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Eshetie S.,Debre Markos University | Unakal C.,University of Gondar | Gelaw A.,University of Gondar | Ayelign B.,University of Gondar Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control | Year: 2015

Background: Updates on the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance bacterial pathogens is important. This is because the spread of multidrug resistant enterobacteriaceae (MDRE) and recently carbapenemase producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have emerged as a major public health concern in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study is therefore, aimed to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of MDR and CPE among patients with UTIs. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 442 symptomatic UTI suspected patients. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical information and possible risk factors were collected using structured questionnaire. Early morning mid-stream urine samples were collected and processed to characterize bacterial isolates. Disk diffusion method was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates. Carbapenemase producing strains were detected using CHROMagar KPC medium. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. P-value <0.05 was considered as statistical significant. Results: Among 442 patients enrolled a total of 183 Enterobacteriaceae were recovered. Of these isolates; 160 (87.4%) were MDRE; the most common isolates were K. pneumoniae and E.coli. Five (2.73%) of the isolates were found to be carbapenemase producers and all of CPE strains were 100% ESBL producers. Significant drug resistances were observed among CPE compared to other MDRE, low resistance rates were noted to ciprofloxacin (20%). Being female (OR 4.46; P=0.018), age (OR 1.08; P=0.001), hospitalization (OR 5.23; P=0.006), and prior antibiotic use (OR 3.98; P=0.04) were associated risk factors for MDRE. Conclusion and recommendation: High rates of MDR (87.4%) were observed among enterobacteriaceae uropathogens; K. pneumoniae and E.coli were the principal MDR isolates. Overall prevalence of CPE was 2.73% and all of these strains were 100% ESBL producer. Attributing risk factors for MDR UTIs were found to be sex (female), age, hospitalization, and history of antibiotic therapy. Therefore, efforts should be made to reduce patient hospital stay and maximize rational use of drugs. Additional and vigorous investigation especially on CPE should be encouraged. © 2015 Eshetie et al.

Senbeto M.,University of Gondar Hospital | Tadesse S.,University of Gondar | Tadesse T.,University of Gondar | Melesse T.,University of Gondar
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Tuberculosis remains the major debilitating public health problem in Ethiopia. However, studies to understand the patients' perspectives on the illness and their health-seeking behavior have been few in the country. In this study, we seek to investigate the magnitude of appropriate health-seeking behavior and factors associated with tuberculosis among people who had cough for at least two weeks. Methods. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to October 2012 in Dabat, northwest Ethiopia. All people aged ≥15 years and had cough for at least two weeks were included in the study. Data collected by using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire were entered and cleaned using the Epi Info version 2002 statistical software. The statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 16.0 was also employed for descriptive and logistics regression analysis. Results: Out of the 25,701 people aged ≥15 years surveyed, the proportion of people who had cough for at least two weeks was reported to be 843(3.3%). Appropriate health-seeking behavior towards tuberculosis was reported by 674(80.0%) of them. Factors significantly associated with health-seeking behavior for tuberculosis were being female [AOR: 0.56, 95%CI: (0.39-0.79)], high monthly real per capita income [AOR: 1.66, 95%CI: (1.15-2.38)], large family size [AOR: 0.50, 95%CI: (0.35-0.72)], and use of traditional-healing practices [AOR: 13.27, 95%CI: (9.10-25.41)]. Conclusion: This study showed that the magnitude of appropriate health-seeking behavior during the event of chronic cough was high. However, this doesn't mean that there will be no need for further strengthening of the intervention activities as significant proportions of the study communities still demonstrate inappropriate health-seeking behavior. So tuberculosis control programs need to emphasize factors, such as sex, family size, socioeconomic inequalities, and traditional-healing practices in resource-poor settings. © 2013 Senbeto et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Meressa D.,Global Health Committee and Zahara Childrens Program | Hurtado R.M.,Global Health Committee and Zahara Childrens Program | Hurtado R.M.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Andrews J.R.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 24 more authors.
Thorax | Year: 2015

Background: In Africa, fewer than half of patients receiving therapy for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) are successfully treated, with poor outcomes reported for HIV-coinfected patients. Methods: A standardised second-line drug (SLD) regimen was used in a non-governmental organisation - Ministry of Health (NGO-MOH) collaborative community and hospital-based programme in Ethiopia that included intensive side effect monitoring, adherence strategies and nutritional supplementation. Clinical outcomes for patients with at least 24 months of follow-up were reviewed and predictors of treatment failure or death were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models. Results: From February 2009 to December 2014, 1044 patients were initiated on SLD. 612 patients with confirmed or presumed MDR TB had ≥24 months of follow-up, 551 (90.0%) were confirmed and 61 (10.0%) were suspected MDR TB cases. 603 (98.5%) had prior TB treatment, 133 (21.7%) were HIV coinfected and median body mass index (BMI) was 16.6. Composite treatment success was 78.6% with 396 (64.7%) cured, 85 (13.9%) who completed treatment, 10 (1.6%) who failed, 85 (13.9%) who died and 36 (5.9%) who were lost to follow-up. HIV coinfection (adjusted HR (AHR): 2.60, p<0.001), BMI (AHR 0.88/kg/m2, p=0.006) and cor pulmonale (AHR 3.61, p=0.003) and confirmed MDR TB (AHR 0.50, p=0.026) were predictive of treatment failure or death. Conclusions: We report from Ethiopia the highest MDR TB treatment success outcomes so far achieved in Africa, in a setting with severe resource constraints and patients with advanced disease. Intensive treatment of adverse effects, nutritional supplementation, adherence interventions and NGO-MOH collaboration were key strategies contributing to success. We argue these approaches should be routinely incorporated into programmes. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Endris M.,University of Gondar | Takele Y.,University of Gondar Hospital | Woldeyohannes D.,University of Gondar | Woldeyohannes D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | And 8 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Background and Objectives. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the neglected diseases affecting the poorest segment of world populations. Sepsis is one of the predictors for death of patients with VL. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bacterial sepsis, causative agents, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among patients with VL. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among parasitologically confirmed VL patients suspected of sepsis admitted to the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, from February 2012 to May 2012. Blood cultures and other clinical samples were collected and cultured following the standard procedures. Results. Among 83 sepsis suspected VL patients 16 (19.3%) had culture confirmed bacterial sepsis. The most frequently isolated organism was Staphylococcus aureus (68.8%; 11/16), including two methicillin-resistant isolates (MRSA). Patients with focal bacterial infection were more likely to have bacterial sepsis (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of culture confirmed bacterial sepsis was high, predominantly due to S. aureus. Concurrent focal bacterial infection was associated with bacterial sepsis, suggesting that focal infections could serve as sources for bacterial sepsis among VL patients. Careful clinical evaluation for focal infections and prompt initiation of empiric antibiotic treatment appears warranted in VL patients. © 2014 Mengistu Endris et al.

Mihret W.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute | Lema T.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute | Merid Y.,Hawassa University | Kassu A.,University of Gondar Hospital | And 18 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012–2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed. © 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reseved.

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