for rainfall include ease of estimating areal averages, estimation of uncertainties, and the possibility of using secondary information (e.g., topography). Geostatistical analysis also facilitates the generation of ensembles of rainfall fields that are consistent with a given set of observations, allowing for a more realistic exploration of errors and their propagation in downstream models, such as those used for agricultural or hydrological forecasting. This article provides a review of geostatistical methods used for kriging, exemplified where appropriate by daily rain gauge data from Ethiopia. © 2010 The Ohio State University.

Stich D.,University of Granada | Martin R.,University of Granada | Morales J.,University of Granada
Tectonophysics | Year: 2010

We present and discuss a set of 77 moment tensor solutions for earthquakes in the Iberia-Maghreb region from mid 2005 to the end of 2008, with moment magnitudes ranging from 3.2 to 6.0. Inversion is based upon full, three-component, intermediate period waveforms recorded at regional seismic broadband stations. Following the recent densification of permanent broadband networks and large scale temporary deployments, at present more than 150 stations are recording in Spain, Portugal and Morocco. This unprecedented station density allows analysis of small events from available short-distance recordings, and in general leads to more reliable source estimates due to data redundancies that permit elimination of waveforms affected by noise or complicated propagation effects. The solutions for 2005-2008 constitute an important upgrade of the Iberia-Maghreb moment tensor inventory to 225 solutions to date, enhancing the image of seismotectonics at the compressive N-Algerian margin, in the Betic-Alboran shear zone and at the transpressive SW-Iberian margin, as well as providing valuable constraints on seismic deformation in the western Betics and the Iberian foreland where little information has been previously available. New solutions for the foreland and three recent seismic series in the western Betics show strike-slip and reverse faulting style, contrasting with the dominance of normal faulting in the adjacent areas towards east. In these areas, as well as at the SW-Iberian margin, faulting orientations are heterogeneous, including solutions with opposite kinematics. This indicates control by local stress conditions, and points to fault interaction. Along the N-Algerian margin, a counterclockwise rotation of slip vectors of thrust events from east to west becomes apparent. Several solutions for the area offshore Cape St. Vincent are located at sub-Moho depths between 40 and 60 km, supporting a large brittle layer thickness in the oceanic lithosphere. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Maraver A.,University of Granada | Popov V.,Wessex Institute of Technology | Zamorano M.,University of Granada
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

The quality of pellets is directly related to their physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. It affects the emissions resulting from their combustion and also their use in stoves and boilers. Certain European countries have developed standards specifying control parameters and guidelines with a view to guaranteeing the effective and environmentally-friendly combustion of pellets. This paper presents a comparative study of regulations and standards created by government authorities in Austria, Sweden, Germany, Italy, and France. Also considered are the guidelines of the European Standard Committee CEN/TC 335 for densified biomass fuels. The comparison of these standards provides evidence of significant differences in the quality parameters and guidelines for the manufacture and use of pellets in Europe. The results obtained could be used as a technical reference for all issues related to the production, sale and research on pellets. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Numerical models built linking an internally consistent rheological dataset for a cooling granite magma with equations of heat transfer and fluid motion for geometrically different magma chambers cooling at various crustal depths reveal that granite magmas first undergo a short period of chaotic convection, during which wall-rock contamination and magma mixing are possible, followed by a long period of no convective cooling, during which melt segregation occurs. Convection is driven by the negative density gradient generated in the upper cooling zone by melt-to-solid phase transformation. Convection breaks the upper mushy zone and drags the fragments downwards with descending Rayleigh-Taylor fingers. Such fragments can be preserved as microgranular enclaves. The descending Rayleigh-Taylor fingers split low aspect-ratio (sill-like) magma chambers into nearly isolated convection cells. If the magma is initially heterogeneous, this effect divides the chamber into contiguous homogeneous zones with distinct trace element and isotope ratios, and finally results in a pluton with marked lateral compositional variations, easily misinterpreted as different intrusive batches. Convective heat-loss quickly leads most of the magma chamber to critical crystallinity, independently of the vertical coordinate, so that a chamber-wide three-dimensional skeleton of crystals with uniform initial porosity c.0·4-0·5 is formed. This configuration is gravitationally unstable; therefore, it spontaneously compacts towards an equilibrium vertical variation of porosity approaching Atty's Law. In the absence of regional stress, the upwards migration of the inter-crystalline melts, as a result of compaction, is the most effective way of melt-solid segregation and causes vertically zoned plutons with an upper layer of felsic segregates. Granite magma chambers fractionated by these mechanisms will produce short-range differentiation series, from a composition slightly less silicic than the initial magma to high-silica segregates. In the presence of regional stress, tectonic squeezing and shearing during the post-convective stage can expel residual fluid more efficiently and lead to wide-range granite differentiation series, from rocks notably less silicic than the initial magma to high-silica leucogranites. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

Jimenez-Moreno G.,University of Granada | Fauquette S.,Montpellier University | Suc J.-P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2010

Pollen analysis of Miocene and Pliocene sediments from the Iberian Peninsula shows a progressive reduction in plant diversity through time caused by the disappearance of thermophilous and high-water requirement plants. In addition, an increase in warm-temperate (mesothermic), seasonal-adapted "Mediterranean" taxa, high-elevation conifers and herbs (mainly Artemisia) occurred during the Middle and Late Miocene and Pliocene. This has mainly been interpreted as a response of the vegetation to global and regional processes, including climate cooling related to the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and then the onset of the Arctic Ice Sheet, uplift of regional mountains related to the Alpine uplift and the progressive movement of Eurasia towards northern latitudes as a result of the northwards subduction of Africa. The development of steppe-like vegetation in southern Iberia is ancient and probably started during the Oligocene. The onset of a contrasted seasonality in temperature during the Mid-Pliocene superimposed on the pre-existing seasonality in precipitation, the annual length of which increased southward. The Mediterranean climatic rhythm (summer drought) began about 3.4. Ma and caused the individualization of modern Mediterranean ecosystems. Quaternary-type Mediterranean climatic fluctuations started at 2.6. Ma (Gelasian) resulting in repeated steppe vs. forest alternations. A latitudinal climatic gradient between the southern and the northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula existed since the Middle Miocene. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Lyamani H.,University of Granada | Olmo F.J.,University of Granada | Alados-Arboledas L.,University of Granada
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

Measurements of aerosol optical properties and aerosol number size distribution obtained during the period from December 2005 to November 2007 at Granada, an urban site in south-eastern Spain, are analyzed. Large variations of the measured variables have been found, and related to variations in emissions sources and meteorological conditions. High values of aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients are obtained during winter and low values are measured during summer. This seasonal pattern in the surface aerosol optical properties is opposite to the seasonal cycle showed by columnar aerosol optical depth. The differences in the seasonal features of the surface and column-integrated data are related to seasonal variations in the aerosol vertical distribution, aerosol sources and boundary layer height. In winter the number density of "fine" particles (0.5>particle diameter>1μm) is significantly larger than in summer while the number density of "coarse" particles (1>particle diameter>20μm) is slightly larger during summer and spring than during winter and autumn. The scattering Angström exponent, α s, presents an evident seasonal cycle with values of 1.8±0.2, 1.6±0.3, 1.3±0.3 and 1.4±0.3 in winter, spring, summer and autumn, respectively. This suggests the presence of a large fraction of submicron particles at the site, especially during winter. The aerosols measured in this study contain a large fraction of absorbing material as indicated by the average single-scattering albedo that has values of 0.65±0.07, 0.66±0.06, 0.70±0.06 and 0.73±0.06 in autumn, winter, spring and summer, respectively. The aerosol scattering albedo obtained in the surface boundary layer of Granada is below the critical value of 0.86 that determines the shift from cooling to warming. These results put in evidence the need of efforts to reduce absorbing particles (black carbon) emissions to avoid the possible warming that would result from the reductions of the cooling aerosols only. The aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients present a clear diurnal pattern, in all seasons, with two local maxima, one early in the morning and the second one in the evening. This diurnal cycle is mainly attributed to the diurnal evolution of atmospheric boundary layer and local anthropogenic activities. © 2010. Author(s).

Aguirre J.,University of Granada | Perfectti F.,University of Granada | Braga J.C.,University of Granada
Paleobiology | Year: 2010

When assessing the timing of branching events in a phylogeny, the most important tools currently recognized are a reliable molecular phylogeny and a continuous, relatively complete fossil record. Coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales, and Sporolithales) constitute an ideal group for this endeavor because of their excellent fossil record and their consistent phylogenetic reconstructions. We present the evolutionary history of the corallines following a novel, combined approach using their fossil record, molecular phylogeny (based on the 18S rDNA gene sequences of 39 coralline species), and molecular clocks. The order of appearance of the major monophyletic taxa of corallines in the fossil record perfectly matches the sequence of branching events in the phylogeny. We were able to demonstrate the robustness of the node ages in the phylogeny based on molecular clocks by performing an analysis of confidence intervals and maximum temporal ranges of three monophyletic groups of corallines (the families Sporolithaceae and Hapalidiaceae, as well as the subfamily Lithophylloideae). The results demonstrate that their first occurrences are close to their observed appearances, a clear indicator of a very complete stratigraphic record. These chronological data are used to confidently constrain the ages of the remaining branching events in the phylogeny using molecular clocks. © 2010 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

Romero O.E.,University of Granada
Marine Micropaleontology | Year: 2010

Accomplishing reliable paleo-reconstructions of productivity and upwelling conditions in eastern boundary current systems requires the use of cores collected in a basin-wide spatial pattern. Based on diatom assemblage analysis and the concentration and the bulk biogenic components of three gravity cores recovered from the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) between 19° and 25°S, I describe rapid paleoceanographic changes that occurred during the last 70 ka B.P. in the southeastern Atlantic. The pattern of biogenic production and accumulation differs to varying degrees among the three core sites along the SW African coast. The highest sedimentation and accumulation rates at 25°S off Lüderitz conform with the present-day, well-known pattern of highest productivity and most intense coastal upwelling. Highest diatom values at 25°S during MIS3 points to more intense upwelling due to the combination of strong seaward-extending upwelling filaments, shoaling of the upwelled water, and the influence of silicate-rich waters of Antarctic origin. Productivity decreased along the central BUS throughout MIS2, when the siliceous-calcareous productivity regime shifted toward a system dominated by calcareous producers. Although intensity and strength of winds created adequate conditions for upwelling during MIS2, diatom production decreased. The complete replacement of the upwelling-associated diatom flora by a non-upwelling-related diatom community during MIS1 reflects weakened upwelling, weakened seaward extension of the upwelling filaments, and dominance of warmer surface waters. Combining changes in the composition of the diatom assemblage and variations of the bulk biogenic components allows for reliable reconstruction of paleoproductivity and upwelling changes for the SE Atlantic during the last 70 ka B.P. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Retamero R.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Garcia-Retamero R.,University of Granada | Galesic M.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2011

Objective: To make informed health decisions, patients must understand and recall risks, which often involve ratios with large denominators. Grasping the meaning of such numbers may be difficult, because of limited exposure to large groups of people in either our evolutionary history or daily life. Methods: In an experiment (n = 98), we investigated whether medical risks are easier to understand and recall if their representation is based on small, evolutionarily plausible groups of people, and whether this representation especially helps patients with low numeracy. Results: Participants-especially those with low numeracy-often disregarded and incorrectly recalled denominators of ratios representing medical risks when the denominators involved were large. Risks were easier to understand and recall if their representation was based on smaller, evolutionarily plausible groups of people. Conclusions: Our results extend previous literature on the role of numeracy in understanding health-relevant risk communications by showing the importance of using plausible group sizes to communicate these risks to people with low numeracy. Our results also support the notion that problems in risk perception occur because of inappropriate presentation formats rather than cognitive biases. Practice implications: Our findings suggest suitable ways to communicate quantitative medical data-especially to people with low numeracy. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Gomez J.M.,CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas | Gomez J.M.,University of Granada | Perfectti F.,University of Granada | Klingenberg C.P.,University of Manchester
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Flowers of animal-pollinated plants are integrated structures shaped by the action of pollinator-mediated selection. It is widely assumed that pollination specialization increases the magnitude of floral integration. However, empirical evidence is still inconclusive. In this study, we explored the role of pollinator diversity in shaping the evolution of corolla-shape integration in Erysimum, a plant genus with generalized pollination systems. We quantified floral integration in Erysimum using geometric morphometrics and explored its evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Corolla-shape integration was low but significantly different from zero in all study species. Spatial autocorrelation and phylogenetic signal in corolla-shape integration were not detected. In addition, integration in Erysimum seems to have evolved in a way that is consistent with Brownian motion, but with frequent convergent evolution. Corolla-shape integration was negatively associated with the number of pollinators visiting the flowers of each Erysimum species. That is, it was lower in those species having a more generalized pollination system. This negative association may occur because the co-occurrence of many pollinators imposes conflicting selection and cancels out any consistent selection on specific floral traits, preventing the evolution of highly integrated flowers. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Vallejo-Medina P.,University of Granada | Sierra J.C.,University of Granada
Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy | Year: 2013

This study aimed to adapt and validate the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire-short form in a sample of drug-dependent men, achieving equivalence. Participants were 301 drug-dependent and 202 non-drug-dependent men took part in this study. The analysis of invariance revealed strong factor equivalence (RMSEA =.06; χ2/df = 2.66 and ΔCFI = -.01) for the 4-factor model (desire, pleasure, arousal, and orgasm). This model has shown the best fit indices. No items showed differential item functioning (ΔR2 Nagelkerke <.035). Reliability ranged from α = 0.83 for pleasure to α = 0.61 for orgasm. A comparison between the scores of control and experimental participants showed significant differences (CI = 99%) in all the dimensions. Thus, a worse sexual functioning has been observed in the drug consumer group. The adaptation of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire-short form to drug-dependent individuals showed good psychometric properties. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Megiasa E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Ruiz Arriolab E.,University of Granada | Salcedob L.L.,University of Granada
Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings | Year: 2015

By using a simple relativistic model, we compute the glueball and gluelump spectra and relate these quantities, respectively, to the trace anomaly and Polyakov loop in the adjoint representation of gluodynamics. This spectroscopic description of thermodynamics is extended with the inclusion of quarks. The relation between the hadron resonance gas and the Polyakov loop in the fundamental and higher representations is addressed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Rios-Aguilar S.,Pontifical University of Salamanca | Llorens-Montes F.-J.,University of Granada
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2015

This study analyzes the viability of using employees' smartphones following the BYOD paradigm as a valid tool to enable firms to control effective presence (primarily of remote labor force). We propose a model for a Mobile Presence Control Information System with which to demonstrate experimentally the viability of unifying three elements that have only been examined individually in previous studies: the consumerization of ITs, the real geolocation capabilities of personal mobile devices that employees can use in the workplace, and the exclusive use of Mobile Web technology to obtain universal location information without the need to install native apps. We also propose a new and specific methodology to analyze the precision and accuracy of the location data obtained by smartphone geolocation services. We developed a prototype of the Information System proposed and demonstrated its validity under different real-use conditions, obtaining valuable information on the accuracy and precision of the location data from real devices (based on iOS and Android) under the conditions of heterogeneous connectivity representative of workplaces. This research enables us to establish a new framework for the requirements needed, on both quantitative and qualitative levels, for the accuracy of the mobile location systems that can be used in Presence Control Information Systems, particularly those related to control of remote labor force. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Ramirez-Macias I.,University of Granada
TheScientificWorldJournal | Year: 2012

To evaluate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of nine flavonoid derivatives from Delphinium staphisagria against L. infantum and L. braziliensis. The in vitro activity of compounds 1-9 was assayed on extracellular promastigote and axenic amastigote forms and on intracellular amastigote forms of the parasites. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were carried on J774.2 macrophage cells using Glucantime as the reference drug. The mechanisms of action were analysed performing metabolite excretion and transmission electronic microscope ultrastructural alteration studies. Nine flavonoids showed leishmanicidal activity against promastigote as well as amastigote forms of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis. These compounds were nontoxic to mammalian cells and were effective at similar concentrations up to or lower than that of the reference drug (Glucantime). The results showed that 2(″)-acetylpetiolaroside (compound 8) was clearly the most active. This study has demonstrated that flavonoid derivatives are active against L. infantum and L. braziliensis.

Martin-Peinado F.J.,University of Granada | Rodriguez-Tovar F.J.,University of Granada
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2010

Traditionally, iridium has been considered an element of low mobility, but its behavior is still debated. Ir concentration in a soil affected by a catastrophic mining spill in 1998 that covered the soil with a layer of tailings offers the opportunity to analyse an exceptional Ir-bearing horizon 10. years after deposition. This has enabled comparisons with the values of past Ir-bearing horizons associated to impact-related mass-extinction events. Iridium concentration in the tailings (0.349. ppm) was 5-fold higher than the anomaly in the K-Pg at The Moody Creek Mine section (the highest values obtained from terrestrial sections). The oxidative weathering of the tailings caused the release of Ir and infiltration into the soil. Iridium distribution in depth indicates redistribution throughout the profile in relation to the change in the physico-chemical properties of the soil. With regard to the background concentration in the soil (0.056. ppm), anomalous values of Ir (0.129. ppm) can be detected to 11. cm below the layer of tailings. The correlation analysis between the Ir concentration and the main properties and constituents of the soils indicated a significant correlation with sulfur, iron, clay content, and pH. Selective extractions were made to study the forms in which Ir can be mobilized in the soil. The residual/insoluble fraction was >90% of the total Ir concentration in soil. Soluble-in-water concentration of Ir (1.5% of total) was detected in the uppermost 2-3. cm of the soil, which were directly affected by the leaching of acidic waters coming from the oxidation of the pyrite tailings. Iridium retention in the affected part of the soil reached 9% of the total Ir concentration; this retention could be related to the amorphous iron forms dissolved by the oxalic-oxalate extraction. However, according to our research, original Ir abundance could be secondarily modified, and then a direct analysis of the iridium values recorded in sediments could induce misinterpretations. The comparison between the actual example and the fossil record belonging to terrestrial settings, can be considered as a valuable approach, especially when Iridium data were used by researchers to interpret the impact-related mass-extinction events in the past. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ramos J.,University of Granada | De Vicente J.,University of Granada | Hidalgo-Alvarez R.,University of Granada
Langmuir | Year: 2010

A comprehensive investigation is performed on highly monodisperse silica-based inverse ferrofluids under smallamplitude oscillatory shear in the presence of external magnetic fields up to 1 T. The effect of particle volume fraction and continuous medium Newtonian viscosity is thoroughly investigated. Experimental results for storage modulus are used to validate existing micromechanical magnetorheological models assuming different particle-level field-induced structures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

The early Toarcian (Early Jurassic) global marine mass extinction is usually related to the development of organic-rich sediments preserved as black shales and interpreted as a global oceanic anoxic eventthe Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE). In the Betic Cordillera, southern Spain, the deep-marine Fuente de la Vidriera section contains the T-OAE as recorded at the westernmost part of the European Tethys. Ichnological analysis of the section indicates a relatively abundant and moderately diverse trace-fossil assemblage composed of Alcyonidiopsis isp., Chondrites isp., Nereites isp., Palaeophycus heberti, Planolites isp., Teichichnus isp., Thalassinoides isp., and Trichichnus linearis. A well-developed endobenthic multi-tiered community is characterized by an upper tier represented by homogenized sedimentindividual burrows difficult to discern, a middle tier with a relatively diverse trace-fossil assemblage of mainly vagile deposit feeders, and a lower tier with activities of semisessile deposit feeders. The ichnoassemblage indicates oxic or slightly dysoxic bottom waters that were relatively favorable for benthic organisms. The absence of anoxia is confirmed by previously published geochemical and isotopic data. The T-OAE did not induce extreme conditions for macrobenthic organisms inhabiting the seafloor in this area of the westernmost Tethys. Local factors probably limited the influence of the anoxic event in bottom waters but may have induced oxygen deficiency in upper water masses, producing unfavorable living conditions for pelagic biota and, consequently, a sudden decrease in ammonite abundance. © 2010 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Alvarez-Betancourt Y.,University of Cienfuegos | Garcia-Silvente M.,University of Granada
Scientometrics | Year: 2014

Person identification based on iris recognition is getting more and more attention among the modalities used for biometric recognition. This fact is due to the immutable and unique characteristics of the iris. Therefore it is of utmost importance for researchers interested in this discipline to know who and what is relevant in this area. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the field of iris recognition research using a bibliometric approach. Besides, this article provides historical records, basic concepts, current progress and trends in the field. With this purpose in mind, our bibliometric study is based on 1,354 documents written in English, published between 2000 and 2012. Scopus was used to perform the information retrieval. In the course of this study, we synthesized significant bibliometric indicators on iris recognition research in order to evaluate to what extent this particular field has been explored. Thereby, we focus on foundations, temporal evolution, leading authors, most cited papers, significant conventions, leading journals, outstanding research topics and enterprises and patents. Research topics are classified into three main categories: ongoing, emerging, and decreasing according to their corresponding number of publications over the period under study. An analysis of these indicators suggests there has been major advances in iris recognition research and also reveals promising new avenues worthy of investigation in the future. This study will be useful to future investigators in the field. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Medina-Castillo A.L.,University of Granada | Medina-Castillo A.L.,Nanomateriales y Polimeros S.L. | Fernandez-Sanchez J.F.,University of Granada | Fernandez-Gutierrez A.,University of Granada
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2011

In the present study, multifunctional core-shell fibre mats were designed by co-electrospinning. These core-shell fibre mats have three different functionalities: 1) they are magnetic, 2) they change their optical properties with the pH of the media, and 3) they are sensitive to O 2. The shell is formed by a fluorescent pH-sensitive co-polymer which was previously synthesised and characterized by our research group. The core is a suspension formed by magnetic nanoparticles in a solution made up by a lipophilic indicator dye (oxygen indicator; PtOEP) and, poly-methyl methacrylate, in THF. The magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by encapsulation of magnetite within a cross-linked polymeric matrix (MMA-co-EDMA). To our knowledge, this is the first time that three functionalities (magnetic properties, sensitivity to pH, and response to O 2 concentration) were successful conjugated on the same micro- or nano-material via a facile one-step process with high yield and cost effectiveness. The morphology of the well-organized core-shell fibres were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microcopy (HRSEM), transmission electron microcopy (TEM), and confocal laser microscopy. The luminescent properties of core-shell fibre mats were analysed and successfully used for simultaneously monitoring pH (from 6 to 8) and O 2, showing complete reversibility, high sensitivity (i.e., K sv = 7.07 bar -1 for determining O 2 in aqueous media), high magnetic susceptibility, and short response times. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

The stimulation or blockade of dopaminergic activity interrupts or increases, respectively, the phenomenon of latent inhibition in different paradigms. Furthermore, the involvement of the nucleus accumbens in latent inhibition has been demonstrated in several learning paradigms, including conditioned taste aversion. However, the role of the dorsal striatum in the pre-exposure effect on the acquisition of taste aversion remains unclear. In order to determine whether this region of the striatum is a structure necessary for latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion, excitotoxic lesions were made in the posterior part of the dorsal striatum of Wistar rats. Subsequently, half of the animals was pre-exposed to the flavor, and the magnitude of the taste aversion was compared to that of sham animals pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed to the same flavor. The results showed that the excitotoxic lesion in this area of the dorsal striatum, compared to sham animals, left latent inhibition of the conditioned taste aversion intact. These data suggest that the posterior part of the dorsal striatum is not necessary for the acquisition of latent inhibition, at least in the conditioned taste aversion paradigm. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.

Mellado A.,University of Granada | Zamora R.,University of Granada
Oecologia | Year: 2014

Mistletoes constitute instructive study cases with which to address the role of generalist consumers in the study of plant-animal interactions. Their ranges of safe sites for recruitment are among the most restricted of any plant; therefore, frugivores specializing in mistletoe have been considered almost indispensable for the seed dispersal of these parasitic plants. However, the absence of such specialists in numerous regions inhabited by many mistletoe species raises the question of whether unspecialized vectors may successfully disperse mistletoe seeds to narrowly defined safe sites. Using the European mistletoe Viscum album subsp. austriacum as a study case, we recorded a broad range of 11 bird species that disperse mistletoe seeds. For these species, we studied the mistletoe-visitation rate and feeding behavior to estimate the quantity component of dispersal effectiveness, and the post-foraging microhabitat use, seed handling, and recruitment probabilities of different microhabitats as a measure of the quality component of effectiveness. Both endozoochory and ectozoochory are valid dispersal mechanisms, as the seeds do not need to be ingested to germinate, increasing seed-dispersal versatility. Thrushes were the most effective dispersers, although they were rather inefficient, whereas small birds (both frugivores and non-frugivores) offered low-quantity but high-quality services for depositing seeds directly upon safe sites. As birds behave similarly on parasitized and non-parasitized hosts, and vectors have broad home ranges, reinfection within patches and the colonization of new patches are ensured by an ample assemblage of generalist birds. Thus, a parasitic plant requiring precision in seed dispersal can rely on unspecialized dispersers. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Hernandez-Mesa M.,University of Granada | Cruces-Blanco C.,University of Granada | Garcia-Campana A.M.,University of Granada
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2013

Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been proposed as an extraction technique combined with micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for the analysis of eight 5-nitroimidazole compounds, including some metabolites, in water samples. Determination has been carried out using a diode array detector, employing 20 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM SDS as separation buffer. Separation has taken place under a voltage of 25 kV and a temperature of 20°C. Samples were prepared in a buffer without micelles and they were hydrodynamically injected at 50 mbar for 25 s, producing a sweeping effect on the analytes for increasing sensitivity. Different factors involved in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure were optimized, such as sample pH, nature, and volume of extraction and dispersive solvents in the mixture, percentage of NaCl added to sample and shaking time after the injection of the extraction and dispersive solvents. The method was characterized for water samples, achieving detection limits lower than 2.4 μg/L. Trueness was checked in river, tap, and bottled water. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with MEKC constitutes an easy, cheap, and green alternative for 5-nitroimidazole analysis in environmental water samples. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Maldonado-Hodar F.J.,University of Granada
Catalysis Today | Year: 2013

Nanostructured carbon gels are prepared by sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde. The flexibility of the sol-gel process permits the control of the morphology, porosity and surface chemistry of carbon gels, but a large amount of variables should be carefully fitted. Pure carbon gels used as supports or doped-carbon gels and organic-inorganic composites to be used as catalyst, can be prepared. When metal-doped carbon gels are prepared, metals are active in all synthesis steps: polymerization, carbonization and/or activation. Interactions between organic-inorganic phases determine the distribution/dispersion of metals, sintering resistance, porosity, graphitization, formation of different active phases, etc. thus offering a large amount of possibilities in catalysis because final metal particles are also active in many catalyzed processes. Metal-doped carbon gels are more resistant to sintering or leaching than impregnated catalysts, however, some metal particles are encapsulated by the organic matrix, being therefore inactive in catalysis. Relationships between chemical and physical parameters with catalysts characteristics: loading, accessibility, chemical nature, stability (leaching or sintering) and catalytic behavior of the supported active phases are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Califano M.,University of Leeds | Gomez-Campos F.M.,University of Granada
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

Size tunability of the optical properties and inexpensive synthesis make semiconductor nanocrystals one of the most promising and versatile building blocks for many modern applications such as lasers, single-electron transistors, solar cells, and biological labels. The performance of these nanocrystal-based devices is however compromised by efficient trapping of the charge carriers. This process exhibits different features depending on the nanocrystal material, surface termination, size, and trap location, leading to the assumption that different mechanisms are at play in each situation. Here we revolutionize this fragmented picture and provide a unified interpretation of trapping dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals by identifying the origins of this so far elusive detrimental process. Our findings pave the way for a general suppression strategy, applicable to any system, which can lead to a simultaneous efficiency enhancement in all nanocrystal-based technologies. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Benavent-Climent A.,University of Granada
Engineering Structures | Year: 2010

This paper proposes a new brace-type seismic damper designed for earthquake protection of structures. It consists of a tube-in-tube assemblage of two commonly available hollow structural sections. The outer hollow section of the Tube-in-Tube Damper (TTD) has a series of strips created by cutting a series of slits though the wall, and it is welded to the inner hollow section in such a way that when the brace damper is subjected to forced displacements in the direction of its axis, the strips dissipate energy through flexural/shear yielding. In comparison with other existing brace-type dampers such as the popular buckling restrained brace, the TTD has the advantages of being much simpler-thus entailing a lower cost-and the yielding part of the damper can be easily inspected after an earthquake. The performance of the proposed damper was assessed experimentally by an initial series of four cyclic tests, and compared with that of conventional steel plates with slits in another series of five tests. The experimental results show that the damper possesses very stable hysteric characteristics and excellent energy dissipation capacity, both similar to the conventional steel plates with slits already in use for seismic applications. Based on the test results, a hysteric model and a procedure for predicting the ultimate energy dissipation capacity and failure of the new damper are proposed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ruiz D.,University of Granada
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2010

This paper is motivated by the study of a version of the so-called Schrödinger-Poisson-Slater problem: where u H1(ℝ3). We are concerned mostly with p (2, 3). The behavior of radial minimizers motivates the study of the static case ω = 0. Among other things, we obtain a general lower bound for the Coulomb energy, which could be useful in other frameworks. The radial and nonradial cases turn out to yield essentially different situations. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Soler M.,University of Granada
Biological Reviews | Year: 2014

Coevolutionary theory predicts that the most common long-term outcome of the relationships between brood parasites and their hosts should be coevolutionary cycles based on a dynamic change selecting the currently least-defended host species, given that when well-defended hosts are abandoned, hosts will be selected to decrease their defences as these are usually assumed to be costly. This is assumed to be the case also in brood parasite-host systems. Here I examine the frequency of the three potential long-term outcomes of brood parasite-host coevolution (coevolutionary cycles, lack of rejection, and successful resistance) in 182 host species. The results of simple exploratory comparisons show that coevolutionary cycles are very scarce while the lack of rejection and successful resistance, which are considered evolutionary enigmas, are much more frequent. I discuss these results considering (i) the importance of different host defences at all stages of the breeding cycle, (ii) the role of phenotypic plasticity in long-term coevolution, and (iii) the evolutionary history of host selection. I suggest that in purely antagonistic coevolutionary interactions, such as those involving brood parasites and their hosts, that although cycles will exist during an intermediate phase of the interactions, the arms race will end with the extinction of the host or with the host acquiring successful resistance. As evolutionary time passes, this resistance will force brood parasites to use previously less suitable host species. Furthermore, I present a model that represents the long-term trajectories and outcomes of coevolutionary interactions between brood parasites and their hosts with respect to the evolution of egg-rejection defence. This model suggests that as an increasing number of species acquire successful resistance, other unparasitized host species become more profitable and their parasitism rate and the costs imposed by brood parasitism at the population level will increase, selecting for the evolution of host defences. This means that although acceptance is adaptive when the parasitism rate and the costs of parasitism are very low, this cannot be considered to represent an evolutionary equilibrium, as conventional theory has done to date, because it is not stable. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Arcoya D.,University of Granada | Segura De Leon S.,University of Valencia
ESAIM - Control, Optimisation and Calculus of Variations | Year: 2010

We study a comparison principle and uniqueness of positive solutions for the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary value problem associated to quasi-linear elliptic equations with lower order terms. A model example is given by -Δ u+λ|∇u|2/ur = f(x), λ, r>0. The main feature of these equations consists in having a quadratic gradient term in which singularities are allowed. The arguments employed here also work to deal with equations having lack of ellipticity or some dependence on u in the right hand side. Furthermore, they could be applied to obtain uniqueness results for nonlinear equations having the p-Laplacian operator as the principal part. Our results improve those already known, even if the gradient term is not singular. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2008.

Barea E.,University of Granada | Montoro C.,University of Granada | Navarro J.A.R.,University of Granada
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

The release of anthropogenic toxic pollutants into the atmosphere is a worldwide threat of growing concern. In this regard, it is possible to take advantage of the high versatility of MOFs materials in order to develop new technologies for environmental remediation purposes. Consequently, one of the main scientific challenges to be achieved in the field of MOF research should be to maximize the performance of these solids towards the sensing, capture and catalytic degradation of harmful gases and vapors by means of a rational control of size and reactivity of the pore walls that are directly accessible to guest molecules. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Martinez-Rodrigo M.D.,Jaume I University | Lavado J.,University of Granada | Museros P.,University of Granada
Engineering Structures | Year: 2010

This paper deals with the application of Passive Control techniques to mitigate the excessive vibrations that short simply supported railway bridges may undergo under the circulation of High-Speed trains. A possible solution to reduce inadmissible levels of deck vertical acceleration, based on retrofitting the bridge with fluid viscous dampers connected to the slab and to an auxiliary structure, is proposed and evaluated. To this end, two real bridges belonging to the Spanish railway network are analysed using an orthotropic plate Finite Element model, which properties are updated from experimental tests performed on the structures in the past. A possible conditioning of the respective lines for higher design velocities than the current ones is considered, leading to inadmissible performances of the bridges. A particular retrofit is proposed for each structure in order to accomplish the Serviceability Limit State of vertical acceleration, and the controlling effect of the proposed system is shown for a wide range of trains and circulating velocities. In order to realistically assess the technical feasibility of the alternative, special attention is given to practical aspects related to the auxiliary structure and dampers installation. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Teruel M.,University of Granada | Cabrero J.,University of Granada | Perfectti F.,University of Granada | Camacho J.P.M.,University of Granada
Chromosoma | Year: 2010

In addition to the standard set of chromosomes (A), about 15% of eukaryote genomes carry B chromosomes. In most cases, B chromosomes behave as genomic parasites being detrimental for the individuals carrying them and prospering in natural populations because of transmission advantages (drive). B chromosomes are mostly made up of repetitive DNA sequences, especially ribosomal DNA (rDNA), satellite DNA and mobile elements. In only two cases have B chromosomes been shown to carry protein-coding genes. Although some B chromosomes seem to have derived from interspecific hybridisation, the most likely source of B chromosomes is the host genome itself, but the specific A chromosome being the B ancestor has not been identified in any Bcontaining species. Here, we provide strong evidence for B chromosome ancestry in the migratory locust, based on the location of genes for the H3 and H4 histones in the B chromosome and a single A chromosome pair (i.e. the eighth in order of decreasing size). The high DNA sequence similarity of A and B chromosome H3-H4 genes supports B-origin from chromosome 8. The higher variation shown by B sequences, compared to A sequences, suggests that B chromosome sequences are most likely inactive and thus less subjected to purifying selection. Estimates of time of divergence for histone genes from A and B chromosomes suggest that B chromosomes are quite old (>750,000 years), showing the B-chromosome ability to persist in natural populations for long periods of time. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Soler M.,University of Granada | Martin-Vivaldi M.,University of Granada | Fernandez-Morante J.,University of Granada
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2012

Fitness costs imposed by the common cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, on its hosts select for host defences such as nest defence and egg discrimination. The efficiency of both types of defence varies among host species, host populations and even seasonally within a host population. We examined changes in egg recognition as defence against cuckoo parasitism in the rufous-tailed scrub robin, Cercotrichas galactotes, both seasonally and over a decade. The rejection rate decreased from 64.7% to zero within 10 years following the cuckoos' disappearance from the area. In this host species, egg recognition without rejection had previously been reported and in this study, using nonmimetic model eggs, we found that, in the absence of cuckoos, females lost their motivation to reject despite maintaining their discrimination capacity. During presentations of dummy cuckoos and other species, rufous-tailed scrub robins did not recognize the female cuckoo dummy as an enemy and its presentation near the host nest did not increase egg rejection, the rejection rate remaining very similar regardless of the dummy species placed near the nest. We suggest that other cues such as the sight of cuckoos flying across the breeding area or directly to the nest are responsible for a fine-tuned assessment of the risk of parasitism in this host species. The sharp decrease in rejection rates according to perceived risk of parasitism reported here reflects phenotypic plasticity, an adaptive mechanism that enables animals to adjust their behaviour to a rapidly changing environment. © 2012 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Kimura Y.,Tohoku University | Niinomi H.,Tohoku University | Tsukamoto K.,Tohoku University | Garcia-Ruiz J.M.,University of Granada
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

The formation of crystals from solution requires the initial self-assembly of units of matter into stable periodic structures reaching a critical size. The early stages of this process, called nucleation, are very difficult to visualize. Here we describe a novel method that allows real time observation of the dynamics of nucleation and dissolution of sodium chlorate clusters in an ionic liquid solution using in situ transmission electron microscopy. Using ionic liquids as solvent circumvents the problem of evaporation and charging, while the nucleation frequency was reduced by using saturated solutions. We observe simultaneous formation and dissolution of prenucleation clusters, suggesting that high-density fluctuations leading to solid cluster formation exist even under equilibrium conditions. In situ electron diffraction patterns reveal the simultaneous formation of crystalline nuclei of two polymorphic structures, the stable cubic phase and the metastable monoclinic phase, during the earliest stages of nucleation. These results demonstrate that molecules in solution can form clusters of different polymorphic phases independently of their respective solubility. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Henri Van Heurck examined a sample collection of sea ice and underlying sea floor sediment material during the Belgian Antarctic Expedition (1897-1899). He described eight new taxa of the monoraphid diatom genus Cocconeis from this collection including: C. antiqua var. tenuistriata, C. gautierii var. gautierii and var. inornata, C. heydrichii, C. japonica var. antarctica, C. litigiosa, C. schuettii var. schuettii and var. minor. All these Cocconeis taxa share well-silicified sternum valves with wide, apical hyaline areas, more or less lenticular in shape, and narrow hyaline bands at mid-distance between the apical axis and the margin, while the more delicate raphe-sternum valves bear uniseriate striae, a hemistauros associated with the central raphe area, and crescent-shaped terminal hyaline areas. Since their original description in the early 20th century, these Cocconeis taxa have been rarely reported. I studied newly described Cocconeis taxa from Van Heurck's type material by light microscopy. The main valve features of C. gautierii var. gautierii and var. inornata, C. litigiosa, and C. schuettii var. schuettii and var. minor agree well with those of Cocconeis antiqua; I propose these five taxa be reduced to synonymy of C. antiqua. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York.

Maldonado-Hodar F.J.,University of Granada
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2011

Metal (Cr, Mo, W) - doped carbon aerogels were synthesized from resorcinol-formaldehyde polymerization, characterized textural and chemically and used as aromatization catalysts. Catalytic performance depended on the thermal treatments applied to the samples and on the nature of the metal phases formed (pure carbon is inactive). Only cracking and aromatization reactions were detected and benzene was produced by dehydrogenation and direct 1-6 ring closure. The partial reduction of the metal oxides led to less acidic surfaces enhancing the aromatization versus cracking. Benzene selectivity of 60% without deactivation was obtained. However, when Ni and Co were reduced to the zero valence, strong interactions with the hexane led to a 100% selectivity to methane. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Contreras-Calderon J.,University of Granada | Calderon-Jaimes L.,University of Pamplona | Guerra-Hernandez E.,University of Granada | Garcia-Villanova B.,University of Granada
Food Research International | Year: 2011

Twenty-four exotic Colombian fruits were evaluated for antioxidant activity and total soluble phenolics (TP) (edible part, seed and peel) and ascorbic acid content (edible part). The antioxidant activities were evaluated by ABTS (free radical-scavenging capacity) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. The ABTS, FRAP, TP and ascorbic acid values in the edible part were 3.25 to 175 μM Trolox equiv/g fresh weight (FW), 6.29 to 144 μM Trolox equiv/g FW, 15.7 to 1018. mg gallic acid equiv/100. g FW, and 0.53 to 257. mg ascorbic acid/100. g FW respectively. There were positive correlations between antioxidant activity (assessed by both ABTS and FRAP) and TP and ascorbic acid with the FRAP and ABTS methods. The edible part of banana passion fruits (P. tarminiana and P. mollisima) exhibited the highest values of antioxidant activity and total phenolics, while the highest level of ascorbic acid was recorded in the edible part of guava apple and cashew. The seeds with the highest values of antioxidant activity and total phenols were cashew, algarrobo, arazá and coastal sapote, while the peel of coastal sapote and algarrobo had the highest values of antioxidant activity and total phenolics. To the best of our knowledge, this paper reports the first evaluation of pulp, seed and skin of Colombian tropical fruits with a view to their knowledge utilization for the development of novel functional food products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Poquet J.M.,University of Granada | Mesquita-Joanes F.,University of Valencia
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2011

1. The relationship between altitudinal gradients on small spatial scales and latitudinal gradients on broader scales has been repeatedly recognised in the biogeography of animals and plants. However, little is known about this topic in the ecology and biogeography of ostracod communities in Mediterranean flowing waters or the factors underlying these spatial patterns. 2. We analysed the ostracod assemblages of near-natural headwater streams in the Betic and Pre-Betic Mountains in the southern Iberian Peninsula to decipher the most important environmental gradients structuring ostracod communities on a local scale. In addition, the European altitudinal and latitudinal distributions of the most commonly found species were analysed with GIS and regression models to compare geographical effects from local to continental scales. 3. Forty sampling sites, distributed among six catchments and ranging in altitude between 150 and 1940m a.s.l., were sampled seasonally. Limnological and geographical information was also recorded for each sample. Seventeen ostracod species were found, two of which were new findings for the Iberian Peninsula: Potamocypris fulva and Cypria reptans. The most common species were Potamocypris zschokkei, Candona neglecta, Herpetocypris brevicaudata, Cyclocypris ovum, Potamocypris villosa and Pseudocandona albicans. The distribution of these species in 918 European locations was analysed to test the hypothesised change in altitudinal distribution with varying latitude. 4. The best subset of logistic and linear regression models, selected by means of the information-theoretic approach, found that oxygen content and the variables related with substratum and discharge were the most important variables with a negative influence on ostracod presence, abundance and species richness on a local scale. These findings suggest that the negative effect on benthic invertebrates of physical disturbances relates to high flow velocity and turbulences. 5. Multivariate ordination methods show how altitude and water chemistry are the most important variables to explain the distribution of ostracod assemblages on the small spatial scale. On a larger scale, differences in latitudinal distribution throughout Europe were significant for the six most common species found in Granada. In addition, four of these showed significant negative linear relationships between latitude and altitude in Europe, supporting the important effect of climate on local and continental scale distributions. While ostracod biogeographies are still poorly known, our results indicate the influence of Quaternary climate variability on ostracod dynamic colonisation and extinction in Europe in accordance with species-specific temperature and water chemistry preferences. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Checa A.G.,University of Granada | Harper E.M.,University of Cambridge
Biological Bulletin | Year: 2010

The external shell surfaces of most anomalodesmatan bivalves are studded with small spikes, particularly at the posterior end. We have studied the morphology, mode of growth, and distribution among taxa of these spikes. In this study we found that spikes vary widely in morphology, from acute spikes to flat plaques. Optical and electron microscopy has revealed that the periostraca of Laternula, Myadora, and Thraciopsis consist of an outer dense layer and an inner translucent layer. The dense layer grows at the expense of the inner layer as it progresses toward the shell edge. The spikes begin to grow in the free periostracum, within the translucent periostracal layer, immediately below the dense layer. With growth, they push the dense periostracal layer upward but without penetrating it. Those parts of the spike in contact with this layer cease to grow, which explains the typical conical shape of spikes. When fully grown, spikes reach the base of the translucent layer, becoming incorporated into the outer shell layer. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analysis reveal that the spikes of Lyonsia norwegica and Lyonsiella abyssicola are prisms of aragonite composed of twinned crystals, with the c-axis vertical. A survey of the occurrence of spikes within the anomalodesmatans shows that they are present in all but a few families. Elsewhere within the closely related palaeoheterodonts, intra-periostracal calcification is also known in Neotrigonia and unionids, which indicates that this character may be plesiomorphic for these bivalves. The present data do not support the homology of spikes in other bivalve groups (e.g., veneroids) or in the aplacophorans or polyplacophorans. © 2010 Marine Biological Laboratory.

Melchor S.,University of Granada | Martin-Martinez F.J.,University of Granada | Dobado J.A.,University of Granada
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2011

Here, a method is described for easily building three-carbon nanotube junctions. It allows the geometry to be found and bond connectivity of C 3 symmetric nanotube junctions to be established. Such junctions may present a variable degree of pyramidalization and are composed of three identical carbon nanotubes with arbitrary chirality. From the indices of the target nanotube, applying the formulas of strip algebra, the possible positions of the six defects (heptagonal rings) needed can be found. Given the multiple possibilities that arise for a specific pair of indices, the relation between the macroscopic geometry (interbranch angles, junction size, and pyramidalization) and each specific solution is found. To automate the construction of these structures, we implemented this algorithm with CoNTub software, version 2.0, which is available at ( contub2). In addition, a classification of three-nanotube junctions, 3TJ, in seven types based on the location of defects has been proposed, i.e. 3TJ(0:0:6), 3TJ(0:1:5), 3TJ(0:2:4), 3TJ(0:3:3), 3TJ(1:1:4), 3TJ(1:2:3), and 3TJ(2:2:2) types. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Garcia D.,University of Oviedo | Zamora R.,University of Granada | Amico G.C.,Institute Investigacion en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente
Ecological Monographs | Year: 2011

Plant-animal interactions are crucial nodes in the structure of communities and pivotal drivers of ecosystem functioning. Much of this relevance may depend on how animals cope with plant resources at different spatial scales. However, little is known about how and why different interactions perform at different scales in the same environmental setting. In this study we assess the spatial scales at which two plant-animal interactions operate and disentangle the environmental factors (plant resource availability vs. habitat structure) underpinning these operational scales. We studied two interactions with opposite (mutualistic vs. antagonistic) ecological effects on fleshy-fruited trees, frugivory and seed dispersal by birds, and the later predation by rodents on bird-dispersed seeds. Employing a standardized sampling, we covered three temperate ecosystems hosting structurally similar plant-frugivore-seed predator systems: Cantabrian forest, Mediterranean shrubland, and Patagonian forest. We sampled habitat structure (tree and understory covers), fleshy-fruit abundance, birddispersed seed occurrence, frugivorous bird abundance, and seed predation rate, along 1500-2500 m transects. Using a spatially explicit approach, we broke down the predictable spatial patterns of bird abundance and seed predation rate into patchiness at three consecutive spatial scales (broad, intermediate, and fine). The degree of patchiness and the allocation of spatial variability at different scales suggested a hierarchically nested structure in frugivory and seed predation, but a larger operational scale in seed predation than in frugivory. Scale-specific spatial distributions were explained by the response of animals to plant resource availability and habitat structure. Birds tracked fruits at large spatial scales in all systems and, within some systems, even across consecutive scales. Seed predation distribution was more responsive to habitat features than to resource availability. The reinforcement of resource tracking patterns across scales sometimes occurred simultaneously with the dilution of habitat effects, suggesting that scale dependence may emerge from trade-offs between resource acquisition and the effects of other factors, such as predation risk, on interacting animals. Our findings suggest that scale dependence in frugivory and seed predation may affect the balance of demographic effects of these interactions in plant populations. Moreover, the consistency of frugivory patterns within and across spatial scales may condition the redundancy of seed dispersal as an ecosystem function. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

Husein-Elahmed H.,University of Granada | Armijo-Lozano R.,University of Granada
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery | Year: 2013

Rhinophyma, a progressive, disfiguring disease of the nose, is considered the final stage of acne rosacea. In its early stages, rhinophyma can be managed with medical treatment using isotretinoin or oral antibiotics (metronidazole). However, severe cases usually are refractory to medical approaches. Surgical therapies to treat these severe refractory cases have been described. This report describes a simple, safe, efficient, and cost-effective approach to the treatment of severe rhinophyma using a scalpel and the electroscalpel, instruments readily available in every operating room. Level of Evidence V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.

Duarte F.,University of Porto | Maldonado-Hodar F.J.,University of Granada | Madeira L.M.,University of Porto
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2011

This work deals with the elimination of the azo-dye Orange II (OII) by the heterogeneous Fenton's process. Three different commercial activated carbons (ACs), Norit RX 3 Extra, Merck and Kynol, were used as Fe-supports to develop Fenton catalysts (7wt.% Fe/C). Both supports and catalysts were characterized by several techniques (N 2 and CO 2 adsorption, XRD, TEM). The elimination of the dye is a complex heterogeneous process with co-existence of adsorption and oxidation. Adsorption and catalytic experiments were carried out with only 0.1gL -1 of solid in a slurry batch reactor at 30°C, pH 3 and initial dye concentration of 0.1mM. The decolorization was followed continuously by the absorbance measurement; mineralization and leaching levels were evaluated by TOC and atomic absorption analyses, respectively. Correlations of ACs characteristics with their adsorptive or catalytic performances were established, in order to select the best support. All the ACs are microporous materials and the OII adsorption is favoured by an increase of the micropore width. Although the carbon surface proves to be catalytically active, the main OII elimination process in pure ACs is adsorption, while for the Fe-catalyst it is determined by the Fenton oxidation. The Fe-Norit is the most active catalyst, which is associated to its high surface area located on large micropores that favours both the OII adsorption and the Fe-dispersion. However, this catalyst presented the highest tendency to the leaching. Anyway, the leaching values remain quite low even in this case (<1.7% of the total Fe), guarantying the possible reuse of the catalysts. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Schiestl F.P.,University of Zürich | Huber F.K.,University of Zürich | Gomez J.M.,University of Granada
Evolutionary Ecology | Year: 2011

Flowers emit a large variety of floral signals that play a fundamental role in the communication of plants with their mutualists and antagonists. We investigated phenotypic selection on floral scent and floral display using the rewarding orchid species Gymnadenia odoratissima. We found positive directional selection on inflorescence size, as well as positive and negative selection on floral scent compounds. Structural equation modeling showed that "active" compounds, i. e. those that were shown in earlier investigations to be detected by pollinator insects, were positively linked to fitness, whereas "non-active" were negatively linked to fitness. Our results suggest that different patterns of selection impact on different scent compounds, which may relate to the functions of compounds for attracting/deterring insects. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Dominguez-Garcia V.,University of Granada | Munoz M.A.,University of Granada
Scientific Reports | Year: 2015

Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic "nested" structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm -similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity- here we propose a method which -by exploiting their nested architecture- allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.

Munoz M.A.,University of Granada | Juhasz R.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Castellano C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Odor G.,Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Quenched disorder is known to play a relevant role in dynamical processes and phase transitions. Its effects on the dynamics of complex networks have hardly been studied. Aimed at filling this gap, we analyze the contact process, i.e., the simplest propagation model, with quenched disorder on complex networks. We find Griffiths phases and other rare-region effects, leading rather generically to anomalously slow (algebraic, logarithmic,...) relaxation, on Erdos-Rényi networks. Similar effects are predicted to exist for other topologies with a finite percolation threshold. More surprisingly, we find that Griffiths phases can also emerge in the absence of quenched disorder, as a consequence of topological heterogeneity in networks with finite topological dimension. These results have a broad spectrum of implications for propagation phenomena and other dynamical processes on networks. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is major health problem worldwide with substantial morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to assess post-operative VTE prophylaxis duration and adherence to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2008 guidelines in patients having undergone major orthopaedic surgery (MOS). Methods This multinational, longitudinal, observational registry recruited consecutive patients (≥ 18 years of age) who underwent total hip replacement (THR), total knee replacement (TKR), and hip fracture surgery (HFS). There were 3 study visits: at admission to hospital, at discharge, and 4/6 weeks after surgery. Data on demographics, medical history, VTE risk factors, type and duration of mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis, complications, and adherence to the ACCP 2008 guidelines were collected using case report forms. Results Between October 2009 and July 2011, 2162 eligible patients were analyzed: THR: 646, TKR: 740, HFS: 776 (mean age [SD]: 64.5 [15.0] years; female: 61.3%; and mean hospitalization duration [SD]: 9.1 [8.2] days). VTE prophylaxis was prescribed to 96.2% of patients during hospitalization and 89.7% of patients after hospital discharge. Prophylaxis was prescribed according to the ACCP 2008 guidelines in 85.7% of patients during hospitalization and 63.4% of patients after hospital discharge. The main reasons for non-adherence to guidelines were no prescription and inadequate duration of prophylaxis. The low molecular weight heparin - enoxaparin - was the most commonly prescribed prophylaxis. Conclusion We observed a gap between real life VTE prophylaxis and the ACCP 2008 recommendations. Improved prescription of extended thromboprophylaxis is warranted to ensure adherence to international guidelines. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Jimenez-Barrionuevo M.M.,University of Granada | Garcia-Morales V.J.,University of Granada | Molina L.M.,University of Granada
Technovation | Year: 2011

Absorptive capacity is an ability firms should develop if they wish to adapt to changes in an increasingly competitive and changing environment and to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. Despite the increase in literature on absorptive capacity, some ambiguity remains in determining the dimensions that shape the construct. Thus, no measurement instrument can be adapted to these dimensions. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the literature on absorptive capacity by using a resource-based view to present an alternative measurement instrument for absorptive capacity. This instrument differentiates between the phases of acquisition, assimilation, transformation and exploitation of knowledge, as well as between the two dimensions of absorptive capacity (potential and realized), to reduce the problem of measuring and identifying the dimensions that shape this important construct. The instrument's validity and reliability are guaranteed and have been tested using data from 168 Spanish organizations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Alcala R.,University of Granada | Gacto M.J.,University of Jaén | Herrera F.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2011

Linguistic fuzzy modeling in high-dimensional regression problems poses the challenge of exponential-rule explosion when the number of variables and/or instances becomes high. One way to address this problem is by determining the used variables, the linguistic partitioning and the rule set together, in order to only evolve very simple, but still accurate models. However, evolving these components together is a difficult task, which involves a complex search space. In this study, we propose an effective multiobjective evolutionary algorithm that, based on embedded genetic database (DB) learning (involved variables, granularities, and slight fuzzy-partition displacements), allows the fast learning of simple and quite-accurate linguistic models. Some efficient mechanisms have been designed to ensure a very fast, but not premature, convergence in problems with a high number of variables. Further, since additional problems could arise for datasets with a large number of instances, we also propose a general mechanism for the estimation of the model error when using evolutionary algorithms, by only considering a reduced subset of the examples. By doing so, we can also apply a fast postprocessing stage for further refining the learned solutions. We tested our approach on 17 real-world datasets with different numbers of variables and instances. Three well-known methods based on embedded genetic DB learning have been executed as references. We compared the different approaches by applying nonparametric statistical tests for multiple comparisons. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method not only in terms of scalability but in terms of the simplicity and generalizability of the obtained models as well. © 2006 IEEE.

Abellan J.,University of Granada
International Journal of General Systems | Year: 2011

In Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence coexist two types of uncertainty: conflict and nonspecificity. The maximum of entropy is a total uncertainty measure that verifies an important set of properties in this theory. We prove that this function has a fault of sensibility to changes in evidence in situations where only the part of nonspecificity is presented in the uncertainty (uncertainty without conflict), producing no-logical values. We analyse two measures of nonspecificity presented in DST, which have been used as part of total uncertainty measures. We compare their behaviour, focusing on situations where only the part of nonspecificity is presented in the uncertainty. We will see that it makes sense to combine them and use this combination as part of a total uncertainty measure verifying an important set of properties and behaviours. This new total measure has not the mentioned problem of lack of sensitivity to changes in evidence. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Alcala-Fdez J.,University of Granada | Alcala R.,University of Granada | Herrera F.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2011

The inductive learning of fuzzy rule-based classification systems suffers from exponential growth of the fuzzy rule search space when the number of patterns and/or variables becomes high. This growth makes the learning process more difficult and, in most cases, it leads to problems of scalability (in terms of the time and memory consumed) and/or complexity (with respect to the number of rules obtained and the number of variables included in each rule). In this paper, we propose a fuzzy association rule-based classification method for high-dimensional problems, which is based on three stages to obtain an accurate and compact fuzzy rule-based classifier with a low computational cost. This method limits the order of the associations in the association rule extraction and considers the use of subgroup discovery, which is based on an improved weighted relative accuracy measure to preselect the most interesting rules before a genetic postprocessing process for rule selection and parameter tuning. The results that are obtained more than 26 real-world datasets of different sizes and with different numbers of variables demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. © 2011 IEEE.

Gacto M.J.,University of Jaén | Alcala R.,University of Granada | Herrera F.,University of Granada
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

Linguistic fuzzy modelling, developed by linguistic fuzzy rule-based systems, allows us to deal with the modelling of systems by building a linguistic model which could become interpretable by human beings. Linguistic fuzzy modelling comes with two contradictory requirements: interpretability and accuracy. In recent years the interest of researchers in obtaining more interpretable linguistic fuzzy models has grown. Whereas the measures of accuracy are straightforward and well-known, interpretability measures are difficult to define since interpretability depends on several factors; mainly the model structure, the number of rules, the number of features, the number of linguistic terms, the shape of the fuzzy sets, etc. Moreover, due to the subjectivity of the concept the choice of appropriate interpretability measures is still an open problem. In this paper, we present an overview of the proposed interpretability measures and techniques for obtaining more interpretable linguistic fuzzy rule-based systems. To this end, we will propose a taxonomy based on a double axis: "Complexity versus semantic interpretability" considering the two main kinds of measures; and "rule base versus fuzzy partitions" considering the different components of the knowledge base to which both kinds of measures can be applied. The main aim is to provide a well established framework in order to facilitate a better understanding of the topic and well founded future works. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ghobakhloo M.,University of Granada | Arias-Aranda D.,University of Granada | Benitez-Amado J.,University of Granada
Industrial Management and Data Systems | Year: 2011

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors within the technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework that affect the decision to adopt electronic commerce (EC) and extent of EC adoption, as well as adoption and non-adoption of different EC applications within small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from 235 managers or owners of manufacturing SMEs in Iran. The data were analyzed by employing factorial analysis and relevant hypotheses were derived and tested by multiple and logistic regression analysis. Findings EC adoption within SMEs is affected by perceived relative advantage, perceived compatibility, CEO's innovativeness, information intensity, buyer/supplier pressure, support from technology vendors, and competition. Similarly, description on determinants of adoption and non-adoption of different EC applications has been provided. Research limitations/implications Cross-sectional data of this research tend to have certain limitations when it comes to explaining the direction of causality of the relationships among the variables, which will change overtime. Practical implications The findings offer valuable insights to managers, IS experts, and policy makers responsible for assisting SMEs with entering into the e-marketplace. Vendors should collaborate with SMEs to enhance the compatibility of EC applications with these businesses. To enhance the receptiveness of EC applications, CEOs, innovativeness and perception toward EC advantages should also be aggrandized. Originality/value This study is perhaps one of the first to use a wide range of variables in the light of TOE framework to comprehensively assess EC adoption behavior, both in terms of initial and post-adoption within SMEs in developing countries, as well adoption and non-adoption of simple and advanced EC applications such as electronic supply chain management systems. Copyright © 2011 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

Cara A.B.,University of Granada | Pomares H.,University of Granada | Rojas I.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2011

In this study, a novel fuzzy controller, which is able to self-design from scratch, while working online, is proposed. The controller does not use the information regarding the differential equations that govern the plants behavior or any of their bounds. The algorithm presented is able to determine the most-adequate topology for the fuzzy controller based on the data obtained during the systems normal operation. Therefore, the controller can start operating with an empty set of fuzzy rules and needs no offline training. The proposed methodology comprises two phases: adaptation of the consequents for every selected topology and online addition of new membership functions (MFs). Some of the main advantages of this method are its robustness under changes on the plants dynamics, good performance in noisy situations, and the ability to perform variable selection among a group of candidate variables. Unlike other online methods, the modification of the topology is based on the analysis of the whole operating region of the plant, thus providing higher robustness. Several simulation examples are used to show these features. © 2011 IEEE.

Mujalli R.O.,University of Granada | De Ona J.,University of Granada
Journal of Safety Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: This study describes a method for reducing the number of variables frequently considered in modeling the severity of traffic accidents. The method's efficiency is assessed by constructing Bayesian networks (BN). Method: It is based on a two stage selection process. Several variable selection algorithms, commonly used in data mining, are applied in order to select subsets of variables. BNs are built using the selected subsets and their performance is compared with the original BN (with all the variables) using five indicators. The BNs that improve the indicators' values are further analyzed for identifying the most significant variables (accident type, age, atmospheric factors, gender, lighting, number of injured, and occupant involved). A new BN is built using these variables, where the results of the indicators indicate, in most of the cases, a statistically significant improvement with respect to the original BN. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the number of variables used to model traffic accidents injury severity through BNs without reducing the performance of the model. Impact on Industry: The study provides the safety analysts a methodology that could be used to minimize the number of variables used in order to determine efficiently the injury severity of traffic accidents without reducing the performance of the model. © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Babacan S.D.,Northwestern University | Molina R.,University of Granada | Katsaggelos A.K.,Northwestern University
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2010

In this paper, we model the components of the compressive sensing (CS) problem, i.e., the signal acquisition process, the unknown signal coefficients and the model parameters for the signal and noise using the Bayesian framework. We utilize a hierarchical form of the Laplace prior to model the sparsity of the unknown signal. We describe the relationship among a number of sparsity priors proposed in the literature, and show the advantages of the proposed model including its high degree of sparsity. Moreover,we show that some of the existing models are special cases of the proposed model. Using our model, we develop a constructive (greedy) algorithm designed for fast reconstruction useful in practical settings. Unlike most existing CS reconstruction methods, the proposed algorithm is fully automated, i.e., the unknown signal coefficients and all necessary parameters are estimated solely from the observation, and, therefore, no user-intervention is needed. Additionally, the proposed algorithm provides estimates of the uncertainty of the reconstructions.We provide experimental results with synthetic 1-D signals and images, and compare with the state-of the-art CS reconstruction algorithms demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed approach. © 2009 IEEE.

Herrera-Viedma E.,University of Granada | Lopez-Herrera A.G.,University of Granada
International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems | Year: 2010

This paper presents a survey of some fuzzy linguistic information access systems. The review shows information retrieval systems, filtering systems, recommender systems, and web quality evaluation tools, which are based on tools of fuzzy linguistic modelling. The fuzzy linguistic modelling allows us to represent and manage the subjectivity, vagueness and imprecision that is intrinsic and characteristic of the processes of information searching, and, in such a way, the developed systems allow users the access to quality information in a flexible and user-adapted way.

Couso I.,University of Oviedo | Moral S.,University of Granada
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2010

We study three conditions of independence within evidence theory framework. The first condition refers to the selection of pairs of focal sets. The remaining two ones are related to the choice of a pair of elements, once a pair of focal sets has been selected. These three concepts allow us to formalize the ideas of lack of interaction among variables and among their (imprecise) observations. We illustrate the difference between both types of independence with simple examples about drawing balls from urns. We show that there are no implication relationships between both of them. We also study the relationships between the concepts of "independence in the selection" and "random set independence", showing that they cannot be simultaneously satisfied, except in some very particular cases. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Garrido J.,University of Granada | Requena I.,University of Granada
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) analyses the effects of human activity, ecosystem integrity and the quality of the environmental services that can be provided by them. This analysis must be done prior to project execution in order to have a preventive nature. The application of new technologies in EIA needs an adequate structure of the knowledge, so a lot of problems appear because depending of the country, different terminologies are used. This paper describes a proposal of ontology for EIA to establish a conceptual framework and the building process. In addition, we have developed a friendly web interface in order to provide easy access to the knowledge and the possibility to suggest changes in the ontology to environmental experts. The objectives are gathering and providing the EIA terminology and facilitating structuring and the development of EIA methodologies. Finally, the paper describes how the ontology can be used in EIA applications with knowledge mobilization. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Martinez C.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Lozano M.,University of Granada
Soft Computing | Year: 2010

Local genetic algorithms have been designed with the aim of providing effective intensification. One of their most outstanding features is that they may help classical local search-based metaheuristics to improve their behavior. This paper focuses on experimentally investigating the role of a recent approach, the binary-coded local genetic algorithm (BLGA), as context-independent local search operator for three local search-based metaheuristics: random multi-start local search, iterated local search, and variable neighborhood search. These general-purpose models treat the objective function as a black box, allowing the search process to be context-independent. The results show that BLGA may provide an effective and efficient intensification, not only allowing these three metaheuristics to be enhanced, but also predicting successful applications in other local search-based algorithms. In addition, the empirical results reported here reveal relevant insights on the behavior of classical local search methods when they are performed as context-independent optimizers in these three well-known metaheuristics. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Torralbo F.,University of Granada
Differential Geometry and its Application | Year: 2010

We classify constant mean curvature surfaces invariant by a 1-parameter group of isometries in the Berger spheres and in the special linear group Sl(2,R). In particular, all constant mean curvature spheres in those spaces are described explicitly, proving that they are not always embedded. Besides new examples of Delaunay-type surfaces are obtained. Finally the relation between the area and volume of these spheres in the Berger spheres is studied, showing that, in some cases, they are not solution to the isoperimetric problem. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Moncho-Jorda A.,University of Granada | Louis A.A.,University of Oxford | Padding J.T.,University of Twente
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We use a mesoscopic simulation technique to study the effect of short-ranged interparticle attractions on the steady-state sedimentation of colloidal suspensions. Attractions increase the average sedimentation velocity vs compared to the pure hard-sphere case, and for strong enough attractions, a nonmonotonic dependence on the packing fraction φ with a maximum velocity at intermediate φ is observed. Attractions also strongly enhance hydrodynamic velocity fluctuations, which show a pronounced maximum size as a function of φ. These phenomena arise from a complex interplay between nonequilibrium hydrodynamic effects and the thermodynamics of transient cluster formation. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Jimenez M.L.,University of Granada | Bellini T.,University of Milan
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010

The response of charged colloids to electric fields is determined by combined phenomena occurring first in the electric double layer to then develop into long-range perturbations of ion concentration, local fields, and solvent flows. When particles are non-spherical, the loss of symmetry affects the short- and long-ranged processes modifying their behavior as observed through their electrophoretic mobility, dielectric permittivity, and electro-optical response. Recent measurements and theoretical developments have revealed phenomena characteristic for non-spherical particles, such as the doubling of the relaxations in the dielectric spectra, the appearance of torque-inducing hydrodynamic flows, and the anomalous perpendicular alignment. In this article we discuss in a unifying frame the recent experimental and theoretical progresses about the electrokinetic behavior of charged non-spherical colloids. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Johnson S.,University of Granada | Torres J.J.,University of Granada | Marro J.,University of Granada | Munoz M.A.,University of Granada
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Why are most empirical networks, with the prominent exception of social ones, generically degree-degree anticorrelated? To answer this long-standing question, we define the ensemble of correlated networks and obtain the associated Shannon entropy. Maximum entropy can correspond to either assortative (correlated) or disassortative (anticorrelated) configurations, but in the case of highly heterogeneous, scale-free networks a certain disassortativity is predicted-offering a parsimonious explanation for the question above. Our approach provides a neutral model from which, in the absence of further knowledge regarding network evolution, one can obtain the expected value of correlations. When empirical observations deviate from the neutral predictions-as happens for social networks-one can then infer that there are specific correlating mechanisms at work. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Lozano M.,University of Granada | Garcia-Martinez C.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2010

Nowadays, a promising way to obtain hybrid metaheuristics concerns the combination of several search algorithms with strong specialization in intensification and/or diversification. The flexible architecture of evolutionary algorithms allows specialized models to be obtained with the aim of providing intensification and/or diversification. The outstanding role that is played by evolutionary algorithms at present justifies the choice of their specialist approaches as suitable ingredients to build hybrid metaheuristics. This paper focuses on hybrid metaheuristics with evolutionary algorithms specializing in intensification and diversification. We first give an overview of the existing research on this topic, describing several instances grouped into three categories that were identified after reviewing specialized literature. Then, with the aim of complementing the overview and providing additional results and insights on this line of research, we present an instance that consists of an iterated local search algorithm with an evolutionary perturbation technique. The benefits of the proposal in comparison to other iterated local search algorithms proposed in the literature to deal with binary optimization problems are experimentally shown. The good performance of the reviewed approaches and the suitable results shown by our instance allow an important conclusion to be achieved: the use of evolutionary algorithms specializing in intensification and diversification for building hybrid metaheuristics becomes a prospective line of research for obtaining effective search algorithms. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Martin-Molina A.,University of Granada | Rodriguez-Beas C.,University of Granada | Faraudo J.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We present experimental and simulation evidence for a new mechanism of charge reversal operating only for ions capable to penetrate into soft interfaces. It is based on the preferential solvation of counterions by amphiphilic molecules and hydration water rather than by bulk water. This mechanism does not require high surface charge densities and it is not affected by the addition of 1 1 salt. This behavior is opposite to that observed in systems as diverse as microfluidic channels or latex colloids. The robustness of the mechanism to physiological amounts of 1 1 salt suggests a significant impact in processes involving ion-amphiphile interaction in salty water (typical, e.g., of biophysics). © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2010

If new leptons exist close to the electroweak scale, they can be produced in pairs at LHC through standard or new interactions. We study the production of heavy lepton pairs in SM extensions with: (i) a Majorana or Dirac lepton triplet, as those appearing in type-III seesaw; (ii) a lepton isodoublet (N E)L, R; (iii) a charged isosinglet EL, R; (iv) a Majorana or Dirac neutrino singlet N and an additional Z′ gauge boson. It is shown that the trilepton final state ℓ± ℓ± ℓ∓, which has a small SM background, constitutes the golden channel for heavy neutrino searches, being very sensitive to Majorana or Dirac neutrinos in triplet, doublet or singlet SU (2)L representations. For higher luminosities, signals in this final state can also distinguish lepton triplets from doublets and singlets. The Majorana or Dirac nature of the heavy neutrinos is revealed by the presence or not of like-sign dilepton ℓ± ℓ± signals without significant missing energy. Notably, large ℓ± ℓ± signals but with large missing energy are characteristic of Dirac triplets, distinguishing them from the other two models with a heavy Dirac neutrino. Further discrimination is achieved with the analysis of the clean ℓ+ ℓ+ ℓ- ℓ- final state. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Calle Cordon A.,University of Granada | Ruiz Arriola E.,University of Granada
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

We analyze the one-boson-exchange potential from the point of view of renormalization theory. We show that the nucleon-meson Lagrangian, while predicting the NN force, does not predict the NN scattering matrix nor the deuteron properties unambiguously due to the appearance of short distance singularities. While the problem has traditionally been circumvented by introducing vertex functions via phenomenological strong form factors, we propose to impose physical renormalization conditions on the scattering amplitude at low energies. Working in the large Nc approximation with π, σ, ρ, and ω mesons we show that, once these conditions are applied, results for low-energy phases of proton-neutron scattering as well as deuteron properties become largely insensitive to the form factors and to the vector mesons yielding reasonable agreement with the data and for realistic values of the coupling constants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Prados-Joya G.,University of Granada | Sanchez-Polo M.,University of Granada | Rivera-Utrilla J.,University of Granada | Ferro-garcia M.,University of Granada
Water Research | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the direct photodegradation of nitroimidazoles. For this purpose, i) a kinetic study was performed, determining the quantum yield of the process; and ii) the influence of the different operational variables was analyzed (initial concentration of antibiotic, pH, presence of natural organic matter compounds, and chemical composition of water), and the time course of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and toxicity during nitroimidazole photodegradation was studied. The very low quantum yields obtained for the four nitroimidazoles are responsible for the low efficacy of the quantum process during direct photon absorption in nitroimidazole phototransformation. The R254 values obtained show that the dose habitually used for water disinfection is not sufficient to remove this type of pharmaceutical; therefore, higher doses of UV irradiation or longer exposure times are required for their removal. The time course of TOC and toxicity during direct photodegradation (in both ultrapure and real water) shows that oxidation by-products are not oxidized to CO2 to the desired extent, generating oxidation by-products that are more toxic than the initial product. The concentration of nitroimidazoles has a major effect on their photodegradation rate. The study of the influence of pH on the values of parameters e{open} (molar absorption coefficient) and k'E (photodegradation rate constant) showed no general trend in the behavior of nitroimidazoles as a function of the solution pH. The components of natural organic matter, gallic acid (GAL), tannic acid (TAN) and humic acid (HUM), may act as promoters and/or inhibitors of OH· radicals via photoproduction of H2O2. The effect of GAL on the metronidazole (MNZ) degradation rate markedly differed from that of TAN or HUM, with a higher rate at low GAL concentrations. Differences in MNZ degradation rate among waters with different chemical composition are not very marked, although the rate is slightly lower in wastewaters, mainly due to the UV radiation filter effect of this type of water. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada | Bernabeu J.,University of Valencia | Bernabeu J.,CERN
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2010

We calculate the density matrix for the decay of a polarised top quark into a polarised W boson and a massive b quark, for the most general Wtb vertex arising from dimension-six gauge-invariant effective operators. We show that, in addition to the well-known W helicity fractions, for polarised top decays it is worth defining and studying the transverse and normal W polarisation fractions, that is, the W polarisation along two directions orthogonal to its momentum. In particular, a rather simple forward-backward asymmetry in the normal direction is found to be very sensitive to complex phases in one of the Wtb anomalous couplings. This asymmetry, which indicates a normal W polarisation, can be generated for example by a P-odd, T-odd transition electric dipole moment. We also investigate the angular distribution of decay products in the top quark rest frame, calculating the spin analysing powers for a general Wtb vertex. Finally we show that, using a combined fit to top decay observables and the tW cross section, at LHC it will be possible to obtain model-independent measurements of all the (complex) Wtb couplings as well as the single top polarisation. Implications for spin correlations in top pair production are also discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Scheier M.,Innsbruck Medical University | Molina F.S.,University of Granada
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: To determine the outcome of twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence treated with or scheduled for treatment with interstitial laser therapy. Methods: This is a retrospective study on ten pregnancies diagnosed with TRAP sequence. Seven of the ten pregnancies were treated with interstitial laser therapy, and two pregnancies were scheduled for later treatment. One pregnancy was treated with fetoscopic laser ablation and excluded from analysis. The delivery reports of all pregnancies were collected, the neonatal health status recorded and the median time of delivery and the treatment to delivery interval calculated. Results: Six of seven pump fetuses in TRAP pregnancies treated with interstitial laser therapy at a median of 16+2 (range 13+1 to 20+3) gestational weeks were born healthy at a median of 38+0 (range 34+3 to 40+6) gestational weeks. One fetus treated with interstitial laser died after the procedure at 20+3 weeks. Two pump twins scheduled for later treatment died before the gestational age of 16 weeks. The median treatment to delivery interval for the surviving fetuses was 153 days (range 128-194). Conclusion: Treatment of TRAP sequence by interstitial laser therapy is feasible from the 13th week of gestation and has a good outcome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Luengo J.,University of Granada | Garcia S.,University of Jaén | Herrera F.,University of Granada
Knowledge and Information Systems | Year: 2012

In real-life data, information is frequently lost in data mining, caused by the presence of missing values in attributes. Several schemes have been studied to overcome the drawbacks produced by missing values in data mining tasks; one of the most well known is based on preprocessing, formerly known as imputation. In this work, we focus on a classification task with twenty-three classification methods and fourteen different imputation approaches to missing values treatment that are presented and analyzed. The analysis involves a group-based approach, in which we distinguish between three different categories of classification methods. Each category behaves differently, and the evidence obtained shows that the use of determined missing values imputation methods could improve the accuracy obtained for these methods. In this study, the convenience of using imputation methods for preprocessing data sets with missing values is stated. The analysis suggests that the use of particular imputation methods conditioned to the groups is required. © 2011 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2010

We consider gq→Zt, gq→γt and gq→t production (q=u,c) mediated by strong flavour-changing neutral interactions within an effective operator framework. We provide total cross sections for Tevatron and LHC, showing explicitly that the six processes can be described in full generality in terms of only two parameters (anomalous couplings) for q=u plus two for q=c. In our work we take into account and study in detail the effects of top quark decay. For γt, the inclusion of the top quark decay in the matrix element reveals an striking result: the largest contribution to the final state, e.g. γℓνb with ℓ=e,μ,τ, does not result from gq→γt→γℓνb but from on-shell gq→t production with t→γℓνb, being the photon radiated off the top decay products. This contribution, missed in previous literature, increases the signal cross sections by factors ranging between 3 and 6.5. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Moreno-Navarro F.,University of Granada | Rubio-Gamez M.C.,University of Granada
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

Fatigue cracking in bituminous mixes is one of the most common pathologies that affect roads all over the world. The improvement of the laboratory test methods used in their design is crucial to prolong the service life of pavements. This article describes a test method that simulates the stresses caused by fatigue cracking in pavements. The UGR-FACT Test, based on a device that produces controlled fatigue cracking process, makes possible to analyze the cracking propagation in the different phases (initiation, progression, and failure). The study of the material is performed in a representative volume, controlling horizontal and vertical deformations produced in the immediate proximity of the crack, after the application of each loading cycle. The energy dissipated by the material is analyzed to avoid the problems associated with the three-dimensional dispersion and randomness of fatigue cracking. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Benitez-Amado J.,University of Granada | Walczuch R.M.,Maastricht University
European Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2012

The study of the relationships between information technology (IT), environmental organizational issues and firm performance is a cutting-edge research topic for the information systems (IS) community. However, at present we know very little about these relationships. Drawing on the perspective of IT-enabled organizational capabilities and the literature on organizations and the natural environment, our study introduces conceptually the construct organizational capability of proactive corporate environmental strategy to the IS field. We propose that IT capability may enable the implementation of a proactive environmental strategy and that this strategy could play a significant role in determining the business value of IT. Using structural equations modeling with data collected from 63 firms, we find that IT capability is an enabler of proactive environmental strategy and that this strategy plays a significant role in mediating the effects of IT on firm performance. Our study provides initial evidence on the role of IT in the implementation of proactive environmental practices. Our results suggest to IT executives that their decisions matter in shaping environmental sustainability, which in turn will generate business value from IT. © 2012 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cruces-Blanco C.,University of Granada | Garcia-Campana A.M.,University of Granada
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

We review analytical methodologies using capillary electrophoresis and related techniques (micellar electrokinetic chromatography and capillary electrochromatography) with detection systems (ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, fluorescence, laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry) for quantification of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in biological specimens of interest in forensic toxicology (e.g., blood, urine and hair). Despite some drawbacks that still need to be addressed and finally overcome when using this technique in forensic laboratories, the coupling of capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry generally provides a powerful option for detection and determination of very low concentrations of these compounds in some forensic matrices (e.g., hair). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Moreno-Torres J.G.,University of Granada | Saez J.A.,University of Granada | Herrera F.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2012

Cross-validation is a very commonly employed technique used to evaluate classifier performance. However, it can potentially introduce dataset shift, a harmful factor that is often not taken into account and can result in inaccurate performance estimation. This paper analyzes the prevalence and impact of partition-induced covariate shift on different k-fold cross-validation schemes. From the experimental results obtained, we conclude that the degree of partition-induced covariate shift depends on the cross-validation scheme considered. In this way, worse schemes may harm the correctness of a single-classifier performance estimation and also increase the needed number of repetitions of cross-validation to reach a stable performance estimation. © 2012 IEEE.

Gacto M.J.,University of Jaén | Alcala R.,University of Granada | Herrera F.,University of Granada
Applied Intelligence | Year: 2012

This paper focuses on the use of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to develop smartly tuned fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, energy performance, stability and indoor comfort requirements. This problem presents some specific restrictions that make it very particular and complex because of the large time requirements needed to consider multiple criteria (which enlarge the solution search space) and the long computation time models required in each evaluation. In this work, a specific multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is proposed to obtain more compact fuzzy logic controllers as a way of finding the best combination of rules, thus improving the system performance to better solve the HVAC system control problem. This method combines lateral tuning of the linguistic variables with rule selection. To this end, two objectives have been considered, maximizing the performance of the system and minimizing the number of rules obtained. This algorithm is based on the well-known SPEA2 but uses different mechanisms for guiding the search towards the desired Pareto zone. Moreover, the method implements some advanced concepts such as incest prevention, that help to improve the exploration/exploitation trade-off and consequently its convergence ability. The proposed method is compared to the most representative mono-objective steady-state genetic algorithms previously applied to the HVAC system control problem, and to generational and steady-state versions of the most interesting multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (never applied to this problem) showing that the solutions obtained by this new approach dominate those obtained by these methods. The results obtained confirm the effectiveness of our approach compared with the rest of the analyzed methods, obtaining more accurate fuzzy logic controllers with simpler models. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Pinto M.,University of Granada
Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives | Year: 2012

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discover Spanish history students' subjective perception of their information literacy (IL) status in order to find and suggest some academic and individual improvement actions. Design/methodology/approach: The implementation of the IL-HUMASS survey provides diagnostic data on two IL quantitative dimensions (belief in importance and skills self-assessment) and a third qualitative dimension (learning habits) deployed along 26 variables, which are grouped into four categories (search, evaluation, processing, and communication-dissemination of information). Findings: The analysis confirms that variables related to information processing (above all schematising and abstracting information) show high scores of belief in importance and skills self-assessment among students. By contrast, variables related to technological advances (above all the use of bibliographic reference managers) show the worst results. In sum, there is a lack of subjective digital literacy in a set of skills related to the technologies of search, processing and communication of information. Among the less valued skills, independent learning reaches an excessive priority. However, this is really just an isolated learning. Research limitations/implications: The help of classrooms and libraries as learning tools would improve these results. Policy makers and instructors need to improve their role in the learning process by means of more extensive planning processes and the promotion of specific courses, above all on skills related to the technologies of information search, processing and communication. The concept of independent learning needs to be clarified and enhanced. Originality/value: This is a pioneering study that approaches IL from a triple perspective. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Camacho J.,University of Granada
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems | Year: 2014

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) can be defined as the initial exploration of a data set with the aim of generating a hypothesis of interest. Projection models based on latent structures and associated visualization techniques are valuable tools within EDA. In particular, score plots are a main tool to discover patterns in the observations. This paper addresses the extension of score plots to very large data sets, with an unlimited number of observations. The proposed solution, based on clustering and approximation techniques, is referred to as the Compressed Score Plots (CSPs). The approach is presented to deal with high volume data sets and high velocity data streams. The objective is to retain the visualization capabilities of traditional score plots while making the user-supervised analysis of huge data sets affordable in a similar time scale to that of low size data sets. Efficient processing and updating approaches, visualization techniques, performance measures and challenges for future research are identified throughout the paper. The approach is illustrated with several data sets, including a data set of five million observations and more than one hundred variables. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Camacho J.,University of Granada | Ferrer A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems | Year: 2014

This is the second paper of a series devoted to provide theoretical and practical results and new algorithms for the selection of the number of Principal Components (PCs) in Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using cross-validation. The study is especially focused on the element-wise k-fold (ekf), which is among the most used algorithms for that purpose. In this paper, a taxonomy of PCA applications is proposed and it is argued that cross-validatory algorithms computing the prediction error in observable variables, like ekf, are only suited for a class of applications. A number of cross-validation methods, several of which are original, are compared in two applications of this class: missing data imputation and compression. The results show that the ekf is especially suited for missing data applications while other traditional cross-validation methods, those by Wold and Eastment and Krzanowski, are not found to provide useful outcomes in any of the two applications. These results are of special value considering that the methods investigated are computed in the main commercial software packets for chemometrics. Finally, the choice of the missing data algorithm within ekf is also investigated. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Garcia-Seisdedos H.,University of Granada | Ibarra-Molero B.,University of Granada | Sanchez-Ruiz J.M.,University of Granada
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2012

Protein promiscuity is of considerable interest due its role in adaptive metabolic plasticity, its fundamental connection with molecular evolution and also because of its biotechnological applications. Current views on the relation between primary and promiscuous protein activities stem largely from laboratory evolution experiments aimed at increasing promiscuous activity levels. Here, on the other hand, we attempt to assess the main features of the simultaneous modulation of the primary and promiscuous functions during the course of natural evolution. The computational/experimental approach we propose for this task involves the following steps: a function-targeted, statistical coupling analysis of evolutionary data is used to determine a set of positions likely linked to the recruitment of a promiscuous activity for a new function; a combinatorial library of mutations on this set of positions is prepared and screened for both, the primary and the promiscuous activities; a partial-least-squares reconstruction of the full combinatorial space is carried out; finally, an approximation to the Pareto set of variants with optimal primary/promiscuous activities is derived. Application of the approach to the emergence of folding catalysis in thioredoxin scaffolds reveals an unanticipated scenario: diverse patterns of primary/promiscuous activity modulation are possible, including a moderate (but likely significant in a biological context) simultaneous enhancement of both activities. We show that this scenario can be most simply explained on the basis of the conformational diversity hypothesis, although alternative interpretations cannot be ruled out. Overall, the results reported may help clarify the mechanisms of the evolution of new functions. From a different viewpoint, the partial-least-squares-reconstruction/Pareto-set-prediction approach we have introduced provides the computational basis for an efficient directed-evolution protocol aimed at the simultaneous enhancement of several protein features and should therefore open new possibilities in the engineering of multi-functional enzymes. © 2012 Garcia-Seisdedos et al.

Moreno-Rueda G.,CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas | Pleguezuelos J.M.,University of Granada | Pizarro M.,University of Granada | Montori A.,University of Barcelona
Conservation Biology | Year: 2012

It is predicted that climate change will drive extinctions of some reptiles and that the number of these extinctions will depend on whether reptiles are able to change their distribution. Whether the latitudinal distribution of reptiles may change in response to increases in temperature is unknown. We used data on reptile distributions collected during the 20th century to analyze whether changes in the distributions of reptiles in Spain are associated with increases in temperature. We controlled for biases in sampling effort and found a mean, statistically significant, northward shift of the northern extent of reptile distributions of about 15.2 km from 1940-1975 to 1991-2005. The southern extent of the distributions did not change significantly. Thus, our results suggest that the latitudinal distributions of reptiles may be changing in response to climate change. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

Rodriguez-Valverde M.A.,University of Granada | Montes Ruiz-Cabello F.J.,University of Granada | Cabrerizo-Vilchez M.A.,University of Granada
Soft Matter | Year: 2011

We propose a new method for the direct measurement of the most-stable contact angle, using the mechanical vibration of sessile drops from different metastable states. We relaxed sessile drops of identical volume but with different stable contact angles between advancing and receding configurations. Before the vibration, we were able to scan the range of experimentally- accessible drop configurations. In this manner, the most-stable contact angle was experimentally recognized as the observable contact angle unchanged after vibration independent of the previous history (initial state) of the system. We applied this novel strategy to paraffin wax surfaces with a wide range of roughness degree. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Arroyo-Manzanares N.,University of Granada | Garcia-Campana A.M.,University of Granada | Gamiz-Gracia L.,University of Granada
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin naturally found in various foods, including wine. As OTA is considered as a possible human carcinogen, the maximum concentration for this compound has been established at 2 μg kg -1 in wine by the EU (Directive (CE) No 1881/2006). Typically, immunoaffinity columns have been used for its extraction. However, simpler, more efficient and less contaminant extraction systems are demanding. In this work, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using ionic liquid as extractant solvent (IL-DLLME) and the QuEChERS procedure, have been evaluated and compared for extraction of OTA in wine samples. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF, He-Cd Laser excitation at 325 nm) coupled with capillary HPLC has been used for the determination of OTA, using a sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in the mobile phase to increase the fluorescence intensity. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established for both methods, obtaining LODs (3× S/N) of 5.2 ng•L -1 and 85.7 ng•L -1 for IL-DLLME and QuEChERS, respectively. Clean extracts were obtained for white, rose and red wines with both methods, with recoveries between 88.7-94.2% for IL-DLLME and between 82.6-86.2% for QuEChERS. The precision was evaluated in terms of repeatability (n = 9) and intermediate precision (n = 15), being ≤ 8.5% for IL-DLLME and ≤ 5.4% for QuEChERS. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Moreno F.,University of Granada | Rubio M.C.,University of Granada
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Fatigue cracking in asphalt mixes is one of the most common road pavement distresses. When mixes are designed in the laboratory, it is very important to select the most suitable materials to ensure a good performance against this phenomenon. The types of binder and mortar strongly influence mix cohesion by providing tensile and shear strength. The mineral skeleton supplies it with compressive strength and bearing capacity. In this sense, the grading curve and shape of the aggregate affect crack growth (because of the internal friction), whereas the nature of the aggregate plays an important role in mix behavior (because of its adhesion to the bitumen and its resistance to fragmentation). This paper analyzes the impact of the nature of coarse aggregate on the fatigue-cracking behavior of asphalt mixes, an aspect that until now has received little attention. The UGR-FACT test was used to evaluate the cracking behavior of two mixes by varying the load amplitude, frequency, and test temperature. The results obtained showed that the nature of the coarse aggregate has an important effect in the fatigue-cracking behavior of asphalt mixes, and could be as important as bitumen type or mineral skeleton in mix design. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Olmos B.,University of Granada | Muller M.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Lesanovsky I.,University of Nottingham
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2010

When Rydberg states are excited in a dense atomic gas, the mean number of excited atoms reaches a stationary value after an initial transient period. We shed light on the origin of this steady state that emerges from a purely coherent evolution of a closed system. To this end, we consider a one-dimensional ring lattice and employ the perfect blockade model, i.e. the simultaneous excitation of Rydberg atoms occupying neighboring sites is forbidden. We derive an equation of motion that governs the system's evolution in excitation number space. This equation possesses a steady state that is strongly localized. Our findings show that this state is, to good accuracy, given by the density matrix of the microcanonical ensemble where the corresponding microstates are the zero-energy eigenstates of the interaction Hamiltonian. We analyze the statistics of the Rydberg atom number count, providing expressions for the number of excited Rydberg atoms and the Mandel Q-parameter in equilibrium. © IOP Publishing Ltd. and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Alfonso J.P.,University Miguel Hernández | Caracuel A.,University of Granada | Delgado-Pastor L.C.,University of Granada | Verdejo-Garcia A.,University of Granada
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2011

The clinical relevance of neuropsychological deficits in addicted individuals has fostered interest in treatment strategies aimed to effectively target executive and decision-making dysfunction. One of the best-validated interventions for executive dysfunction is Goal Management Training (GMT) (Robertson et al., 2005), an interactive program aimed at improving participants' organization and ability to achieve goals. Mindfulness-based meditation can complement GMT training in order to improve attentional scanning and "reading" of emotional signals involved in adaptive decision-making. In this pilot study we investigated the efficacy of a 7-week program including GMT. +. Mindfulness (GMT. +. MF), as compared to standard treatment alone (STx), for reducing executive and decision-making deficits in an outpatient sample of alcohol and polysubstance abusers. Eighteen participants were enrolled in the GMT. +. MF group, whereas 16 participants formed the STx group; both groups were matched for relevant demographic and clinical variables, and pre-treatment degree of executive dysfunction. Results showed that the individuals enrolled in GMT. +. MF significantly improved their performance on neuropsychological measures of working memory (Letter Number Sequencing), response inhibition (Stroop) and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task) after the treatment; whereas individuals enrolled in STx alone failed to show significant changes. These preliminary results indicate that the GMT. +. MF intervention may be effective in reducing executive and decision-making deficits in polysubstance abusers, and they support future randomized controlled studies aimed at examining the extent to which these improvements may generalize to every day functioning and may affect the capacity of addicted individuals to achieve and maintain abstinence. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Bornmann L.,Foresight | De Moya Anegon F.,University of Granada | Leydesdorff L.,University of Amsterdam
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: In contrast to Newton's well-known aphorism that he had been able "to see further only by standing on the shoulders of giants, " one attributes to the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gas set the hypothesis saying that top-level research cannot be successful without a mass of medium researchers on which the top rests comparable to an iceberg. Methodology/Principal Findings: The Ortega hypothesis predicts that highly-cited papers and medium-cited (or lowly +cited) papers would equally refer to papers with a medium impact. The Newton hypothesis would be supported if the top level research more frequently cites previously highly-cited work than that medium-level research cites highly-cited work. Our analysis is based on (i) all articles and proceedings papers which were published in 2003 in the life sciences, health sciences, physical sciences, and social sciences, and (ii) all articles and proceeding papers which were cited within these publications. The results show that highly-cited work in all scientific fields more frequently cites previously highly-cited papers than that medium-cited work cites highly-cited work. Conclusions/Significance: We demonstrate that papers contributing to the scientific progress in a field lean to a larger extent on previously important contributions than papers contributing little. These findings support the Newton hypothesis and call into question the Ortega hypothesis (given our usage of citation counts as a proxy for impact). © 2010 Bornmann et al.

Galvez C.,University of Granada | de Moya-Anegon F.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP
Journal of Documentation | Year: 2012

Purpose: Gene term variation is a shortcoming in text-mining applications based on biomedical literature-based knowledge discovery. The purpose of this paper is to propose a technique for normalizing gene names in biomedical literature. Design/methodology/approach: Under this proposal, the normalized forms can be characterized as a unique gene symbol, defined as the official symbol or normalized name. The unification method involves five stages: collection of the gene term, using the resources provided by the Entrez Gene database; encoding of gene-naming terms in a table or binary matrix; design of a parametrized finite-state graph (P-FSG); automatic generation of a dictionary; and matching based on dictionary look-up to transform the gene mentions into the corresponding unified form. Findings: The findings show that the approach yields a high percentage of recall. Precision is only moderately high, basically due to ambiguity problems between gene-naming terms and words and abbreviations in general English. Research limitations/implications: The major limitation of this study is that biomedical abstracts were analyzed instead of full-text documents. The number of under-normalization and over-normalization errors is reduced considerably by limiting the realm of application to biomedical abstracts in a well-defined domain. Practical implications: The system can be used for practical tasks in biomedical literature mining. Normalized gene terms can be used as input to literature-based gene clustering algorithms, for identifying hidden gene-to-disease, gene-to-gene and gene-to-literature relationships. Originality/value: Few systems for gene term variation handling have been developed to date. The technique described performs gene name normalization by dictionary look-up. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Vazquez F.,Max Planck Institute For Physik Komplexer Systeme | Bonachela J.A.,Princeton University | Lopez C.,Institute Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos CSIC UIB | Munoz M.A.,University of Granada
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Disorder is an unavoidable ingredient of real systems. Spatial disorder generates Griffiths phases (GPs) which, in analogy to critical points, are characterized by a slow relaxation of the order parameter and divergences of quantities such as the susceptibility. However, these singularities appear in an extended region of the parameter space and not just at a (critical) point, i.e., there is generic scale invariance. Here, we study the effects of temporal disorder, focusing on systems with absorbing states. We show that for dimensions d2 there are Temporal Griffiths phases (TGPs) characterized by generic power-law scaling of some magnitudes and generic divergences of the susceptibility. TGPs turn out to be a counterpart of GPs, but with space and time playing reversed roles. TGPs constitute a unifying concept, shedding light on the nontrivial effects of temporal disorder. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Buela-Casal G.,University of Granada | Zych I.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Scientometrics | Year: 2012

The impact factor is a highly polemic metric. It was designed to help scientists in searching for bibliographic references for their own works, enabling communication among researchers and helping librarians in deciding which journal they should purchase. Nevertheless, it has soon become the most important measure of scientific performance applied to journals, articles, scientists, universities, etc. Since then, some researchers argue that it is a useless and flawed measure, while others defend its utility. The current study is the first survey on the opinion on the topic of a broad sample of scientists from all over the world. The questionnaire was answered by 1,704 researchers from 86 different countries, all the continents and all the UNESCO major fields of knowledge. The results show that the opinion is slightly above the median which could be understood as "neither positive nor negative". Surprisingly, there is a negative correlation between the number of articles published by the respondents and their opinion on the impact factor. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Deppisch F.F.,University of Manchester | Kittel O.,University of Granada
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

We study CP asymmetries in two-body decays of bottom squarks into charginos and top quarks. These asymmetries probe the SUSY CP phases of the sbottom and the chargino sector in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We identify the MSSM parameter space where the CP asymmetries are sizeable. As a result, potentially detectable CP asymmetries in sbottom decays are found, which motivates further detailed experimental studies for probing the SUSY CP phases at the LHC. © SISSA 2010.

Hurtado P.I.,University of Granada | Garrido P.L.,University of Granada
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Bastero-Gil M.,University of Granada | Berera A.,University of Edinburgh | Ramos R.O.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2011

Dissipation coefficients are calculated in the adiabatic, near thermal equilibrium regime for a large class of renormalizable interaction configurations involving a two-stage mechanism, where a background scalar field is coupled to heavy intermediate scalar or fermion fields which in turn are coupled to light scalar or fermion radiation fields. These interactions are typical of warm inflation microscopic model building. Two perturbative regimes are shown where well defined approximations for the spectral functions apply. One regime is at high temperature, when the masses of both intermediate and radiation fields are less than the temperature scale and where the poles of the spectral functions dominate. The other regime is at low temperature, when the intermediate field masses are much bigger than the temperature and where the low energy and low three-momentum regime dominate the spectral functions. The dissipation coefficients in these two regimes are derived. However, due to resummation issues for the high temperature case, only phenomenological approximate estimates are provided for the dissipation in this regime. In the low temperature case, higher loop contributions are suppressed and so no resummation is necessary. In addition to inflationary cosmology, the application of our results to cosmological phase transitions is also discussed. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

Ricci I.,University of Granada | Artacho R.,University of Granada | Olalla M.,University of Granada
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2010

Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins are currently of great scientific interest due to their beneficial health properties. The group of bioactive peptides most studied up until now are the angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) peptides, which, when administered orally, seem to possess the capacity to lower blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. The various techniques of separation, identification, and classification of bioactive peptides obtained from milk and milk products, permit the selection of molecules with the highest level of health benefits to be used as a functional ingredient in the production of milk products with blood pressure-lowering effects such as Evolus® or Calpis®. This review focuses on the major research in the areas of isolation, identification, and application of bioactive peptides with ACEI activity in milk proteins, paying special attention to in vitro, in animal model systems, and in clinical studies of hypertensive patients. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Diaz J.A.,University of Granada | Navarro R.,University of Zaragoza
Applied Optics | Year: 2014

We generalize the analytical form of the orthonormal elliptical polynomials for any arbitrary aspect ratio to arbitrary orientation and give expression for them up to the 4th order. The utility of the polynomials is demonstrated by obtaining the expansion up to the 8th order in two examples of an off-axis wavefront exiting from an optical system with a vignetted pupil. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Two questionnaires were used to investigate students' perceptions of their motivation to opt for reception learning (RL) or self-discovery learning (SDL) in histology and their choices of complementary learning strategies (CLS). The results demonstrated that the motivation to attend RL sessions was higher than the motivation to attend SDL to gain new knowledge (P < 0.01) and to apply this acquired knowledge to diagnosis (P < 0.01), therapy (P < 0.01), and research (P < 0.05). Students also showed a stronger preference for RL based on motivations related to leadership (P < 0.01) and competition (P < 0.01), although the rates were very low in both cases (≤ 1.9 ± 1.1). Statistically significant differences were found between male and female students for leadership (higher in males), responsibility (higher in females), and acquiring new knowledge (higher in females only in RL). This study's findings for students' preferred CLS strategies suggested a greater need for additional complementary resources after RL than after SDL (P < 0.01). In conclusion, RL was associated with a greater need for complementary training resources such as textbooks, atlases, the internet, audiovisual media, and tutorials, whereas SDL was associated with a greater need to orient teaching and training toward medical practice. These results suggest the need to reorient both types of learning processes to enhance their effectiveness in teaching histology, especially in the case of SDL, which should place more emphasis on clinically oriented knowledge. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

Tichy M.C.,University of Aarhus | Bouvrie P.A.,University of Granada | Molmer K.,University of Aarhus
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The composite character of two-fermion bosons manifests itself in the interference of many composites as a deviation from the ideal bosonic behavior. A state of many composite bosons can be represented as a superposition of different numbers of perfect bosons and fermions, which allows us to provide the full Hong-Ou-Mandel-like counting statistics of interfering composites. Our theory quantitatively relates the deviation from the ideal bosonic interference pattern to the entanglement of the fermions within a single composite boson. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Schiro M.,University of Granada | Ruiz-Agudo E.,University of Granada | Rodriguez-Navarro C.,University of Granada
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Pressure exerted by crystallization of salts within porous materials contributes to damage in historic and modern construction. By unequivocally identifying the precipitating phase(s) while simultaneously determining solution supersaturation and associated crystallization pressure in subsurface pores, we show that the formation of a thermodynamically metastable salt phase (heptahydrate; Na2SO4·7H2O) and the resulting transition to a less soluble stable phase (mirabilite; Na 2SO4·10H2O) is largely responsible for the high supersaturation and crystallization pressure developed during evaporative crystallization of sodium sulfate, the most damaging salt known. These results help to explain why salts with various (stable and metastable) hydrated phases are the most damaging. We also show that damage associated with metastable-stable phase transitions can be suppressed by the use of crystallization promoters. These results open new ways for the prevention of salt damage to building materials. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Megias E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Arriola E.R.,University of Granada | Salcedo L.L.,University of Granada
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The Polyakov loop has been used repeatedly as an order parameter in the deconfinement phase transition in QCD. We argue that, in the confined phase, its expectation value can be represented in terms of hadronic states, similarly to the hadron resonance gas model for the pressure. Specifically, L(T) αg αe -Δ α /T, where g α are the degeneracies and Δ α are the masses of hadrons with exactly one heavy quark (the mass of the heavy quark itself being subtracted). We show that this approximate sum rule gives a fair description of available lattice data with N f=2+1 for temperatures in the range 150MeV

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada | Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,Institute Fisica Of Cantabria Csic Uc | Juste A.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We introduce the forward-backward asymmetries Au, Ad corresponding to uū, dd̄→tt̄ production, respectively, at hadron colliders. These are collider and center-of-mass independent observables, directly related to the forward-backward and charge asymmetries measured at the Tevatron and the LHC, respectively. We discuss how to extract these asymmetries from data. Because these asymmetries are collider independent, their measurement at these two colliders could elucidate the nature of the anomalous forward-backward asymmetry measured at the Tevatron. Our framework also shows in a model independent fashion that a positive Tevatron asymmetry exceeding the standard model expectation is compatible with the small asymmetry measured at the LHC. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Quesada-Molina C.,University of Granada | Del Olmo-Iruela M.,University of Granada | Garcia-Campana A.M.,University of Granada
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

A sensitive and reliable method using capillary zone electrophoresis with UV-diode array detection has been developed and validated for trace determination of residues of sulfonylurea herbicides in environmental water samples and grapes from different origins. The analytes included are triasulfuron, rimsulfuron, flazasulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and chlorsulfuron. Optimum separation has been achieved on a 48.5-cm × 50-μm (effective length 40 cm) bubble cell capillary using 90 mM ammonium acetate buffer, pH 4.8, by applying a voltage of 20 kV at 25 °C and using p-aminobenzoic acid as the internal standard. In order to increase sensitivity, large volume sample stacking with polarity switching has been applied as on-line preconcentration methodology. For water samples, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure based on the use of Oasis HLB cartridges was applied for off-line preconcentration and cleanup. For grape samples, the SPE procedure was achieved with C18 sorbent, after extraction of the compounds with MeOH:H2O (1:1) by sonication. The limits of detection for the studied compounds were between 0.04 and 0.12 μg/L for water samples and 0.97 and 8.30 μg/kg in the case of grape samples, lower in all cases than the maximum residue limits permitted by the EU for this kind of food. The developed methodology has demonstrated its suitability for the monitoring of these residues in environmental water and grape samples with high sensitivity, precision, and satisfactory recoveries. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.