University of Goettingen Medical School

Göttingen, Germany

University of Goettingen Medical School

Göttingen, Germany

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PubMed | University of Houston, Baylor College of Medicine, University of Sheffield, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute and 23 more.
Type: | Journal: EBioMedicine | Year: 2016

Recent meta-analyses show that individuals with high risk variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25 are likely to develop lung cancer earlier than those with low-risk genotypes. The same high-risk genetic variants also predict nicotine dependence and delayed smoking cessation. It is unclear whether smoking cessation confers the same benefits in terms of lung cancer risk reduction for those who possess CHRNA5 risk variants versus those who do not.Meta-analyses examined the association between smoking cessation and lung cancer risk in 15 studies of individuals with European ancestry who possessed varying rs16969968 genotypes (N=12,690 ever smokers, including 6988 cases of lung cancer and 5702 controls) in the International Lung Cancer Consortium.Smoking cessation (former vs. current smokers) was associated with a lower likelihood of lung cancer (OR=0.48, 95%CI=0.30-0.75, p=0.0015). Among lung cancer patients, smoking cessation was associated with a 7-year delay in median age of lung cancer diagnosis (HR=0.68, 95%CI=0.61-0.77, p=4.910We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7years for those who develop it. These results: 1) underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2) suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3) have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.

Doeppner T.R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Doeppner T.R.,University of Goettingen Medical School | Bretschneider E.,University of Goettingen Medical School | Doehring M.,University of Goettingen Medical School | And 9 more authors.
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2011

Cerebral ischemia stimulates endogenous neurogenesis. However, the functional relevance of this phenomenon remains unclear because of poor survival and low neuronal differentiation rates of newborn cells. Therefore, further studies on mechanisms regulating neurogenesis under ischemic conditions are required, among which ephrin-ligands and ephrin-receptors (Eph) are an interesting target. Although Eph/ephrin proteins like ephrin-B3 are known to negatively regulate neurogenesis under physiological conditions, their role in cerebral ischemia is largely unknown. We therefore studied neurogenesis, brain injury and functional outcome in ephrin-B3 -/- (knockout) and ephrin-B3 +/+ (wild-type) mice submitted to cerebral ischemia. Induction of stroke resulted in enhanced cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation around the lesion site of ephrin-B3 -/- compared to ephrin-B3 +/+ mice. However, prominent post-ischemic neurogenesis in ephrin-B3 -/- mice was accompanied by significantly increased ischemic injury and motor coordination deficits that persisted up to 4 weeks. Ischemic injury in ephrin-B3 -/- mice was associated with a caspase-3-dependent activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Whereas inhibition of caspase-3 had no effect on brain injury in ephrin-B3 +/+ animals, infarct size in ephrin-B3 -/- mice was strongly reduced, suggesting that aggravated brain injury in these animals might involve a caspase-3-dependent activation of STAT1. In conclusion, post-ischemic neurogenesis in ephrin-B3 -/- mice is strongly enhanced, but fails to contribute to functional recovery because of caspase-3-mediated aggravation of ischemic injury in these animals. Our results suggest that ephrin-B3 might be an interesting target for overcoming some of the limitations of further cell-based therapies in stroke. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Doeppner T.R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Doeppner T.R.,University of Goettingen Medical School | Ewert T.A.S.,University of Hamburg | Tonges L.,University of Goettingen Medical School | And 13 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2012

Novel therapeutic concepts against cerebral ischemia focus on cell-based therapies in order to overcome some of the side effects of thrombolytic therapy. However, cell-based therapies are hampered because of restricted understanding regarding optimal cell transplantation routes and due to low survival rates of grafted cells. We therefore transplanted adult green fluorescence protein positive neural precursor cells (NPCs) either intravenously (systemic) or intrastriatally (intracerebrally) 6 hours after stroke in mice. To enhance survival of NPCs, cells were in vitro protein-transduced with TAT-heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) before transplantation followed by a systematic analysis of brain injury and underlying mechanisms depending on cell delivery routes. Transduction of NPCs with TAT-Hsp70 resulted in increased intracerebral numbers of grafted NPCs after intracerebral but not after systemic transplantation. Whereas systemic delivery of either native or transduced NPCs yielded sustained neuroprotection and induced neurological recovery, only TAT-Hsp70-transduced NPCs prevented secondary neuronal degeneration after intracerebral delivery that was associated with enhanced functional outcome. Furthermore, intracerebral transplantation of TAT-Hsp70-transduced NPCs enhanced postischemic neurogenesis and induced sustained high levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in vivo. Neuroprotection after intracerebral cell delivery correlated with the amount of surviving NPCs. On the contrary, systemic delivery of NPCs mediated acute neuroprotection via stabilization of the blood-brain-barrier, concomitant with reduced activation of matrix metalloprotease 9 and decreased formation of reactive oxygen species. Our findings imply two different mechanisms of action of intracerebrally and systemically transplanted NPCs, indicating that systemic NPC delivery might be more feasible for translational stroke concepts, lacking a need of in vitro manipulation of NPCs to induce long-term neuroprotection. © AlphaMed Press.

Doeppner T.R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Kaltwasser B.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Teli M.K.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Teli M.K.,National Institute of Technology Calicut | And 4 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2014

Intravenous transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induces functional recovery after stroke, albeit grafted cells are not integrated into residing neural networks. However, a systematic analysis of intravenous NPC delivery at acute and post-acute time points and their long-term consequences does not exist. Male C57BL6 mice were exposed to cerebral ischemia, and NPCs were intravenously grafted on day 0, on day 1 or on day 28. Animals were allowed to survive for up to 84 days. Mice and tissues were used for immunohistochemical analysis, flow cytometry, ELISA and behavioral tests. Density of grafted NPCs within the ischemic hemisphere was increased when cells were transplanted on day 28 as compared with transplantation on days 0 or 1. Likewise, transplantation on day 28 yielded enhanced neuronal differentiation rates of grafted cells. Post-ischemic brain injury, however, was only reduced when NPCs were grafted at acute time points. On the contrary, reduced post-ischemic functional deficits due to NPC delivery were independent of transplantation paradigms. NPC-induced neuroprotection after acute cell delivery was due to stabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reduction in microglial activation and modulation of both peripheral and central immune responses. On the other hand, post-acute NPC transplantation stimulated post-ischemic regeneration via enhanced angioneurogenesis and increased axonal plasticity. Acute NPC delivery yields long-term neuroprotection via enhanced BBB integrity and modulation of post-ischemic immune responses, whereas post-acute NPC delivery increases post-ischemic angioneurogenesis and axonal plasticity. Post-ischemic functional recovery, however, is independent of NPC delivery timing, which offers a broad therapeutic time window for stroke treatment. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Doeppner T.R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Doeppner T.R.,University of Goettingen Medical School | Kaltwasser B.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Kaltwasser B.,University of Goettingen Medical School | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) protects against cerebral ischemia, which is attributed to its chaperone activity. However, recent reports also describe pro-inflammatory actions of Hsp70 via activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR). Using membrane-permeable transactivator of transcription (TAT)-Hsp70, we analyzed TAT-Hsp70-induced neuroprotection and its underlying mechanism after cerebral ischemia in mice. Infusion of TAT-Hsp70 reduced infarct volume and enhanced blood-brain barrier integrity on day 3 poststroke, when given no later than 12 hours. The latter was associated with reduction of microglial activation, although upregulation of pro-inflammatory TLR-2/4 was observed both in verum and in control animals. Nevertheless, protein abundance and nuclear translocation of downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) as well as proteasomal degradation of the NF-κB regulator Ikappa B alpha (IκB-α) were significantly reduced by TAT-Hsp70. TAT-Hsp70-induced neuroprotection and functional recovery were restricted to 4 weeks only. However, TAT-Hsp70 provided an appropriate extracellular milieu for delayed intravenous transplantation of adult neural precursor cells (NPCs). Thus, NPCs that were grafted 28 days poststroke induced long-term neuroprotection for at least 3 months, which was not due to integration of grafted cells but rather due to paracrine effects of transplanted NPCs. Conclusively, TAT-Hsp70 ameliorates postischemic inflammation via proteasome inhibition, thus providing an appropriate extracellular milieu for delayed NPC transplantation and culminating in long-term neuroprotection. © 2013 ISCBFM.

Siepert A.,University of Rostock | Ahrlich S.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Vogt K.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Appelt C.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2012

Recent data suggest that donor-specific memory T cells (Tmem) are an independent risk factor for rejection and poor graft function in patients and a major challenge for immunosuppression minimizing strategies. Many tolerance induction protocols successfully proven in small animal models e.g. costimulatory blockade, T cell depletion failed in patients. Consequently, there is a need for more predictive transplant models to evaluate novel promising strategies, such as adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Treg). We established a clinically more relevant, life-supporting rat kidney transplant model using a high responder (DA to LEW) recipients that received donor-specific CD4+/ 8+ GFP+ Tmem before transplantation to achieve similar pre-transplant frequencies of donor-specific Tmem as seen in many patients. T cell depletion alone induced long-term graft survival in naïve recipients but could not prevent acute rejection in Tmem + rats, like in patients. Only if T cell depletion was combined with permanent CNI-treatment, the intragraft inflammation, and acute/chronic allograft rejection could be controlled long-term. Remarkably, combining 10 days CNI treatment and adoptive transfer of Tregs (day 3) but not Treg alone also induced long-term graft survival and an intragraft tolerance profile (e.g. high TOAG-1) in Tmem + rats. Our model allows evaluation of novel therapies under clinically relevant conditions. Adoptive transfer of green fluorescent protein expressing alloreactive memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 7 or even 100 days prior to kidney transplantation elicits an acute rejection refractory to T cell depletion, which can only be prevented by permanent cyclosporine A therapy or a combined treatment of cyclosporine A and regulatory T cells. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

PubMed | Siemens AG, Charité - Medical University of Berlin and University of Goettingen Medical School
Type: | Journal: Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987) | Year: 2016

Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal enzyme disorder associated with an intracellular accumulation of sphingolipids, which shorten myocardial T1 relaxation times. Myocardial affection, however, varies between different segments.To evaluate the specific segmental distribution and degree of segmental affection in AFD patients.Twenty-five patients with AFD, 14 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and 21 controls were included. A Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery sequence (MOLLI) was used for non-enhanced T1 mapping at 1.5 T in addition to standard cardiac imaging in 10-12 short axis views. T1 values were evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA and regression analysis to determine the best diagnostic cutoff values for T1 for each myocardial segment.Regression analysis showed the best diagnostic cutoff compared to controls in cardiac segments 1-4, 8-9, and 14. Mean differences between T1 for AFD versus HCM were greatest in segment 3, 4, and 9 (99ms, 103ms, 86ms, respectively). Overall T1 times were 88870ms and 90314ms (AFD with and without LVH); 101417ms and 100122ms (HCM and controls, P<0.05).Myocardial segments are affected by a varying degree of T1 shortening in AFD patients. Segment-specific cutoff values allow the most specific detection and quantification of the extent of myocardial affection.

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