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Haddadchi A.,University of New England of Australia | Omid M.H.,University of Tehran | Sdehghani A.A.,University of Gorgan
International Journal of Sediment Research | Year: 2013

Field experiments were conducted on total load transport in the Chelichay River Basin, a mountainous catchment (1,400 km2) located in north eastern of Iran, to evaluate total load formulas including four gravel bed rivers and a sand bed river (Qaresoo River). Gravel bed rivers in Chelichay River Basin can be grouped into two types; steep slope rivers with high shear values (Chehelchay River and Khormaloo River) and mild slope rivers with low shear values (Narmab River and Soosara River). Two depth integrating suspended load samplers (DH-48 and D-49), and two bed load samplers (Helley-Smith and BLSH) were used to measure total load. The performance is tested of 8 total load transport formulae including 4 macroscopic and 4 microscopic methods. A systematic and thorough analysis of 59 sets of data collected from sand bed river indicate that Yang and Engelund and Hansen reach to the better results, and from four gravel bed rivers confirmed that the methods of Karim and Kennedy and Engelund and Hansen yields the best results for steep slope rivers, and the methods of Einstein and Bijker are ranked highest in gradual slope rivers. © 2013 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

Ranjbar M.,Amol University of Special Modern Technologies | Naghavi M.R.,University of Tehran | Alizadeh H.,University of Tehran | Soltanloo H.,University of Gorgan
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

In this study, the researchers have chosen eight species of Artemisia in order to find out their artemisinin content and also the expression levels of eight genes involved in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway at three different developmental stages, i.e., vegetative, budding and flowering stages. Artemisinin was produced in all the species, albeit in various amounts (0.45-5.3. mg/g DW). In four species (Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia diffusa, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia spicigeria), maximum level of artemisinin production was observed at the flowering stage, while in the other three species (Artemisia annua, Artemisia campestris and Artemisia vulgaris) artemisinin production reached its maximum level at the budding stage. However, Artemisia scoparia is the only species showing highest artemisinin content at the vegetative stage that was correlated with high density of glandular trichomes in leaf tissue. The higher amount of artemisinin, produced in A. annua, was mainly a result of higher expression of the amorpha- 4,11-diene synthase (ADS) and artemisinic aldehyde δ 11(13) reductase (DBR2) genes. While, for A. absinthium an increased expression of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) gene along with decreased expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase (RED1) gene resulted in a desirable increase in artemisinin yield. The results of the study indicate that there is a relationship between increased expression of some genes and enhancement of artemisinin content. However, in order to validate the relationship, further enzymatic analysis needs to be performed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Bahrami-Yekdangi H.,Isfahan University of Technology | Khorvash M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Ghorbani G.R.,Isfahan University of Technology | Alikhani M.,Isfahan University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50. ±. 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.

PubMed | University of Gorgan and Shahid Beheshti University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dentistry (Tehran, Iran) | Year: 2015

A fundamental assumption in prosthetic dentistry is that the axis-orbital plane will usually be parallel to the horizontal reference plane. Most articulator systems have incorporated this concept into their designs and use orbitale as the anterior reference point for transferring the vertical position of the maxilla to the articulator. Clinical observations of Cantonese patients suggest that in some individuals the Frankfort plane may not be horizontal, thus the orientation of the casts in the articulator is incorrect with respect to the horizontal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce a simple method for converting the conventional face-bow to postural face-bow to reproduce the orientation of the occlusal plane relative to the true horizontal plane with the patient in Natural Head Posture (NHP).

Taheri K.,Tarbiat Modares University | Far N.B.,Tarbiat Modares University | Moradi H.R.,Tarbiat Modares University | Ahmadpour M.,University of Gorgan
Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2015

Introduction: Non-point source water pollution comes from a wide range of human activities in which input source pollutants are not visible and certain. It is clear that much more difficult to measure and control non-point source pollution from point sources of contamination. In many countries, all types of agricultural activities are considered as non-point sources. In the present days, there are more concerns about using pesticides and its effects on environment and human health and this concern is to some extent that needs the programs for decreasing to use pesticides as a part of the agricultural major strategy and the other uses. The lack, of basic information about pesticides in environment is a limitation for determining standard values, so according it setting up the programs for decreasing to use pesticides is possible. Materials and Methods: Pesticide standards were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich and all reagents purchased from Merck. The area of Siahrud with its Watershed is over 10070 hectares that placed in Mazandaran province in Qaemshahr city in Iran. The length of this river is 5 km. In this research, sampling was done in three season, summer (August), autumn (November) and spring (May) 2012. For selecting sites, it was used land-use map. Each site was placed between two Land-uses and it was identified 7 site based on it (Table 1). In each site, it was taken 3 water samples, (3 replications) using horizontal water sampler and 3 sediment samples by using sediment core sampler. The sediment samples were taken from the upper 5cm of the sediment surface and all samples were placed in glass containers and were transported to the laboratory. (Table Presented) First, samples were filtered by glass fiber filter with the spores in 0.5 urn. 500 ml was separated from each samples and 50 μlit internal standard PCNB with 5 ugr/Iit concentrations added to each of them. For Extracting and pre-concentration of Organophosphorus and Organochlorine pesticides was used solid phase cartridge (TELOS SPE Column ENV 200 mg/3ml model). 500 ml water sample with flow velocity 10 ml/min was passed. Following it the solid phase was dried by sucking air inside the cartridge. Then, the cartridges were eluted with 10 ml of ethyl acetate. The extracts were reduced in volume by N2 blow-down. The last volume was reached 500 μlit. For identifying and measuring pesticides, it was injected 1 ulit from the last extracted soluble to gas chromatography (GC). After transferring sediments samples to laboratory, they were put to dry in the Freeze Dryer for 18 hours. Then samples were screened with 63 micro-meter sieve. 5 gr dried and sieved sample with 2 gr activated copper were mixed by using diluted Nitric acid (4%) and 1 gr Sodium sulfate (activated in 120°c for 12 hours). Then, 50 micro liters from internal standard PCNB with 5 mg/lit was added to it and then extraction was done by 100 ml from n-hexane and dichloromethane in 1:1 ratio for 40 minutes in the ambient temperature and in the ultrasonic bath. The upper solution of extracted soluble was separated by filter and for the second time, 60 ml of above mentioned solvent with the same ratio added to residue sediment, and maintained in the ultrasonic bath for more 40 minutes. The extracted soluble was added to the previous solutions and its volume was reached about 10 ml by rotary evaporator (or rotavap) then to 0.5 ml by Gentle stream of Nitrogen. For cleaning up was used florisil that was semi activated with distilled water (wt/vol 6%). 1 μlit of this soluble was injected to GC/ECD. Identifying organophosphorus and organochlorine in water and sediment samples was done by comprising observed pick inhibitory time in Chromatograph obtained from sample and injecting standard soluble. The concentration was accounted by the level below pick of samples than the internal standard and putting it in standard calibration curve equation of pesticides. The obtained LOD values in this method were 2 to 8 ng/lit for organochlorine pesticides and 1 to 5 ng/lit for organophosphorus pesticides in the water samples. The recovery percent of this method for organochlorine pesticides was among 95% to 104% and recovery percent for organophosphorus pesticides was among 90% to 110%. Results and Discussion: For determining the relation among the forest, agriculture, gardens and residential uses with the concentration of pesticides both in the water and the sediment it was accounted the average 9 concentrations of each pesticide in each station (3 seasons and 3 replicate for each season) it was identified the effect degree of each stations and in turn each uses by statistically comparing these numbers. These relations were significant for all pesticides (excepted β-HCH and Delderin in the water) and in general, there has been an increasing trend for all pesticides (expected β-HCH and γ-HCH) the sediment along the river. As it was mentioned, every station is an agent for one uses that according to it, the results of statistical analysis has been surveyed and provided with any pesticides. The relation of land-use with the pesticides concentration in the water by surveying relation of use with DDTs concentration (Figs. 2 to 9), it was concluded that the station N. 6 related to residential use (Juibar city) has had the highest effect on the concentration of 2,4′-DDD, 2,4′-DDT, 4,4′-DDD, 4,4′-DDT, but the highest concentration increasing observed for 2,4′-DDE, 4,4′-DDE is in the agriculture area (station 5). This use has the most effectiveness area among the other stations and for this reason, the most decomposition and decay of DDTs to DDEs is occurred in this distance whether in the soil of region or in the water and in the sediment and therefore it has been seen more amount of DDE, too. Generally, the concentration of DDE than DDT and DDD is more and for describing this case, it can say when DDT degrades under aerobic conditions by microorganisms, DDE and when it degrades under anaerobic conditions, DDD are the most important compounds which obtained and so the proportion of DDE/DDD can be a good index for deformation of DDT under oxidation conditions that in this research is an indication for being dominant of aerobic conditions in order to degrading DDT along the river. The relation of use with γ-HCH pesticide concentration is Significant in the water and is not Significant for β-HCH. The most concentration of chlorpyrifos has been 0.174 ug/lit for station 7 in the summer. In station 3 that is related to agriculture 1, it is seen increasing in chlorpyrifos, these changes in stations 4 and 5 is remained Significant, in the station 6, it is seen much more increasing for this toxic that is possibly due to intensive agriculture in the residential area of Juibar and also using this pesticide in the green spaces of city, and it must be noted that established runoff in the residential area than the other uses is much more and the lowest influence and evaporation is occurred in this use and thus in the consumption unit, naturally it has more effect on the pesticide residue in the water and sediment. Diazinon has high consumption in the region and has the highest concentration among the other toxins both in water and sediment, of course in the summer. The amount of this toxin is changed from average 0.008 μg/1 in the first station to 0.900 μg/1 in stations 6 and 7. This toxin has the highest consumption in June and July months and the early August. The highest concentration is for summer and station 7 that equals to 1.867 μg/1. The lowest concentration amount observed in the forest Land-use and has had the highest effect on this pesticide concentration in station 6 and then 5. Despite of more consumption in Stations 2 and 3, this increase is not significant that it can be inferred due to the small distance of this stations from each other and less effective area of the region on the river span studied and increasing this pesticide in station 6 is due to urbanism along with agriculture of Juibar city and also it is possible to use diazinon in nonagricultural consumptions in this city. Edifenphos has the lowest concentration amount with the average 0.212 μg/1 in station 1 and the highest amount with average 0.965 μg/1. the highest concentration is observed in station 7 and summer in 1.581 μg/1. EPA of allowable limit of edifenphos was announced 0.17 μg/1 in fresh water that is affected on non-pointed contaminations, so considering to it, the amount of edifenphos is more than this allowable limit in all stations. The relation of land use with pesticides concentration in sediment Considering to the results obtained from aldrin has no significant correlation. The concentration of organochlorine pesticides HCH has different trend than the other pesticides in sediment along the river and it can be mostly said had a descending trend. For the reason of decreasing concentration of these two pesticides in the sediment and along the river, it must be considered to the physicochemical characteristics β-HCH and γ-HCH in sediment. The average of β-HCH concentration was between 0.024 and 0.54 μg/gdw and the most high observed concentration for this pesticide was in the summer and in station 1 and 5 were 0.089 and 0.088 μg/gdw, respectively. The average of γ-HCH concentration was between LOD to 0.109 ug/gdw and the highest concentration is observed for this pesticide in the summer and was 0.173 μg/g dry weight in the station 1. The highest amount and descending trend toward the end of river is observed in station 1, so the last three stations were lower than the LOD limit.

Mehri A.,University of Gorgan | Salmanmahiny A.,University of Gorgan | Mirkarimi S.H.,University of Gorgan | Rezaei H.R.,University of Gorgan
Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2014

Introduction: Several methods have been developed to aid in selecting a network of biodiversity protected areas. One of these methods is artificial intelligence which includes a number of different computer algorithms that use an objective function to find the best solution. An algorithm is a mathematical process or a set of rules used for problem solving. Recently, site selection algorithms have been widely used to identify areas of high conservation value. Two main types of site selection algorithms are optimal algorithms and heuristic ones. In this research, three types of heuristic algorithms, namely, annealing, greedy, and rarity simulated in the selection of the protected areas were compared to find the best regions for efficient environmental protection in Mazandaran Province. The effects of different parameters including conservation goals, scale, algorithms, and compactness of zones on the results were also investigated. Materials and methods: In this research, 26 forest cover types, the habitats of 8 mammal species, and prominent distribution area for 4 groups of birds were used as input criteria to select the candidate areas for environmental protection in Mazandaran Province. Multi-criteria evaluation method and Echelon analysis were used to model the mammals' habitats and the important bird distribution areas, respectively. Watersheds larger than 50 ha in size were defined and used for planning units in the process. Simulated annealing, greedy, and rarity algorithms were used in the selection of best regions through Marxan software. Marxan delivers a decision support for reserve system design. The real strength of Marxan lies in its use of simulated annealing. However, Marxan is also capable of using such simpler, but more rapid methods, as greedy, rarity, and iterative improvement algorithms. The main aim of this research is the selection of a conservation network with minimum possible area so as to achieve all targets. The conservation target is to preserve minimum area of each forest cover type and the species habitat. In the first scenario, the effect of different conservation targets including 30, 40, 50 and 60 percent of areal coverage of each protection criteria was investigated. In this scenario, Marxan was performed with 100 repeat runs, 10,000,000 iterations of simulated annealing and four different values of boundary length modifier (BLM) including 0,10,30,60 and 100. The BLM is used to control the level of fragmentation in the proposed conservation network, such that an increase in would result in a decrease of the network total boundary. In the second scenario, the result of the simulated annealing was compared with the greedy and the best and average rarity algorithms. In this scenario, the target is 30 percent of each protection criteria with a BLM of 60. In the third scenario, the effect of scale was considered in the six sub basins and the target is 30 percent of each protection criteria with a BLM of 60. Results and discussions: The results of the first scenario showed for all targets that an increase in BLM will increase the total area of the proposed conservation network and decrease its total perimeter. Moreover, the result for the best scenario showed for targets of 30,40, 50, and 60 that 18.43,23.95,31.29, and 38.82 percent of the province is necessary for conservation, respectively. Selection of the best target is one of the preliminary steps in the selection of best protected areas network. Figure 1 shows the graph of total reserve boundary length versus total area in the second scenario. According to this figure, the simulated annealing provides the best result in terms of area and perimeter. Using greedy algorithm, the total perimeter of the proposed conservation network was increased and the zones were much more dispersed. On the contrary, it can be understood from Figure 2 that the rarity algorithms produced compacter zones which have much larger area. (Figure Presented) Moreover, the time spent for the simulated annealing, the greedy, and the best and average rarity algorithms were 00:28:40, 1:49:43, 5:00:06 and 2:12:25, respectively. Implementation on a smaller scale and lower planning units reduced the time spent for the greedy and the rarity algorithms. The simulated annealing provided the best result in terms of area and perimeter. The results of the third scenario showed that the sub basin-scale analysis identifies a larger area of high conservation value than that of the province-scale analysis. This was expected because all conservation targets needed to be met in each sub basin. The overlap between the proposed conservation network in the province-scale and sub basin-scale are 42.33 percent. This result showed that spatial scale impacts the distribution and number of zones which were considered high priority for conservation within an area. In this research, irreplaceability analysis was performed on the proposed conservation networks generated by different algorithms. According to Leslie et al. (2003), we defined irreplaceability as the number of times a planning unit was included in the proposed conservation network out of 100 runs. For the simulated annealing, 7 planning units were chosen during every one of the 100 runs and were absolutely irreplaceable. Also, 29.84 percent of the planning units were never chosen during the 100 runs. For the greedy algorithm, 10 percent of the planning units were chosen during every one of the 100 runs and 76.65 percent of the planning units were never chosen. For the best and average rarity algorithms, 21.13 and 36.75 percent of the planning units were respectively chosen during every one of the 100 runs. For the average rarity algorithm, 63.19 percent of the planning units were also never chosen during the 100 runs. These results showed that the greedy and rarity algorithms produced many fewer different solutions in comparison to the simulated annealing. According to Leslie et al. (2003), the efficiency of representation was defined as the number of those protection criteria with Corresponding values close or equal to 1.0. This indicates that the proposed conservation network meets the conservation targets for the criteria. The results showed that, for the simulated annealing, the targets of the 29 to 32 criteria were met in the proposed conservation network. This value for the greedy algorithm was equal to 25 criteria. For the best and average rarity algorithms, 24 and 32 criteria were overrepresented in the proposed conservation network, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the conservation goals, scale, algorithms, and compactness of zones are influencing parameters on the selection of the best regions for efficient environmental protection. Consequently, determination of the appropriate values for these parameters is among the most important steps in conservation planning. The investigated parameters showed that the simulated annealing algorithm provides plausible results in all the cases and its application helps in the identification of best protection zones.

Rahmanifarah K.,University of Gorgan | Shabanpour B.,University of Gorgan | Sattari A.,University of Gorgan
Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2011

This study evaluates different pre-slaughter stunning methods for common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using behavioral responses and product quality investigations. A total of 32 fish were stunned using CO2, clove oil (CL), hypothermia via chilling (HY) and asphyxia (AS) in addition to a control group killed by a percussive blow to the head. Behavioral and quality measurements including pH, rigor mortis and flesh and skin color were used to determine the level of effects on behavior and quality. The results were indicative of aversive behavior associated to asphyxia, CO2 and a cold shock (chilling). Flesh quality measurements revealed a rapid pH decline and earlier onset and resolution of rigor mortis in CO2 and asphyxia group compared to clove oil and chilling groups. Using colorimetric assays of skin, asphyxia and CO2 caused lighter, less red and yellower color with higher Hue. The asphyxia caused darker, yellower flesh with higher Hue and CO2 caused lighter and yellower flesh with less reddish than other groups. The lowest flesh color saturation was observed in CO2 group. Regarding to welfare issue and meat quality the less causative pre-slaughter method of aversive behavior which provides higher product quality is clove oil stunning. © Published by Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI) Trabzon, Turkey in cooperation with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Japan.

Gholami M.,Urmia University | Saboory E.,Urmia University of Medical Sciences | Mehraban S.,Urmia University | Niakani A.,Urmia University | And 3 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Morphine and tramadol which have analgesic effects can be administered acutely or chronically. This study tried to investigate the effect of these drugs at various times by using different methods of administration (intraperitoneal, oral, acute and chronic). Sixty adult female rats were divided into six groups. They received saline, morphine or tramadol (20 to 125 mg/Kg) daily for 15 days. A hot plate test was performed for the rats at the 1st, 8th and 15th days. After drug withdrawal, the hot plate test was repeated at the 17th, 19th, and 22nd days. There was a significant correlation between the day, drug, group, and their interaction (P<0.001). At 1st day (d1), both morphine, and tramadol caused an increase in the hot plate time comparing to the saline groups (P<0.001), while there was no correlation between drug administration methods of morphine and/or tramadol. At the 8th day (d8), morphine and tramadol led to the most powerful analgesic effect comparing to the other experimental days (P<0.001). At the 15th day (d15), their effects diminished comparing to the d8. After drug withdrawal, analgesic effect of morphine, and tramadol disappeared. It can be concluded that the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol increases with the repeated use of them. Thereafter, it may gradually decrease and reach to a level compatible to d1. The present data also indicated that although the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol is dose-and-time dependent, but chronic exposure to them may not lead to altered nociceptive responses later in life. © 2015 by School of Pharmacy Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.

Hamedani M.A.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Tahmasbi A.-M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Naserian A.-A.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Ahangari Y.J.,University of Gorgan
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2016

The production of reactive oxygen species during the process of cryopreservation, decrease the motility and cellular viability by initiation of lipid per oxidation of bio-membranes. For reduce these damages, antioxidants are used as cryoprotectants against the lipid per oxidation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of vitamin E adding to the dilution media on standard qualitative parameters (motility, progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test, Acrosomal damages and normal spermatozoa) of pre and post frozen-thawed ram semen. Semen samples were collected by Electro ejaculator from 6 Zel rams, and diluted with a Tris-base extender containing vitamin E (1, 2 and 3 m/M) and without antioxidants (control). Diluted semen was cooled to 5°C and frozen in 0.25 ml straw, prior to being stored in liquid nitrogen. The results show that vitamin E has positive protection effects on the semen characteristics in chilled and frozen thawed. Motility, progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test and total normality of spermatozoa were higher in all groups of vitamin E supplement compare with control group, but highest percentages of treats were observed in 2m/M of vitamin E. Also the effect of vitamin E on Acrosome damages were significant in post frozen conditions and the highest percentages were obtained in control group. Therefore we recommend using 2m/M of vitamin E in Tris extender for short and long storages of Zel ram spermatozoa.

PubMed | Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and University of Gorgan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open veterinary journal | Year: 2015

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of various levels of vitamin B12 in Tris extender on semen quality of Dallagh rams following the cooling and freeze/thawing process. Semen was collected from six healthy and mature rams with an average body weight of 60.0 5.0 Kg using an electro ejaculator. High quality samples were mixed and diluted in Tris extender supplemented with different concentrations of vitamin B12 (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). The semen aliquots were cooled and preserved at 5C and their qualities were evaluated during pre-freezing and then the cooled semen samples were packaged into 0.25 ml straws. Straws were frozen in the vapor of liquid nitrogen, and were then stored at -196C. Straws were thawed seven days later and the characteristics of spermatozoa were examined. Results of this study showed that the effect of vitamin B12 on characteristics such as viability, motility, progressive motility and normality of spermatozoa were significant in pre and post freezing conditions (P<0.05). In conclusion, for long term storage of semen of Dallagh rams, we recommend using 2 mg/ml of vitamin B12 in semen extender.

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