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Granada, Spain

The University of Granada is a public university located in the city of Granada that enrolls approximately 80,000 students, thereby becoming the fourth largest university in Spain. UGR also has campuses in Northern Africa , thus being the only European university with campuses in two continents. Founded in 1531 by Emperor Charles V, UGR has almost 500 years of history and it is one of the most famous universities in Spain.According to several rankings, the University of Granada ranks among top ten best Spanish universities and holds first place in Translation and Interpreting studies. In addition, UGR plays a major role in scientific output, placing high in national ranks and being one of the best world universities in computing and mathematics studies. The university has an important heritage thanks to its policy of using buildings of historical and cultural value. The Madrasah of Granada represents one such example. Furthermore, the university has major new facilities committed to innovation, such as the Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud.Every year, over 2,000 European students enroll in UGR through the Erasmus Programme, making it the most popular European destination. The university's Center for Modern Languages receives over 10,000 international students each year. UGR also has been recently voted best Spanish university by international students. Wikipedia.

Quesada-Perez M.,University of Jaen | Maroto-Centeno J.A.,University of Jaen | Forcada J.,University of the Basque Country | Hidalgo-Alvarez R.,University of Granada
Soft Matter | Year: 2011

In this work, the classical theory of polymer/polyelectrolyte gel swelling is reviewed. This formalism is easy to understand and has been widely applied to gels and microgel particles. Nevertheless, its limitations and obscure aspects should be known before use. The case of temperature-sensitive gels is discussed in some detail because it deserves particular clarification. The application to experimental swelling data (of both gels and microgels) is also reviewed. In this way, strengths and weaknesses of this approach can be elucidated. Moreover, other formalisms are also outlined. Many of them are inspired by the classical one. Their improvements are briefly commented in this case. Others are based on different grounds. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Soler X.,University of California at San Diego | Diaz-Piedra C.,University of Granada | Ries A.L.,University of California at San Diego
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease | Year: 2013

Sleep-related disorders are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and, possibily, other lung disorders. Exercise has been shown to improve sleep disturbances. In patients with COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) produces important health benefits with improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance, and quality of life. However, the effect of PR on sleep quality remains unknown. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate sleep quality in patients with chronic lung disease and the role of PR as a non-pharmacologic treatment to improve sleep. Sixty-four patients with chronic lung disease enrolled in an 8-week comprehensive PR program, and completed the study (48% male; obstructive 72%, restrictive 20%, mixed 8%; 44% on supplemental oxygen). Baseline spirometry mean (SD): FEV1% pred = 48.9 (17.4), FVC% pred = 72.5 (18.1), and FEV1/FVC% = 53.1 (18.9). Exercise tolerance and questionnaires related to symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were obtained before and after PR. 58% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) at baseline. Sleep quality improved by 19% (p = 0.017) after PR, along with significant improvements in dyspnea, exercise tolerance, self-efficacy, and HRQL. Sleep quality in patients with chronic lung disease was poor. In addition to expected improvements in symptoms, exercise tolerance, and HRQL after PR, the subgroup of patients with COPD had a significant improvement in sleep quality. These findings suggest that PR may be an effective, non-pharmacologic treatment option for sleep problems in patients with COPD. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Pulido J.M.O.,University of Granada
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

Olive mill effluents (OME) by-produced have significantly increased in the last decades as a result of the boost of the olive oil agro-industrial sector and due to the conversion into continuous operation centrifugation technologies. In these effluents, the presence of phytotoxic recalcitrant pollutants makes them resistant to biological degradation and thus inhibits the efficiency of biological and conventional processes. Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for OME have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory and cost-effective results. Olive oil industries in its current status, typically small mills dispersed, cannot afford such high treatment costs. Furthermore, conventional treatments are not able to abate the significant dissolved monovalent and divalent ions concentration present in OME. Within this framework, membrane technology offers high efficiency and moderate investment and maintenance expenses. Wastewater treatment by membrane technologies is growing in the recent years. This trend is owed to the fact of the availability of new membrane materials, membrane designs, membrane module concepts and general know-how, which have promoted credibility among investors. However, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time and leads to premature substitution of the membrane modules, and this is a problem of cost efficiency since wastewater treatment must imply low operating costs. Appropriate fouling inhibition methods should assure this result, thus making membrane processes for wastewater stream treatment both technically and economically feasible. In this paper, the treatment of the effluents by-produced in olive mills, generally called olive mill wastewaters, will be addressed. Within this context, the state of the art of the different pretreatments and integral membrane processes proposed up to today will be gathered and discussed, with an insight in the problem of fouling. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Aznarte J.L.,MINES ParisTech | Benitez J.M.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks | Year: 2010

Soft computing (SC) emerged as an integrating framework for a number of techniques that could complement one another quite well (artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, evolutionary algorithms, probabilistic reasoning). Since its inception, a distinctive goal has been to dig out the deep relationships among their components. This paper considers two wide families of SC models. On the one hand, the regime-switching autoregressive paradigm is a recent development in statistical time series modeling, and it includes a set of models closely related to artificial neural networks. On the other hand, we consider fuzzy rule-based systems in the framework of time series analysis. This paper discloses original results establishing functional equivalences between models of these two classes, and hence opens the door to a productive line of research where results and techniques from one area can be applied in the other. As a consequence of the equivalences presented in this paper, we prove the asymptotic stationarity of a class of fuzzy rule-based systems. Simulations based on information criteria show the importance of the selection of the proper membership function. © 2006 IEEE.

Stoller M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Ochando-Pulido J.M.,University of Granada
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

In the last decades much effort was put in understanding fouling phenomena on membranes. One successful approach to describe fouling issues on membranes is the critical flux theory. The possibility to measure a maximum value of the permeate flux for a given system without incurring in fouling issues was a breakthrough in membrane process design. However, in many cases critical fluxes were found to be very low, lower than the economic feasibility of the process. The knowledge of the critical flux value must be therefore considered as a good starting point for process design. In the last years, a new concept was introduced, the threshold flux, which defines the maximum permeate flow rate characterized by a low constant fouling rate regime. This concept, more than the critical flux, is a new practical tool for membrane process designers. In this paper a brief review on critical and threshold flux will be reported and analyzed. And since the concepts share many common aspects, merged into a new concept, called the boundary flux, the validation will occur by the analysis of previously collected data by the authors, during the treatment of olive vegetation wastewater by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes. © 2014 Marco Stoller and Javier M. Ochando-Pulido.

Bello R.,University "Marta Abreu" of Las Villas | Verdegay J.L.,University of Granada
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

Problem-solving in situations of uncertainty is a key issue in achieving effective computational systems. Various techniques have been developed to address uncertainty, including Soft Computing, which has established itself as an area of significant interest. On the other hand, rough sets theory has become an effective means of dealing with uncertainty, particularly when it arises as a result of inconsistencies in the data. The present paper surveys an analysis of the relationship between rough sets and other components of Soft Computing, and of how this hybridization helps improve system performance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Munoz M.A.,University of Granada | Juhasz R.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Castellano C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Odor G.,Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Quenched disorder is known to play a relevant role in dynamical processes and phase transitions. Its effects on the dynamics of complex networks have hardly been studied. Aimed at filling this gap, we analyze the contact process, i.e., the simplest propagation model, with quenched disorder on complex networks. We find Griffiths phases and other rare-region effects, leading rather generically to anomalously slow (algebraic, logarithmic,...) relaxation, on Erdos-Rényi networks. Similar effects are predicted to exist for other topologies with a finite percolation threshold. More surprisingly, we find that Griffiths phases can also emerge in the absence of quenched disorder, as a consequence of topological heterogeneity in networks with finite topological dimension. These results have a broad spectrum of implications for propagation phenomena and other dynamical processes on networks. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Ramos J.,University of the Basque Country | Forcada J.,University of the Basque Country | Hidalgo-Alvarez R.,University of Granada
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Cationic polymer particles and nanogels are being used in emerging biomedical technologies due to the strong interaction between nucleic acids and cationic polymer colloids, the acid-swellable behavior of the nanoparticle/nanogel, and the ability to form oriented bonds with proteins, among other aspects. One of the most challenging applications is the use of cationic nanogels as carriers or vectors for in vivo siRNA delivery. The use of RNA interference to treat or prevent a variety of diseases, is a challenge in the biomedical field of therapeutics. New nanogel architectures or nanostructures should be envisaged for the adequate and controlled cell-specific siRNA release. Adequate nanogel sizes and shells are required for Improved stealth properties for the nanogels, avoiding recognition by the immune system (phagocytes), and enhancement of tumor accumulation, taking advantage of the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect in tumors. The design of new nanogels sensitive to or able to respond to other in vivo stimuli different from the pH, temperature, or ionic strength is needed.

Bravo J.L.,University of Extremadura | Torres P.J.,University of Granada
Advanced Nonlinear Studies | Year: 2010

Motivated by some relevant physical applications, we study the existence and uniqueness of T-periodic solutions for a second order differential equation with a piecewise constant singularity which changes sign. Other questions like the stability and robustness of the periodic solution are considered.

Ruiz-Herrera A.,University of Granada
Advanced Nonlinear Studies | Year: 2010

We find coexistence states for systems in three dimensions with cyclic dynamic in the boundary of ℝ3+. This problem had been already studied for competitive systems. In this paper we consider any interaction. This extension seems to be meaningful since the cyclic dynamic on the boundary can appear in natural way in many interactions.

Couso I.,University of Oviedo | Moral S.,University of Granada
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2011

The theory of sets of desirable gambles is a very general model which covers most of the existing theories for imprecise probability as special cases; it has a clear and simple axiomatic justification; and mathematical definitions are natural and intuitive. However, much work remains to be done until the theory of desirable gambles can be considered as generally applicable to reasoning tasks as other approaches to imprecise probability are. This paper gives an overview of some of the fundamental concepts for reasoning with uncertainty expressed in terms of desirable gambles in the finite case, provides a characterization of regular extension, and studies the nature of maximally coherent sets of desirable gambles, which correspond to finite sequences of probability distributions, each one of them defined on the set where the previous one assigns probability zero. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Feio M.J.,University of Coimbra | Poquet J.M.,University of Granada
International Review of Hydrobiology | Year: 2011

In the last three decades, predictive models have been developed and applied worldwide for freshwater bioassessment. They consist of statistical tools that follow the concept of the Reference Condition Approach. Composed of several sequential steps, these assessment tools assess the deviation of given site assemblages from the expected biological condition in the absence of human disturbance. The most common approaches (RIVPACS/AUSRIVAS and BEAST) are based on a posteriori classifications that use the biological composition of a community to classify reference sites in groups, and afterwards to establish which environmental features best discriminate the biological groups obtained. Here, we review the predictive modeling procedures used in freshwaters bioassessment (RIVPACS/AUSRIVAS, BEAST, ANNA, Artificial Neural Networks, Bayesian Belief Networks and others) as well as the biological elements to which they have been applied. We also review the Spanish and Portuguese experiences in the development and application of predictive models, with particular attention to regional environmental conditions, the different modeling approaches, and the available implementation tools. Moreover, and considering the natural continuity within the Iberian Peninsula (which include several transnational rivers), we discuss the possibilities of the development of common predictive models across the region, considering all factors that may influence their performance, such as the target scale used to develop the models (regional or peninsular); common reference criteria; sampling and sorting procedures; the taxonomic resolution used in the models; the temporal variability (mainly in the Iberian Mediterranean region); and the biological elements to consider. We concluded that there are good technical conditions for the implementations of a common predictive approach throughout the Iberian Peninsula, which should allow a global biological assessment of streams with different biological elements and seasons that could be used by water managers in the context of the Water Framework Directive. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ortiz P.,University of Granada
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2012

The paper presents a sign-preserving continuous finite element model (FEM) for coupled transport equations, and in particular for the depth-integrated shallow water equations. The model incorporates an enhanced flux corrected transport method (FCT) with a high order solution given by a generalization of the characteristic based split finite element method (CBS), and a predictor positive algorithm founded in a finite element upwind methodology. Numerical experiments explore the efficacy of the procedure, with emphasis in the simulation of flows with evolutionary boundaries determined by null values of any flow property, and in severe conditions of propagation such as dam-breaking waves. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Alvarez-Alvarez A.,Computing with Perceptions Research Unit | Trivino G.,Computing with Perceptions Research Unit | Cordon O.,University of Granada | Cordon O.,European Center for Soft Computing
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2012

Human gait modeling consists of studying the biomechanics of this human movement. Its importance lies in the fact that its analysis can help in the diagnosis of walking and movement disorders or rehabilitation programs, among other medical situations. Fuzzy finite state machines can be used to model the temporal evolution of this type of phenomenon. Nevertheless, the definition of details of the model in each particular case is a complex task for experts. In this paper, we present an automatic method to learn the model parameters that are based on the hybridization of fuzzy finite state machines and genetic algorithms leading to genetic fuzzy finite state machines. This new genetic fuzzy system automatically learns the fuzzy rules and membership functions of the fuzzy finite state machine, while an expert defines the possible states and allowed transitions. Our final goal is to obtain a specific model for each persons gait in such a way that it can generalize well with different gaits of the same person. The obtained model must become an accurate and human friendly linguistic description of this phenomenon, with the capability to identify the relevant phases of the process. A complete experimentation is developed to test the performance of the new proposal when dealing with datasets of 20 different people, comprising a detailed analysis of results, which shows the advantages of our proposal in comparison with some other classical and computational intelligence techniques. © 2012 IEEE.

Augusto J.C.,Middlesex University | Hornos M.J.,University of Granada
Advances in Engineering Software | Year: 2013

This paper explains how the Spin model checker can be used to guide and inform the development of more reliable Intelligent Environments. The idea is to present a methodological guide which provides strategies and suggestions on how to model, simulate and verify these types of systems, as well as to facilitate the use of well-known tools like Spin in the development of Intelligent Environments. These tools, which have been developed by the Software Engineering community, have proven their usefulness for improving the quality of complex software systems, even in the industry field. However, researchers and developers in the area of Intelligent Environments do not usually make use of these tools. Our aim is therefore to encourage their use by colleagues working in this area to increase the reliability of these complex systems, which integrate aspects and elements of networks, sensors/actuators, ubiquitous/pervasive computing, human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence, among other related areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanz J.,University of Navarra | Fernandez A.,University of Jaen | Bustince H.,University of Navarra | Herrera F.,University of Granada
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2011

Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems are appropriate tools to deal with classification problems due to their good properties. However, they can suffer a lack of system accuracy as a result of the uncertainty inherent in the definition of the membership functions and the limitation of the homogeneous distribution of the linguistic labels. The aim of the paper is to improve the performance of Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems by means of the Theory of Interval-Valued Fuzzy Sets and a post-processing genetic tuning step. In order to build the Interval-Valued Fuzzy Sets we define a new function called weak ignorance for modeling the uncertainty associated with the definition of the membership functions. Next, we adapt the fuzzy partitions to the problem in an optimal way through a cooperative evolutionary tuning in which we handle both the degree of ignorance and the lateral position (based on the 2-tuples fuzzy linguistic representation) of the linguistic labels. The experimental study is carried out over a large collection of data-sets and it is supported by a statistical analysis. Our results show empirically that the use of our methodology outperforms the initial Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System. The application of our cooperative tuning enhances the results provided by the use of the isolated tuning approaches and also improves the behavior of the genetic tuning based on the 3-tuples fuzzy linguistic representation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Roldan A.,University of Jaen | Martinez-Moreno J.,University of Jaen | Roldan C.,University of Granada | Cho Y.J.,Gyeongsang National University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2014

In recent times, coupled, tripled and quadruple fixed point theorems have been intensively studied by many authors in the context of partially ordered complete metric spaces using different contractivity conditions. Roldán et al. showed a unified version of these results for nonlinear mappings in any number of variables (which were not necessarily permuted or ordered) introducing the notion of multidimensional coincidence point. Very recently, Choudhury et al. proved coupled coincidence point results in the context of fuzzy metric spaces in the sense of George and Veeramani. In this paper, using the idea of coincidence point for nonlinear mappings in any number of variables, we study a fuzzy contractivity condition to ensure the existence of coincidence points in the framework of fuzzy metric spaces provided with Hadžić type t-norms. Then, we present an illustrative example in which our methodology leads to the existence of coincidence points but previous theorems cannot be applied. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Lozano M.,University of Granada | Garcia-Martinez C.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2010

Nowadays, a promising way to obtain hybrid metaheuristics concerns the combination of several search algorithms with strong specialization in intensification and/or diversification. The flexible architecture of evolutionary algorithms allows specialized models to be obtained with the aim of providing intensification and/or diversification. The outstanding role that is played by evolutionary algorithms at present justifies the choice of their specialist approaches as suitable ingredients to build hybrid metaheuristics. This paper focuses on hybrid metaheuristics with evolutionary algorithms specializing in intensification and diversification. We first give an overview of the existing research on this topic, describing several instances grouped into three categories that were identified after reviewing specialized literature. Then, with the aim of complementing the overview and providing additional results and insights on this line of research, we present an instance that consists of an iterated local search algorithm with an evolutionary perturbation technique. The benefits of the proposal in comparison to other iterated local search algorithms proposed in the literature to deal with binary optimization problems are experimentally shown. The good performance of the reviewed approaches and the suitable results shown by our instance allow an important conclusion to be achieved: the use of evolutionary algorithms specializing in intensification and diversification for building hybrid metaheuristics becomes a prospective line of research for obtaining effective search algorithms. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Abellan J.,University of Granada
International Journal of General Systems | Year: 2011

In Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence coexist two types of uncertainty: conflict and nonspecificity. The maximum of entropy is a total uncertainty measure that verifies an important set of properties in this theory. We prove that this function has a fault of sensibility to changes in evidence in situations where only the part of nonspecificity is presented in the uncertainty (uncertainty without conflict), producing no-logical values. We analyse two measures of nonspecificity presented in DST, which have been used as part of total uncertainty measures. We compare their behaviour, focusing on situations where only the part of nonspecificity is presented in the uncertainty. We will see that it makes sense to combine them and use this combination as part of a total uncertainty measure verifying an important set of properties and behaviours. This new total measure has not the mentioned problem of lack of sensitivity to changes in evidence. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Garcia-Martinez C.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Lozano M.,University of Granada
Soft Computing | Year: 2010

Local genetic algorithms have been designed with the aim of providing effective intensification. One of their most outstanding features is that they may help classical local search-based metaheuristics to improve their behavior. This paper focuses on experimentally investigating the role of a recent approach, the binary-coded local genetic algorithm (BLGA), as context-independent local search operator for three local search-based metaheuristics: random multi-start local search, iterated local search, and variable neighborhood search. These general-purpose models treat the objective function as a black box, allowing the search process to be context-independent. The results show that BLGA may provide an effective and efficient intensification, not only allowing these three metaheuristics to be enhanced, but also predicting successful applications in other local search-based algorithms. In addition, the empirical results reported here reveal relevant insights on the behavior of classical local search methods when they are performed as context-independent optimizers in these three well-known metaheuristics. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Serrano-Guerrero J.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Herrera-Viedma E.,University of Granada | Olivas J.A.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Cerezo A.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Romero F.P.,University of Castilla - La Mancha
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

Nowadays Digital Libraries 2.0 are mainly based on the interaction between users through collaborative applications such as wikis, blogs, etc. or new possible paradigms like the waves proposed by Google. This new concept, the wave, represents a common space where resources and users can work together. The problem arises when the number of resources and users is high, then tools for assisting the users in their information needs are necessary. In this case a fuzzy linguistic recommender system based on the Google Wave capabilities is proposed as tool for communicating researchers interested in common research lines. The system allows the creation of a common space by means a wave as a way of collaborating and exchanging ideas between several researchers interested in the same topic. In addition, the system suggests, in an automatic way, several researchers and useful resources for each wave. These recommendations are computed following several previously defined preferences and characteristics by means of fuzzy linguistic labels. Thus the system facilitates the possible collaborations between multi-disciplinar researchers and recommends complementary resources useful for the interaction. In order to test the effectiveness of the proposed system, a prototype of the system has been developed and tested with several research groups from the same university achieving successful results. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Martinez L.,University of Jaen | Ruan D.,Belgian Nuclear Research Center | Herrera F.,University of Granada
International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems | Year: 2010

Decision making is inherent to mankind, as human beings daily face situations in which they should choose among different alternatives by means of reasoning and mental processes. Many of these decision problems are under uncertain environments with vague and imprecise information. This type of information is usually modelled by linguistic information because of the common use of language by the experts involved in the given decision situations, originating linguistic decision making. The use of linguistic information in decision making demands processes of Computing with Words to solve the related decision problems. Different methodologies and approaches have been proposed to accomplish such processes in an accurate and interpretable way. The good performance of linguistic computing dealing with uncertainty has caused a spread use of it in different types of decision based applications. This paper overviews the more significant and extended linguistic computing models due to its key role in linguistic decision making and a wide range of the most recent applications of linguistic decision support models.

Babacan S.D.,Northwestern University | Molina R.,University of Granada | Katsaggelos A.K.,Northwestern University
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2010

In this paper, we model the components of the compressive sensing (CS) problem, i.e., the signal acquisition process, the unknown signal coefficients and the model parameters for the signal and noise using the Bayesian framework. We utilize a hierarchical form of the Laplace prior to model the sparsity of the unknown signal. We describe the relationship among a number of sparsity priors proposed in the literature, and show the advantages of the proposed model including its high degree of sparsity. Moreover,we show that some of the existing models are special cases of the proposed model. Using our model, we develop a constructive (greedy) algorithm designed for fast reconstruction useful in practical settings. Unlike most existing CS reconstruction methods, the proposed algorithm is fully automated, i.e., the unknown signal coefficients and all necessary parameters are estimated solely from the observation, and, therefore, no user-intervention is needed. Additionally, the proposed algorithm provides estimates of the uncertainty of the reconstructions.We provide experimental results with synthetic 1-D signals and images, and compare with the state-of the-art CS reconstruction algorithms demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed approach. © 2009 IEEE.

Moncho-Jorda A.,University of Granada | Louis A.A.,University of Oxford | Padding J.T.,University of Twente
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We use a mesoscopic simulation technique to study the effect of short-ranged interparticle attractions on the steady-state sedimentation of colloidal suspensions. Attractions increase the average sedimentation velocity vs compared to the pure hard-sphere case, and for strong enough attractions, a nonmonotonic dependence on the packing fraction φ with a maximum velocity at intermediate φ is observed. Attractions also strongly enhance hydrodynamic velocity fluctuations, which show a pronounced maximum size as a function of φ. These phenomena arise from a complex interplay between nonequilibrium hydrodynamic effects and the thermodynamics of transient cluster formation. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Jimenez M.L.,University of Granada | Bellini T.,University of Milan
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010

The response of charged colloids to electric fields is determined by combined phenomena occurring first in the electric double layer to then develop into long-range perturbations of ion concentration, local fields, and solvent flows. When particles are non-spherical, the loss of symmetry affects the short- and long-ranged processes modifying their behavior as observed through their electrophoretic mobility, dielectric permittivity, and electro-optical response. Recent measurements and theoretical developments have revealed phenomena characteristic for non-spherical particles, such as the doubling of the relaxations in the dielectric spectra, the appearance of torque-inducing hydrodynamic flows, and the anomalous perpendicular alignment. In this article we discuss in a unifying frame the recent experimental and theoretical progresses about the electrokinetic behavior of charged non-spherical colloids. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gonzalez-Moles M.-A.,University of Granada
Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal | Year: 2010

This review examines the most important aspects of the use of topical corticosteroids in oral pathology. We provide a detailed analysis of the most common types of corticosteroids used, their methods of application and the clinical data that must be managed in order to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment. We also analyze the correctable causes of treatment failure and the possible adverse effects that may occur after applying these drugs. All of this is achieved by conducting a critical review of these concepts. © Medicina Oral S. L.

Arauzo-Azofra A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Aznarte J.L.,MINES ParisTech | Benitez J.M.,University of Granada
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

The use of feature selection can improve accuracy, efficiency, applicability and understandability of a learning process and its resulting model. For this reason, many methods of automatic feature selection have been developed. By using a modularization of feature selection process, this paper evaluates a wide spectrum of these methods. The methods considered are created by combination of different selection criteria and individual feature evaluation modules. These methods are commonly used because of their low running time. After carrying out a thorough empirical study the most interesting methods are identified and some recommendations about which feature selection method should be used under different conditions are provided. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bastero-Gil M.,University of Granada | Berera A.,University of Edinburgh | Ramos R.O.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Joao G.R.,University of Edinburgh
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2013

In generic particle physics models, the inflaton field is coupled to other bosonic and fermionic fields that acquire large masses during inflation and may decay into light degrees of freedom. This leads to dissipative effects that modify the inflationary dynamics and may generate a nearly-thermal radiation bath, such that inflation occurs in a warm rather than supercooled environment. In this work, we perform a numerical computation and obtain expressions for the associated dissipation coefficient in supersymmetric models, focusing on the regime where the radiation temperature is below the heavy mass threshold. The dissipation coefficient receives contributions from the decay of both on-shell and off-shell degrees of freedom, which are dominant for small and large couplings, respectively, taking into account the light field multiplicities. In particular, we find that the contribution from on-shell decays, although Boltzmann-suppressed, can be much larger than that of virtual modes, which is bounded by the validity of a perturbative analysis. This result opens up new possibilities for realizations of warm inflation in supersymmetric field theories. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

Lyth D.H.,Lancaster University | Karciauskas M.,University of Granada
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2013

We present the first complete calculation of the curvature perturbation generated during the hybrid inflation waterfall, caused by the coupling of the waterfall field to a gauge field A whose kinetic function f2 depends on the inflaton field. We impose an upper bound on the field A-fA which ensures that it has a negligible effect before the waterfall. We confirm the claim of Soda and Yokoyama, that the perturbation δB generates a statistically anisotropic spectrum and bispectrum, which could easily be observable. We also discover a new phenomenon, whereby the time-dependent 'varyon' field B causes the inflaton contribution to vary during the waterfall. The varyon mechanism might be implemented also with a scalar field and might not involve the waterfall. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

Martinez-Paneda E.,University of Oviedo | Gallego R.,University of Granada
International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design | Year: 2015

This work investigates the existing capabilities and limitations in numerical modeling of fracture problems in functionally graded materials (FGMs) by means of the well-known finite element code ABAQUS. Quasi-static crack initiation and growth in planar FGMs is evaluated. Computational results of fracture parameters are compared to experimental results and good agreement is obtained. The importance of the numerical fit of the elastic properties in the FE model is analyzed in depth by means of a sensitivity study and a novel method is presented. Several key computational issues derived from the continuous change of the material properties are also addressed and the source code of a user subroutine USDFLD is provided in the Appendix for an effective implementation of the property variation. The crack propagation path is calculated through the extended finite element method and subsequently compared to available experimental data. Suitability of local fracture criteria to simulate crack trajectories in FGMs is discussed and a new crack propagation criterion is suggested. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ruiz Arriola E.,University of Granada | Szpigel S.,Mackenzie Presbyterian University | Timoteo V.S.,University of Campinas
Annals of Physics | Year: 2015

We analyze quantitatively the interplay between explicit and implicit renormalization in Nuclear Physics. By explicit renormalization we mean to integrate out higher energy modes below a given cutoff scale using the similarity renormalization group (SRG) with a block-diagonal evolution generator, which separates the total Hilbert-space into a model space and its complementary. In the implicit renormalization we impose given conditions at low energies for a cutoff theory. In both cases we compare the outcoming effective interactions as functions of the cutoff scale. We carry out a comprehensive analysis of a toy-model which captures the main features of the nucleon-nucleon (. NN) S-wave interaction at low energies. We find a wide energy region where both approaches overlap. This amounts to a great simplification in the determination of the effective interaction. Actually, the outcoming scales are within the expected ones relevant for the physics of light nuclei. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

In this paper, the potential effect of enhancing BNCT near the surface of the target volume by means of the addition of the sulfur isotope 33S is studied. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, it is found a noticeable enhancement effect (local increase of the dose at the isotope site) when it is present at local concentrations that in principle can be reached by means of sulfur nanoparticles. A neutron beam with a high component of 13.5keV would be required to produce this effect. Some open problems are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Sanchez-Ruiz J.M.,University of Granada
Biophysical Chemistry | Year: 2010

The relevance of protein stability for biological function and molecular evolution is widely recognized. Protein stability, however, comes in two flavours: thermodynamic stability, which is related to a low amount of unfolded and partially-unfolded states in equilibrium with the native, functional protein; kinetic stability, which is related to a high free-energy barrier "separating" the native state from the non-functional forms (unfolded states, irreversibly-denatured protein). Such barrier may guarantee that the biological function of the protein is maintained, at least during a physiologically relevant time-scale, even if the native state is not thermodynamically stable with respect to non-functional forms. Kinetic stabilization is likely required in many cases, since proteins often work under conditions (harsh extracellular or crowded intracellular environments) in which deleterious alterations (proteolysis, aggregation, undesirable interactions with other macromolecular components) are prone to occur. Also, kinetic stability may provide a mechanism for the evolution of optimal functional properties. Furthermore, enhancement of kinetic stability is essential for many biotechnological applications of proteins. Despite all this, many published studies focus on thermodynamic stability, partly because it can be easily quantified in vitro for small model proteins and, also, because of the availability of computational algorithms to estimate mutation effects on thermodynamic stability. In this review, the opposite bias is purposely adopted: the experimental evidence supporting widespread kinetic stabilization of proteins is summarized, the role of natural selection in determining this feature is discussed, possible molecular mechanisms responsible for kinetic stability are described and the relation between kinetic destabilization and protein misfolding diseases is highlighted. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Bastero-Gil M.,University of Granada | Berera A.,University of Edinburgh | Ramos R.O.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2011

Dissipation coefficients are calculated in the adiabatic, near thermal equilibrium regime for a large class of renormalizable interaction configurations involving a two-stage mechanism, where a background scalar field is coupled to heavy intermediate scalar or fermion fields which in turn are coupled to light scalar or fermion radiation fields. These interactions are typical of warm inflation microscopic model building. Two perturbative regimes are shown where well defined approximations for the spectral functions apply. One regime is at high temperature, when the masses of both intermediate and radiation fields are less than the temperature scale and where the poles of the spectral functions dominate. The other regime is at low temperature, when the intermediate field masses are much bigger than the temperature and where the low energy and low three-momentum regime dominate the spectral functions. The dissipation coefficients in these two regimes are derived. However, due to resummation issues for the high temperature case, only phenomenological approximate estimates are provided for the dissipation in this regime. In the low temperature case, higher loop contributions are suppressed and so no resummation is necessary. In addition to inflationary cosmology, the application of our results to cosmological phase transitions is also discussed. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

Grasso M.,University Paris - Sud | Anguiano M.,University of Granada
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

Recent ground-state-focused studies of the tensor effects in the mean-field framework are our starting point. On the basis of phenomenological arguments, we indicate regions for acceptable values of the parameters that are associated with the tensor effective forces within both the Skyrme and the Gogny models. We identify acceptable signs and values of the parameters by making an adjustment on the neutron 1f spin-orbit splitting for the nuclei 40Ca, 48Ca, and 56Ni. The first nucleus is not used to adjust the tensor parameters because it is spin-saturated, but is employed to tune the spin-orbit strength. One of the main conclusions of this work is that some existing Skyrme parametrizations containing the tensor force should not be employed because the wrong sign of the tensor parameters does not lead to the correct behavior (by comparing with the experimental results). This study also allows us to better constrain the tensor parameters in the Gogny case, where much less work is published and boundaries and signs for the parameters have not been analyzed so far. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Cables E.,University of Holguin | Garcia-Cascales M.S.,University of Granada | Lamata M.T.,Technical University of Cartagena
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

This paper develops an evaluation approach based on the Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). When the input for a decision process is linguistic, it can be understood that the output should also be linguistic. For that reason, in this paper we propose a modification of the TOPSIS algorithm which develops the above idea and which can also be used as a linguistic classifier. In this new development, modifications to the classic algorithm have been considered which enable linguistic outputs and which can be checked through the inclusion of an applied example to demonstrate the goodness of the new model proposed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada | Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,Institute Fisica Of Cantabria Csic Uc | Juste A.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We introduce the forward-backward asymmetries Au, Ad corresponding to uū, dd̄→tt̄ production, respectively, at hadron colliders. These are collider and center-of-mass independent observables, directly related to the forward-backward and charge asymmetries measured at the Tevatron and the LHC, respectively. We discuss how to extract these asymmetries from data. Because these asymmetries are collider independent, their measurement at these two colliders could elucidate the nature of the anomalous forward-backward asymmetry measured at the Tevatron. Our framework also shows in a model independent fashion that a positive Tevatron asymmetry exceeding the standard model expectation is compatible with the small asymmetry measured at the LHC. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Diaz J.A.,University of Granada | Navarro R.,University of Zaragoza
Applied Optics | Year: 2014

We generalize the analytical form of the orthonormal elliptical polynomials for any arbitrary aspect ratio to arbitrary orientation and give expression for them up to the 4th order. The utility of the polynomials is demonstrated by obtaining the expansion up to the 8th order in two examples of an off-axis wavefront exiting from an optical system with a vignetted pupil. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

The goals of this study were, firstly, to determine whether pre-test anxiety is associated with differences in hours of sleep during the previous night; secondly, to examine whether such anxiety is related to the presence of aggressiveness; and, thirdly, to determine whether aggressiveness may be considered a relevant variable in the possible relationship between partial sleep reduction and test anxiety. In addition, differences as a function of gender were analyzed in the target variables. The study sample was made up of 137 undergraduate students before taking an exam. Our results confirm the association between sleep reduction the previous night and test anxiety as well as that between aggressiveness and test anxiety. No interaction effects were observed, but sleep reduction and aggressiveness were good predictors of test anxiety. No significant gender differences were observed in hours of sleep the previous night, aggressiveness and test-anxiety, but there were differences in anxiety as a function of the hours of sleep. © Copyright 2013: de los Editores de Ansiedad y Estrés.

Perez-Vizcaino F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Duarte J.,University of Granada
Molecular Aspects of Medicine | Year: 2010

Flavonols, and specially quercetin, are widely distributed in plants and are present in considerable amounts in fruits and vegetables. In addition to their anti-oxidant effect, flavonols interfere with a large number of biochemical signaling pathways and, therefore, physiological and pathological processes. There is solid evidence that, in vitro, quercetin and related flavonols exert endothelium-independent vasodilator effects, protective effect on nitric oxide and endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress, platelet antiaggregant effects, inhibition of LDL oxidation, reduction of adhesion molecules and other inflammatory markers and prevention of neuronal oxidative and inflammatory damage. The metabolites of quercetin show partial protective effects on endothelial function and LDL oxidation. Quercetin produces undisputed antihypertensive and antiatherogenic effects, prevents endothelial dysfunction and protects the myocardium from ischemic damage. It has no clear effects on serum lipid profile and on insulin resistance. Human intervention trials with isolated flavonols demonstrate an antihypertensive effect. The meta-analysis of epidemiological studies show an inverse association between flavonol (together with flavone) intake and coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore, although there is no solid proof yet, a substantial body of evidence suggests that quercetin may prevent the most common forms of cardiovascular disease contributing to the protective effects afforded by fruits and vegetables. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Spina E.,Messina University | De Leon J.,University of Kentucky | De Leon J.,University of Granada
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology | Year: 2014

Introduction: Combinations of newer antidepressants and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are frequently used by clinicians. Pharmacokinetic drug interaction (PK DI) and poorly understood pharmacodynamic (PD) drug interaction (PD DI) can occur between them. Areas covered: This paper comprehensively reviews PD DI and PK DI studies. Expert opinion: More PK DI studies are needed to better establish dose correction factors after adding fluoxetine and paroxetine to aripiprazole, iloperidone and risperidone. Further PK DI studies and case reports are also needed to better establish the need for dose correction factors after adding i) fluoxetine to clozapine, lurasidone, quetiapine and olanzapine; ii) paroxetine to olanzapine; iii) fluvoxamine to asenapine, aripiprazole, iloperidone, lurasidone, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone; iv) high sertraline doses to aripiprazole, clozapine, iloperidone and risperidone: v) bupropion and duloxetine to aripiprazole, clozapine, iloperidone and risperidone; and vi) asenapine to paroxetine and venlafaxine. Possible beneficial PD DI effects occur after adding SGAs to newer antidepressants for treatment-resistant major depressive and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The lack of studies combining newer antidepressants and SGAs in psychotic depression is worrisome. PD DIs between newer antidepressants and SGAs may be more likely for mirtazapine and bupropion. Adding selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and SGAs may increase QTc interval and may very rarely contribute to torsades de pointes. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Kob W.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Roldan-Vargas S.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Roldan-Vargas S.,University of Granada | Berthier L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory
Nature Physics | Year: 2012

The viscosity of glass-forming liquids increases by many orders of magnitude if their temperature is lowered by a mere factor of 2-3. Recent studies suggest that this widespread phenomenon is accompanied by spatially heterogeneous dynamics, and a growing dynamic correlation length quantifying the extent of correlated particle motion. Here we use a novel numerical method to detect and quantify spatial correlations that reveal a surprising non-monotonic temperature evolution of spatial dynamical correlations, accompanied by a second length scale that grows monotonically and has a very different nature. Our results directly unveil a dramatic qualitative change in atomic motions near the mode-coupling crossover temperature, which involves no fitting or indirect theoretical interpretation. These findings impose severe new constraints on the theoretical description of the glass transition, and open several research perspectives, in particular for experiments, to confirm and quantify our observations in real materials. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Lopez-Cozar R.,University of Granada
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2016

This paper proposes a novel technique to create scenarios that can be used by a user simulator for exhaustively evaluating spoken dialogue systems. The scenarios are automatically created from simple scenario-templates that the systems' developers create manually employing their knowledge about typical goals of the system's users. The scenarios contain goals, which the user simulator will try to achieve through the interaction with the systems. The goals are represented in the form of semantic frames, which are associated with user utterances of sentences and are taken from utterance corpora. In this way, the scenarios enable speech-based interaction between the simulator and the spoken dialogue systems to be evaluated. Experiments have been carried out employing two spoken dialogue systems (Saplen and Viajero), a user simulator and two utterance corpora previously collected for two different application domains: fast-food ordering and bus travel information. Experimental results show that the technique has been useful for exhaustively evaluating the systems and finding out problems in their performance that must addressed to improve them. Some of these problems are caused by acoustic similarity between some uttered words and strong speaker accents. Thus, we think these problems would have been difficult to uncover employing the user simulation techniques typically used nowadays, as they do not employ real speech and just consider semantics of user intentions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Maldonado-Hodar F.J.,University of Granada
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2011

Metal (Cr, Mo, W) - doped carbon aerogels were synthesized from resorcinol-formaldehyde polymerization, characterized textural and chemically and used as aromatization catalysts. Catalytic performance depended on the thermal treatments applied to the samples and on the nature of the metal phases formed (pure carbon is inactive). Only cracking and aromatization reactions were detected and benzene was produced by dehydrogenation and direct 1-6 ring closure. The partial reduction of the metal oxides led to less acidic surfaces enhancing the aromatization versus cracking. Benzene selectivity of 60% without deactivation was obtained. However, when Ni and Co were reduced to the zero valence, strong interactions with the hexane led to a 100% selectivity to methane. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Duarte F.,University of Porto | Maldonado-Hodar F.J.,University of Granada | Madeira L.M.,University of Porto
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2011

This work deals with the elimination of the azo-dye Orange II (OII) by the heterogeneous Fenton's process. Three different commercial activated carbons (ACs), Norit RX 3 Extra, Merck and Kynol, were used as Fe-supports to develop Fenton catalysts (7wt.% Fe/C). Both supports and catalysts were characterized by several techniques (N 2 and CO 2 adsorption, XRD, TEM). The elimination of the dye is a complex heterogeneous process with co-existence of adsorption and oxidation. Adsorption and catalytic experiments were carried out with only 0.1gL -1 of solid in a slurry batch reactor at 30°C, pH 3 and initial dye concentration of 0.1mM. The decolorization was followed continuously by the absorbance measurement; mineralization and leaching levels were evaluated by TOC and atomic absorption analyses, respectively. Correlations of ACs characteristics with their adsorptive or catalytic performances were established, in order to select the best support. All the ACs are microporous materials and the OII adsorption is favoured by an increase of the micropore width. Although the carbon surface proves to be catalytically active, the main OII elimination process in pure ACs is adsorption, while for the Fe-catalyst it is determined by the Fenton oxidation. The Fe-Norit is the most active catalyst, which is associated to its high surface area located on large micropores that favours both the OII adsorption and the Fe-dispersion. However, this catalyst presented the highest tendency to the leaching. Anyway, the leaching values remain quite low even in this case (<1.7% of the total Fe), guarantying the possible reuse of the catalysts. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Montiel I.,Loyola Marymount University | Delgado-Ceballos J.,University of Granada
Organization and Environment | Year: 2014

This literature review article aims to bring a better understanding to the field of corporate sustainability (CS) as studied by management scholars. The first part of this review quantifies the amount of research devoted to CS and related topics such as corporate social responsibility, corporate social performance, environmental strategies and environmental performance from 1995 through 2013. The authors then summarize the different definitions, organizational theories, and measures that have been adopted by management scholars working in the CS field in both academic and practitioner management journals. The results show that the CS field is still evolving and different approaches to define, theorize, and measure CS have been used. Differences are also found between the literature that targets scholars versus the one targeting practitioners. The authors also provide a set of recommendations on how to advance the CS field. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

Henri Van Heurck examined a sample collection of sea ice and underlying sea floor sediment material during the Belgian Antarctic Expedition (1897-1899). He described eight new taxa of the monoraphid diatom genus Cocconeis from this collection including: C. antiqua var. tenuistriata, C. gautierii var. gautierii and var. inornata, C. heydrichii, C. japonica var. antarctica, C. litigiosa, C. schuettii var. schuettii and var. minor. All these Cocconeis taxa share well-silicified sternum valves with wide, apical hyaline areas, more or less lenticular in shape, and narrow hyaline bands at mid-distance between the apical axis and the margin, while the more delicate raphe-sternum valves bear uniseriate striae, a hemistauros associated with the central raphe area, and crescent-shaped terminal hyaline areas. Since their original description in the early 20th century, these Cocconeis taxa have been rarely reported. I studied newly described Cocconeis taxa from Van Heurck's type material by light microscopy. The main valve features of C. gautierii var. gautierii and var. inornata, C. litigiosa, and C. schuettii var. schuettii and var. minor agree well with those of Cocconeis antiqua; I propose these five taxa be reduced to synonymy of C. antiqua. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York.

Poquet J.M.,University of Granada | Mesquita-Joanes F.,University of Valencia
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2011

1. The relationship between altitudinal gradients on small spatial scales and latitudinal gradients on broader scales has been repeatedly recognised in the biogeography of animals and plants. However, little is known about this topic in the ecology and biogeography of ostracod communities in Mediterranean flowing waters or the factors underlying these spatial patterns. 2. We analysed the ostracod assemblages of near-natural headwater streams in the Betic and Pre-Betic Mountains in the southern Iberian Peninsula to decipher the most important environmental gradients structuring ostracod communities on a local scale. In addition, the European altitudinal and latitudinal distributions of the most commonly found species were analysed with GIS and regression models to compare geographical effects from local to continental scales. 3. Forty sampling sites, distributed among six catchments and ranging in altitude between 150 and 1940m a.s.l., were sampled seasonally. Limnological and geographical information was also recorded for each sample. Seventeen ostracod species were found, two of which were new findings for the Iberian Peninsula: Potamocypris fulva and Cypria reptans. The most common species were Potamocypris zschokkei, Candona neglecta, Herpetocypris brevicaudata, Cyclocypris ovum, Potamocypris villosa and Pseudocandona albicans. The distribution of these species in 918 European locations was analysed to test the hypothesised change in altitudinal distribution with varying latitude. 4. The best subset of logistic and linear regression models, selected by means of the information-theoretic approach, found that oxygen content and the variables related with substratum and discharge were the most important variables with a negative influence on ostracod presence, abundance and species richness on a local scale. These findings suggest that the negative effect on benthic invertebrates of physical disturbances relates to high flow velocity and turbulences. 5. Multivariate ordination methods show how altitude and water chemistry are the most important variables to explain the distribution of ostracod assemblages on the small spatial scale. On a larger scale, differences in latitudinal distribution throughout Europe were significant for the six most common species found in Granada. In addition, four of these showed significant negative linear relationships between latitude and altitude in Europe, supporting the important effect of climate on local and continental scale distributions. While ostracod biogeographies are still poorly known, our results indicate the influence of Quaternary climate variability on ostracod dynamic colonisation and extinction in Europe in accordance with species-specific temperature and water chemistry preferences. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Schiestl F.P.,University of Zurich | Huber F.K.,University of Zurich | Gomez J.M.,University of Granada
Evolutionary Ecology | Year: 2011

Flowers emit a large variety of floral signals that play a fundamental role in the communication of plants with their mutualists and antagonists. We investigated phenotypic selection on floral scent and floral display using the rewarding orchid species Gymnadenia odoratissima. We found positive directional selection on inflorescence size, as well as positive and negative selection on floral scent compounds. Structural equation modeling showed that "active" compounds, i. e. those that were shown in earlier investigations to be detected by pollinator insects, were positively linked to fitness, whereas "non-active" were negatively linked to fitness. Our results suggest that different patterns of selection impact on different scent compounds, which may relate to the functions of compounds for attracting/deterring insects. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Garcia D.,University of Oviedo | Zamora R.,University of Granada | Amico G.C.,Institute Investigacion en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente
Ecological Monographs | Year: 2011

Plant-animal interactions are crucial nodes in the structure of communities and pivotal drivers of ecosystem functioning. Much of this relevance may depend on how animals cope with plant resources at different spatial scales. However, little is known about how and why different interactions perform at different scales in the same environmental setting. In this study we assess the spatial scales at which two plant-animal interactions operate and disentangle the environmental factors (plant resource availability vs. habitat structure) underpinning these operational scales. We studied two interactions with opposite (mutualistic vs. antagonistic) ecological effects on fleshy-fruited trees, frugivory and seed dispersal by birds, and the later predation by rodents on bird-dispersed seeds. Employing a standardized sampling, we covered three temperate ecosystems hosting structurally similar plant-frugivore-seed predator systems: Cantabrian forest, Mediterranean shrubland, and Patagonian forest. We sampled habitat structure (tree and understory covers), fleshy-fruit abundance, birddispersed seed occurrence, frugivorous bird abundance, and seed predation rate, along 1500-2500 m transects. Using a spatially explicit approach, we broke down the predictable spatial patterns of bird abundance and seed predation rate into patchiness at three consecutive spatial scales (broad, intermediate, and fine). The degree of patchiness and the allocation of spatial variability at different scales suggested a hierarchically nested structure in frugivory and seed predation, but a larger operational scale in seed predation than in frugivory. Scale-specific spatial distributions were explained by the response of animals to plant resource availability and habitat structure. Birds tracked fruits at large spatial scales in all systems and, within some systems, even across consecutive scales. Seed predation distribution was more responsive to habitat features than to resource availability. The reinforcement of resource tracking patterns across scales sometimes occurred simultaneously with the dilution of habitat effects, suggesting that scale dependence may emerge from trade-offs between resource acquisition and the effects of other factors, such as predation risk, on interacting animals. Our findings suggest that scale dependence in frugivory and seed predation may affect the balance of demographic effects of these interactions in plant populations. Moreover, the consistency of frugivory patterns within and across spatial scales may condition the redundancy of seed dispersal as an ecosystem function. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

Narayan P.,University of Cambridge | Orte A.,University of Cambridge | Orte A.,University of Granada | Clarke R.W.,University of Cambridge | And 7 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

In recent genome-wide association studies, the extracellular chaperone protein, clusterin, has been identified as a newly-discovered risk factor in Alzheimer's disease. We have examined the interactions between human clusterin and the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid-β 1-40 peptide (Aβ 1-40), which is prone to aggregate into an ensemble of oligomeric intermediates implicated in both the proliferation of amyloid fibrils and in neuronal toxicity. Using highly sensitive single-molecule fluorescence methods, we have found that Aβ 1-40 forms a heterogeneous distribution of small oligomers (from dimers to 50-mers), all of which interact with clusterin to form long-lived, stable complexes. Consequently, clusterin is able to influence both the aggregation and disaggregation of Aβ 1-40 by sequestration of the Aβ oligomers. These results not only elucidate the protective role of clusterin but also provide a molecular basis for the genetic link between clusterin and Alzheimer's disease. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Salido E.,University of La Laguna | Pey A.L.,University of Granada | Rodriguez R.,University of La Laguna | Lorenzo V.,University of La Laguna
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2012

Glyoxylate detoxification is an important function of human peroxisomes. Glyoxylate is a highly reactive molecule, generated in the intermediary metabolism of glycine, hydroxyproline and glycolate mainly. Glyoxylate accumulation in the cytosol is readily transformed by lactate dehydrogenase into oxalate, a dicarboxylic acid that cannot be metabolized by mammals and forms tissue-damaging calcium oxalate crystals. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, a peroxisomal enzyme in humans, converts glyoxylate into glycine, playing a central role in glyoxylate detoxification. Cytosolic and mitochondrial glyoxylate reductase also contributes to limit oxalate production from glyoxylate. Mitochondrial hydroxyoxoglutarate aldolase is an important enzyme of hydroxyproline metabolism. Genetic defect of any of these enzymes of glyoxylate metabolism results in primary hyperoxalurias, severe human diseases in which toxic levels of oxalate are produced by the liver, resulting in progressive renal damage. Significant advances in the pathophysiology of primary hyperoxalurias have led to better diagnosis and treatment of these patients, but current treatment relies mainly on organ transplantation. It is reasonable to expect that recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disease will result into better targeted therapeutic options in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metabolic Functions and Biogenesis of peroxisomes in Health and Disease. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Maldonado-Hodar F.J.,University of Granada
Catalysis Today | Year: 2013

Nanostructured carbon gels are prepared by sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde. The flexibility of the sol-gel process permits the control of the morphology, porosity and surface chemistry of carbon gels, but a large amount of variables should be carefully fitted. Pure carbon gels used as supports or doped-carbon gels and organic-inorganic composites to be used as catalyst, can be prepared. When metal-doped carbon gels are prepared, metals are active in all synthesis steps: polymerization, carbonization and/or activation. Interactions between organic-inorganic phases determine the distribution/dispersion of metals, sintering resistance, porosity, graphitization, formation of different active phases, etc. thus offering a large amount of possibilities in catalysis because final metal particles are also active in many catalyzed processes. Metal-doped carbon gels are more resistant to sintering or leaching than impregnated catalysts, however, some metal particles are encapsulated by the organic matrix, being therefore inactive in catalysis. Relationships between chemical and physical parameters with catalysts characteristics: loading, accessibility, chemical nature, stability (leaching or sintering) and catalytic behavior of the supported active phases are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Longo S.,University of Parma | Losada M.A.,University of Granada
Experiments in Fluids | Year: 2012

This is the second paper in a group of three that reports the systematic measurements of wind-generated water waves in a wind tunnel experiment. Here, the structure of the boundary layer on the air side of the water-air interface was analysed and compared with the boundary layer over a smooth plane rigid wall. The contribution of the wave-induced Reynolds stress was detected through filtering the spectrum of velocity fluctuations. Waveinduced Reynolds stresses became negligible for z>5 H rms. The intermittency factor in the boundary layer over water waves was similar to that in a boundary layer over a rigid plane wall, with several differences near the interface. Here, the presence/absence of water damps out the turbulence. The quadrant analyses revealed that ejection and sweep events were dominant and more concentrated. At small fetches, the large-amplitude negative streamwise perturbations were preferentially lifted. Turbulence energy production peaked at z/δ = 0.2 and had a distribution similar to that observed for a self-preserving boundary layer with a strong adverse gradient pressure. The quadrant analysis contribution to the energy production revealed that ejections still dominated the balance and that the production was spatially modulated in the wind direction with a couple of cells and with a minimum in the area of the free surface wave height reduction. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Garcia-Retamero R.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Garcia-Retamero R.,University of Granada | Galesic M.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2011

Objective: To make informed health decisions, patients must understand and recall risks, which often involve ratios with large denominators. Grasping the meaning of such numbers may be difficult, because of limited exposure to large groups of people in either our evolutionary history or daily life. Methods: In an experiment (n = 98), we investigated whether medical risks are easier to understand and recall if their representation is based on small, evolutionarily plausible groups of people, and whether this representation especially helps patients with low numeracy. Results: Participants-especially those with low numeracy-often disregarded and incorrectly recalled denominators of ratios representing medical risks when the denominators involved were large. Risks were easier to understand and recall if their representation was based on smaller, evolutionarily plausible groups of people. Conclusions: Our results extend previous literature on the role of numeracy in understanding health-relevant risk communications by showing the importance of using plausible group sizes to communicate these risks to people with low numeracy. Our results also support the notion that problems in risk perception occur because of inappropriate presentation formats rather than cognitive biases. Practice implications: Our findings suggest suitable ways to communicate quantitative medical data-especially to people with low numeracy. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Romero O.E.,University of Granada
Marine Micropaleontology | Year: 2010

Accomplishing reliable paleo-reconstructions of productivity and upwelling conditions in eastern boundary current systems requires the use of cores collected in a basin-wide spatial pattern. Based on diatom assemblage analysis and the concentration and the bulk biogenic components of three gravity cores recovered from the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) between 19° and 25°S, I describe rapid paleoceanographic changes that occurred during the last 70 ka B.P. in the southeastern Atlantic. The pattern of biogenic production and accumulation differs to varying degrees among the three core sites along the SW African coast. The highest sedimentation and accumulation rates at 25°S off Lüderitz conform with the present-day, well-known pattern of highest productivity and most intense coastal upwelling. Highest diatom values at 25°S during MIS3 points to more intense upwelling due to the combination of strong seaward-extending upwelling filaments, shoaling of the upwelled water, and the influence of silicate-rich waters of Antarctic origin. Productivity decreased along the central BUS throughout MIS2, when the siliceous-calcareous productivity regime shifted toward a system dominated by calcareous producers. Although intensity and strength of winds created adequate conditions for upwelling during MIS2, diatom production decreased. The complete replacement of the upwelling-associated diatom flora by a non-upwelling-related diatom community during MIS1 reflects weakened upwelling, weakened seaward extension of the upwelling filaments, and dominance of warmer surface waters. Combining changes in the composition of the diatom assemblage and variations of the bulk biogenic components allows for reliable reconstruction of paleoproductivity and upwelling changes for the SE Atlantic during the last 70 ka B.P. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Checa A.G.,University of Granada | Harper E.M.,University of Cambridge
Biological Bulletin | Year: 2010

The external shell surfaces of most anomalodesmatan bivalves are studded with small spikes, particularly at the posterior end. We have studied the morphology, mode of growth, and distribution among taxa of these spikes. In this study we found that spikes vary widely in morphology, from acute spikes to flat plaques. Optical and electron microscopy has revealed that the periostraca of Laternula, Myadora, and Thraciopsis consist of an outer dense layer and an inner translucent layer. The dense layer grows at the expense of the inner layer as it progresses toward the shell edge. The spikes begin to grow in the free periostracum, within the translucent periostracal layer, immediately below the dense layer. With growth, they push the dense periostracal layer upward but without penetrating it. Those parts of the spike in contact with this layer cease to grow, which explains the typical conical shape of spikes. When fully grown, spikes reach the base of the translucent layer, becoming incorporated into the outer shell layer. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analysis reveal that the spikes of Lyonsia norwegica and Lyonsiella abyssicola are prisms of aragonite composed of twinned crystals, with the c-axis vertical. A survey of the occurrence of spikes within the anomalodesmatans shows that they are present in all but a few families. Elsewhere within the closely related palaeoheterodonts, intra-periostracal calcification is also known in Neotrigonia and unionids, which indicates that this character may be plesiomorphic for these bivalves. The present data do not support the homology of spikes in other bivalve groups (e.g., veneroids) or in the aplacophorans or polyplacophorans. © 2010 Marine Biological Laboratory.

Ruiz D.,University of Granada
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2010

This paper is motivated by the study of a version of the so-called Schrödinger-Poisson-Slater problem: where u H1(ℝ3). We are concerned mostly with p (2, 3). The behavior of radial minimizers motivates the study of the static case ω = 0. Among other things, we obtain a general lower bound for the Coulomb energy, which could be useful in other frameworks. The radial and nonradial cases turn out to yield essentially different situations. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Kimura Y.,Tohoku University | Niinomi H.,Tohoku University | Tsukamoto K.,Tohoku University | Garcia-Ruiz J.M.,University of Granada
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

The formation of crystals from solution requires the initial self-assembly of units of matter into stable periodic structures reaching a critical size. The early stages of this process, called nucleation, are very difficult to visualize. Here we describe a novel method that allows real time observation of the dynamics of nucleation and dissolution of sodium chlorate clusters in an ionic liquid solution using in situ transmission electron microscopy. Using ionic liquids as solvent circumvents the problem of evaporation and charging, while the nucleation frequency was reduced by using saturated solutions. We observe simultaneous formation and dissolution of prenucleation clusters, suggesting that high-density fluctuations leading to solid cluster formation exist even under equilibrium conditions. In situ electron diffraction patterns reveal the simultaneous formation of crystalline nuclei of two polymorphic structures, the stable cubic phase and the metastable monoclinic phase, during the earliest stages of nucleation. These results demonstrate that molecules in solution can form clusters of different polymorphic phases independently of their respective solubility. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Garzelli M.V.,University of Granada | Malamos I.,Radboud University Nijmegen
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2011

The analytical package written in FORM presented in this paper allows the computation of the complete set of Feynman Rules producing the Rational terms of kind R2 contributing to the virtual part of NLO corrections in the Standard Model of the Electroweak interactions. Building block topologies filled by means of generic scalars, vectors and fermions, allowing to build these Feynman Rules in terms of specific elementary particles, are explicitly given in the Rξ gauge class, together with the automatic dressing procedure to obtain the Feynman Rules from them. The results in more specific gauges, like the ’t Hooft Feynman one, follow as particular cases, in both the HV and the FDH dimensional regularization schemes. As a check on our formulas, the gauge independence of the total Rational contribution (R1+R2) to renormalized S-matrix elements is verified by considering the specific example of the H → γγ decay process at 1-loop. This package can be of interest for people aiming at a better understanding of the nature of the Rational terms. It is organized in a modular way, allowing a further use of some its files even in different contexts. Furthermore, it can be considered as a first seed in the effort towards a complete automation of the process of the analytical calculation of the R2 effective vertices, given the Lagrangian of a generic gauge theory of particle interactions. © 2011, The Author(s).

Alonso J.J.,University of Malaga | Alonso J.J.,University of Granada
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2015

Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the character of the spin-glass (SG) state of a site-diluted dipolar Ising model. We consider systems of dipoles randomly placed on a fraction x of all L3 sites of a simple cubic lattice that point up or down along a given crystalline axis. For x 0.65 these systems are known to exhibit an equilibrium spin-glass phase below a temperature Tsgx. At high dilution and very low temperatures, well deep in the SG phase, we find spiky distributions of the overlap parameter q that are strongly sample dependent. We focus on spikes associated with large excitations. From cumulative distributions of q and a pair correlation function averaged over several thousands of samples we find that, for the system sizes studied, the average width of spikes, and the fraction of samples with spikes higher than a certain threshold, does not vary appreciably with L. This is compared with the behavior found for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Arias J.L.,University of Granada | Reddy L.H.,University Paris - Sud | Reddy L.H.,Sanofi S.A. | Couvreur P.,University Paris - Sud
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2011

Gemcitabine, an anticancer nucleoside analogue, undergoes rapid enzymatic degradation following intravenous injection. This necessitates the administration of a high order of doses to observe a required therapeutic response, while such high doses result in significant side effects. To improve the intravenous delivery of gemcitabine and simultaneously enhance its antitumor activity, we have investigated its incorporation into a drug nanoplatform based on the biodegradable polymer chitosan. Two gemcitabine loading methods have been investigated: (i) entrapment into the polymeric network (entrapment procedure): drug incorporation prior to the coacervation process that leads to the formation of gemcitabine-loaded chitosan (GemChit) nanoparticles; and (ii) surface deposition onto already formed chitosan nanoparticles after incubation in gemcitabine solution (adsorption procedure). The former method produced much higher gemcitabine loading values and a sustained release profile. The main factors determining the gemcitabine loading and release kinetic have also been analyzed. Following intravenous injection, the GemChit formulation displayed a significantly improved antitumor activity comparatively to free gemcitabine, which was further confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry studies, suggesting the potential of this chitosan-based gemcitabine nanomedicine for the effective treatment of tumors. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Porcel C.,University of Jaen | Herrera-Viedma E.,University of Granada
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2010

As in the Web, the growing of information is the main problem of the academic digital libraries. Thus, similar tools could be applied in university digital libraries to facilitate the information access by the students and teachers. In [46] we presented a fuzzy linguistic recommender system to advice research resources in university digital libraries. The problem of this system is that the user profiles are provided directly by the own users and the process for acquiring user preferences is quite difficult because it requires too much user effort. In this paper we present a new fuzzy linguistic recommender system that facilitates the acquisition of the user preferences to characterize the user profiles. We allow users to provide their preferences by means of incomplete fuzzy linguistic preference relation. We include tools to manage incomplete information when the users express their preferences, and, in such a way, we show that the acquisition of the user profiles is improved. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Angulo J.C.,University of Granada
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

Rigorous and universal relationships among radial expectation values of any D-dimensional quantum-mechanical system are obtained, using Rényi-like position-momentum inequalities in an information-theoretical framework. Although the results are expressed in terms of four moments (two in position space and two in the momentum one), especially interesting are the cases that provide expressions of uncertainty in terms of products 1/b, widely considered in the literature, including the famous Heisenberg relationship D2/4. Improved bounds for these products have recently been provided, but are always restricted to positive orders a,b > 0. The interesting part of this work are the inequalities for negative orders. A study of these relationships is carried out for atomic systems in their ground state. Some results are given in terms of relevant physical quantities, including the kinetic and electron-nucleus attraction energies, the diamagnetic susceptibility, and the height of the peak of the Compton profile, among others. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Califano M.,University of Leeds | Gomez-Campos F.M.,University of Granada
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

Size tunability of the optical properties and inexpensive synthesis make semiconductor nanocrystals one of the most promising and versatile building blocks for many modern applications such as lasers, single-electron transistors, solar cells, and biological labels. The performance of these nanocrystal-based devices is however compromised by efficient trapping of the charge carriers. This process exhibits different features depending on the nanocrystal material, surface termination, size, and trap location, leading to the assumption that different mechanisms are at play in each situation. Here we revolutionize this fragmented picture and provide a unified interpretation of trapping dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals by identifying the origins of this so far elusive detrimental process. Our findings pave the way for a general suppression strategy, applicable to any system, which can lead to a simultaneous efficiency enhancement in all nanocrystal-based technologies. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Martinez-Rodrigo M.D.,Jaume I University | Museros P.,University of Granada
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2011

In this article, the resonant response of plates traversed by moving loads is addressed being its main application the dynamic performance of railway bridges under high-speed traffic. An innovative alternative to reduce the deck inadmissible oscillations that may appear in short simply supported structures in resonant conditions is proposed, based on artificially increasing the superstructure damping by retrofitting the deck with fluid viscous dampers. A particular auxiliary structure transforming the deck vertical deflection into relative movement within the devices is envisaged, being the main objectives of the study to optimise the retrofitting system parameters and to prove its efficiency under the action of railway vehicles. For these purposes, the retrofitted deck behaviour is first investigated using an orthotropic plate model under harmonic excitation. On the basis of an analytical approach, a dimensionless version of the equations of motion is presented, the governing parameters are extracted and an intensive sensitivity analysis of the plate response is performed. Finally, analytical closed-form expressions for the optimal dampers constants are derived and their adequacy is numerically evaluated. To this end, an existing bridge belonging to the Spanish Railway network is analysed using a three-dimensional finite element code specifically programmed by the authors for this application. In the end the controlling effect of the retrofitting system and the applicability of the optimal parameters analytical expressions are proven for a wide range of circulating velocities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Garber A.J.,Baylor College of Medicine | King A.B.,Diabetes Care Center | Del Prato S.,University of Pisa | Sreenan S.,Connolly Hospital | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background Basal insulin therapy does not stop loss of ß-cell function, which is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and thus diabetes control inevitably deteriorates. Insulin degludec is a new, ultra-longacting basal insulin. We aimed to assess effi cacy and safety of insulin degludec compared with insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods In this 52 week, phase 3, open-label, treat-to-target, non-inferiority trial, undertaken at 123 sites in 12 countries, we enrolled adults (aged =18 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.0-10.0% after 3 months or more of any insulin regimen (with or without oral antidiabetic drugs). We randomly allocated eligible participants in a 3:1 ratio to receive once-daily subcutaneous insulin degludec or glargine, stratifi ed by previous insulin regimen, via a central interactive response system. Basal insulin was titrated to a target plasma glucose concentration of 3.9-<5.0 mmol/L self-measured before breakfast. The primary outcome was non-inferiority of degludec to glargine measured by change in HbA1c from baseline to week 52 (non-inferiority limit of 0.4%) by ANOVA in the full analysis set. We assessed rates of hypoglycaemia in all treated patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00972283. Findings 744 (99%) of 755 participants randomly allocated degludec and 248 (99%) of 251 allocated glargine were included in the full analysis set (mean age 58.9 years [SD 9.3], diabetes duration 13.5 years [7.3], HbA1c 8.3% [0.8], and fasting plasma glucose 9.2 mmol/L [3.1]); 618 (82%) and 211 (84%) participants completed the trial. After 1 year, HbA1c decreased by 1.1% in the degludec group and 1.2% in the glargine group (estimated treatment diff erence [degludec-glargine] 0.08%, 95% CI-0.05 to 0.21), confi rming non-inferiority. Rates of overall confi rmed hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose <3.1 mmol/L or severe episodes requiring assistance) were lower with degludec than glargine (11.1 vs 13.6 episodes per patient-year of exposure; estimated rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.99; p=0.0359), as were rates of nocturnal confi rmed hypoglycaemia (1.4 vs 1.8 episodes per patient-year of exposure; 0.75, 0.58 to 0.99; p=0.0399). Rates of severe hypoglycaemia seemed similar (0.06 vs 0.05 episodes per patient-year of exposure for degludec and glargine) but were too low for assessment of diff erences. Rates of other adverse events did not diff er between groups. Interpretation A policy of suboptimum diabetes control to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia and its consequences in advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus might be unwarranted with newer basal insulins such as degludec, which are associated with lower risks of hypoglycaemia than insulin glargine.

Aray H.,University of Granada
Regional Studies | Year: 2016

Aray H. Partisan alignment effects on total factor productivity, Regional Studies. Unlike the literature on political effects on real economy that suggests that partisan effects accrue through aggregate demand, it is hypothesized that such effects could also accrue through aggregate supply. Using panel data for the Spanish regions over the 1986–2010 period, the main results are: (1) partisan alignment effects only arise when central government enjoys a majority; (2) there exist a positive contemporaneous effect and negative lagged effects; and (3) in absolute value, such effects vanish over time. Results are robust to different specifications and measures of total factor productivity (TFP) and methods of estimation. © 2014 Regional Studies Association.

Garcia-Sanchez I.-M.,University of Salamanca | Frias-Aceituno J.-V.,University of Granada | Rodriguez-Dominguez L.,University of Salamanca
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

This paper contributes to previous country-level analyses of non-financial reporting in the public sector by studying public transparency in relation to sustainability, as well as by assessing the determinants of sustainability disclosure practices in Spanish municipalities. We have carried out a content analysis of the websites of 102 Spanish local governments. Subsequently, we have employed different statistical techniques (biplots and dependence models) to analyse the extent of disclosure and to determine the impact of certain contextual and political factors on transparency in matters of sustainability. When compared to the amount of information that is revealed concerning financial issues, disclosure practices regarding social and environmental information are rather scarce. We have also observed that several political factors, more specifically, the presence of conservative governments and political rivalry, may become genuine barriers to municipal transparency. Based on these findings, we can make two policy recommendations. First, it seems necessary to establish national policies, laws or recommendations that generate similar levels of transparency among local governments in order to avoid social dilemmas. In this sense, similar accountability processes limit non-sustainable behaviours, playing a similar role to that of markets for the private sector. Second, accountability processes should focus on the addition of information concerning social and environmental actions and on informing of the effects of municipalities on them, going beyond the strictly economic dimension. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Martinez-Finkelshtein A.,University of Almeria | Martinez-Finkelshtein A.,University of Granada | Rakhmanov E.A.,University of South Florida
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2011

We investigate the asymptotic zero distribution of Heine-Stieltjes polynomials - polynomial solutions of second order differential equations with complex polynomial coefficients. In the case when all zeros of the leading coefficients are all real, zeros of the Heine-Stieltjes polynomials were interpreted by Stieltjes as discrete distributions minimizing an energy functional. In a general complex situation one deals instead with a critical point of the energy. We introduce the notion of discrete and continuous critical measures (saddle points of the weighted logarithmic energy on the plane), and prove that a weak-* limit of a sequence of discrete critical measures is a continuous critical measure. Thus, the limit zero distributions of the Heine-Stieltjes polynomials are given by continuous critical measures. We give a detailed description of such measures, showing their connections with quadratic differentials. In doing that, we obtain some results on the global structure of rational quadratic differentials on the Riemann sphere that have an independent interest. The problem has a rich variety of connections with other fields of analysis; some of them are briefly mentioned in the paper. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

De Los Santos F.,University of Granada | Franzese G.,University of Barcelona
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

We study, by Monte Carlo simulations, a coarse-grained model of a water monolayer between hydrophobic walls at partial hydration, with a wall-to-wall distance of about 0.5 nm. We analyze how the diffusion constant parallel to the walls, D∥, changes and correlates to the phase diagram of the system. We find a locus of D∥ maxima and a locus of D ∥ minima along isotherms, with lines of constant D ∥ resembling the melting line of bulk water. The two loci of D∥ extrema envelope the line of temperatures of density maxima at constant P. We show how these loci are related to the anomalous volume behavior due to the hydrogen bonds. At much lower T, confined water becomes subdiffusive, and we discuss how this behavior is a consequence of the increased correlations among water molecules when the hydrogen bond network develops. Within the subdiffusive region, although translations are largely hampered, we observe that the hydrogen bond network can equilibrate, and its rearrangement is responsible for the appearance of density minima along isobars. We clarify that the minima are not necessarily related to the saturation of the hydrogen bond network. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Arranz M.J.,Kings College London | Rivera M.,Kings College London | Rivera M.,University of Granada | Munro J.C.,Optimal Medicine Ltd.
CNS Drugs | Year: 2011

This review presents the findings of pharmacogenetic studies exploring the influence of gene variants on antipsychotic treatment response, in terms of both symptom improvement and adverse effects, in patients with schizophrenia.Despite numerous studies in the field, replicating findings across different cohorts that include subjects of different ethnic groups has been challenging. It is clear that non-genetic factors have an important contribution to antipsychotic treatment response. Differing clinical, demographic and environmental characteristics of the cohorts studied have added substantial complexity to the interpretation of the positive and negative findings of many studies.Pharmacogenomic genome-wide investigations are beginning to yield interesting data although they have failed to replicate the most robust findings of candidate gene studies, and are limited by the sample size, especially given the need for studying homogeneous cohorts.Most of the studies conducted on cohorts treated with single antipsychotics have investigated clozapine, olanzapine or risperidone response. These studies have provided some of the most replicated associations with treatment efficacy. Serotonergic system gene variants are significantly associated with the efficacy of clozapine and risperidone, but may have less influence on the efficacy of olanzapine. Dopamine D3 receptor polymorphisms have been more strongly associated with the efficacy of clozapine and olanzapine, and D2 genetic variants with the efficacy of risperidone.Serotonin influences the control of feeding behaviour and has been hypothesized to have a role in the development of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Numerous studies have linked the serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2C)-759-CT polymorphism with weight gain. The leptin gene variant,-2548-GA, has also been associated with weight gain in several studies. Pharmacogenetic studies support the role of cytochrome P450 enzymes and dopamine receptor variants in the development of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders, with a contribution of serotonergic receptors and other gene variants implicated in the mechanism of action of antipsychotics. Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis has been associated with polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex gene (HLA). © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

Lopez-Gomez M.,University of Basel | Lopez-Gomez M.,University of Granada | Sandal N.,University of Aarhus | Stougaard J.,University of Aarhus | Boller T.,University of Basel
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

In this study the interplay between the symbiotic and defence signalling pathways in Lotus japonicus was investigated by comparing the responses to Mesorhizobium loti, the symbiotic partner of L. japonicus, and the elicitor flg22, a conserved peptide motif present in flagellar protein of a wide range of bacteria. It was found that defence and symbiotic pathways overlap in the interaction between L. japonicus and M. loti since similar responses were induced by the mutualistic bacteria and flg22. However, purified flagellin from M. loti did not induce any response in L. japonicus, which suggests the production of other elicitors by the symbiotic bacteria. Defence responses induced by flg22 caused inhibition of rhizobial infection and delay in nodule organogenesis, as demonstrated by the negative effect of flg22 in the formation of spontaneous nodules in the snf1 L. japonicus mutant, and the inhibition of NSP1 and NSP2 genes. This indicates the antagonistic effect of the defence pathway on the nodule formation in the initial rhizobium-legume interaction. However, the fact that flg22 did not affect the formation of new nodules once the symbiosis was established indicates that after the colonization of the host plant by the symbiotic partner, the symbiotic pathway has prevalence over the defensive response. This result is also supported by the down-regulation of the expression levels of the flg22 receptor FLS2 in the nodular tissue. © 2011 The Author(s).

Arcoya D.,University of Granada | Segura De Leon S.,University of Valencia
ESAIM - Control, Optimisation and Calculus of Variations | Year: 2010

We study a comparison principle and uniqueness of positive solutions for the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary value problem associated to quasi-linear elliptic equations with lower order terms. A model example is given by -Δ u+λ|∇u|2/ur = f(x), λ, r>0. The main feature of these equations consists in having a quadratic gradient term in which singularities are allowed. The arguments employed here also work to deal with equations having lack of ellipticity or some dependence on u in the right hand side. Furthermore, they could be applied to obtain uniqueness results for nonlinear equations having the p-Laplacian operator as the principal part. Our results improve those already known, even if the gradient term is not singular. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2008.

Reolid M.,University of Jaen | Nagy J.,University of Oslo | Rodriguez-Tovar F.J.,University of Granada
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010

Foraminiferal analysis proves to be a useful tool for the interpretation of major factors controlling the eco-sedimentary environment. Changes in benthic foraminiferal features, including morphogroups, are mainly affected by variations in nutrient availability and oxygenation rate. The integration of foraminiferal data with total organic carbon (TOC) values, together with differentiation of oxygen restricted biofacies (ORB) based on sedimentological features and macroinvertebrate composition, will improve the interpretations derived. Upper Jurassic shelf deposits from Svalbard (Norway) are revealed to be particularly sensitive to the record of fluctuations in nutrients and oxygenation, showing two extreme cases in TOC content. High TOC concentrations are characterized by low values of the Shannon-Weaver Index (H') and α-diversity index in foraminifera, pointing to a low diversity and dominance of r-mode epifaunal foraminifera (Trochammina). Moreover, differentiated ORB can be characterized by parallel lamination in shales, and an absence of macrobenthic invertebrates (including trace fossils). Unfavourable benthic conditions are interpreted, mainly related with a high consumption of oxygen by microbes in the sediment associated to the degradation of the organic matter. Low TOC values are related to higher values of diversity (H' and α-diversity index), and foraminiferal assemblages dominated by infaunal forms. The differentiated ORBs are characterized by coarse fabrics, scarcity or absence of parallel lamination, presence of trace fossils and abundance of macroinvertebrate shelly epifauna. This is related to a better pore water circulation and higher oxygenation degree, congruent with the comparatively more favourable conditions in the infaunal habitats. Ecostratigraphic trends along the studied section allow the differentiation of stratigraphic intervals reflecting variations in parameters related to the sea-level dynamics. Transgressive phases reveal upward trends in palaeoenvironmental parameters, characterized by: decreasing grain-size, and increasing in both TOC values and epifaunal foraminifera. Differentiated ORB reveals diminution in abundance and diversity of trace fossils and benthic shelly macroinvertebrates upwards. Maximum flooding intervals show the maintenance or accentuation of the previously registered features (the thinnest fabrics, and the highest values in TOC and in opportunistic epifaunal foraminifera), with ORB dominated by parallel lamination. A regressive phase is characterized by coarsening-upwards sediments, decreasing TOC values and increasing infaunal foraminifera. ORB reveals a diminution in parallel lamination together with an increase in trace fossil abundance and diversity, as well as in benthic shelly macroinvertebrates. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Jimenez-Moreno G.,University of Granada | Fauquette S.,Montpellier University | Suc J.-P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2010

Pollen analysis of Miocene and Pliocene sediments from the Iberian Peninsula shows a progressive reduction in plant diversity through time caused by the disappearance of thermophilous and high-water requirement plants. In addition, an increase in warm-temperate (mesothermic), seasonal-adapted "Mediterranean" taxa, high-elevation conifers and herbs (mainly Artemisia) occurred during the Middle and Late Miocene and Pliocene. This has mainly been interpreted as a response of the vegetation to global and regional processes, including climate cooling related to the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and then the onset of the Arctic Ice Sheet, uplift of regional mountains related to the Alpine uplift and the progressive movement of Eurasia towards northern latitudes as a result of the northwards subduction of Africa. The development of steppe-like vegetation in southern Iberia is ancient and probably started during the Oligocene. The onset of a contrasted seasonality in temperature during the Mid-Pliocene superimposed on the pre-existing seasonality in precipitation, the annual length of which increased southward. The Mediterranean climatic rhythm (summer drought) began about 3.4. Ma and caused the individualization of modern Mediterranean ecosystems. Quaternary-type Mediterranean climatic fluctuations started at 2.6. Ma (Gelasian) resulting in repeated steppe vs. forest alternations. A latitudinal climatic gradient between the southern and the northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula existed since the Middle Miocene. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Ramos J.,University of Granada | Imaz A.,University of the Basque Country | Forcada J.,University of the Basque Country
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2012

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL) are temperature-responsive polymers which show a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 32 °C in aqueous solutions. Nanogels based on these temperature sensitive polymers swell at low temperatures and collapse at high ones, showing a volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) near physiological temperature. This unique behavior makes these nanogels attractive for biotechnological applications. PNIPAM is the building block of a huge amount of nanogels reported in the literature. However, PVCL is especially interesting due to the fact that it is very stable against hydrolysis and biocompatible. In this mini-review, various synthesis procedures together with the functionalization of different PNIPAM- and PVCL-based nanogels are revised and compared. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Numerical models built linking an internally consistent rheological dataset for a cooling granite magma with equations of heat transfer and fluid motion for geometrically different magma chambers cooling at various crustal depths reveal that granite magmas first undergo a short period of chaotic convection, during which wall-rock contamination and magma mixing are possible, followed by a long period of no convective cooling, during which melt segregation occurs. Convection is driven by the negative density gradient generated in the upper cooling zone by melt-to-solid phase transformation. Convection breaks the upper mushy zone and drags the fragments downwards with descending Rayleigh-Taylor fingers. Such fragments can be preserved as microgranular enclaves. The descending Rayleigh-Taylor fingers split low aspect-ratio (sill-like) magma chambers into nearly isolated convection cells. If the magma is initially heterogeneous, this effect divides the chamber into contiguous homogeneous zones with distinct trace element and isotope ratios, and finally results in a pluton with marked lateral compositional variations, easily misinterpreted as different intrusive batches. Convective heat-loss quickly leads most of the magma chamber to critical crystallinity, independently of the vertical coordinate, so that a chamber-wide three-dimensional skeleton of crystals with uniform initial porosity c.0·4-0·5 is formed. This configuration is gravitationally unstable; therefore, it spontaneously compacts towards an equilibrium vertical variation of porosity approaching Atty's Law. In the absence of regional stress, the upwards migration of the inter-crystalline melts, as a result of compaction, is the most effective way of melt-solid segregation and causes vertically zoned plutons with an upper layer of felsic segregates. Granite magma chambers fractionated by these mechanisms will produce short-range differentiation series, from a composition slightly less silicic than the initial magma to high-silica segregates. In the presence of regional stress, tectonic squeezing and shearing during the post-convective stage can expel residual fluid more efficiently and lead to wide-range granite differentiation series, from rocks notably less silicic than the initial magma to high-silica leucogranites. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.

Ramos-Tejada M.M.,University of Jaen | Arroyo F.J.,University of Jaen | Delgado A.V.,University of Granada
Langmuir | Year: 2010

An investigation is described on the electric-field-induced structures in colloidal dispersions. Both rheological determinations and direct microscopic observations are used with that aim. The starting point of this study is the socalled electrorheological (ER) effect, consisting of the mechanical reinforcing of a fluid or suspension due to formation of chains of molecules or particles after being polarized by the action of the field. One macroscopic manifestation of this phenomenon is the transformation of the fluid from a typically Newtonian behavior to a viscoelastic material, with finite yield stress and high elastic modulus. The systems investigated were suspensions of elongated goethite (β-FeOOH) particles in silicone oils with varying amounts of silica nanoparticles. The results showed the rather unusual behavior known as "negative ER effect", which can be best described by saying that the application of an electric field reduces the yield stress and the elastic modulus, that is, produces destruction of structures rather than their build up. The negative behavior is also found for suspensions of other inorganic powders, including hematite and quartz. On the contrary, the usual positive ER response is found for suspensions of cellulose and montmorillonite clay. The same happens if goethite suspensions are prepared in high volume fractions, high-viscosity fluids, or both. All of the results found are compatible with the so-called interfacial model of electrorheology: the reduction of the yield stress of goethite suspensions when the applied field is high enough is the consequence of particle migration toward the electrodes because of charge injection and subsequent electrophoresis. The migration leaves the gap between the electrodes devoid of particles and explains the decrease in yield stress. The addition of silica nanoparticles contributes to reduce the strength of this effect by hindering the charging and making it necessary to increase the field strength to observe the negative effect. The model appears to also be applicable to cellulose, although the positive response found for such particles is explained by their large size: larger diameters bring about larger attraction forces between particles, leading to a tendency to produce strong aggregates. This is likely to occur in suspensions of colloids which, because of their relatively high electrical conductivity, tend to acquire charge even in such nonpolar liquids as silicone oils. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Caceres M.J.,University of Granada | Carrillo J.A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Tao L.,Peking University
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2011

To describe the collective behavior of large ensembles of neurons in neuronal network, a kinetic theory description was developed in [15,14], where a macroscopic representation of the network dynamics was directly derived from the microscopic dynamics of individual neurons, which are modeled by conductance-based, linear, integrate-and-fire point neurons. A diffusion approximation then led to a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density function of neuronal membrane potentials and synaptic conductances. In this work, we propose a deterministic numerical scheme for a Fokker-Planck model of an excitatory-only network. Our numerical solver allows us to obtain the time evolution of probability distribution functions, and thus, the evolution of all possible macroscopic quantities that are given by suitable moments of the probability density function. We show that this deterministic scheme is capable of capturing the bistability of stationary states observed in Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, the transient behavior of the firing rates computed from the Fokker-Planck equation is analyzed in this bistable situation, where a bifurcation scenario, of asynchronous convergence towards stationary states, periodic synchronous solutions or damped oscillatory convergence towards stationary states, can be uncovered by increasing the strength of the excitatory coupling. Finally, the computation of moments of the probability distribution allows us to validate the applicability of a moment closure assumption used in [15] to further simplify the kinetic theory. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Michalczuk R.,University of Cambridge | Bowden-Jones H.,Imperial College London | Verdejo-Garcia A.,University of Cambridge | Verdejo-Garcia A.,University of Granada | Clark L.,University of Cambridge
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2011

Background Pathological gambling (PG) is a form of behavioural addiction that has been associated with elevated impulsivity and also cognitive distortions in the processing of chance, probability and skill. We sought to assess the relationship between the level of cognitive distortions and state and trait measures of impulsivity in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers.Method Thirty pathological gamblers attending the National Problem Gambling Clinic, the first National Health Service clinic for gambling problems in the UK, were compared with 30 healthy controls in a case-control design. Cognitive distortions were assessed using the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Trait impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P, which includes scales of urgency, the tendency to be impulsive in positive or negative mood states. Delay discounting rates were taken as a state measure of impulsive choice.Results Pathological gamblers had elevated impulsivity on several UPPS-P subscales but effect sizes were largest (Cohen's d>1.4) for positive and negative urgency. The pathological gamblers also displayed higher levels of gambling distortions, and elevated preference for immediate rewards, compared to controls. Within the pathological gamblers, there was a strong relationship between the preference for immediate rewards and the level of cognitive distortions (R 2=0.41).Conclusions Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and we hypothesize that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

The early Toarcian (Early Jurassic) global marine mass extinction is usually related to the development of organic-rich sediments preserved as black shales and interpreted as a global oceanic anoxic eventthe Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE). In the Betic Cordillera, southern Spain, the deep-marine Fuente de la Vidriera section contains the T-OAE as recorded at the westernmost part of the European Tethys. Ichnological analysis of the section indicates a relatively abundant and moderately diverse trace-fossil assemblage composed of Alcyonidiopsis isp., Chondrites isp., Nereites isp., Palaeophycus heberti, Planolites isp., Teichichnus isp., Thalassinoides isp., and Trichichnus linearis. A well-developed endobenthic multi-tiered community is characterized by an upper tier represented by homogenized sedimentindividual burrows difficult to discern, a middle tier with a relatively diverse trace-fossil assemblage of mainly vagile deposit feeders, and a lower tier with activities of semisessile deposit feeders. The ichnoassemblage indicates oxic or slightly dysoxic bottom waters that were relatively favorable for benthic organisms. The absence of anoxia is confirmed by previously published geochemical and isotopic data. The T-OAE did not induce extreme conditions for macrobenthic organisms inhabiting the seafloor in this area of the westernmost Tethys. Local factors probably limited the influence of the anoxic event in bottom waters but may have induced oxygen deficiency in upper water masses, producing unfavorable living conditions for pelagic biota and, consequently, a sudden decrease in ammonite abundance. © 2010 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

The stimulation or blockade of dopaminergic activity interrupts or increases, respectively, the phenomenon of latent inhibition in different paradigms. Furthermore, the involvement of the nucleus accumbens in latent inhibition has been demonstrated in several learning paradigms, including conditioned taste aversion. However, the role of the dorsal striatum in the pre-exposure effect on the acquisition of taste aversion remains unclear. In order to determine whether this region of the striatum is a structure necessary for latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion, excitotoxic lesions were made in the posterior part of the dorsal striatum of Wistar rats. Subsequently, half of the animals was pre-exposed to the flavor, and the magnitude of the taste aversion was compared to that of sham animals pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed to the same flavor. The results showed that the excitotoxic lesion in this area of the dorsal striatum, compared to sham animals, left latent inhibition of the conditioned taste aversion intact. These data suggest that the posterior part of the dorsal striatum is not necessary for the acquisition of latent inhibition, at least in the conditioned taste aversion paradigm. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.

Alvarez-Valero A.M.,University of Granada | Waters D.J.,University of Oxford
Journal of Petrology | Year: 2010

Crustal xenoliths from the NeogeneVolcanic Province (NVP) of the Betic Cordillera, SE Spain, constitute an unusual suite of high-grade melt-bearing metapelitic rocks derived in two stages from metasediments surrounding crustal magma chambers. Microstructures and age relationships indicate that a first stage of migmatization and melt extraction was overprinted by a sequence of melt-bearing reaction microstructures. The preservation of melt as glass requires only a short residence time before eruption of the xenoliths in the host melt. The P-T conditions of the melting processes have been constrained by metamorphic modelling of mineral assemblages, phase compositions and reaction sequences in local compositional domains in the system NCKFMASHTO using THERMOCALC software. The calculations predict that within the El Hoyazo and Mazarrón volcanic suites, Grt-Bt-Sil (± Crd, Pl) enclaves containing a distinctive fibrolite-melt intergrowth formed over the temperature range 700-770°C at 5 kbar, and that these were overprinted by corona structures around garnet containing Spl-Crd-Kfs-melt at 775°C, 4·8 kbar, and newly grown spinel with melt haloes (only at El Hoyazo) at 835°C and 5·8 kbar. At Mar Menor, the xenoliths show garnet replaced by Opx, Crd, Spl and melt at 810-840°C, 2-2·5 kbar; aluminous xenoliths containing andalusite were replaced by Spl + Crd under the same conditions.The P-T distribution, size and relative abundance of the various xenolith types are best explained by the formation of the melt-bearing assemblages in a transiently heated wall-rock profile adjacent to a magma chamber or conduit, followed by collapse of the wall and brief residence of the resulting fragments as xenoliths in a dacitic magma at c. 850°C. The difference in pressure between the locations reflects the depth of magma chambers in the crust.The predominance of smaller, hotter enclaves in the Mar Menor occurrence may reflect less favourable conditions for developing thermally softened wall-rock profiles along high thermal radients at shallower depth. © The Author 2010.

Rios-Aguilar S.,Pontifical University of Salamanca | Llorens-Montes F.-J.,University of Granada
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2015

This study analyzes the viability of using employees' smartphones following the BYOD paradigm as a valid tool to enable firms to control effective presence (primarily of remote labor force). We propose a model for a Mobile Presence Control Information System with which to demonstrate experimentally the viability of unifying three elements that have only been examined individually in previous studies: the consumerization of ITs, the real geolocation capabilities of personal mobile devices that employees can use in the workplace, and the exclusive use of Mobile Web technology to obtain universal location information without the need to install native apps. We also propose a new and specific methodology to analyze the precision and accuracy of the location data obtained by smartphone geolocation services. We developed a prototype of the Information System proposed and demonstrated its validity under different real-use conditions, obtaining valuable information on the accuracy and precision of the location data from real devices (based on iOS and Android) under the conditions of heterogeneous connectivity representative of workplaces. This research enables us to establish a new framework for the requirements needed, on both quantitative and qualitative levels, for the accuracy of the mobile location systems that can be used in Presence Control Information Systems, particularly those related to control of remote labor force. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Lauri D.,University of Manchester | Lennox B.,University of Manchester | Camacho J.,University of Granada
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2014

The intuitive and simple ideas that support model predictive control (MPC) along with its capabilities have been the key to its success both in industry and academia. The contribution this paper makes is to further enhance the capabilities of MPC by easing its application to industrial batch processes. Specifically, this paper addresses the problem of ensuring the validity of predictions when applying MPC to such processes. Validity of predictions can be ensured by constraining the decision space of the MPC problem. The performance of the MPC control strategy relies on the ability of the model to predict the behaviour of the process. Using the model in the region in which it is valid improves the resulting performance. In the proposed approach four validity indicators on predictions are defined: two of them consider all the variables in the model, and the other two consider the degrees of freedom of the controller. The validity indicators are defined from the latent variable model of the process. Further to this, these are incorporated as constraints in the MPC optimization problem to bound the decision space and ensure the proper use of the model. Finally, the MPC cost function is modified to enable fine case-specific tuning if desired. Provided the indicators are quadratic, the controller yields a quadratic constrained quadratic programming problem for which efficient solvers are commercially available. A fed-batch fermentation example shows how MPC ensuring validity of predictions improves performance and eases tuning of the controller. The target in the example provided is end-point control accounting for variations in the initial measurable conditions of the batch. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Neu M.R.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Boukhalfa H.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Merroun M.L.,University of Granada
MRS Bulletin | Year: 2010

Microorganisms moderate local chemical conditions and alter forms of metals indirectly or directly to meet their cellular, species, and consortia needs.The diversity of microorganisms and the complexity of biogeochemical systems ensures that bacterially mediated processes yield a wide range of products, which await discovery by material scientists. Few types of materials produced by environmental bacteria have been analyzed by modern chemical and material science methods. Research on actinide biomaterials has focused on the biomineralization of a few chemical forms of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. The materials produced are molecular complexes, microcrystalline minerals (most commonly oxides and phosphates) within cells and biofilms, and mineral adsorbates. The actinide biomaterials that emerge from this new research area will impact nuclear waste isolation and increase our understanding of environmental and geological metal cycles and may yield new bioremediation methods and industrially useful materials.

Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud | Ibanez-Alamo J.D.,University of Granada
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2012

Altered predation risk in urban environments may contribute to animals becoming successfully urbanized by individuals from rural habitats. Escape behaviour has evolved to allow an individual to escape once captured by a predator. We tested whether altered predation risk in urban environments is associated with colonization of such habitats by comparing escape behaviour of 1132 individual birds belonging to 15 species from nearby rural and urban populations when captured by a human. Raptors (of which the Eurasian sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus, was one of the most common species) were more common in rural than in urban habitats, whereas cats, Felis catus, showed the opposite pattern. There were consistent differences in escape behaviour between habitats, showing divergence in behaviour from the ancestral rural state. Urban birds wriggled less, showed higher tonic immobility, more often lost feathers, were less aggressive by biting less often, and emitted fear screams and alarm calls more often than rural birds. Furthermore, differences in escape behaviour between habitats were related to susceptibility to predation by sparrowhawks, as expected if differences in behaviour were due to differences in predation risk. Finally, an analysis of differences in escape behaviour between rural and urban birds revealed a significant relationship with time since urbanization, suggesting that escape behaviour has changed in urban environments over time. These findings suggest that release from predation and change in predator community associated with urbanization has altered the antipredator behaviour of birds colonizing towns and cities. © 2012 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Garcia-Burgos D.,University of Granada | Zamora M.C.,CONICET | Zamora M.C.,Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

Preferences for and consumption of bitter foods such as vegetables and fruit are important in addressing the epidemic of obesity as healthy dietary patterns contribute to its prevention. However, few studies have been undertaken to understand the preference for bitter-tasting foods. A generally accepted but not proven explanation is that these acquired preferences involve changes in affective and motivational processes in order to overcome the innate rejection of bitter tastes. To examine this issue we compared the hedonic and incentive responses to bitter substances among bitter likers and dislikers. In addition, the effects of hunger, stress and weight concern on bitter preferences were also explored. Fifty-nine healthy adults (age. = 24.8. ±. 6.3; body mass index. = 22.0. ±. 2.8) were divided into bitter likers and bitter dislikers according to their food preferences. Both groups sampled the unreinforced flavours of coffee, beer, chocolate and grapefruit under four motivational states induced by static pictures (neutral, food, stressor and obesity) at the time of testing. The results showed that the bitter solutions elicited less aversive responses (higher hedonic ratings and less intense disgust reactions) and fewer avoidance behaviours (slower response time and lower amount of water for rinsing) in bitter likers after viewing neutral images. On the other hand, likers exhibited a further reduction in disgust to coffee after viewing stressor pictures, and also drank more water after tasting chocolate following the obesity pictures, compared with the dislikers. The expression of disgust increased in bitter likers, as well as the amount of water used to rinse the mouth, after tasting chocolate following pictures showing obesity compared with pictures showing food. These results show, for the first time, not only the implication of affective and incentive components in reversal of the predisposition to reject bitterness but also the motivational modulation of the expression of rejection of bitter tastes in humans. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Sanchez-Perez T.,Centro Andaluz Of Biologia Molecular Y Medicina Regenerativa Cabimer | Ortiz-Ferron G.,Centro Andaluz Of Biologia Molecular Y Medicina Regenerativa Cabimer | Ortiz-Ferron G.,University of Granada | Lopez-Rivas A.,Centro Andaluz Of Biologia Molecular Y Medicina Regenerativa Cabimer
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2010

Breast tumor cells are often resistant to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/APO-2 L). Here, we describe the sensitization by microtubule-interfering agents (MIAs) to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in breast tumor cells through a mitotic arrest and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent mechanism. MIA treatment resulted in BubR1-dependent mitotic arrest leading to the sustained activation of JNK and the proteasome-mediated downregulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) expression. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 abrogated MIA-induced mitotic arrest and downregulation of cFLIP and Mcl-1 and reduced the apoptosis caused by the combination of MIAs and TRAIL. Silencing of cFLIP and Mcl-1 expression by RNA interference resulted in a marked sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, in FLIP-overexpressing cells, MIA-induced sensitization to TRAIL-activated apoptosis was markedly reduced. In summary, our results show that mitotic arrest imposed by MIAs activates JNK and facilitates TRAIL-induced activation of an apoptotic pathway in breast tumor cells by promoting the proteasome-mediated degradation of cFLIP and Mcl-1. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Lobo F.J.,University of Granada | Ridente D.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering
Marine Geology | Year: 2014

This study is a review of Quaternary Milankovitch cycles as recorded on modern continental shelves worldwide. On the background of the many existing examples, we focus on selected case studies from Mediterranean (Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas) and Atlantic (gulfs of Mexico and Cádiz) margins that represent general and peculiar characters of Middle-Upper Pleistocene sequences forming under the control of composite 100 and 20. ka Milankovitch cycles. The most pervasive stratigraphic pattern displayed by shelf deposits is referred to the 100. ka sea-level cycle, and consists of fairly uniform depositional sequences mostly composed by regressive deposits forming during the falling limb of the sea-level curve. These are generally classified as Falling Stage Systems Tract (FSST) and display a regressive facies architecture reflecting the dominant control of sea level. On many margins, FSST units may show slight though significant differences with respect to Highstand Systems Tract (HST) and Lowstand Systems Tract (LST) regressive units, more closely reflecting environmental changes and the local variability of depositional systems. In contrast with the theoretical and overall scale-independent model developed to predict composite stratigraphic cycles and sequences, the Middle-Upper Pleistocene stratigraphic record from numerous shelf settings shows a subdued signature of the higher-frequency (20. ka) Milankovitch cyclicity. However, when detectable, the 20. ka architectural pattern is characterized by a relatively greater spatial and temporal variability compared to 100. ka sequences. This fact likely reflects the increasing importance of factors controlling the depositional environment (e.g., seafloor morphology, oceanographic regime, sediment input and dispersal, etc) with respect to sea-level change during the shorter intervals encompassed by 20. ka. cycles. On this basis, two end-member cases have been distinguished, depending on the generation or not of high-frequency sequence boundaries, a prerequisite to qualify the higher-frequency motifs as depositional sequences. These two end members are comprehensive of the highly variable patterns displayed by Middle-Upper Pleistocene shelf sequences, which in turn reflect the interplay between the geological setting, the dominant sea-level control and the effective response of sedimentary systems. The variable stratigraphic patterns of Milankovitch cycles represent conceptual and practical constraints as to the classification of high-frequency Quaternary sequences under the general schemes of the standard sequence stratigraphy model. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Camacho J.,University of Granada | Ferrer A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2012

Cross-validation has become one of the principal methods to adjust the meta-parameters in predictive models. Extensions of the cross-validation idea have been proposed to select the number of components in principal components analysis (PCA). The element-wise k-fold (ekf) cross-validation is among the most used algorithms for principal components analysis cross-validation. This is the method programmed in the PLS_Toolbox, and it has been stated to outperform other methods under most circumstances in a numerical experiment. The ekf algorithm is based on missing data imputation, and it can be programmed using any method for this purpose. In this paper, the ekf algorithm with the simplest missing data imputation method, trimmed score imputation, is analyzed. A theoretical study is driven to identify in which situations the application of ekf is adequate and, more importantly, in which situations it is not. The results presented show that the ekf method may be unable to assess the extent to which a model represents a test set and may lead to discard principal components with important information. On a second paper of this series, other imputation methods are studied within the ekf algorithm. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Puerta-Pinero C.,University of Granada | Puerta-Pinero C.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Plant Ecology | Year: 2010

There is an emerging interest in analyzing the effects of seed predation and its consequences for plant recruitment across the landscape. The main goals of this study were to assess (1) whether seed predation varies among spatial levels of the landscape, (2) whether there are differences between pre- and post-dispersal seed predation and, (3) whether these differences are due to different animal species with different perception of the landscape and thus different activity ranges. The study system was a mosaic landscape composed of patches of different vegetation types (oak and pine woodlands and shrublands) and microhabitats intermingled. Pre-dispersal acorn predation varied between patches, trees, and predator species. Wild boar rooting activity was widely distributed through the landscape and mainly focused on pine woodlands while rodents′ feeding activity was mainly centered on local scales within oak woodland patches. The patch spatial level consistently appears to be the key explanatory variable for pre- and post-dispersal acorn predation. Furthermore, the post-dispersal percentage of seed predation and emergence also differed among spatial levels. Within the same vegetation type, different microhabitats did not show significant differences in rates of survival to acorn predation and then on germination or emergence. These results suggest that seed predators influence the spatial patterns of Quercus ilex populations by reshaping the seed shadow within the landscape, mainly by differences among patches. So, the landscape appears to behave as a mixed mosaic with valuable patches for plant recruitment (with low seed predation) intermingled with bad quality patches where the dispersed seeds more often disappear and thus, the recruitment fails. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Gomez-Torrecillas J.,University of Granada
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

The present text surveys some relevant situations and results where basic Module Theory interacts with computational aspects of operator algebras. We tried to keep a balance between constructive and algebraic aspects. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Prados A.,University of Seville | Lasanta A.,University of Seville | Hurtado P.I.,University of Granada
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We analyze the fluctuations of the dissipated energy in a simple and general model where dissipation, diffusion, and driving are the key ingredients. The full dissipation distribution, which follows from hydrodynamic fluctuation theory, shows non-Gaussian tails and no negative branch, thus violating the fluctuation theorem as expected from the irreversibility of the dynamics. It exhibits simple scaling forms in the weak- and strong-dissipation limits, with large fluctuations favored in the former case but strongly suppressed in the latter. The typical path associated with a given dissipation fluctuation is also analyzed in detail. Our results, confirmed in extensive simulations, strongly support the validity of hydrodynamic fluctuation theory to describe fluctuating behavior in driven dissipative media. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Pastoriza S.,CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidin | Rufian-Henares J.A.,University of Granada
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Most foods included within the western diet are subjected to heat processing. During such treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place, generating brown polymers known as melanoidins. Melanoidins could have health beneficial properties such as chemopreventive, antimicrobial or antioxidant capacity. Here we have established the content of melanoidins in thermally processed foods consumed regularly in the Spanish diet (chocolate, sweet wine, balsamic vinegar, beer, bread, breakfast cereals and biscuits) and their antioxidant capacity by different in vitro methodologies (ABTS, FRAP, DPPH, ORAC, HOSC). The mean intake of melanoidins is 12.2 g/person/day within the Spanish diet, bread, pilsner beer and biscuits being the foods that contributed most. The most antioxidant melanoidins were those from coffee, followed by balsamic vinegar and sweet wine. Finally, the average intake of antioxidant capacity coming from melanoidins was 717 μmol Trolox/day, melanoidins from coffee, biscuits, pilsner beer and chocolate being those which possessed more antioxidant capacity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Recio C.,University of Granada | Nieves J.,University of Valencia | Tolos L.,University of Groningen
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

The energies and widths of several D0 meson bound states for different nuclei are obtained using a D-meson selfenergy in the nuclear medium, which is evaluated in a selfconsistent manner using techniques of unitarized coupled-channel theory. The kernel of the meson-baryon interaction is based on a model that treats heavy pseudoscalar and heavy vector mesons on equal footing, as required by heavy quark symmetry. We find D0 bound states in all studied nuclei, from 12C up to 208Pb. The inclusion of vector mesons is the keystone for obtaining an attractive D-nucleus interaction that leads to the existence of D0-nucleus bound states, as compared to previous studies based on SU(4) flavor symmetry. In some cases, the half widths are smaller than the separation of the levels, what makes possible their experimental observation by means of a nuclear reaction. This can be of particular interest for the future P̄ANDA@FAIR physics program. We also find a D+ bound state in 12C, but it is too broad and will have a significant overlap with the energies of the continuum. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Buela-Casal G.,University of Granada | Zych I.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Scientometrics | Year: 2012

The impact factor is a highly polemic metric. It was designed to help scientists in searching for bibliographic references for their own works, enabling communication among researchers and helping librarians in deciding which journal they should purchase. Nevertheless, it has soon become the most important measure of scientific performance applied to journals, articles, scientists, universities, etc. Since then, some researchers argue that it is a useless and flawed measure, while others defend its utility. The current study is the first survey on the opinion on the topic of a broad sample of scientists from all over the world. The questionnaire was answered by 1,704 researchers from 86 different countries, all the continents and all the UNESCO major fields of knowledge. The results show that the opinion is slightly above the median which could be understood as "neither positive nor negative". Surprisingly, there is a negative correlation between the number of articles published by the respondents and their opinion on the impact factor. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Galvez C.,University of Granada | de Moya-Anegon F.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP
Journal of Documentation | Year: 2012

Purpose: Gene term variation is a shortcoming in text-mining applications based on biomedical literature-based knowledge discovery. The purpose of this paper is to propose a technique for normalizing gene names in biomedical literature. Design/methodology/approach: Under this proposal, the normalized forms can be characterized as a unique gene symbol, defined as the official symbol or normalized name. The unification method involves five stages: collection of the gene term, using the resources provided by the Entrez Gene database; encoding of gene-naming terms in a table or binary matrix; design of a parametrized finite-state graph (P-FSG); automatic generation of a dictionary; and matching based on dictionary look-up to transform the gene mentions into the corresponding unified form. Findings: The findings show that the approach yields a high percentage of recall. Precision is only moderately high, basically due to ambiguity problems between gene-naming terms and words and abbreviations in general English. Research limitations/implications: The major limitation of this study is that biomedical abstracts were analyzed instead of full-text documents. The number of under-normalization and over-normalization errors is reduced considerably by limiting the realm of application to biomedical abstracts in a well-defined domain. Practical implications: The system can be used for practical tasks in biomedical literature mining. Normalized gene terms can be used as input to literature-based gene clustering algorithms, for identifying hidden gene-to-disease, gene-to-gene and gene-to-literature relationships. Originality/value: Few systems for gene term variation handling have been developed to date. The technique described performs gene name normalization by dictionary look-up. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

This paper introduces a class of methods to infer the relationship between observations and variables in latent subspace models. The approach is a modification of the recently proposed missing data methods for exploratory data analysis (MEDA). MEDA is useful to identify the structure in the data and also to interpret the contribution of each latent variable. In this paper, MEDA is augmented with dummy variables to find the data variables related to a given deviation detected among observations, for instance, the difference between one cluster of observations and the bulk of the data. The MEDA extension, referred to as observation-based MEDA or oMEDA, can be performed in several ways, one of which is theoretically shown to be equivalent to a comparison of means between groups. The use of the proposed approach is demonstrated with a number of examples with simulated data and a real data set of archeological artifacts. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Epstein D.,University of Granada | Sculpher M.J.,University of York | Powell J.T.,Imperial College London | Thompson S.G.,University of Cambridge | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2014

Background A number of published economic evaluations of elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) versus open repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have come to differing conclusions about whether EVAR is cost-effective. This paper reviews the current evidence base and presents up-to-date cost-effectiveness analyses in the light of results of four randomized clinical trials: EVAR-1, DREAM, OVER and ACE. Methods Markov models were used to estimate lifetime costs from a UK perspective and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) based on the results of each of the four trials. The outcomes included in the model were: procedure costs, surveillance costs, reintervention costs, health-related quality of life, aneurysm-related mortality and other-cause mortality. Alternative scenarios about complications, reinterventions and deaths beyond the trial were explored. Results Models based on the results of the EVAR-1, DREAM or ACE trials did not find EVAR to be cost-effective at thresholds used in the UK (up to £30-000 per QALY). EVAR seemed cost-effective according to models based on the OVER trial. These results seemed robust to alternative model scenarios about events beyond the trial intervals. Conclusion These analyses did not find that EVAR is cost-effective compared with open repair in the long term in trials conducted in European centres. EVAR did appear to be cost-effective based on the OVER trial, conducted in the USA. Caution must be exercised when transferring the results of economic evaluations from one country to another. Not cost-effective in Europe © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Camacho J.,University of Granada
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems | Year: 2014

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) can be defined as the initial exploration of a data set with the aim of generating a hypothesis of interest. Projection models based on latent structures and associated visualization techniques are valuable tools within EDA. In particular, score plots are a main tool to discover patterns in the observations. This paper addresses the extension of score plots to very large data sets, with an unlimited number of observations. The proposed solution, based on clustering and approximation techniques, is referred to as the Compressed Score Plots (CSPs). The approach is presented to deal with high volume data sets and high velocity data streams. The objective is to retain the visualization capabilities of traditional score plots while making the user-supervised analysis of huge data sets affordable in a similar time scale to that of low size data sets. Efficient processing and updating approaches, visualization techniques, performance measures and challenges for future research are identified throughout the paper. The approach is illustrated with several data sets, including a data set of five million observations and more than one hundred variables. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Scheier M.,Innsbruck Medical University | Molina F.S.,University of Granada
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: To determine the outcome of twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence treated with or scheduled for treatment with interstitial laser therapy. Methods: This is a retrospective study on ten pregnancies diagnosed with TRAP sequence. Seven of the ten pregnancies were treated with interstitial laser therapy, and two pregnancies were scheduled for later treatment. One pregnancy was treated with fetoscopic laser ablation and excluded from analysis. The delivery reports of all pregnancies were collected, the neonatal health status recorded and the median time of delivery and the treatment to delivery interval calculated. Results: Six of seven pump fetuses in TRAP pregnancies treated with interstitial laser therapy at a median of 16+2 (range 13+1 to 20+3) gestational weeks were born healthy at a median of 38+0 (range 34+3 to 40+6) gestational weeks. One fetus treated with interstitial laser died after the procedure at 20+3 weeks. Two pump twins scheduled for later treatment died before the gestational age of 16 weeks. The median treatment to delivery interval for the surviving fetuses was 153 days (range 128-194). Conclusion: Treatment of TRAP sequence by interstitial laser therapy is feasible from the 13th week of gestation and has a good outcome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Liz E.,University of Vigo | Ruiz-Herrera A.,University of Granada
Journal of Mathematical Biology | Year: 2012

We analyze the effects of a strategy of constant effort harvesting in the global dynamics of a one-dimensional discrete population model that includes density-independent survivorship of adults and overcompensating density dependence. We discuss the phenomenon of bubbling (which indicates that harvesting can magnify fluctuations in population abundance) and the hydra effect, which means that the stock size gets larger as harvesting rate increases. Moreover, we show that the system displays chaotic behaviour under the combination of high per capita recruitment and small survivorship rates. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Olmos B.,University of Granada | Muller M.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Lesanovsky I.,University of Nottingham
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2010

When Rydberg states are excited in a dense atomic gas, the mean number of excited atoms reaches a stationary value after an initial transient period. We shed light on the origin of this steady state that emerges from a purely coherent evolution of a closed system. To this end, we consider a one-dimensional ring lattice and employ the perfect blockade model, i.e. the simultaneous excitation of Rydberg atoms occupying neighboring sites is forbidden. We derive an equation of motion that governs the system's evolution in excitation number space. This equation possesses a steady state that is strongly localized. Our findings show that this state is, to good accuracy, given by the density matrix of the microcanonical ensemble where the corresponding microstates are the zero-energy eigenstates of the interaction Hamiltonian. We analyze the statistics of the Rydberg atom number count, providing expressions for the number of excited Rydberg atoms and the Mandel Q-parameter in equilibrium. © IOP Publishing Ltd. and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Pinto M.,University of Granada
Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives | Year: 2012

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discover Spanish history students' subjective perception of their information literacy (IL) status in order to find and suggest some academic and individual improvement actions. Design/methodology/approach: The implementation of the IL-HUMASS survey provides diagnostic data on two IL quantitative dimensions (belief in importance and skills self-assessment) and a third qualitative dimension (learning habits) deployed along 26 variables, which are grouped into four categories (search, evaluation, processing, and communication-dissemination of information). Findings: The analysis confirms that variables related to information processing (above all schematising and abstracting information) show high scores of belief in importance and skills self-assessment among students. By contrast, variables related to technological advances (above all the use of bibliographic reference managers) show the worst results. In sum, there is a lack of subjective digital literacy in a set of skills related to the technologies of search, processing and communication of information. Among the less valued skills, independent learning reaches an excessive priority. However, this is really just an isolated learning. Research limitations/implications: The help of classrooms and libraries as learning tools would improve these results. Policy makers and instructors need to improve their role in the learning process by means of more extensive planning processes and the promotion of specific courses, above all on skills related to the technologies of information search, processing and communication. The concept of independent learning needs to be clarified and enhanced. Originality/value: This is a pioneering study that approaches IL from a triple perspective. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2010

If new leptons exist close to the electroweak scale, they can be produced in pairs at LHC through standard or new interactions. We study the production of heavy lepton pairs in SM extensions with: (i) a Majorana or Dirac lepton triplet, as those appearing in type-III seesaw; (ii) a lepton isodoublet (N E)L, R; (iii) a charged isosinglet EL, R; (iv) a Majorana or Dirac neutrino singlet N and an additional Z′ gauge boson. It is shown that the trilepton final state ℓ± ℓ± ℓ∓, which has a small SM background, constitutes the golden channel for heavy neutrino searches, being very sensitive to Majorana or Dirac neutrinos in triplet, doublet or singlet SU (2)L representations. For higher luminosities, signals in this final state can also distinguish lepton triplets from doublets and singlets. The Majorana or Dirac nature of the heavy neutrinos is revealed by the presence or not of like-sign dilepton ℓ± ℓ± signals without significant missing energy. Notably, large ℓ± ℓ± signals but with large missing energy are characteristic of Dirac triplets, distinguishing them from the other two models with a heavy Dirac neutrino. Further discrimination is achieved with the analysis of the clean ℓ+ ℓ+ ℓ- ℓ- final state. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Santos X.,University of Barcelona | Poquet J.M.,University of Granada
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2010

Wildfires are recognized as natural disturbances that have shaped landscape structure and ecosystem composition in many regions of the world. As ectotherms, many Mediterranean reptiles are expected to benefit from the thermal quality of open areas created by fires. However, not all the reptile species respond positively to this pattern. We have explored the response to fire of a Mediterranean reptile community in a protected area of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. We visually searched for reptiles at 102 sites, including unburnt, recently burnt (2003), and old burnt (1985-1986) localities. The number of reptiles and species richness was higher at burnt sites, and both were related to several variables of the habitat structure. Accordingly, between the two most common species in recently burnt sites, Podarcis hispanica declined in old fire habitats whereas Psammodromus algirus did not. Snakes did not differ between burnt and unburnt areas, although the ambush predator viper Vipera latastei was found more frequently in unburnt habitats. Our results imply that there are different succession trajectories for Mediterranean reptile species according to their habitat preferences, life history traits, and dietary specialization. The study area has been drastically human-altered in the last 100 years by agriculture, pine reforestation, agricultural abandonment, and wildfires. These land use changes drastically alter the vegetation cover, favoring some reptiles and damaging others, and finally can promote local extinctions of sensitive species to habitat shifts. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Fontana L.,Yeshiva University | Fontana L.,University of Granada | Zhao E.,Yeshiva University | Amir M.,Yeshiva University | And 3 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2013

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans increases with age. It is unknown whether this association is secondary to the increased incidence of risk factors for NAFLD that occurs with aging, reflects the culmination of years of exposure to lifestyle factors such as a high-fat diet (HFD), or results from physiological changes that characterize aging. To examine this question, the development of NAFLD in response to a fixed period of HFD feeding was examined in mice of different ages. Mice aged 2, 8, and 18 months were fed 16 weeks of a low-fat diet or HFD. Increased body mass and insulin insensitivity occurred in response to HFD feeding irrespective of the age of the mice. The amount of HFD-induced hepatic steatosis as determined biochemically and histologically was also equivalent among the three ages. Liver injury occurred exclusively in the two older ages as reflected by increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels, positive terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling, and caspase activation. Older mice also had an elevated innate immune response with a more pronounced polarization of liver and adipose tissue macrophages into an M1 phenotype. Studies of cultured hepatocytes from young and old mice revealed that aged cells were selectively sensitized to the Fas death pathway. Conclusion: Aging does not promote the development of hepatic steatosis but leads to increased hepatocellular injury and inflammation that may be due in part to sensitization to the Fas death pathway and increased M1 macrophage polarization. © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Benitez-Amado J.,University of Granada | Walczuch R.M.,Maastricht University
European Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2012

The study of the relationships between information technology (IT), environmental organizational issues and firm performance is a cutting-edge research topic for the information systems (IS) community. However, at present we know very little about these relationships. Drawing on the perspective of IT-enabled organizational capabilities and the literature on organizations and the natural environment, our study introduces conceptually the construct organizational capability of proactive corporate environmental strategy to the IS field. We propose that IT capability may enable the implementation of a proactive environmental strategy and that this strategy could play a significant role in determining the business value of IT. Using structural equations modeling with data collected from 63 firms, we find that IT capability is an enabler of proactive environmental strategy and that this strategy plays a significant role in mediating the effects of IT on firm performance. Our study provides initial evidence on the role of IT in the implementation of proactive environmental practices. Our results suggest to IT executives that their decisions matter in shaping environmental sustainability, which in turn will generate business value from IT. © 2012 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved.

Grasso M.,University Paris - Sud | Anguiano M.,University of Granada
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

Neutron 2p and 1f spin-orbit splittings were recently measured in the isotones S37 and Si35 by (d,p) transfer reactions. Values were reported by using the major fragments of the states. An important reduction of the p splitting was observed, from S37 to Si35, associated with a strong modification of the spin-orbit potential in the central region of the nucleus Si35. We analyze 2p and 1f neutron spin-orbit splittings in the N=20 isotones Ca40,S36, and Si34. We employ several Skyrme and Gogny interactions to reliably isolate pure spin-orbit and tensor-induced contributions, within the mean-field approximation. We use interactions (i) without the tensor force, (ii) with the tensor force and with tensor parameters adjusted on top of existing parametrizations, nd (iii) with the tensor force and with tensor and spin-orbit parameters adjusted simultaneously on top of existing parametrizations. We predict in cases (ii) and (iii) a non-negligible reduction of both p and f splittings, associated with neutron-proton tensor effects, from Ca40 to S36. The two splittings are further decreased for the three types of interactions, going from S36 to Si34. This reduction is produced by the spin-orbit force and is not affected by tensor-induced contributions. For both reductions, from Ca40 to S36 and from S36 to Si34, we predict in all cases that the modification is more pronounced for p than for f splittings. The measurement of the centroids for neutron 2p and 1f states in the nuclei S36 and Si34 would be interesting to validate this prediction experimentally. We show the importance of using interactions of type (iii), because they provide p and f splittings in the nucleus Ca40 which are in agreement with the corresponding experimental values. ©2015 American Physical Society.

Broniowski W.,Jan Kochanowski University | Broniowski W.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Ruiz Arriola E.,University of Granada
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We argue that relativistic nuclear collisions may provide experimental evidence of α clustering in light nuclei. A light α-clustered nucleus has a large intrinsic deformation. When collided against a heavy nucleus at very high energies, this deformation transforms into the deformation of the fireball in the transverse plane. The subsequent collective evolution of the fireball leads to harmonic flow reflecting the deformation of the initial shape, which can be measured with standard methods of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We illustrate the feasibility of the idea by modeling the C12-Pb208 collisions and point out that very significant quantitative and qualitative differences between the α-clustered and uniform C12 nucleus occur in such quantities as the triangular flow, its event-by-event fluctuations, or the correlations of the elliptic and triangular flows. The proposal offers a possibility of studying low-energy nuclear structure phenomena with "snapshots" made with relativistic heavy-ion collisions. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Slavakis K.,University of Minnesota | Kopsinis Y.,University of Granada | Theodoridis S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | McLaughlin S.,Heriot - Watt University
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

This paper considers a sparse signal recovery task in time-varying (time-adaptive) environments. The contribution of the paper to sparsity-aware online learning is threefold; first, a generalized thresholding (GT) operator, which relates to both convex and non-convex penalty functions, is introduced. This operator embodies, in a unified way, the majority of well-known thresholding rules which promote sparsity. Second, a non-convexly constrained, sparsity-promoting, online learning scheme, namely the adaptive projection-based generalized thresholding (APGT), is developed that incorporates the GT operator with a computational complexity that scales linearly to the number of unknowns. Third, the novel family of partially quasi-nonexpansive mappings is introduced as a functional analytic tool for treating the GT operator. By building upon the rich fixed point theory, the previous class of mappings establishes also a link between the GT operator and a union of linear subspaces; a non-convex object which lies at the heart of any sparsity promoting technique, batch or online. Based on this functional analytic framework, a convergence analysis of the APGT is provided. Extensive experiments suggest that the APGT exhibits competitive performance when compared to computationally more demanding alternatives, such as the sparsity-promoting affine projection algorithm (APA)- and recursive least-squares (RLS)-based techniques. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Camacho J.,University of Granada | Ferrer A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems | Year: 2014

This is the second paper of a series devoted to provide theoretical and practical results and new algorithms for the selection of the number of Principal Components (PCs) in Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using cross-validation. The study is especially focused on the element-wise k-fold (ekf), which is among the most used algorithms for that purpose. In this paper, a taxonomy of PCA applications is proposed and it is argued that cross-validatory algorithms computing the prediction error in observable variables, like ekf, are only suited for a class of applications. A number of cross-validation methods, several of which are original, are compared in two applications of this class: missing data imputation and compression. The results show that the ekf is especially suited for missing data applications while other traditional cross-validation methods, those by Wold and Eastment and Krzanowski, are not found to provide useful outcomes in any of the two applications. These results are of special value considering that the methods investigated are computed in the main commercial software packets for chemometrics. Finally, the choice of the missing data algorithm within ekf is also investigated. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Galesic M.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Garcia-Retamero R.,University of Granada
Archives of Internal Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Statistical numeracy is essential for understanding health-related risks and making informed medical decisions. However, this concept has not been investigated with probabilistic national samples or compared cross-culturally. We sought (1) to investigate differences in the level of statistical numeracy between 2 countries with different educational and medical systems - the United States and Germany; (2) to study the relationship between statistical numeracy and demographic characteristics such as age, sex, and education; and (3) to test whether a subjective measure of numeracy is a valid indicator of objective measures. Methods: In a survey of probabilistic, representative national samples in Germany and the United States, conducted in July and August 2008, we asked questions testing objective and subjective statistical numeracy. Results: German participants had higher numeracy skills than did US participants. On average, 68.5% (SE, 1.1%) and 64.5% (SE, 1.3%), respectively, of items testing objective numeracy were answered correctly. Subjective estimates of numeracy were a good indicator of the objective measures. There is a large gap in numeracy skills between persons with lower and higher educational levels, particularly in the United States. Conclusions: Physicians should be aware that many patients may not understand all information relevant to making an informed decision. Fortunately, they can identify such patients and use nonnumerical presentation formats, such as graphical displays and analogies, to communicate important statistical information. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Calogero S.,University of Granada | Heinzle J.M.,University of Vienna
General Relativity and Gravitation | Year: 2010

In this paper, we report on results in the study of spatially homogeneous cosmological models with elastic matter. We show that the behavior of elastic solutions is fundamentally different from that of perfect fluid solutions already in the case of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I models; this is true even when the elastic material resembles a perfect fluid very closely. In particular, the approach to the initial singularity is characterized by an intricate oscillatory behavior of the scale factors, while the future asymptotic behavior is described by isotropization rates that differ significantly from those of perfect fluids. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Garcia D.,University of Oviedo | Zamora R.,University of Granada | Amico G.C.,CONICET
Conservation Biology | Year: 2010

Seed dispersal by animals is considered a pivotal ecosystem function that drives plant-community dynamics in natural habitats and vegetation recovery in human-altered landscapes. Nevertheless, there is a lack of suitable ecological knowledge to develop basic conservation and management guidelines for this ecosystem service. Essential questions, such as how well the abundance of frugivorous animals predicts seeding function in different ecosystems and how anthropogenic landscape heterogeneity conditions the role of dispersers, remain poorly answered. In three temperate ecosystems, we studied seed dispersal by frugivorous birds in landscape mosaics shaped by human disturbance. By applying a standardized design across systems, we related the frequency of occurrence of bird-dispersed seeds throughout the landscape to the abundance of birds, the habitat features, and the abundance of fleshy fruits. Abundance of frugivorous birds in itself predicted the occurrence of dispersed seeds throughout the landscape in all ecosystems studied. Even those landscape patches impoverished due to anthropogenic disturbance received some dispersed seeds when visited intensively by birds. Nonetheless, human-caused landscape degradation largely affected seed-deposition patterns by decreasing cover of woody vegetation or availability of fruit resources that attracted birds and promoted seed dispersal. The relative role of woody cover and fruit availability in seed dispersal by birds differed among ecosystems. Our results suggest that to manage seed dispersal for temperate ecosystem preservation or restoration one should consider abundance of frugivorous birds as a surrogate of landscape-scale seed dispersal and an indicator of patch quality for the dispersal function; woody cover and fruit resource availability as key landscape features that drive seedfall patterns; and birds as mobile links that connect landscape patches of different degrees of degradation and habitat quality via seed deposition. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

Rueda F.J.,University of Granada | MacIntyre S.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2010

The dynamics of negatively buoyant river plumes in a small multi-basin kettle lake with steep bathymetry (Toolik Lake, AK) are simulated using a Cartesian hydrodynamic model based on the solution of the three-dimensional shallow water equations. To validate the model, model predictions are compared with results from previous analytical and laboratory studies and with field observations. The grid resolution adopted for the Toolik Lake model is 0.5 m (= Δz) in the vertical and 20 m (= Δx) in the horizontal, so that the ratio of the bottom slope S0 to Δz/Δx is lower than 4 in 99% of the computational domain. With that resolution, the model represents correctly the rate of mixing between lake and river water and the speed of propagation of downslope gravity currents. The model provides accurate predictions of the temperature structure (RMSE = 0.25 °C) and of eddy diffusivities at the depths of the intrusions of incoming water. Measurements and modelling show similar fractions and depth distribution of river water on a cross-basin transect, which suggests that the mixing dynamics of the plume as it transits between basins are well resolved. Thus, the stage is set to quantify the ecological consequences of storm events in small lakes with several interconnected basins using coupled biological measurements and 3D modelling. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Albertus C.,University of Granada | Hernandez E.,University of Salamanca | Hidalgo-Duque C.,University of Valencia | Nieves J.,University of Valencia
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We study the f+ form factor for the semileptonic B-s→K+ℓ-ν-ℓ decay in a constituent quark model. The valence quark estimate is supplemented with the contribution from the B-* pole that dominates the high q2 region. We use a multiply-subtracted Omnès dispersion relation to extend the quark model predictions from its region of applicability near qmax2=(MBs-MK)2~23.75 GeV2 to all q2 values accessible in the physical decay. To better constrain the dependence of f+ on q2, we fit the subtraction constants to a combined input from previous light cone sum rule by Duplancic and Melic (2008) [11] and the present quark model results. From this analysis, we obtain Γ(B-s→K+ℓ-ν-ℓ)=(5.47-0.46+0.54)|Vub|2×10-9 MeV, which is about 10% and 20% higher than the predictions based on Lattice QCD and QCD light cone sum rules respectively. The former predictions, for both the form factor f+(q2) and the differential decay width, lie within the 1σ band of our estimated uncertainties for all q2 values accessible in the physical decay, except for a quite small region very close to qmax2. Differences with the light cone sum results for the form factor f+ are larger than 20% in the region above q2=15 GeV2. © 2014 The Authors.

Torres P.J.,University of Granada
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2014

We consider a 1D nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) which describes the mean field dynamics of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate and prove the existence of modulated amplitude waves with non-trivial phase and minimal spatial period tending to infinite. The proof combines the theory of local continuation of non-degenerate periodic solutions with a property of the Ermakov-Pinney equation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Arriola E.R.,University of Granada | Szpigel S.,Mackenzie Presbyterian University | Timoteo V.S.,University of Campinas
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

On a finite momentum grid with N integration points p n and weights wn (n = 1, ..., N) the Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) with a given generator G unitarily evolves an initial interaction with a cutoff λ on energy differences, steadily driving the starting Hamiltonian in momentum space Hn,m0=pn2δn,m+Vn,m to a diagonal form in the infrared limit (λ→0), Hn,mG,λ→0=Eπ(n)δn,m, where π(n) is a permutation of the eigenvalues E n which depends on G. Levinson's theorem establishes a relation between phase-shifts δ(p n) and the number of bound-states, n B, and reads δ(p1) - δ(p N) = n Bπ. We show that unitarily equivalent Hamiltonians on the grid generate reaction matrices which are compatible with Levinson's theorem but are phase-inequivalent along the SRG trajectory. An isospectral definition of the phase-shift in terms of an energy-shift is possible but requires in addition a proper ordering of states on a momentum grid such as to fulfill Levinson's theorem. We show how the SRG with different generators G induces different isospectral flows in the presence of bound-states, leading to distinct orderings in the infrared limit. While the Wilson generator induces an ascending ordering incompatible with Levinson's theorem, the Wegner generator provides a much better ordering, although not the optimal one. We illustrate the discussion with the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the S01 and S13 channels. © 2014.

Endo M.,University of Tokyo | Yamamoto Y.,University of Granada
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

The perturbative unitarity bound is studied in the monojet process at LHC. The production of the dark matter is described by the low-energy effective theory. The analysis of the dark matter signal is not validated, if the unitarity condition is violated. It is shown that the current LHC analysis with the effective theory breaks down, at least, when the dark matter is heavier than O(100) GeV. Future prospects for √s = 14 TeV are also discussed. The result is independent of physics in higher energy scales. © 2014 The Author(s).

Garcia-Retamero R.,University of Granada | Garcia-Retamero R.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Dhami M.K.,University of Surrey
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2013

The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers. © 2013 Copyright The Experimental Psychology Society.

Galan M.R.,University of Granada
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2015

For a nonlinear program with inequalities and under a Slater constraint qualification, it is shown that the duality between optimal solutions and saddle points for the corresponding Lagrangian is equivalent to the infsup-convexity—a not very restrictive generalization of convexity which arises naturally in minimax theory—of a finite family of suitable functions. Even if we dispense with the Slater condition, it is proven that the infsup-convexity is nothing more than an equivalent reformulation of the Fritz John conditions for the nonlinear optimization problem under consideration. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Vaughan L.,University of Western Ontario | Romero-Frias E.,University of Granada
Scientometrics | Year: 2012

The study explored the feasibility of using Web keyword analysis as an alternative to link analysis and tested the feasibility in a multi-industry environment. The keyword is the organization's name, in this case the company name. American companies from five industries were included in the study. The study found that the Web visibility of a company as measured by the number of Webpages on which the company name appears correlates with the company's business measures (revenue, profits, and assets). The correlation coefficients are similar to that between the inlink counts and the business measures. This suggests that the keyword count (searched by the company name) could replace inlink count as an alternative indicator of some commonly used business measures. The co-word (the co-occurrence of the names of two companies on Webpages) count was used as a measure of the relatedness of the two companies. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis was applied to the co-word matrices and generated MDS maps that showed relationships among companies in a multi-industry context. Keyword data were collected from three different types of Websites (general Websites, blog sites, and Web news sites) and results were compared. The study found blog sites to be the better source to collect data for this type of study. The comparison of MDS maps generated from co-link data and the blog co-word data showed that the co-word analysis is as effective as co-link analysis in mapping business relationships. The value of the study is not limited to the business sector as the co-word method could be applied to analysing relationships among other types of organizations. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Jimenez-Moreno G.,University of Granada | Anderson R.S.,Northern Arizona University
Holocene | Year: 2013

High-resolution pollen, plant macrofossil and magnetic susceptibility (MS) data are presented from an alpine lake sediment core from west-central Colorado, recording changes in vegetation and sedimentation for the latest Pleistocene and Holocene (c. the last 12.5 ka; 1 ka = 1000 cal. yr BP). During the Younger Dryas chron (c. 12.9-11.5 ka), Artemisia steppe or tundra grew around the lake, but by the earliest Holocene (10.7-9.5 ka) a subalpine Picea and Abies parkland was established there. Picea remained important through the early Holocene, but also bristlecone and lodgepole pines (Pinus aristata and P. contorta) grew around the lake. Warming conditions are indicated from 9.5 ka, lasting until c. 4.5-3.5 ka, which may have been the warmest period, with greatest development of monsoonal conditions. Trees subsequently retreated downslope from Kite Lake c. 150-200 m during the last 3.5 ka, establishing their present treeline position. A decrease in total Pinus and increases in Artemisia and piñon (P. edulis) indicate a trend toward progressive climate cooling and enhanced winter precipitation. These long-term climatic trends correlate with Holocene changes in summer insolation. © The Author(s) 2012.

Rodriguez-Ardura I.,Applied Technology Internet | Martinez-Lopez F.J.,University of Granada
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014

Substantial multidisciplinary research has established foundational support for the consumer behaviour phenomenon that underlies the experience of telepresence within online social networks and other digital media products that provide hedonistic value. A review of major perspectives in this field provides justification of the important role mental imagery processes play in the phenomenon of telepresence. In line with this, we propose to extend existing approaches to mental imagery to reach the context of user experiences in digital media, and to theoretically connect telepresence with mental imagery. On this basis, and in conjunction with investigations bringing to light processes that intervene in the terrain of mental imagery, we present an integrative conceptual framework concerned with telepresence, and discuss the role of telepresence within a user's hedonistic usage of digital media products. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2010

We consider gq→Zt, gq→γt and gq→t production (q=u,c) mediated by strong flavour-changing neutral interactions within an effective operator framework. We provide total cross sections for Tevatron and LHC, showing explicitly that the six processes can be described in full generality in terms of only two parameters (anomalous couplings) for q=u plus two for q=c. In our work we take into account and study in detail the effects of top quark decay. For γt, the inclusion of the top quark decay in the matrix element reveals an striking result: the largest contribution to the final state, e.g. γℓνb with ℓ=e,μ,τ, does not result from gq→γt→γℓνb but from on-shell gq→t production with t→γℓνb, being the photon radiated off the top decay products. This contribution, missed in previous literature, increases the signal cross sections by factors ranging between 3 and 6.5. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Morgan F.,Williams College | Ros A.,University of Granada
Interfaces and Free Boundaries | Year: 2010

We prove that a strictly stable oriented constant-mean-curvature hypersurface in a smooth closed manifold of dimension less than or equal to 7 is uniquely homologically area minimizing for fixed volume in a small L 1 neighborhood, proving a conjecture of Choksi and Sternberg. © European Mathematical Society 2010.

Deppisch F.F.,University of Manchester | Kittel O.,University of Granada
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

We study CP asymmetries in two-body decays of bottom squarks into charginos and top quarks. These asymmetries probe the SUSY CP phases of the sbottom and the chargino sector in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We identify the MSSM parameter space where the CP asymmetries are sizeable. As a result, potentially detectable CP asymmetries in sbottom decays are found, which motivates further detailed experimental studies for probing the SUSY CP phases at the LHC. © SISSA 2010.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada
Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica C | Year: 2012

We review the most popular models proposed to explain the anomalous forward-backward asymmetry in tt̄ production at the Tevatron. We discuss their viability in view of recent LHC data. We summarise their predictions for charge asymmetries at the LHC. © Societa Italiana di Fisica.

In this work the system formed by charged (ionic) microgels in the presence of monovalent salt is investigated by solving numerically the Ornstein-Zernike integral equations within the Hypernetted-Chain approximation. The ionic density profiles, effective interaction between microgel particles, and the effective charge of the particles are calculated. In addition to the electrostatic interaction, the excluded-volume repulsion between the microgel particle and the ions is also explicitly taken into account. Although this steric interaction is irrelevant in the swollen state (when the packing fraction of the polymer network is low), it becomes a very important contribution close to the de-swollen state, hindering the counterion penetration inside the microgel mesh. The theoretical predictions indicate that the ionic density profiles are strongly affected by the degree of swelling, going from a volumetric distribution of counterions in the swollen state to a surface accumulation outside the particle that becomes more important as the particle shrinks. The electrostatic effective interaction between pairs of microgel particles is shown to be the result of a complex interplay between electrostatic and depletion effects that strongly depend on the bare charge density of the particle. For sufficiently charged microgel particles, the steric exclusion leads to a less efficient screening of the microgel charge near the de-swollen configuration, and so to a significant increase of the effective charge of the microgel particle. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Ramos J.,University of Granada | Forcada J.,University of the Basque Country
Langmuir | Year: 2011

Due to the existing interest in new hybrid particles in the colloidal range based on both magnetic and polymeric materials for applications in biotechnological fields, this work is focused on the preparation of magnetic polymer nanoparticles (MPNPs) by a single-step miniemulsion process developed to achieve better control of the morphology of the magnetic nanocomposite particles. MPNPs are prepared by surfactant-free miniemulsion polymerization using styrene (St) as a monomer, hexadecane (HD) as a hydrophobe, and potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator in the presence of oleic acid (OA)-modified magnetite nanoparticles. The effect of the type of cross-linker used [divinylbenzene (DVB) and bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (BMEP)] together with the effect of the amount of an aid stabilizer (dextran) on size, particle size distribution (PSD), and morphology of the hybrid nanoparticles synthesized is analyzed in detail. The mixture of different surface modifiers produces hybrid nanocolloids with various morphologies: from a typical core-shell composed by a magnetite core surrounded by a polymer shell to a homogeneously distributed morphology where the magnetite is uniformly distributed throughout the entire nanocomposite. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Rodriguez R.M.,University of Jaen | Martinez L.,University of Jaen | Herrera F.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2012

Dealing with uncertainty is always a challenging problem, and different tools have been proposed to deal with it. Recently, a new model that is based on hesitant fuzzy sets has been presented to manage situations in which experts hesitate between several values to assess an indicator, alternative, variable, etc. Hesitant fuzzy sets suit the modeling of quantitative settings; however, similar situations may occur in qualitative settings so that experts think of several possible linguistic values or richer expressions than a single term for an indicator, alternative, variable, etc. In this paper, the concept of a hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set is introduced to provide a linguistic and computational basis to increase the richness of linguistic elicitation based on the fuzzy linguistic approach and the use of context-free grammars by using comparative terms. Then, a multicriteria linguistic decision-making model is presented in which experts provide their assessments by eliciting linguistic expressions. This decision model manages such linguistic expressions by means of its representation using hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets. © 2012 IEEE.

Galar M.,Public University of Navarra | Fernandez A.,University of Jaen | Barrenechea E.,Public University of Navarra | Bustince H.,Public University of Navarra | Herrera F.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part C: Applications and Reviews | Year: 2012

Classifier learning with data-sets that suffer from imbalanced class distributions is a challenging problem in data mining community. This issue occurs when the number of examples that represent one class is much lower than the ones of the other classes. Its presence in many real-world applications has brought along a growth of attention from researchers. In machine learning, the ensemble of classifiers are known to increase the accuracy of single classifiers by combining several of them, but neither of these learning techniques alone solve the class imbalance problem, to deal with this issue the ensemble learning algorithms have to be designed specifically. In this paper, our aim is to review the state of the art on ensemble techniques in the framework of imbalanced data-sets, with focus on two-class problems. We propose a taxonomy for ensemble-based methods to address the class imbalance where each proposal can be categorized depending on the inner ensemble methodology in which it is based. In addition, we develop a thorough empirical comparison by the consideration of the most significant published approaches, within the families of the taxonomy proposed, to show whether any of them makes a difference. This comparison has shown the good behavior of the simplest approaches which combine random undersampling techniques with bagging or boosting ensembles. In addition, the positive synergy between sampling techniques and bagging has stood out. Furthermore, our results show empirically that ensemble-based algorithms are worthwhile since they outperform the mere use of preprocessing techniques before learning the classifier, therefore justifying the increase of complexity by means of a significant enhancement of the results. © 2012 IEEE.

Palomares I.,University of Jaen | Martinez L.,University of Jaen | Herrera F.,University of Granada | Herrera F.,King Abdulaziz University
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2014

Consensus reaching processes in group decision making attempt to reach a mutual agreement among a group of decision makers before making a common decision. Different consensus models have been proposed by different authors in the literature to facilitate consensus reaching processes. Classical models focus on solving group decision making problems where few decision makers participate. However, nowadays, societal and technological trends that demand the management of larger scales of decision makers, such as e-democracy and social networks, add a new requirement to the solution of consensus-based group decision making problems. Dealing with such large groups implies the need for mechanisms to detect decision makers' noncooperative behaviors in consensus, which might bias the consensus reaching process. This paper presents a consensus model suitable to manage large scales of decision makers, which incorporates a fuzzy clustering-based scheme to detect and manage individual and subgroup noncooperative behaviors. The model is complemented with a visual analysis tool of the overall consensus reaching process based on self-organizing maps, which facilitates the monitoring of the process performance across the time. The consensus model presented is aimed to the solution of consensus processes involving large groups. © 2014 IEEE.

Iuga C.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Sainz-Diaz C.I.,University of Granada | Vivier-Bunge A.,Metropolitan Autonomous University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

Heterogeneous reactions of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aerosol particles may play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Silicate particles are present in airborne mineral dust in aerosols, and the atmospheric chemistry in general can be modified by their presence. In this work, the adsorption of a single formic acid molecule on different silicate surface models has been studied using quantum-mechanical methods. Both molecular clusters and a periodic crystal model of the (001) pyrophyllite surface have been employed, and all possible adsorption geometries have been considered. We find that silanol groups are always the most reactive formic acid adsorption sites. In the case of a periodic system, silanol groups at the crystal edges are favored. However, OH groups on the phyllosilicate octahedral sheet are also reactive sites through the tetrahedral cavities. The effect of formic acid adsorption on the spectroscopic properties of the whole system is also analyzed. Significant frequency shifts are detected in the vibration modes of both adsorbate and surface models. These results can be a useful tool for experimental adsorption investigations using vibration spectroscopy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Bobillo F.,University of Zaragoza | Delgado M.,University of Granada | Gomez-Romero J.,Charles III University of Madrid
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

Today, there is a growing interest in the development of knowledge representations able to deal with uncertainty, which is a very common requirement in real world applications. Despite the undisputed success of ontologies, classical ontologies are not suitable to deal with uncertainty and, consequently, several extensions with fuzzy logic and rough logic, among other formalisms, have been proposed. In this article we describe DeLorean 2, the first ontology reasoner that supports fuzzy extensions of the standard languages OWL and OWL 2. In a strict sense, DeLorean is not a reasoner but a translator from fuzzy rough ontology languages (GZSROIQ(D)) into classical ontology languages (SROIQ(D)). This allows using classical (widely available) Description Logic inference engines to reason with the representation resulting from the transformation. We describe the main features of the application: evolution, functionality, architecture, graphical interface, input language, and implementation details. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Martinez L.,University of Jaen | Herrera F.,University of Granada
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

Many real world problems need to deal with uncertainty, therefore the management of such uncertainty is usually a big challenge. Hence, different proposals to tackle and manage the uncertainty have been developed. Probabilistic models are quite common, but when the uncertainty is not probabilistic in nature other models have arisen such as fuzzy logic and the fuzzy linguistic approach. The use of linguistic information to model and manage uncertainty has given good results and implies the accomplishment of processes of computing with words. A bird's eye view in the recent specialized literature about linguistic decision making, computing with words, linguistic computing models and their applications shows that the 2-tuple linguistic representation model [44] has been widely-used in the topic during the last decade. This use is because of reasons such as, its accuracy, its usefulness for improving linguistic solving processes in different applications, its interpretability, its ease managing of complex frameworks in which linguistic information is included and so forth. Therefore, after a decade of extensive and intensive successful use of this model in computing with words for different fields, it is the right moment to overview the model, its extensions, specific methodologies, applications and discuss challenges in the topic. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Maldonado-Hodar F.J.,University of Granada
Catalysis Communications | Year: 2012

A series of Pt-catalysts were prepared by impregnation of carbon aerogels. The supports were selected on the basis of a different porous texture. The dispersion and sintering resistance of the catalyst were evaluated by varying the Pt-loading and the pre-treatment conditions. XRD, XPS, HRTEM and H 2-chemisorption were used to determine the nature and dispersion of Pt-particles. The behavior of these catalysts on the n-hexane conversion was analyzed in different experimental conditions. The performance of catalysts was related to their porous, chemical and dispersion characteristics of the samples. Monofunctional catalysts were obtained in all cases. Isomerisation and cracking take place on the same active sites whereas the aromatization requires different sites. The selectivities for isomerization and hydrogenolysis change with the advance of the reaction while that for aromatization remains constant. Deactivation is related with the loss of the active sites responsible for the hydrogenolysis reactions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Spina E.,Messina University | de Leon J.,University of Kentucky | de Leon J.,University of Granada | de Leon J.,University of the Basque Country
Journal of Neural Transmission | Year: 2015

A critical review of the limited available evidence and the authors’ experience and judgment are used to summarize the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genetic variants in the pharmacokinetics of and clinical response to psychotropic medications. CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms and their contributions to the metabolism of psychotropic drugs are reviewed. CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genotyping have limited current clinical utility. CYP2C9 genotyping has no utility in psychiatry. Psychiatrists should master tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) prescription, and if they use TCAs, they should have expertise in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping and in TCA therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to safely dose TCAs. Practice guidelines recommend dose changes, TDM or alternate drugs for (1) CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers (UM) taking citalopram or escitalopram; (2) CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (PMs) taking sertraline; (3) CYP2D6 PMs taking venlafaxine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, risperidone or zuclopenthixol; and (4) CYP2D6 UMs taking venlafaxine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, risperidone, zuclopenthixol or atomoxetine. According to the prescribing information, CYP2D6 PMs should receive 75 % of the average long-acting aripiprazole dose and pimozide doses >4 mg/day should not be prescribed without CYP2D6 genotyping. In a situation of limited evidence, there is need to use the available pharmacological mechanistic information for better personalizing treatment in psychiatry. This is best done by combining CYP genotyping with TDM. Clozapine and risperidone concentration-to-dose ratios are provided as two examples of this approach of how to integrate CYP genotyping and TDM in psychiatry. New studies are needed to verify that CYP2C19 PM genotyping may have potential to identify clozapine PMs and explain the lower clozapine metabolic capacity in East Asians. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Consonni G.,University of Pavia | Moreno E.,University of Granada | Venturini S.,Bocconi University
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2011

We analyze the general (multiallelic) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium problem from an objective Bayesian testing standpoint. We argue that for small or moderate sample sizes the answer is rather sensitive to the prior chosen, and this suggests to carry out a sensitivity analysis with respect to the prior. This goal is achieved through the identification of a class of priors specifically designed for this testing problem. In this paper, we consider the class of intrinsic priors under the full model, indexed by a tuning quantity, the training sample size. These priors are objective, satisfy Savage's continuity condition and have proved to behave extremely well for many statistical testing problems. We compute the posterior probability of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model for the class of intrinsic priors, assess robustness over the range of plausible answers, as well as stability of the decision in favor of either hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Branas-Garza P.,Middlesex University | Kovarik J.,University of the Basque Country | Neyse L.,University of Granada
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Gene-culture co-evolution emphasizes the joint role of culture and genes for the emergence of altruistic and cooperative behaviors and behavioral genetics provides estimates of their relative importance. However, these approaches cannot assess which biological traits determine altruism or how. We analyze the association between altruism in adults and the exposure to prenatal sex hormones, using the second-to-fourth digit ratio. We find an inverted U-shaped relation for left and right hands, which is very consistent for men and less systematic for women. Subjects with both high and low digit ratios give less than individuals with intermediate digit ratios. We repeat the exercise with the same subjects seven months later and find a similar association, even though subjects' behavior differs the second time they play the game. We then construct proxies of the median digit ratio in the population (using more than 1000 different subjects), show that subjects' altruism decreases with the distance of their ratio to these proxies. These results provide direct evidence that prenatal events contribute to the variation of altruistic behavior and that the exposure to fetal hormones is one of the relevant biological factors. In addition, the findings suggest that there might be an optimal level of exposure to these hormones from social perspective. © 2013 Brañas-Garza et al.

Manzano D.,University of Granada | Manzano D.,University of Innsbruck
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Recently, several works have analysed the efficiency of photosynthetic complexes in a transient scenario and how that efficiency is affected by environmental noise. Here, following a quantum master equation approach, we study the energy and excitation transport in fully connected networks both in general and in the particular case of the Fenna-Matthew-Olson complex. The analysis is carried out for the steady state of the system where the excitation energy is constantly "flowing" through the system. Steady state transport scenarios are particularly relevant if the evolution of the quantum system is not conditioned on the arrival of individual excitations. By adding dephasing to the system, we analyse the possibility of noise-enhancement of the quantum transport. © 2013 Daniel Manzano.

Calixto M.,University of Granada | Perez-Bernal F.,University of Huelva
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We study the entanglement properties of the shape phase transitions between different geometric limits of two coupled equivalent molecular benders modeled with the two-dimensional limit of the vibron model. This system has four possible geometric configurations: linear, cis-bent, trans-bent, and nonplanar. We show how the entanglement, accessed through the calculation of the linear entropy, between benders and between rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom changes sensitively in the critical regions of this two-fluid bosonic model. The numeric calculation is complemented with a variational approach to the ground-state wave function in terms of symmetry-adapted coherent states. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Broniowski W.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Broniowski W.,Jan Kochanowski University | Ruiz Arriola E.,University of Granada
Few-Body Systems | Year: 2014

Valence double parton distribution functions of the nucleon are evaluated in the framework of a simple model, where the conservation of the longitudinal momentum is taken into account. The leading-order DGLAP QCD evolution from the low quark-model scale to higher renormalization scales is carried out via the Mellin moments of the distributions. Results of the valence quark correlation function show that in general the double distributions cannot be approximated as a product of the single-particle distributions. © 2014 The Author(s).

Zinkernagel H.,University of Granada
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics | Year: 2016

It is well known that Niels Bohr insisted on the necessity of classical concepts in the account of quantum phenomena. But there is little consensus concerning his reasons, and what he exactly meant by this. In this paper, I re-examine Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, and argue that the necessity of the classical can be seen as part of his response to the measurement problem. More generally, I attempt to clarify Bohr's view on the classical/quantum divide, arguing that the relation between the two theories is that of mutual dependence. An important element in this clarification consists in distinguishing Bohr's idea of the wave function as symbolic from both a purely epistemic and an ontological interpretation. Together with new evidence concerning Bohr's conception of the wave function collapse, this sets his interpretation apart from both standard versions of the Copenhagen interpretation, and from some of the reconstructions of his view found in the literature. I conclude with a few remarks on how Bohr's ideas make much sense also when modern developments in quantum gravity and early universe cosmology are taken into account. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Fernandez-Sanchez J.,University of Almeria | Quesada-Molina J.J.,University of Granada | Ubeda-Flores M.,University of Almeria
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

We introduce and characterize the family of (α,β)-homogeneous copulas and study some of its salient properties, such as the greatest and the lowest copulas, measures of association and the relationships with the a-migrativity and invariant copulas. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanz J.A.,Public University of Navarra | Fernandez A.,University of Jaen | Bustince H.,Public University of Navarra | Herrera F.,University of Granada
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2013

Interval-valued fuzzy sets have been shown to be a useful tool to deal with the ignorance related to the definition of the linguistic labels. Specifically, they have been successfully applied to solve classification problems, performing simple modifications on the fuzzy reasoning method to work with this representation and making the classification based on a single number. In this paper, we present IVTURS, which is a new linguistic fuzzy rule-based classification method based on a new completely interval-valued fuzzy reasoning method. This inference process uses interval-valued restricted equivalence functions to increase the relevance of the rules in which the equivalence of the interval membership degrees of the patterns and the ideal membership degrees is greater, which is a desirable behavior. Furthermore, their parametrized construction allows the computation of the optimal function for each variable to be performed, which could involve a potential improvement in the system's behavior. Additionally, we combine this tuning of the equivalence with rule selection in order to decrease the complexity of the system. In this paper, we name our method IVTURS-FARC, since we use the FARC-HD method to accomplish the fuzzy rule learning process. The experimental study is developed in three steps in order to ascertain the quality of our new proposal. First, we determine both the essential role that interval-valued fuzzy sets play in the method and the need for the rule selection process. Next, we show the improvements achieved by IVTURS-FARC with respect to the tuning of the degree of ignorance when it is applied in both an isolated way and when combined with the tuning of the equivalence. Finally, the significance of IVTURS-FARC is further depicted by means of a comparison by which it is proved to outperform the results of FARC-HD and FURIA, which are two high performing fuzzy classification algorithms. © 2013 IEEE.

Rodriguez R.M.,University of Jaen | Martinez L.,University of Jaen | Herrera F.,University of Granada
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

The complexity and impact of many real world decision making problems lead to the necessity of considering multiple points of view, building group decision making problems in which a group of experts provide their preferences to achieve a solution. In such complex problems uncertainty is often present and although the use of linguistic information has provided successful results in managing it, these are sometimes limited because the linguistic models use single-valued and predefined terms that restrict the richness of freely eliciting the preferences of the experts. Usually, experts may doubt between different linguistic terms and require richer expressions to express their knowledge more accurately. However, linguistic group decision making approaches do not provide any model to make more flexible the elicitation of linguistic preferences in such hesitant situations. In this paper is proposed a new linguistic group decision model that facilitates the elicitation of flexible and rich linguistic expressions, in particular through the use of comparative linguistic expressions, close to human beings' cognitive models for expressing linguistic preferences based on hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets and context-free grammars. This model defines the group decision process and the necessary operators and tools to manage such linguistic expressions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Human phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (hPGK1) is a glycolytic enzyme essential for ATP synthesis, and it is implicated in different pathological conditions such as inherited diseases, oncogenesis and activation of drugs for cancer and viral treatments. Particularly, mutations in hPGK1 cause human PGK1 deficiency, a rate metabolic conformational disease. We have recently found that most of these mutations cause protein kinetic destabilization by significant changes in the structure/energetics of the transition state for irreversible denaturation. In this work, we explore the relationships between protein conformation, thermodynamic and kinetic stability in hPGK1 by performing comprehensive analyses in a wide pH range (2.5-8). hPGK1 remains in a native conformation at pH 5-8, but undergoes a conformational transition to a molten globule-like state at acidic pH. Interestingly, hPGK1 kinetic stability remains essentially constant at pH 6-8, but is significantly reduced when pH is decreased from 6 to 5. We found that this decrease in kinetic stability is caused by significant changes in the energetic/structural balance of the denaturation transition state, which diverge from those found for disease-causing mutations. We also show that protein kinetic destabilization by acidic pH is strongly linked to lower thermodynamic stability, while in disease-causing mutations seems to be linked to lower unfolding cooperativity. These results highlight the plasticity of the hPGK1 denaturation mechanism that responds differently to changes in pH and in disease-causing mutations. New insight is presented into the different factors contributing to hPGK1 thermodynamic and kinetic stability and the role of denaturation mechanisms in hPGK1 deficiency. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Trawinski K.,European Center for Soft Computing | Cordon O.,European Center for Soft Computing | Cordon O.,University of Granada | Sanchez L.,University of Oviedo | Quirin A.,European Center for Soft Computing
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2013

Fuzzy set theory has been widely and successfully used as a mathematical tool to combine the outputs provided by the individual classifiers in a multiclassification system by means of a fuzzy aggregation operator. However, to the best of our knowledge, no fuzzy combination method has been proposed, which is composed of a fuzzy rule-based system. We think this can be a very promising research line as it allows us to benefit from the key advantage of fuzzy systems, i.e., their interpretability. By using a fuzzy linguistic rule-based classification system as a combination method, the resulting classifier ensemble would show a hierarchical structure, and the operation of the latter component would be transparent to the user. Moreover, for the specific case of fuzzy multiclassification systems, the new approach could also become a smart way to allow standard fuzzy classifiers to deal with high-dimensional problems, avoiding the curse of dimensionality, as the chance to perform classifier selection at class level is also incorporated, into the method. We conduct comprehensive experiments considering 20 UCI datasets with different dimensionality, where our approach improves or at least maintains accuracy, while reducing complexity of the system, and provides some interpretability insight into the multiclassification system reasoning mechanism. The results obtained show that this approach is able to compete with the state-of-the-art multiclassification system selection and fusion methods in terms of accuracy, thus providing a good interpretability-accuracy tradeoff. © 1993-2012 IEEE.

Megias A.G.,University of Granada | Muller C.,Bielefeld University
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2010

1. Indirect effects mediated by changes in plant traits are the main mechanism by which aboveand below-ground herbivores affect each other and their enemies. Only recently the role of decomposers in the regulation of such plant-based systems has been considered. We hypothesized that: (i) below-ground organisms, both herbivores (negative effect on plants) and detritivores (positive effect on plants), will have a profound effect on the interactions among above-ground arthropods; (ii) floral herbivores will negatively affect other above-ground herbivores associated with the plant; and (iii) not only above- and below-ground herbivores, but also detritivores will affect the production of secondary metabolites, i.e. glucosinolates, in the plants. 2. We manipulated the presence of above-ground herbivores, below-ground herbivores and below-ground detritivores on the Brassicaceae Moricandia moricandioides in the field to disentangle their individual and combined effects on other organism groups. We also investigated their effects on the plant's chemical defence to evaluate potential mechanisms. 3. Our results show that not only above- and below-ground herbivores, but also detritivores affected other herbivores and parasitoids associated with the host plant. Most effects were not additive because their strength changed when other organisms belonging to different functional groups or food web compartments were present. Moreover, below-ground herbivore and detritivore effects on above-ground fauna were related to changes in glucosinolate concentrations and in quantity of resources. 4. This study indicates that multitrophic interactions in plant-based food webs can dramatically change by the action of below-ground organisms. One of the most important and novel results is that detritivores induced changes in plant metabolites, modifying the quality and attractiveness of plants to herbivores and parasitoids under field conditions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

Nagy A.,Debrecen University | Romera E.,University of Granada
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2012

Fisher information, Rényi entropy power and FisherRényi information product are presented for the Dicke model. There is a quantum phase transition in this quantum optical model. It is pointed out that there is an abrupt change in the Fisher information, Rényi entropy power, the Fisher, Shannon and Rényi lengths at the transition point. It is found that these quantities diverge as the characteristic length: | λc-λ|-14 around the critical value of the coupling strength λc for any value of the parameter β. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bergqvist D.,Uppsala Academic Hospital | Arcelus J.I.,University of Granada | Felicissimo P.,Hospital Fernando Fonseca
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2012

Real-life data on post-discharge venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis practices and treatments are lacking. We assessed post-operative VTE prophylaxis prescribed and received in a prospective registry, compared with the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines in high-risk orthopaedic surgery patients. Consecutive patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA), hip fracture surgery (HFS), or knee arthroplasty (KA) were enrolled at discharge from 161 centres in 17 European countries if they had received in-hospital VTE prophylaxis that was considered in accordance with the ACCP guidelines by the treating physician. Data on prescribed and actual prophylaxis were obtained from hospital charts and patient post-discharge diaries. Post-operative prophylaxis prescribed and actual prophylaxis received were considered adherent or adequate, respectively, if recommended therapies were used for ≥28 days (HFS and THA) or ≥10 days (KA). Among 4,388 patients, 69.9% were prescribed ACCP-adherent VTE prophylaxis (THA: 1,411/2,217 [63.6%]; HFS: 701/1,112 [63.0%]; KA: 955/1,059 [90.2%]). Actual prophylaxis received was described in 3,939 patients with an available diary after discharge (non-evaluability rate of 10%). Mean actual durations of pharmacological prophylaxis from surgery were: 28.4 ± 13.7 (THA), 29.3 ± 13.9 (HFS), and 28.7 ± 14.1 days (KA). ACCP-adequate VTE prophylaxis was received by 66.5% of patients (60.9% THA, 55.4% HFS, and 88.7% KA). Prophylaxis inadequacies were mainly due to inadequate prescription, non-recommended prophylaxis prescription at discharge, or too short prophylaxis prescribed. In high-risk orthopaedic surgery patients with hospitalinitiated prophylaxis, there is a gap between ACCP recommendations, prescribed and actual prophylaxis received, mainly due to inadequate prescription at discharge. © Schattauer 2012.

The importance of non-coding DNAs that control transcription is ever noticeable, but the characterization and analysis of the evolution of such DNAs presents challenges not found in the analysis of coding sequences. In this study of the cis-regulatory elements of the pair rule segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz) I report the DNA sequences of ftz's zebra element (promoter) and a region containing the proximal enhancer from a total of 45 fly lines belonging to several populations of the species Drosophila melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. mauritiana, D. yakuba, D. teissieri, D. orena and D. erecta. Both elements evolve at slower rate than ftz synonymous sites, thus reflecting their functional importance. The promoter evolves more slowly than the average for ftz's coding sequence while, on average, the enhancer evolves more rapidly, suggesting more functional constraint and effective purifying selection on the former. Comparative analysis of the number and nature of base substitutions failed to detect significant evidence for positive/adaptive selection in transcription-factor-binding sites. These seem to evolve at similar rates to regions not known to bind transcription factors. Although this result reflects the evolutionary flexibility of the transcription factor binding sites, it also suggests a complex and still not completely understood nature of even the characterized cis-regulatory sequences. The latter seem to contain more functional parts than those currently identified, some of which probably transcription factor binding. This study illustrates ways in which functional assignments of sequences within cis-acting sequences can be used in the search for adaptive evolution, but also highlights difficulties in how such functional assignment and analysis can be carried out. © 2011 Mohammed Bakkali.

Bartolomeo P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bartolomeo P.,University of Milan | de Schotten M.T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | de Schotten M.T.,Kings College London | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Visual neglect is a multi-component syndrome including prominent attentional disorders. Research on the functional mechanisms of neglect is now moving from the description of dissociations in patients' performance to the identification of the possible component deficits and of their interaction with compensatory strategies. In recent years, the dissection of attentional deficits in neglect has progressed in parallel with increasing comprehension of the anatomy and function of large-scale brain networks implicated in attentional processes. This review focuses on the anatomy and putative functions of attentional circuits in the brain, mainly subserved by fronto-parietal networks, with a peculiar although not yet completely elucidated role for the right hemisphere. Recent results are discussed concerning the influence of a non-spatial attentional function, phasic alertness, on conscious perception in normal participants and on conflict resolution in neglect patients. The rapid rate of expansion of our knowledge of these systems raises hopes for the development of effective strategies to improve the functioning of the attentional networks in brain-damaged patients. © 2012 Bartolomeo, De Thiebaut S. and Chica.

de Vicente J.,University of Granada | Berli C.L.A.,CONICET
Rheologica Acta | Year: 2013

The yielding behavior of dilute magnetorheological (MR) fluids has been investigated using creep-recovery tests. At very low stress levels, MR fluids behave in the linear viscoelastic regime as demonstrated by the fact that the instantaneous strain equals the instantaneous (elastic) recovery. In this region, gap-spanning field-induced structures support the stress levels applied. Upon increasing the stress value, the MR fluid evolves towards a nonlinear viscoelastic response. Here, the retarded elastic and viscous strain decrease, and the plastic contribution to the instantaneous strain grows probably due to the appearance of unattached field-induced structures. A larger stress value results in a viscoplastic solid behavior with negligible retarded and viscous strain and a fully plastic instantaneous strain. Finally, a plastic fluid behavior is found when the stress value is larger than the so-called yield stress. MR fluids exhibit an intermediate behavior between non-thixotropic (simple) and highly thixotropic model yield stress fluids. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada | Joaquim F.R.,University of Lisbon
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2016

In models with an extra SU(2)R gauge group and an extended scalar sector, the cascade decays of the W′ boson can provide various multiboson signals. In particular, diboson decays W′ → W Z can be suppressed while W′ → W ZX, with X one of the scalars present in the model, can reach branching ratios around 4%. We discuss these multiboson signals focusing on possible interpretations of the ATLAS excess in fat jet pair production. © 2016, The Author(s).

Rodriguez-Navarro C.,University of Granada | Benning L.G.,University of Leeds
Elements | Year: 2013

The survival of important pieces of our architectural and sculptural heritage is challenged by irreparable damage due to crystallization of soluble salts. Mineral precipitation is also a problem in many industrial processes, leading to costly scale formation. Most of the mechanisms that control these crystallization reactions can be modified or slowed down by using specifi c additives. Recent advances in elucidating the mechanisms of mineral nucleation and growth and molecular-level mineral-additive interactions have led to the development of novel treatments for the prevention of mineral scale and salt damage. Copyright © 2013 by the Mineralogical Society of America.

Amaro J.E.,University of Granada | Barbaro M.B.,University of Turin | Caballero J.A.,University of Seville | Donnelly T.W.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We evaluate quasielastic double-differential antineutrino cross sections obtained in a phenomenological model based on the superscaling behavior of electron scattering data and estimate the contribution of the vector meson-exchange currents in the two-particle-two-hole sector. We show that the impact of meson-exchange currents for charge-changing antineutrino reactions is much larger than in the neutrino case. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Orduna-Malea E.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Delgado Lopez-Cozar E.,University of Granada
Scientometrics | Year: 2014

In November 2012 the Google Scholar Metrics (GSM) journal rankings were updated, making it possible to compare bibliometric indicators in the ten languages indexed-and their stability-with the April 2012 version. The h-index and h-5 median of 1,000 journals were analysed, comparing their averages, maximum and minimum values and the correlation coefficient within rankings. The bibliometric figures grew significantly. In just seven and a half months the h-index of the journals increased by 15 % and the median h-index by 17 %. This growth was observed for all the bibliometric indicators analysed and for practically every journal. However, we found significant differences in growth rates depending on the language in which the journal is published. Moreover, the journal rankings seem to be stable between April and November, reinforcing the credibility of the data held by Google Scholar and the reliability of the GSM journal rankings, despite the uncontrolled growth of Google Scholar. Based on the findings of this study we suggest, firstly, that Google should upgrade its rankings at least semi-annually and, secondly, that the results should be displayed in each ranking proportionally to the number of journals indexed by language. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Bombard A.J.F.,Federal University of Itajuba | De Vicente J.,University of Granada
Wear | Year: 2012

This paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of the boundary lubrication properties of magnetorheological (MR) fluids under point sliding contacts between polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and stainless steel tribopairs. The tribological properties of OM, OS, OX, HS, HSI and HQ grades of carbonyl iron based MR fluids were tested using a ball-on-three plates tribometer to ascertain the optimal lubricant. Wear scars on the PTFE sheets were examined by optical microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for imaging and elemental analysis of the worn surface. The research shows that OS based lubricating MR fluids have the optimal anti-wear and friction reducing properties probably due to the amorphous silica surface coating of the particles. Mechanisms by which MR fluids improve tribological behavior concern particle entrapment and (soft) surface indentation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Bombard A.J.F.,Federal University of Itajuba | De Vicente J.,University of Granada
Tribology Letters | Year: 2012

This article is concerned with an investigation of the tribological performance of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in pure sliding soft-elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) steel/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) point contacts. The lubricating properties of MR fluids were measured in thin film, lubricated conditions using a ball-on-three-plates tribometer and compared to base fluids in the form of Stribeck curves. A range of techniques was employed to interpret the possible mechanisms of friction and wear of dispersed iron microparticles. The friction surfaces were investigated using optical microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In all cases investigated, the friction coefficient is found to strongly depend on the viscosity of the lubricant oil. In the case of low-viscosity liquids, iron microparticles are entrapped in the contact and plow the PTFE surfaces resulting in a sensibly constant friction coefficient. For intermediate viscosities, friction decreases at low speeds because of the so-called "ball- bearing" effect, and later, friction increases as particles become embedded in the PTFE matrix. Finally, for high-viscosity fluids, iron particles either accumulate around the rubbing zone as a barrier that reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication or the particles indent PTFE surfaces. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Bakkali M.,University of Granada
Archives of Microbiology | Year: 2013

DNA acquisition promotes the spread of resistance to antibiotics and virulence among bacteria. It is also linked to several natural phenomena including recombination, genome dynamics, adaptation and speciation. Horizontal DNA transfer between bacteria occurs via conjugation, transduction or competence for natural transformation by DNA uptake. Among these, competence is the only mechanism of transformation initiated and entirely controlled by the chromosome of the recipient bacteria. While the molecular mechanisms allowing the uptake of extracellular DNA are increasingly characterized, the function of competence for natural transformation by DNA uptake, the selective advantage maintaining it and the reasons why bacteria take up DNA in the first place are still debated. In this synthesis, I review some of the literature and discuss the four hypotheses on how and why do bacteria take up DNA. I argue that DNA uptake by bacteria is an accidental by-product of bacterial adhesion and twitching motility. Adhesion and motility are generally increased in stressful conditions, which may explain why bacteria increase DNA uptake in these conditions. In addition to its fundamental scientific relevance, the new hypothesis suggested here has significant clinical implications and finds further support from the fact that antibiotics sometimes fail to eliminate the targeted bacterium while inevitably causing stress to others. The widespread misuse of antibiotics may thus not only be selecting for resistant strains, but may also be causing bacteria to take up more DNA with the consequent increase in the chances of acquiring drug resistance and virulence - a scenario in full concordance with the previously reported induction of competence genes by antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila. © 2013 The Author(s).

In this article we develop a measure to approximate the diffusion of product-embodied R&D that takes place by means of the intermediate purchases of KIBS in 19 of the EU27 countries over the period 2000-2005. The results obtained confirm a rising trend in the use of KIBS as intermediate consumptions as well as the predominance of the domestic provision of this type of services with two exceptions: Ireland and, to a lesser extent, Finland. Leaving aside the two countries with the lowest intensities, Estonia and Hungary, four major groups of countries in terms of the R&D intensity of their KIBS sector were distinguished: very high (Finland, Sweden and Austria), high (Ireland, Czech Republic and Spain), medium (Greece, Belgium, Slovakia, Romania, Slovenia and Germany) and low (Portugal, Netherlands, Poland, Italy and Lithuania). Overall, a high correspondence between R&D intensity and product-embodied R&D diffusion was found, although Ireland, Romania, Belgium and the Netherlands displayed a disappointing diffusion per unit of value added in comparison with the R&D expenditures developed. The existence of weak linkages between the KIBS sector and the rest of industries can be identified as the main explanation for this “diffusion gap”. In brief, the results obtained confirm that KIBS are essential industries for improving innovation performance as they carry out strong efforts in R&D that spill over to the rest of the production system. © 2013, Engineering Economics. All right reserved.

Albacete J.L.,University of Granada | Marquet C.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

We present an overview of theoretical aspects of the phenomenon of gluon saturation in high energy scattering in Quantum Chromo Dynamics. Then we review the state-of-the-art of saturation-based phenomenological approaches to the study and characterization of the initial state of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions performed at RHIC and the LHC. Our review focuses mostly in the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, although we shall also discuss other approaches in parallel. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Abellan J.,University of Granada
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013

This paper presents an application of the Non-parametric Predictive Inference model for multinomial data (NPIM) on multiclass classification noise tasks, i.e. classification tasks where the variable under study has 3 or more possible states or values; and the data sets have incorrect class labels in their training and/or test data sets. In an experimental study, we show that the combination or fusion of the information obtained from decision trees built using the NPIM in a Bagging scheme, can improve the process of classification in multi-class classification noise problems. Via a set of statistical tests, we compared this approach with other successful methods used in similar scheme, on a wide set of data sets. It must be remarked that the new approach has a notably performance, compared with the rest of models, when the level of noise is increased. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Molero-Chamizo A.,University of Granada | Molero-Chamizo A.,University of Huelva
Brain Research | Year: 2013

Abstract Previous experiments have shown that changes in the time of day between taste pre-exposure and conditioning prevent the latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion. The effect of these changes in circadian context between pre-exposure and conditioning on the magnitude of the learned aversion appears to be similar to the effect of changes in spatial context on this type of learning. To elucidate the brain areas involved in this circadian dependence of latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion, the effect of excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus, a region related to spatial-contextual modulation in this learning process, was analyzed. The latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion in animals with hippocampal lesions, that were pre-exposed and conditioned to the same or different time of day, was compared with the response of animals exposed to either conditions ("same" or "different") but had undergone amygdala lesions or sham lesions. The results showed that selective dorsal hippocampus lesion eliminated the circadian dependence of latent inhibition of taste aversion. A change in the time of day between pre-exposure and conditioning did not prevent latent inhibition in animals with hippocampal lesions. In contrast, this change prevented latent inhibition in the amygdala-lesioned and sham groups. These findings suggest that the hippocampus contains a selective mechanism that modulates the contextual dependency of the latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion without interfering with the effect of taste pre-exposure itself. This study may help to understand the possible common involvement of the hippocampus in different types of contextual control of associative learning. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Grau A.,University of Granada | Pacetti S.,University of Perugia | Pancheri G.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Srivastava Y.N.,University of Perugia
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We parametrize TOTEM data for the elastic differential pp cross section at s=7TeV in terms of two exponentials with a relative phase. We employ two previously derived sum rules for pp elastic scattering amplitude in impact parameter space to check whether asymptotia has been reached at the LHC. A detailed study of the TOTEM data for the elastic differential cross section at s=7TeV is made and it is shown that, within errors, the asymptotic sum rules are satisfied at LHC. We propose to use this parametrization to study forthcoming higher energy data. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Diaz J.A.,University of Granada | Mahajan V.N.,The Aerospace Corporation
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

Recently, Hasan and Shaker published a set of orthonormal polynomials for an annular elliptical pupil obtained by the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of the Zernike circle polynomials [Appl. Opt. 51, 8490 (2012)]. However, the expressions for many of the polynomials are incorrect, apparently due to wrong usage of the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process. We provide the correct equations for the orthogonalization process and the expressions for the orthonormal polynomials obtained by applying them. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Diaz J.A.,University of Granada | Mahajan V.N.,The Aerospace Corporation
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

We obtain a closed-form analytical expression for the aberration-free point-spread function (PSF) of a system with a hexagonal pupil. The six-fold symmetric PSF consists of a nearly circular bright spot at the center surrounded by a thin dark ring and two each nearly hexagonal bright and dark rings, while maintaining the six-fold symmetry. Beyond that the PSF breaks into six diffraction arms, each of alternating bright and dark strips and normal to a side of the pupil, with some dim structure between two consecutive arms. The ensquared power of the PSF and the optical transfer function are calculated and compared with the corresponding quantities for a system with a circular pupil. The balancing of Seidel aberrations is illustrated and their standard deviations with and without balancing are discussed. The Strehl ratio of these aberrations is plotted as a function of the standard deviation and compared with the approximate expression based on the aberration variance. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Quesada-Perez M.,University of Jaen | Maroto-Centeno J.A.,University of Jaen | Martin-Molina A.,University of Granada
Macromolecules | Year: 2012

In this work, the effect of the counterion valence on the behavior of thermo-sensitive gels and microgels is studied through computer simulations. The polyelectrolyte gel is described within a bead-spring model and ions are explicitly considered. The thermo-shrinking behavior is simulated with the help of a phenomenological solvent-mediated polymer-polymer interaction that captures the essential features of experimental swelling data. Our results show that the swelling effect of multivalent species is smaller than in the case of monovalent counterions and therefore lower temperatures are required for the hydrophobic collapse of the polymer network. The reduction of the number of counterions when their valence is increased is responsible to a great extent for the smaller swelling effect. However, our simulations also reveal other mechanisms involved but completely ignored by most of the Flory-Rhener-inspired theories. For instance, the strong electrostatic interaction between multivalent counterions and the charged beads of the network reduces the pressure exerted by them. In addition, a bridging effect induced by these ions enhances hydrophobic interactions, which also contributes to the collapse of the gel. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Chandrasekhar V.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Chandrasekhar V.,Tata Institute of Fundamental Research | Bag P.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Colacio E.,University of Granada
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2013

The synthesis of a series of macrocyclic, isostructural octanuclear lanthanide complexes [Gd8 (LH2)4 (μ-Piv)4 (η2-Piv)4 (μ-OMe) 4]·6CH3OH·2H2O (1), [Tb 8 (LH2)4 (μ-Piv)4 (η2-Piv)4 (μ-OMe)4]4CH 3OH·4H2O (2), [Dy8(LH2) 4 (μ-Piv)4 (η2-Piv)4 (μ-OMe)4]·8CH3OH (3), and [Ho 8(LH2)4(μ-Piv)4 (η2-Piv)4 (μ-OMe)4]·CH 3OH·4H2O (4) have been achieved, using Ln(III) nitrate salts, pivalic acid, and a new multidentate chelating ligand (2E,N′E)-N′-(3-((bis(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)methyl)-2-hydroxy-5- methylbenzylidene)-2-(hydroxyimino) propane hydrazide (LH5), containing two unsymmetrically disposed arms; one side of the phenol unit is decorated with a diethanolamine group while the other side is a hydrazone that has been built by the condensation reaction involving 2- hydroxyiminopropanehydrazide. All the compounds, 1-4, are neutral and are held by the four [LH2]3- triply deprotonated chelating ligands. In these complexes all the lanthanide ions are doubly or triply bridged via phenolate, alkoxy, and pivalate oxygens. The metal centers are distributed over the 8 vertices of an octagon, resembling a cyclooctadiene ring core. The details of magnetochemical analysis for complexes 1-4 shows that they exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions between the Ln3+ ions through the phenoxo, alkoxo, and pivalato bridging groups. None of the compounds exhibits slow relaxation of the magnetization at zero applied direct current (dc) magnetic field, which could be due to the existence of a fast quantum tunneling relaxation of the magnetization (QTM). In the case of 3, the application of a small dc field is enough as to fully or partly suppress the fast and efficient zero-field QTM allowing the observation of slow relaxation above 2 K. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Faraudo J.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Martin-Molina A.,University of Granada
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2013

In this review, we discuss the competition of non-DLVO forces in the adsorption of polyelectrolytes onto charged surfaces. We consider two particularly illustrative problems, namely the adsorption of polyelectrolytes onto similarly charged surfaces and the reversal of surface charge by adsorption of polyelectrolytes. Emphasis is made on how simulation results help to understand relevant experimental situations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Many inborn errors of amino acids metabolism are caused by single point mutations affecting the ability of proteins to fold properly (i.e., protein homeostasis), thus leading to enzyme loss-of-function. Mutations may affect protein homeostasis by altering intrinsic physical properties of the polypeptide (folding thermodynamics, and rates of folding/unfolding/misfolding) as well as the interaction of partially folded states with elements of the protein homeostasis network (such as molecular chaperones and proteolytic machineries). Understanding these mutational effects on protein homeostasis is required to develop new therapeutic strategies aimed to target specific features of the mutant polypeptide. Here, I review recent work in three different diseases of protein homeostasis associated to inborn errors of amino acids metabolism: phenylketonuria, inherited homocystinuria and primary hyperoxaluria type I. These three different genetic disorders involve proteins operating in different cell organelles and displaying different structural complexities. Mutations often decrease protein kinetic stability of the native state (i.e., its half-life for irreversible denaturation), which can be studied using simple kinetic models amenable to biophysical and biochemical characterization. Natural ligands and pharmacological chaperones are shown to stabilize mutant enzymes, thus supporting their therapeutic application to overcome protein kinetic destabilization. The role of molecular chaperones in protein folding and misfolding is also discussed as well as their potential pharmacological modulation as promising new therapeutic approaches. Since current available treatments for these diseases are either burdening or only successful in a fraction of patients, alternative treatments must be considered covering studies from protein structure and biophysics to studies in animal models and patients. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Quesada L.,University of Granada
2012 27th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, ASE 2012 - Proceedings | Year: 2012

ModelCC is a model-based parser generator. Model-based parser generators decouple language specification from language processing. This model-driven approach avoids the limitations imposed by parser generators whose language specifications must conform to specific grammar constraints. Moreover, ModelCC supports reference resolution within the language specification. Therefore, it does not parse just trees but it can also efficiently deal with abstract syntax graphs. These graphs can even include cycles (i.e. they are not constrained to directed acyclic graphs). Copyright 2012 ACM.

Leniaud L.,Free University of Colombia | Darras H.,Free University of Colombia | Boulay R.,CSIC - Donana Biological Station | Boulay R.,University of Granada | Aron S.,Free University of Colombia
Current Biology | Year: 2012

With a few rare exceptions, the vast majority of animals reproduce sexually [1-3]. Some species have, however, evolved alternative modes of reproduction by shifting from classical bisexuality to unorthodox reproductive systems, like parthenogenesis, gynogenesis, or hybridogenesis [4, 5]. Under hybridogenesis, both the maternal and paternal genomes are expressed in somatic tissues, whereas the germline is purely maternal. Recently, a form of hybridogenesis at the level of the society has been reported in some ants, where purebred females develop into reproductive queens and interlineage hybrids into sterile workers [6]. Here, we report a unique case of social hybridogenesis in the desert ant Cataglyphis hispanica. Workers are produced exclusively from interbreeding between two distinct genetic lineages, whereas male and female sexuals are produced by asexual reproduction through parthenogenesis. As a consequence, all workers are pure hybridogens, and only maternal genes are perpetuated from one generation to the next. Thus, queens of C. hispanica use sexual reproduction for colony growth, whereas they reproduce asexually through parthenogenesis for germline production. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mancilla F.L.,University of Granada | Diaz J.,CSIC - Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera
Tectonophysics | Year: 2015

Crustal thickness maps at regional scales are typically compiled using estimations inferred from different geophysical datasets providing a variable coverage of the investigated area. Consequently, spurious effects related to changes in data resolution or artifacts in grid interpolation may affect significant zones of those maps. The TopoIberia-IberArray broad-band seismic network, covering the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Morocco with stations distributed on a regular 60 × 60 km grid provides a unique opportunity to avoid such technical problems and to obtain a crustal thickness map derived from a same method sampling evenly all the region. Data from more than 340 stations has been gathered and analyzed using the P-to-S conversion phases at the Moho discontinuity (receiver functions). The crustal thickness has been inferred applying the classical H-κ stacking technique, though in regions of complex crustal structure, we have preferred to estimate the thickness directly from the arrival time of the converted phase at some sites.The topography of the Moho discontinuity is strongly correlated with tectonic processes. The investigated area, extending from the Sahara platform to the Bay of Biscay, has a great geodynamic diversity, including, North to South, crustal imbrication in the Pyrenean and Cantabrian range, a large and relatively undisturbed Variscan Massif in the center of Iberia and areas of complex and still not completely understood geodynamics in the Alboran crust domain and the Atlas range. The crustal thickness map reflects this diversity, showing variations reaching 30. km between the thickest and thinnest zones of continental crust. The final map has an overall similarity with previous estimations of the crustal thickness using independent data, as those coming from more sparse deep seismic sounding profiles, but provides further constraints at regional scale. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Bahilo J.L.,University of Granada
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2012

When ultra-high energy cosmic rays enter the atmosphere they interact producing extensive air showers (EAS) which are the objects studied by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of particles involved in an EAS at these energies is of the order of billions and the generation of a single simulated EAS requires many hours of computing time with current processors. In addition, the storage space consumed by the output of one simulated EAS is very high. Therefore we have to make use of Grid resources to be able to generate sufficient quantities of showers for our physics studies in reasonable time periods. We have developed a set of highly automated scripts written in common software scripting languages in order to deal with the high number of jobs which we have to submit regularly to the Grid. In spite of the low number of sites supporting our Virtual Organization (VO) we have reached the top spot on CPU consumption among non LHC (Large Hadron Collider) VOs within EGI (European Grid Infrastructure).

Nagy A.,Debrecen University | Romera E.,University of Granada
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2014

A six-dimensional distribution function F is constructed from the one-matrix of a non-interacting system. For double occupied orbitals and real one-matrix, the Fisher information IF constructed from the distribution function F is proportional to the non-interacting kinetic energy Ts. A local six-dimensional wave-vector q is defined that establishes a link between the Shannon and Fisher information and the local kinetic energy. Illustrative examples for Coulomb systems are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Minguillo D.,The Royal School of Library and Information Science | Minguillo D.,University of Granada
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The objective of this article is to introduce a socially oriented approach to the analysis and representation of the social and intellectual structure of scientific fields. A sociological perspective is introduced as the theoretical basis to analyze scientific fields, and the social network framework is adopted to develop a multidisciplinary approach to analyze the organization of science. This approach is then applied to study the Spanish Library and Information Science community from 1999 to 2007. The underlying notion is that science is organized work, in which the pursuit of impact shapes the specific scientific organization. This generates mutual dependence and control among researchers, which may restrict access when formally communicating with other scientific communities. On the other hand, scholarly journals facilitate the coordination of new knowledge and serve as platforms for interaction among scientists. Consequently, the interaction of well-defined groups of homogenous researchers, concentrated around particular sets of journals, leads to the formation of cohesive (sub)groups tied together by the degree of similarity of the researchers' competence. An empirical test suggests that this consideration can accurately reveal a segment of the structure of the scientific field.This study therefore introduces a new approach for mapping the structure of scientific fields that differs from most existing methods, which are based on (co)citation. © 2010 ASIS&T.

Frolova M.,University of Granada
Landscape Research | Year: 2010

The paper explores the institutional and social processes through which river and hydropower landscapes have emerged in Spanish water policy. It examines the relation between different types of policies and attitudes towards landscape, energy, water, environment and land use in the production of Spanish landscapes. The article presents examples at both national and regional levels to explain that the institutional emergence of the river landscape in Spain has been closely related to the democratization and decentralization of Spanish politics and water policy and to the increasing prominence of environmental concerns. © 2010 Landscape Research Group Ltd.

Rus G.,University of Granada
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2014

When a fluid is insonified with ultrasound, a flow consequence of a net stress becomes observable, which has been described as acoustic streaming, quartz wind, acoustic radiation force, or acoustic fountain. Following Sir James Lighthill's formulation of the Reynold's streaming, these phenomena have been attributed to a cumulative viscous effect. Instead, a multiscale effect, whereby the constitutive elastic nonlinearity scales from the ultrasonic to the macroscopic time, is here proposed and formulated to explain its origin. This raises an additional term in the Navier-Stokes equation, which ultimately stems from the anharmonicity of the atomic potential. In our experimental validation, this theory is consistent in water and for a range of ultrasonic configurations, whereas the formerly established viscous theory fails by an order of magnitude. This ultrasonic-fluid interaction, called nonlinear mechanical radiation since it is able to remotely exert a stress field, correctly explains a wide range of industrial and biomedical active ultrasonic uses including jet engines, acoustic tweezers, cyanobacteria propulsion mechanisms, nanofluidics, or acoustic radiation force elastography. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

Timoteo V.S.,University of Campinas | Szpigel S.,Mackenzie Presbyterian University | Ruiz Arriola E.,University of Granada
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

We analyze the role played by long-distance symmetries within the context of the similarity renormalization group (SRG) approach, which is based on phase-shift-preserving continuous unitary transformations that evolve Hamiltonians with a cutoff on energy differences. We find that there is a SRG cutoff for which almost perfect fulfillment of Wigner symmetry is found. We discuss the possible consequences of such a finding. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Das S.P.,Visva Bharati | Deppisch F.F.,University College London | Kittel O.,University of Granada | Valle J.W.F.,University of Valencia
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We discuss lepton flavor violating processes induced in the production and decay of heavy right-handed neutrinos at the LHC. Such particles appear in left-right symmetrical extensions of the standard model as the messengers of neutrino mass generation, and can have masses at the TeV scale. We determine the expected sensitivity on the right-handed neutrino mixing matrix, as well as on the right-handed gauge boson and heavy neutrino masses. By comparing the sensitivity of the LHC with that of searches for low energy lepton flavor violating processes, we identify favorable areas of the parameter space to explore the complementarity between lepton flavor violating at low and high energies. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Padilla J.L.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Alper C.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Gamiz F.,University of Granada | Ionescu A.M.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2014

The analysis of quantum mechanical confinement in recent germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistors has been shown to substantially affect the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) mechanism between electron and hole inversion layers that constitutes the operating principle of these devices. The vertical electric field that appears across the intrinsic semiconductor to give rise to the bilayer configuration makes the formerly continuous conduction and valence bands become a discrete set of energy subbands, therefore increasing the effective bandgap close to the gates and reducing the BTBT probabilities. In this letter, we present a simulation approach that shows how the inclusion of quantum confinement and the subsequent modification of the band profile results in the appearance of lateral tunneling to the underlap regions that greatly degrades the subthreshold swing of these devices. To overcome this drawback imposed by confinement, we propose an heterogate configuration that proves to suppress this parasitic tunneling and enhances the device performance. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

Rodriguez-Tovar F.J.,University of Granada | Reolid M.,University of Jaen
Bulletin of Geosciences | Year: 2013

A geochemical analysis has been conducted in the Fuente de la Vidriera section of the External Subbetic (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain) in order to interpret the incidence of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) in the westernmost end of the Tethys. The obtained values of detrital, redox and palaeoproductivity proxies throughout the succession show minor fluctuations, but only punctual significant changes. Detrital input is nearly constant during the studied interval, except punctually in the lower part of serpentinum Zone, characterized by an increase in both fluvial and eolian detrital transport. Associated to this local higher fluvial and eolian activity, a comparatively higher concentration of organic matter is punctually registered, as revealed by the comparatively highest total organic carbon (TOC) value (0.99 wt.%). The remaining part of the section shows TOC values in the lower range of those registered in the Tethyan Toarcian sections (< 0.4 wt.%). The obtained ratios of redox-sensitive trace metals lead to the interpretation of oxic to dysoxic bottom-waters, with a singular sharp decrease in oxygenation corresponding to a short interval within the serpentinum Zone (sample FV-18) correlated to the T-OAE. The minor incidence of the T-OAE registered in this westernmost end of the Tethys, in which punctual dysoxic conditions are restricted only to a decimetre-scale interval reveals the importance of regional context and local oceanic-atmosphere dynamics on the local record of this phenomenon.

Carrasco P.,University of Granada
Applied Categorical Structures | Year: 2015

In this paper we deal with the simplicial nerve (Street’s geometric nerve) of bicategories and tricategories. We prove that if A is a trigroupoid then Ner(A) is a Kan simplicial set which moreover turns out to be a (Duskin-Glenn) 3-hypergroupoid, generalizing in this way, the analogous result for the simplicial nerve of bigroupoids, due to Duskin. We associate to any Kan simplicial set X, its homotopy bigroupoid Π2X, and its homotopy trigroupoid Π3X. We prove that there exists a simplicial map v:X→Ner(Π2X) which is a surjective weak 2-equivalence and an isomorphism if X is a Kan 2-hypergroupoid, giving another proof of Duskin’s characterization for the simplicial nerve of bigroupoids. In the 3-dimensional case, there also exists a simplicial map v : X → Ner(Π3X) that is a weak 3-equivalence but, in this case, not necessarily surjective, not even under the hypergroupoid hypothesis. As a corollary, we conclude that any Kan simplicial set with trivial homotopy groups at dimensions ≥ 4 is homotopy equivalent to the nerve of a trigroupoid. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

The Ronda peridotite is a group of lherzolite slabs (1.5 to 2 km thick) in southern Spain. Despite clear evidence that pre-Alpine events affected pre-Permo-Triassic units from the Alborán domain (internal zone of the Betic-Rif Cordillera, Spain, and Morocco), numerous papers continue to emphasize Alpine metamorphic and structural evolution. Here, we evaluate the pre-Cenozoic evolution of the Ronda peridotite by reporting new petrographic and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating of meta-sedimentary rocks from the Jubrique zone (Alpujárride Complex, Betic Cordillera, Spain) directly overlying the Ronda peridotite. Field inspection and petrographical study revealed generalized migmatitic textures and a gradual transition mainly defined by garnet content (from ∼30 to <3 wt.%) and size (from 1.5 cm to <0.5 mm) in the overlying granulite-gneiss sequence, suggesting that most garnet grew as a consequence of the peridotite emplacement. Garnet shows notable variations in composition and inclusion types, which are interpreted as reflecting different stages of garnet growth. Diamond-bearing garnets are only well-preserved in gneisses from the uppermost part of the sequence, whereas the large garnets from rocks overlying the peridotite mainly record later thermal events. SHRIMP zircon dating indicates two age peaks at 330 ± 9 and 265 ± 4 Ma. The oldest age characterizes rims overgrowing detrital cores and reflects an early Hercynian metamorphism; the younger age characterizes zircon with magmatic oscillatory zoning, reflecting anatexis. On the basis of these data and of previous dating of monazite included in the large garnets, we conclude that the peridotite was emplaced either shortly before or during early Hercynian times, ∼330 Ma. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Riding R.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Liang L.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Braga J.C.,University of Granada
Geobiology | Year: 2014

Ocean acidification by atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased almost continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM), 21 000 years ago. It is expected to impair tropical reef development, but effects on reefs at the present day and in the recent past have proved difficult to evaluate. We present evidence that acidification has already significantly reduced the formation of calcified bacterial crusts in tropical reefs. Unlike major reef builders such as coralline algae and corals that more closely control their calcification, bacterial calcification is very sensitive to ambient changes in carbonate chemistry. Bacterial crusts in reef cavities have declined in thickness over the past 14 000 years with largest reduction occurring 12 000-10 000 years ago. We interpret this as an early effect of deglacial ocean acidification on reef calcification and infer that similar crusts were likely to have been thicker when seawater carbonate saturation was increased during earlier glacial intervals, and thinner during interglacials. These changes in crust thickness could have substantially affected reef development over glacial cycles, as rigid crusts significantly strengthen framework and their reduction would have increased the susceptibility of reefs to biological and physical erosion. Bacterial crust decline reveals previously unrecognized millennial-scale acidification effects on tropical reefs. This directs attention to the role of crusts in reef formation and the ability of bioinduced calcification to reflect changes in seawater chemistry. It also provides a long-term context for assessing anticipated anthropogenic effects. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Chantas G.,University of Ioannina | Galatsanos N.P.,University of Patras | Molina R.,University of Granada | Katsaggelos A.K.,Northwestern University
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2010

In this paper, a new image prior is introduced and used in image restoration. This prior is based on products of spatially weighted total variations (TV). These spatial weights provide this prior with the flexibility to better capture local image features than previous TV based priors. Bayesian inference is used for image restoration with this prior via the variational approximation. The proposed restoration algorithm is fully automatic in the sense that all necessary parameters are estimated from the data and is faster than previous similar algorithms. Numerical experiments are shown which demonstrate that image restoration based on this prior compares favorably with previous state-of-the-art restoration algorithms. © 2010 IEEE.

Pinto M.,University of Granada
Journal of Information Science | Year: 2010

The IL-HUMASS survey on information literacy has been designed, based on and aimed to be applied to a population of students, teachers and librarians holding various degrees in social sciences and humanities at Spanish and Portuguese universities. The case-study method, experts opinions, and a literature review were used to prepare an initial version that was refined through student focus groups, interviews with librarians, and academics reports. A final version contained 26 items grouped into four categories (information search, assessment, processing and communication/dissemination) and three self-reporting dimensions (motivation, self-efficacy and favourite source of learning). The self-reporting nature of the IL-HUMASS survey involves a self-assessment approach that has until now been proposed rarely and only in a limited way. This will enable a better understanding of user groups through a mixed analysis including two quantitative dimensions (motivation and self-efficacy) and one qualitative dimension (the preferred source of learning).

Fernandez J.F.,University of Zaragoza | Fernandez J.F.,University of Granada
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

By tempered Monte Carlo simulations, an Almeida-Thouless (AT) phase-boundary line in site-diluted Ising spin systems is searched for. Spins interact only through dipolar fields and occupy a small fraction of lattice sites. The spin-glass susceptibility of these systems and of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model are compared. The correlation length as a function of system size and temperature is also studied. The results obtained are contrary to the existence of an AT line. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Romero A.,University of Granada | Rubio R.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Salamanca J.J.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2013

A new technique for the study of noncompact complete spacelike hypersurfaces in generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) spacetimes whose fiber is a parabolic Riemannian manifold is introduced. This class of spacetimes allows us to model open universes which extend to spacelike closed GRW spacetimes from the viewpoint of the geometric analysis of the fiber, and which, unlike those spacetimes, could be compatible with the holographic principle. First, under reasonable assumptions on the restriction of the warping function to the spacelike hypersurface and on the hyperbolic angle between the unit normal vector field and a certain timelike vector field, a complete spacelike hypersurface in a spatially parabolic GRW spacetime is shown to be parabolic, and the existence of a simply connected parabolic spacelike hypersurface in a GRW spacetime also leads to the parabolicity of its fiber. Then, all the complete maximal hypersurfaces in spatially parabolic GRW spacetimes are determined in several cases, extending, in particular, to this family of open cosmological models several well-known uniqueness results for the case of spatially closed GRW spacetimes. Moreover, new Calabi-Bernstein problems are solved. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Mahajan V.N.,The Aerospace Corporation | Diaz J.A.,University of Granada
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

The general equations for the point-spread function (PSF) and optical transfer function (OTF) are given for any pupil shape, and they are applied to optical imaging systems with circular and annular pupils. The symmetry properties of the PSF, the real and imaginary parts of the OTF, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a system with a circular pupil aberrated by a Zernike circle polynomial aberration are derived. The interferograms and PSFs are illustrated for some typical polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of one wave, and 3D PSFs and MTFs are shown for 0.1 wave. The Strehl ratio is also calculated for polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of 0.1 wave, and shown to be well estimated from the sigma value. The numerical results are compared with the corresponding results in the literature. Because of the same angular dependence of the corresponding annular and circle polynomial aberrations, the symmetry properties of systems with annular pupils aberrated by an annular polynomial aberration are the same as those for a circular pupil aberrated by a corresponding circle polynomial aberration. They are also illustrated with numerical examples. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

de Leon J.,University of Kentucky | de Leon J.,University of Granada
Psychiatry Investigation | Year: 2013

During the development of the DSM-5, even the lay press questioned psychiatry's scientific validity. This review provides 21st century psychiatry residents with ways of answering these attacks by defining the concepts and history of psychiatry (a branch of medicine), medicine and science. Psychiatric language has two levels: first, describing symptoms and signs (19th century descriptive psychopathology developed in France and Germany), and second, describing disorders (psychiatric nosology was developed in the early 20th century by Kraepelin and resuscitated by the US neo-Kraepelinian revolution leading to the DSM-III). Science is a complex trial-and-error historical process that can be threatened by those who believe too much in it and disregard its limitations. The most important psychiatric advances, electroconvulsive therapy and major psychopharmacological agents, were discovered by "chance", not by scientific planning. Jaspers's General Psychopathology is a complex 100-year-old book that describes: 1) psychiatric disorders as heterogeneous and 2) psychiatry as a hybrid scientific discipline requiring a combination of understanding (a social science method) and explanation (a natural science method). In the 21st century Berrios reminds us of psychiatry's unfortunate methodological issues due to hybrid symptoms and disorders, some of which are better understood as problems in communication between interacting human beings; in those situations neuroscience methods such as brain imaging make no sense. A new language is needed in psychiatry. East Asian psychiatry residents, who are not particularly attached to the antiquated language currently used, may be particularly equipped for the task of recreating psychiatric language using 21st century knowledge. © 2013 Korean Neuropsychiatric Association.

Diaz J.A.,University of Granada | Mahajan V.N.,The Aerospace Corporation
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

Using the Zernike circle polynomials as the basis functions, we obtain the orthonormal polynomials for optical systems with circular and annular sector pupils by the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process. These polynomials represent balanced aberrations yielding minimum variance of the classical aberrations of rotationally symmetric systems. Use of the polynomials obtained is illustrated with numerical examples. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Masjuan P.,University of Granada
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The recent measured γ *γ→π0 transition form factor in the spacelike region by the Belle Collaboration together with the previously published results by CLEO, CELLO, and BABAR collaborations, are analyzed using the mathematical theory of Padé approximants. The theory provides a good and systematic description of the low-energy region exemplified here with the extraction of the slope a π and curvature b π of the form factor in a model-independent way. Their impact on the pion exchange contribution to the hadronic light-by-light scattering part of the anomalous magnetic moment a μ is also discussed. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Garcia-Retamero R.,University of Granada | Garcia-Retamero R.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Galesic M.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied | Year: 2012

Doctors often make decisions for their patients and predict their patients' preferences and decisions to customize advice to their particular situation. We investigated how doctors make decisions about medical treatments for their patients and themselves and how they predict their patients' decisions. We also studied whether these decisions and predictions coincide with the decisions that the patients make for themselves. We document 3 important findings. First, doctors made more conservative decisions for their patients than for themselves (i.e., they more often selected a safer medical treatment). Second, doctors did so even if they accurately predicted that their patients would want a riskier treatment than the one they selected. Doctors, therefore, showed substantial self-other discrepancies in medical decision making and did not make decisions that accurately reflected their patients' preferences. Finally, patients were not aware of these discrepancies and thought that the decisions their doctors made for themselves would be similar to the decisions they made for their patients. We explain these results in light of 2 current theories of self-other discrepancies in judgment and decision making: the risk-as-feelings hypothesis and the cognitive hypothesis. Our results have important implications for research on expert decision making and for medical practice, and shed some light on the process underlying self-other discrepancies in decision making. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Alcicek H.,Pamukkale University | Jimenez-Moreno G.,University of Granada
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2013

The sedimentary record of the late Cenozoic Karacasu Basin, a long-lived continental half-graben from southwestern Turkey, is characterized by siliciclastic and carbonate deposits. Sedimentation was controlled by an active NW-SE trending major normal fault along the basin's southern margin and by climatically-induced lake-level changes. Detailed facies analysis subdivides the entire Neogene-Quaternary basin-fill into three distinct litostratigraphic units representing paleogeographic changes and sedimentation patterns throughout the basin evolution.Sedimentation commenced in the late Miocene with the deposition of proximal-medial alluvial fan and fluvial facies (Damdere Formation; FA1). At this stage, alluvial fans developed in elevated areas to the south, prograding towards the basin center. At the beginning of the Pliocene, fresh to slightly alkaline, shallow lake deposits (FA2a) of the Karacaören Formation formed. The lake became open and meromictic conditions developed (FA2b). Pollen data from the FA2b facies show that climate was arid to humid. Climate probably changed cyclically through time producing alternation of Artemisia steppe (cold and dry periods) and more forested vegetation (warm and wet). The open lake facies passes upwards into lake margin facies (FA2c), but it was still dominated by alkaline to slightly saline lake conditions. Sedimentation was almost continuous from the late Miocene to Pleistocene.In the early Quaternary, the basin was dissected by the re-activation of basin bounding faults. The unconformable base of the overlying Quaternary deposits (Karacasu Formation; FA3) reflected the basin's transformation from a half-graben into a full-graben system. Oxygen isotope data from carbonates show an alternation of humid climatic periods, when freshwater settings predominated, and semiarid/arid periods in which the basin hosted alkaline and saline water lakes. Neotectonic activity has rejuvenated many of the basin-bounding faults, causing development of talus aprons and local alluvial fans. The basin was progressively incised by modern rivers that have largely smoothed out the topographic relief of the graben margins. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Garrido-Ramos M.A.,University of Granada
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2015

For decades, satellite DNAs have been the hidden part of genomes. Initially considered as junk DNA, there is currently an increasing appreciation of the functional significance of satellite DNA repeats and of their sequences. Satellite DNA families accumulate in the heterochromatin in different parts of the eukaryotic chromosomes, mainly in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions, but they also span the functional centromere. Tandem repeat sequences may spread from subtelomeric to interstitial loci, leading to the formation of chromosome-specific loci or to the accumulation in equilocal sites in different chromosomes. They also appear as the main components of the heterochromatin in the sex-specific region of sex chromosomes. Satellite DNA, required for chromosome organization, also plays a role in pairing and segregation. Some satellite repeats are transcribed and can participate in the formation and maintenance of heterochromatin structure and in the modulation of gene expression. In addition to the identification of the different satellite DNA families, their characteristics and location, we are interested in determining their impact on the genomes, by identifying the mechanisms leading to their appearance and amplification as well as in understanding how they change over time, the factors affecting these changes, and the influence exerted by the evolutionary history of the organisms. On the other hand, satellite DNA sequences are rapidly evolving sequences that may cause reproductive barriers between organisms and promote speciation. The accumulation of experimental data collected in recent years and the emergence of new approaches based on next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genome analysis are opening new perspectives that are changing our understanding of satellite DNA. This review examines recent data to provide a timely update on the overall information gathered about this part of the genome, focusing on the advances in the knowledge of its origin, its evolution, and its potential functional roles. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,University of Granada | Aguilar-Saavedra J.A.,Institute Fisica Of Cantabria Csic Uc | Joaquim F.R.,University of Lisbon
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The existence of heavy neutrinos mediating neutrino masses via a type-I seesaw can be directly probed at the LHC, or indirectly in rare lepton flavor-violating processes. The synergy between these two approaches requires a direct measurement of the heavy neutrino couplings. We discuss a strategy to perform such measurements at the LHC in the context of left-right symmetric models, which is also applicable to other models implementing a type-I or type-III seesaw. We demonstrate that the ambiguities in the determination of the heavy neutrino mixing parameters can be resolved by performing an exclusive analysis of dilepton final states, discriminated by flavor and missing energy. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Nieves J.,University of Valencia | Sanchez F.,Institute Of Fisica Daltes Energies Ifae | Simo I.R.,University of Granada | Vacas M.J.V.,University of Valencia
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We show that because of the multinucleon mechanism effects, the algorithm used to reconstruct the neutrino energy is not adequate when dealing with quasielastic-like events, and a distortion of the total flux-unfolded cross-section shape is produced. This amounts to a redistribution of strength from high to low energies, which gives rise to a sizable excess (deficit) of low (high) energy neutrinos. This distortion of the shape leads to a good description of the MiniBooNE unfolded charged current quasielastic-like cross sections published by A.A. Aguilar-Arevalo [(MiniBooNE Collaboration), Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 81, 092005 (2010)]10.1103/PhysRevD.81.092005. However, these changes in the shape are artifacts of the unfolding process that ignores multinucleon mechanisms. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Sanz de Galdeano C.,University of Granada
Journal of Geodynamics | Year: 2013

The Zafarraya Polje is situated in the Subbetic (Betic External Zone), near the contact with the Betic Internal Zone. This is a small tectonic basin delimited by faults of which the main component is normal, but located among folds and reverse and dextral-reverse faults formed in a compressive context. One N-S fault marks the western border of the basin and shows major dextral displacements in its southern part (at the SW of the basin but directly outside the basin) and major normal movements in the northern part (on the west side of the basin). This fault took on great importance in the formation of the basin, and its movements are not compatible with the stress ellipsoids existing during the Neotectonic period. The basin appeared just at the end of the formation process of the compressive structures, probably at the beginning of the late Tortonian, as the result of the westward push of the Internal Zone in the southernmost part of the Subbetic in this area. This resulted in an intense local compression on the present southern border of the basin, causing a southward bending of this border and the dextral displacements of the N-S fault. Simultaneously, this movement created tension in the interior of the basin, forming different normal faults within the basin. The whole structure constitutes a basin formed by lateral displacement and bending. Nevertheless, the sinking process of the basin has continued until the present owing to the later radial extension in the region. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pittau R.,University of Granada
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2010

I present a new and reliable method to test the numerical accuracy of NLO calculations based on modern OPP/Generalized Unitarity techniques. A convenient solution to rescue most of the detected numerically inaccurate points is also proposed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Nieves J.,University of Valencia | Pich A.,University of Valencia | Pich A.,TU Munich | Ruiz Arriola E.,University of Granada
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

We construct ππ amplitudes that fulfill exact elastic unitarity, account for one-loop chiral perturbation theory contributions and include all 1/NC leading terms, with the only limitation of considering just the lowest-lying nonet of exchanged resonances. Within such a scheme, the N C dependence of σ and ρ masses and widths is discussed. Robust conclusions are drawn in the case of the ρ resonance, confirming that it is a stable meson in the limit of a large number of QCD colors, N C. Less definitive conclusions are reached in the scalar-isoscalar sector. With the present quality of data, we cannot firmly conclude whether or not the NC=3 f0(600) resonance completely disappears at large NC or if it has a subdominant component in its structure, which would become dominant for a number of quark colors sufficiently large. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Nutrition plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of health and the treatment of disease, and serves as the crossroads for many disciplines. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology represents a key brand of science to ascertain the mechanism of action of nutrients and other food bioactive compounds in health and disease. The aim of the present Jesús M. Culebras lecture is to consider the future of the relationships between Molecular Biology and Clinical Nutrition and to discuss the use of molecular and genetic tools to study molecular responses to dietary factors and the metabolic consequences of food and to consider major challenges on human nutrition sciences in the 21st century. Particular emphasis is given to the identification and use of novel biomarkers in inflammatory diseases. Likewise, the importance of the human microbiome and how microorganisms can be safely utilized in the prevention and management of infectious and chronic diseases are discussed. Moreover, the key role of nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and epigenetics in the new era of nutrition is considered. Nutrigenetics refers to the role of DNA sequence variation in the responses to nutrients, whereas nutrigenomics is the study of the role of nutrients in gene expression. Epigenetics is the study of mitotically heritable alterations in gene expression potential that are not caused by DNA sequence alterations. In the past decade, it has increasingly been recognized that dysregulation of epigenetic mechanisms may play an important role in human disease. Indeed, there is increasing interest in epigenetic mechanisms underlying phenotype modification modulated by nutrients. Further research in those areas should contribute to evaluate functionality of specific nutrients and bioactive compounds in Clinical Nutrition and allow personalized nutritional advice.

This pioneering approach to the subject area of Information Literacy Assessment in Higher Education (ILAHE) aims at gaining further knowledge about its scope from a terminological-spatial perspective and also at weighting and categorizing relevant terms on the basis of levels of similarity. From a retrospective and selective search, the bibliographic references of scientific literature on ILAHE were obtained from the most representative databases (LISA, ERIC and WOS), comprising the period 2000–2011 and restricting results to English language. Keywords in titles, descriptors and abstracts of the selected items were labelled and extracted with Atlas.ti software. The main research topics in this field were determined through a co-words analysis and graphically represented by the software VOSviewer. The results showed two areas of different density and five clusters that involved the following issues: evaluation-education, assessment, students-efficacy, learning-research, and library. This method has facilitated the identification of the main research topics about ILAHE and their degree of proximity and overlapping. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Ruiz-Cruz M.D.,University of Malaga | Sanz de Galdeano C.,University of Granada
Lithos | Year: 2013

Garnet from diamondiferous granulites of Ceuta (Betic-Rif cordillera, Spain and Morocco) contains a variety of inclusion types. To better understand the evolution of these rocks during the ultrahigh pressure event, two samples (1 and 2) were selected for the detailed study of garnet. Primary inclusions of apatite, quartz, coesite, rutile and retrograded pyroxene, and exsolution microstructures of rutile characterize garnet from sample 1, whereas exsolution microstructures of quartz, coesite, apatite and rutile, and inclusions formed from a melt characterize garnet from sample 2, indicating that peak metamorphic conditions were recorded by sample 2. In contrast, the chemical patterns of garnet suggest an inverse situation. Garnet from sample 1 has high Ca- and low Mn contents and high XMg, characteristic of growth at high pressure and temperature whereas garnet from sample 2 shows high Mn and low Ca contents and low XMg, characteristic of garnet formed at lower temperature and pressure. The contrasting compositions are interpreted as reflecting differences in the position of the metamorphic path followed by both samples relative to the solidus: Garnets from sample 1 are interpreted as formed below the solidus whereas garnets from sample 2 are interpreted as formed in the presence of a melt, which caused notable enrichment of garnet in Mn and depletion in Ca relative to garnet from sample 1. Due to extensive low-pressure Hercynian melting that caused generalized migmatization and melt mobilization, whole-rock composition of the samples notably changed, thus preventing the accurate estimation of the physical conditions characterizing the older ultrahigh pressure event. Estimations based on experimental determinations of the phosphorous solubility in garnet suggest that peak pressure conditions were on the order of 6-7GPa, which put the origin of the studied crustal rocks at depths greater than 200km. © 2013 The Authors.