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Taheri K.,Tarbiat Modares University | Far N.B.,Tarbiat Modares University | Moradi H.R.,Tarbiat Modares University | Ahmadpour M.,University of Gorgan
Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2015

Introduction: Non-point source water pollution comes from a wide range of human activities in which input source pollutants are not visible and certain. It is clear that much more difficult to measure and control non-point source pollution from point sources of contamination. In many countries, all types of agricultural activities are considered as non-point sources. In the present days, there are more concerns about using pesticides and its effects on environment and human health and this concern is to some extent that needs the programs for decreasing to use pesticides as a part of the agricultural major strategy and the other uses. The lack, of basic information about pesticides in environment is a limitation for determining standard values, so according it setting up the programs for decreasing to use pesticides is possible. Materials and Methods: Pesticide standards were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich and all reagents purchased from Merck. The area of Siahrud with its Watershed is over 10070 hectares that placed in Mazandaran province in Qaemshahr city in Iran. The length of this river is 5 km. In this research, sampling was done in three season, summer (August), autumn (November) and spring (May) 2012. For selecting sites, it was used land-use map. Each site was placed between two Land-uses and it was identified 7 site based on it (Table 1). In each site, it was taken 3 water samples, (3 replications) using horizontal water sampler and 3 sediment samples by using sediment core sampler. The sediment samples were taken from the upper 5cm of the sediment surface and all samples were placed in glass containers and were transported to the laboratory. (Table Presented) First, samples were filtered by glass fiber filter with the spores in 0.5 urn. 500 ml was separated from each samples and 50 μlit internal standard PCNB with 5 ugr/Iit concentrations added to each of them. For Extracting and pre-concentration of Organophosphorus and Organochlorine pesticides was used solid phase cartridge (TELOS SPE Column ENV 200 mg/3ml model). 500 ml water sample with flow velocity 10 ml/min was passed. Following it the solid phase was dried by sucking air inside the cartridge. Then, the cartridges were eluted with 10 ml of ethyl acetate. The extracts were reduced in volume by N2 blow-down. The last volume was reached 500 μlit. For identifying and measuring pesticides, it was injected 1 ulit from the last extracted soluble to gas chromatography (GC). After transferring sediments samples to laboratory, they were put to dry in the Freeze Dryer for 18 hours. Then samples were screened with 63 micro-meter sieve. 5 gr dried and sieved sample with 2 gr activated copper were mixed by using diluted Nitric acid (4%) and 1 gr Sodium sulfate (activated in 120°c for 12 hours). Then, 50 micro liters from internal standard PCNB with 5 mg/lit was added to it and then extraction was done by 100 ml from n-hexane and dichloromethane in 1:1 ratio for 40 minutes in the ambient temperature and in the ultrasonic bath. The upper solution of extracted soluble was separated by filter and for the second time, 60 ml of above mentioned solvent with the same ratio added to residue sediment, and maintained in the ultrasonic bath for more 40 minutes. The extracted soluble was added to the previous solutions and its volume was reached about 10 ml by rotary evaporator (or rotavap) then to 0.5 ml by Gentle stream of Nitrogen. For cleaning up was used florisil that was semi activated with distilled water (wt/vol 6%). 1 μlit of this soluble was injected to GC/ECD. Identifying organophosphorus and organochlorine in water and sediment samples was done by comprising observed pick inhibitory time in Chromatograph obtained from sample and injecting standard soluble. The concentration was accounted by the level below pick of samples than the internal standard and putting it in standard calibration curve equation of pesticides. The obtained LOD values in this method were 2 to 8 ng/lit for organochlorine pesticides and 1 to 5 ng/lit for organophosphorus pesticides in the water samples. The recovery percent of this method for organochlorine pesticides was among 95% to 104% and recovery percent for organophosphorus pesticides was among 90% to 110%. Results and Discussion: For determining the relation among the forest, agriculture, gardens and residential uses with the concentration of pesticides both in the water and the sediment it was accounted the average 9 concentrations of each pesticide in each station (3 seasons and 3 replicate for each season) it was identified the effect degree of each stations and in turn each uses by statistically comparing these numbers. These relations were significant for all pesticides (excepted β-HCH and Delderin in the water) and in general, there has been an increasing trend for all pesticides (expected β-HCH and γ-HCH) the sediment along the river. As it was mentioned, every station is an agent for one uses that according to it, the results of statistical analysis has been surveyed and provided with any pesticides. The relation of land-use with the pesticides concentration in the water by surveying relation of use with DDTs concentration (Figs. 2 to 9), it was concluded that the station N. 6 related to residential use (Juibar city) has had the highest effect on the concentration of 2,4′-DDD, 2,4′-DDT, 4,4′-DDD, 4,4′-DDT, but the highest concentration increasing observed for 2,4′-DDE, 4,4′-DDE is in the agriculture area (station 5). This use has the most effectiveness area among the other stations and for this reason, the most decomposition and decay of DDTs to DDEs is occurred in this distance whether in the soil of region or in the water and in the sediment and therefore it has been seen more amount of DDE, too. Generally, the concentration of DDE than DDT and DDD is more and for describing this case, it can say when DDT degrades under aerobic conditions by microorganisms, DDE and when it degrades under anaerobic conditions, DDD are the most important compounds which obtained and so the proportion of DDE/DDD can be a good index for deformation of DDT under oxidation conditions that in this research is an indication for being dominant of aerobic conditions in order to degrading DDT along the river. The relation of use with γ-HCH pesticide concentration is Significant in the water and is not Significant for β-HCH. The most concentration of chlorpyrifos has been 0.174 ug/lit for station 7 in the summer. In station 3 that is related to agriculture 1, it is seen increasing in chlorpyrifos, these changes in stations 4 and 5 is remained Significant, in the station 6, it is seen much more increasing for this toxic that is possibly due to intensive agriculture in the residential area of Juibar and also using this pesticide in the green spaces of city, and it must be noted that established runoff in the residential area than the other uses is much more and the lowest influence and evaporation is occurred in this use and thus in the consumption unit, naturally it has more effect on the pesticide residue in the water and sediment. Diazinon has high consumption in the region and has the highest concentration among the other toxins both in water and sediment, of course in the summer. The amount of this toxin is changed from average 0.008 μg/1 in the first station to 0.900 μg/1 in stations 6 and 7. This toxin has the highest consumption in June and July months and the early August. The highest concentration is for summer and station 7 that equals to 1.867 μg/1. The lowest concentration amount observed in the forest Land-use and has had the highest effect on this pesticide concentration in station 6 and then 5. Despite of more consumption in Stations 2 and 3, this increase is not significant that it can be inferred due to the small distance of this stations from each other and less effective area of the region on the river span studied and increasing this pesticide in station 6 is due to urbanism along with agriculture of Juibar city and also it is possible to use diazinon in nonagricultural consumptions in this city. Edifenphos has the lowest concentration amount with the average 0.212 μg/1 in station 1 and the highest amount with average 0.965 μg/1. the highest concentration is observed in station 7 and summer in 1.581 μg/1. EPA of allowable limit of edifenphos was announced 0.17 μg/1 in fresh water that is affected on non-pointed contaminations, so considering to it, the amount of edifenphos is more than this allowable limit in all stations. The relation of land use with pesticides concentration in sediment Considering to the results obtained from aldrin has no significant correlation. The concentration of organochlorine pesticides HCH has different trend than the other pesticides in sediment along the river and it can be mostly said had a descending trend. For the reason of decreasing concentration of these two pesticides in the sediment and along the river, it must be considered to the physicochemical characteristics β-HCH and γ-HCH in sediment. The average of β-HCH concentration was between 0.024 and 0.54 μg/gdw and the most high observed concentration for this pesticide was in the summer and in station 1 and 5 were 0.089 and 0.088 μg/gdw, respectively. The average of γ-HCH concentration was between LOD to 0.109 ug/gdw and the highest concentration is observed for this pesticide in the summer and was 0.173 μg/g dry weight in the station 1. The highest amount and descending trend toward the end of river is observed in station 1, so the last three stations were lower than the LOD limit. Source

Gholami M.,Urmia University | Saboory E.,Urmia University of Medical Sciences | Mehraban S.,Urmia University | Niakani A.,Urmia University | And 3 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Morphine and tramadol which have analgesic effects can be administered acutely or chronically. This study tried to investigate the effect of these drugs at various times by using different methods of administration (intraperitoneal, oral, acute and chronic). Sixty adult female rats were divided into six groups. They received saline, morphine or tramadol (20 to 125 mg/Kg) daily for 15 days. A hot plate test was performed for the rats at the 1st, 8th and 15th days. After drug withdrawal, the hot plate test was repeated at the 17th, 19th, and 22nd days. There was a significant correlation between the day, drug, group, and their interaction (P<0.001). At 1st day (d1), both morphine, and tramadol caused an increase in the hot plate time comparing to the saline groups (P<0.001), while there was no correlation between drug administration methods of morphine and/or tramadol. At the 8th day (d8), morphine and tramadol led to the most powerful analgesic effect comparing to the other experimental days (P<0.001). At the 15th day (d15), their effects diminished comparing to the d8. After drug withdrawal, analgesic effect of morphine, and tramadol disappeared. It can be concluded that the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol increases with the repeated use of them. Thereafter, it may gradually decrease and reach to a level compatible to d1. The present data also indicated that although the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol is dose-and-time dependent, but chronic exposure to them may not lead to altered nociceptive responses later in life. © 2015 by School of Pharmacy Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. Source

Ranjbar M.,Amol University of Special Modern Technologies | Naghavi M.R.,University of Tehran | Alizadeh H.,University of Tehran | Soltanloo H.,University of Gorgan
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

In this study, the researchers have chosen eight species of Artemisia in order to find out their artemisinin content and also the expression levels of eight genes involved in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway at three different developmental stages, i.e., vegetative, budding and flowering stages. Artemisinin was produced in all the species, albeit in various amounts (0.45-5.3. mg/g DW). In four species (Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia diffusa, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia spicigeria), maximum level of artemisinin production was observed at the flowering stage, while in the other three species (Artemisia annua, Artemisia campestris and Artemisia vulgaris) artemisinin production reached its maximum level at the budding stage. However, Artemisia scoparia is the only species showing highest artemisinin content at the vegetative stage that was correlated with high density of glandular trichomes in leaf tissue. The higher amount of artemisinin, produced in A. annua, was mainly a result of higher expression of the amorpha- 4,11-diene synthase (ADS) and artemisinic aldehyde δ 11(13) reductase (DBR2) genes. While, for A. absinthium an increased expression of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) gene along with decreased expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase (RED1) gene resulted in a desirable increase in artemisinin yield. The results of the study indicate that there is a relationship between increased expression of some genes and enhancement of artemisinin content. However, in order to validate the relationship, further enzymatic analysis needs to be performed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hamedani M.A.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Tahmasbi A.-M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Naserian A.-A.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Ahangari Y.J.,University of Gorgan
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2016

The production of reactive oxygen species during the process of cryopreservation, decrease the motility and cellular viability by initiation of lipid per oxidation of bio-membranes. For reduce these damages, antioxidants are used as cryoprotectants against the lipid per oxidation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of vitamin E adding to the dilution media on standard qualitative parameters (motility, progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test, Acrosomal damages and normal spermatozoa) of pre and post frozen-thawed ram semen. Semen samples were collected by Electro ejaculator from 6 Zel rams, and diluted with a Tris-base extender containing vitamin E (1, 2 and 3 m/M) and without antioxidants (control). Diluted semen was cooled to 5°C and frozen in 0.25 ml straw, prior to being stored in liquid nitrogen. The results show that vitamin E has positive protection effects on the semen characteristics in chilled and frozen thawed. Motility, progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test and total normality of spermatozoa were higher in all groups of vitamin E supplement compare with control group, but highest percentages of treats were observed in 2m/M of vitamin E. Also the effect of vitamin E on Acrosome damages were significant in post frozen conditions and the highest percentages were obtained in control group. Therefore we recommend using 2m/M of vitamin E in Tris extender for short and long storages of Zel ram spermatozoa. Source

Shakib F.J.,University of Gorgan | Malekmohammadi B.,University of Tehran | Yavari A.R.,University of Tehran | Sharifi Y.,Kharazmi University | Adeli F.,University of Tehran
Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2014

Introduction: Land use change and climate change are the major concerns in the global environment. Many environmental parameters affect the behavior of the earth's climate system and its terrestrial components. Effects of land use and land cover changes have direct influences on climate changes. Now, climate change is known widely as a global health problem that has adverse impacts on natural and man-made environments. Assessment of the trend of land use changes is a process that leads to understanding the interaction between humans and the environment. This problem is more important in the sensitive areas and spatially on wetlands. The hydrological and bio-geological functions of many wetlands depend on ground and surface water ecosystems as well as its place in landscape. Therefore, the development and changes in contiguous ecosystems particularly change in water flow can cause damage and even destroy the wetland. This study aims to identify and analyze the environmental changes and pressures on Choghakhor Wetland landscape. This wetland is located between 50° 52′ to 50° 56′E and 31° 54′ to 31° 56′N in height 2270 meters above mean sea level. Choghakhor Wetland located in Zagros Mountains, with area of 1600 hectares, has freshwater resources. It is located in non-protected area in prohibited hunting zone that 2500 ha proposed for refugee site. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the trends of changes in this study, land use changes and Climate change parameters were investigated in a period of ten years. Then, by environmental pressures analysis, some strategies are presented to reduce environmental impacts. In Fig. 1 stages of the research are presented and described in the following. • Step 1. Use of the Landsat-7 satellite images (ETM+) with suitable timely coincidence in 2003 and 2013 for land use/cover change assessment. • Step 2. Application of the maximum likelihood classification and assessment of classification accuracy with kappa and overall accuracy in ENVI 4.7. • Step 3. Evaluation of the trend of climate change factors such as, the average amount of annual precipitation and temperature. Characterizing the drought degrees with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) by data of effective stations in the study area. • Step 4. Analysis of the environmental changes and pressures by considering the results of climatic trend and land use changes. • Step 5. Presenting management strategies to reduce environmental impacts of land use change and climate change on wetland landscape and its surrounding environment. Results and Discussion The aforementioned steps were performed for landscape of Choghakhor Wetland. Detecting the land use and land cover changes in 2003 and 2013 indicate five distinct classes, including: pasture and forest (cultivated and non-cultivated), bare land, man-made (settlements and roads) and water (snow and water) results (Fig. 2 and 3). (Figure Presented) The results of image classification and remote sensing process in 2003 and 2013 are presented in Table 1. Data processing in this period represent that increase in area of cultivated and man-made lands are 18 and 26.3 percent and decrease in water body, pasture and forest and bare lands are 51.4, 4.2, and 2 percent. The results of the classification accuracy measurement were estimated on 89% and 64% in 2003 and 93% and 68% in 2013 for overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient, respectively. The most effective meteorology data (Overgan Station records) in wetland area in 2012 illustrated that the amount of standard precipitation index is -0.89, which confirmed occurrence of a drought. The probability of drought occurrence is predicted by 41.7% which is in accordance with previous year records. The investigation on climatic change elements showed an increasing trend in average annual temperature with a sharp and irregular fluctuation of rainfall in the recent years. Conclusions: Investigation on the trend of thirty-year records of climatic elements and the obtained results by satellite monitoring of landscape illustrated 50% decline in water resources amount. Declining rainfalls, rise of a few degrees in the annual average temperatures in the region, and the recent drought, as confirmed by the remote sensing processing result, show water shortage is in expended trend. Despite, land use changes played an important role in the situation during water shortage period. The agriculture development has imposed an enormous environmental pressure by excessive consumption of water, fertilizers and pesticides. Then, drying of springs, reduction of groundwater level, increase in organic and inorganic contaminants, and finally enrichment (Table Presented) and declining of dissolved oxygen in wetlands is a description of the occurred situation due to cascading effects of land use change simultaneously with the climate change which could be effective on ecosystem functions of wetland, such as water purification and regulation. Increase in man-made areas in terms of urban settlements and tourist areas indicated that some pressures have led to decline in permeable surfaces and groundwater recharge, habitat loss, and reduction in control ability of hazardous pollution and detoxification could raise some disorders in exposition of this wetland ecosystem functions. While increasing pressure is occurred, climate change set regional water resources in critical condition and land use change add an irrational severity by such effects. According to adverse changes of Choghakhor wetland landscape, if the current situation trend continues, the wetland will be faced with some irreparable threats. In such a situation, it seems necessary to ponder to proper programs for logically exit from current crisis and preventing the environmental diminish. Leaning the performed analysis, the strategies to reduce environmental impacts and mitigation of drought in the study area are provided as follows: • Developing the conservation plan and combining them with the integrated wetland management plan in National Development Plans in order to preserve wetland ecosystem functions, • Modifying the cultivation methods, reducing the consumption of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and awareness about the proper way in their use, using the efficient irrigation systems, licensing the drilling and operation wells with accurate specialized measurements, and awareness about their environmental effects, • Identifying the natural drainage paths and leaving open the permeable parts in residential areas, in order to reduce the probability of flooding in cities and preservation of hydrologic balance in the drainage basin, • Dealing with drought losses and declining its effects by applying strategies such as optimum selection and land use change, modifying the culture alternation system, and groundwater levels control. 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