University of Technology of Compiègne, France
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Moinzadeh P.,University of Cologne | Aberer E.,Medical University of Graz | Ahmadi-Simab K.,Asklepios Clinic Altona | Blank N.,University of Heidelberg | And 60 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-overlap syndromes are a very heterogeneous and remarkable subgroup of SSc-patients, who present at least two connective tissue diseases (CTD) at the same time, usually with a specific autoantibody status. Objectives: To determine whether patients, classified as overlap syndromes, show a disease course different from patients with limited SSc (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Methods: The data of 3240 prospectively included patients, registered in the database of the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma and followed between 2003 and 2013, were analysed. Results: Among 3240 registered patients, 10% were diagnosed as SSc-overlap syndrome. Of these, 82.5% were female. SSc-overlap patients had a mean age of 48±1.2 years and carried significantly more often 'other antibodies' (68.0%; p<0.0001), including anti-U1RNP, -PmScl, -Ro, -La, as well as anti-Jo-1 and -Ku antibodies. These patients developed musculoskeletal involvement earlier and more frequently (62.5%) than patients diagnosed as lcSSc (32.2%) or dcSSc (43.3%) (p<0.0001). The onset of lung fibrosis and heart involvement in SSc-overlap patients was significantly earlier than in patients with lcSSc and occurred later than in patients with dcSSc. Oesophagus, kidney and PH progression was similar to lcSSc patients, whereas dcSSc patients had a significantly earlier onset. Conclusions: These data support the concept that SSc-overlap syndromes should be regarded as a separate SSc subset, distinct from lcSSc and dcSSc, due to a different progression of the disease, different proportional distribution of specific autoantibodies, and of different organ involvement. © 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & European League Against Rheumatism.


News Article | March 24, 2016
Site: phys.org

It may also help researchers create new bacteria tailored for making medicines and other valuable substances. The newly created bacterium has a smaller genetic code than does any natural free-living counterpart, with 531,000 DNA building blocks containing 473 genes. (Humans have more than 3 billion building blocks and more than 20,000 genes). But even this stripped-down organism is full of mystery. Scientists say they have little to no idea what a third of its genes actually do. "We're showing how complex life is, even in the simplest of organisms," researcher J. Craig Venter told reporters. "These findings are very humbling." Some of the mystery genes may be clues to discovering unknown fundamental processes of life, his colleague Clyde Hutchison III said in an interview. Both researchers, from the J. Craig Venter Institute, are among the authors of a paper on the project released Thursday by the journal Science. The DNA code, or genome, is contained in a brand-new bacterium dubbed JCVI-syn3.0. The genome is not some one-and-only minimal set of genes needed for life itself. For one thing, if the researchers had pared DNA from a different bacterium they would probably have ended up with a different set of genes. For another, the minimum genome an organism needs depends on the environment in which it lives. And the new genome includes genes that are not absolutely essential to life, because they help the bacterial populations grow fast enough to be practical for lab work. The genome is "as small as we can get it and still have an organism that is ... useful," Hutchison said. One goal of such work is to understand what each gene in a living cell does, which would lead to a deep understanding of how cells work, he said. With the new bacterium, "we're closer to that than we are for any other cell," he said. Another goal is to use such minimal-DNA microbes as a chassis for adding genes to make the organisms produce medicines, fuels and other substances for uses like nutrition and agriculture, said study co-author Daniel Gibson of Synthetic Genomics. The work began with a manmade version of a microbe that normally lives in sheep, called M. mycoides (my-KOY'-deez). It has about 900 genes. The scientists identified 428 nonessential genes, built their new genome without them, and showed that it was complete enough to let a bacterium survive. Experts not involved with the work were impressed. "I find this paper really groundbreaking," said Jorg Stulke of the University of Goettingen in Germany, who is working on a similar project with a different bacterium. In an email, he said the researchers seem to have gotten at least very close to a minimum genome for M. mycoides. Ferren Isaacs of Yale University called the work "an impressive tour de force," one that may begin to identify "a universe of minimal genomes." Explore further: First 'synthetic life': Scientists 'boot up' a bacterial cell with a synthetic genome More information: "Design and synthesis of a minimal bacterial genome," Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6253


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: news.mit.edu

Otto K. Harling, MIT professor emeritus in nuclear engineering and former director of the MIT Nuclear Reactor Lab (NRL) passed away on Dec. 18. He was 85 years old. Harling's field-defining contributions in research and teaching cut across nuclear physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear materials, superfluids, fission and fusion reactor technology, and nuclear medicine. Born in 1931 on Staten Island, New York, Harling graduated from New Dorp High School and completed his undergraduate degree at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and the Illinois Institute of Technology. He went on to pursue graduate training in Germany at the University of Goettingen and the University of Heidelberg, and he earned his PhD at Pennsylvania State University. His career at MIT began when he was appointed in 1972 as a senior research associate. He received tenure in 1979 and was director of NRL from 1976 to 1996. Notably, Harling oversaw a significant expansion of the NRL’s research mission into nuclear materials irradiation and evaluation and boron neutron capture therapy. He was well known for developing productive collaborations on campus, in particular with MIT’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and engaging with the country’s national laboratories to study fusion reactor materials. One of his most ambitious efforts used the MIT reactor core to simulate a fusion reactor to investigate radiation damage in irradiated materials and enable test methods to determine mechanical properties using miniature samples. “Otto Harling’s visionary research initiatives established the experimental basis for the use of the MIT reactor as a test bed for nuclear materials and engineering research,” says Gordon Kohse, MIT research scientist and deputy director of NRL research and services. Harling and his MIT colleagues also built on the technology and irradiation techniques developed for the fusion studies to establish a program in support of light water power reactor coolant technology. These experiments, involving the design and operation of innovative, small, in-core high-pressure and temperature water loops, were instrumental in understanding fundamental aspects of both pressurized water and boiling water reactor coolant chemistries. Success hinged on Harling’s ability to bring together a global array of partners, including the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute, the government of Japan, and other industrial members. During the latter part of his career, Harling was instrumental in reviving work on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer at the NRL. In 1994 he and his collaborators led a trial for the experimental therapy on a human patient, the first in more than 30 years and the first to use an epithermal beam (intermediate energy). In addition to his research contributions, Harling and his colleagues played a significant role in enhancing and expanding educational opportunities for nuclear engineers and scientists at MIT and beyond. He led a faculty effort in the Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering (NSE) to broaden the radiological sciences curriculum, revamp courses on the measurement of radiation and its uses, and introduce experiments for the student laboratory and the MIT reactor. He also taught what is now 22.09, “Principles of Nuclear Radiation Measurement and Protection,” for several years. Harling also personally directed the thesis research of over 70 master’s and doctoral candidates at MIT and helped train generations of students at the NRL who have gone on to become leaders at national laboratories, companies, and medical institutions. He also shared his expertise through the publication of more than 300 scientific papers and reports and in book chapters he authored or edited. “Harling’s work was in the best tradition of MIT's philosophy of Mens and Manus,” says John A. Bernard, Jr, principal research engineer in NSE. “He loved building things — tools and equipment — and expected his students to be equally enthusiastic about getting their hands dirty when working on solutions to problems.” Harling was elected to a Fellowship in the American Nuclear Society in 2004 and received the Hatanaka Memorial Award, the highest recognition of the International Society for Neutron Capture Therapy, in 2008. Outside of his professional life, he was an avid tennis player and community volunteer, serving on Hingham’s Energy Action Committee, correcting Hingham’s latest flood maps and running climate change programs. He is survived by his wife of 59 years, Beth; his three daughters, Betsy Harling of Hingham, Maura Stefl (Greg) of Fayetteville, N.Y., and Ottilie MacKinnon (Ewen) of Chichester, N.H.; his son, Kurt Harling (Lisa) of Durham, N.H., his grandchildren Zachary and Hannah Stefl, Ian Mackinnon, Alexander and Mitchell Harling, and Joseph and Matthew Personeni, his sister Anneliese Ringstad of Malaga, Spain as well as many nieces and nephews. Donations in Harling’s memory may be made to “The Dr. Otto K. Harling Science Memorial Scholarship Fund” c/o Rockland Trust, 100 Sgt. William B. Terry Drive, Hingham, MA  02043.


News Article | March 28, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

Scientists have deleted nearly half the genes of a microbe, creating a stripped-down version that still functions, an achievement that might reveal secrets of how life works. It may also help researchers create new bacteria tailored for pumping out medicines and other valuable substances. The newly created bacterium has a smaller genetic code than does any natural free-living counterpart, with 531,000 DNA building blocks containing 473 genes. (Humans have more than 3 billion building blocks and more than 20,000 genes). But even this stripped-down organism is full of mystery. Scientists say they have little to no idea what a third of its genes actually do. "We're showing how complex life is, even in the simplest of organisms," researcher J. Craig Venter told reporters. "These findings are very humbling." Some of the mystery genes may be clues to discovering unknown fundamental processes of life, his colleague Clyde Hutchison III said in an interview. Both researchers, from the J. Craig Venter Institute in La Jolla, California, are among the authors of a paper on the project released Thursday by the journal Science. The DNA code, or genome, is contained in a brand-new bacterium dubbed JCVI-syn3.0. The genome is not some one-and-only minimal set of genes needed for life itself. For one thing, if the researchers had pared DNA from a different bacterium they would probably have ended up with a different set of genes. For another, the minimum genome an organism needs depends on the environment in which it lives. And the new genome includes genes that are not absolutely essential to life, because they help the bacterial populations grow fast enough to be practical for lab work. The genome is "as small as we can get it and still have an organism that is ... useful," Hutchison said. One goal of such work is to understand what each gene in a living cell does, which would lead to a deep understanding of how cells work, he said. With the new bacterium, "we're closer to that than we are for any other cell," he said. Another goal is to use such minimal-DNA microbes as a chassis for adding genes to make the organisms produce medicines, fuels and other substances for uses like nutrition and agriculture, said study co-author Daniel Gibson of Synthetic Genomics in La Jolla. The work began with a manmade version of a microbe that normally lives in sheep, called M. mycoides (my-KOY'-deez). It has about 900 genes. The scientists identified 428 nonessential genes, built their new genome without them, and showed that it was complete enough to let a bacterium survive. Experts not involved with the work were impressed. "I find this paper really ground breaking," said Jorg Stulke of the University of Goettingen in Germany, who is working on a similar project with a different bacterium. In an email, he said the researchers seem to have gotten at least very close to a minimum genome for M. mycoides. Farren Isaacs of Yale University called the work "an impressive tour de force," one that may begin to identify "a universe of minimal genomes."


Zhao J.,Fudan University | Zhang X.,Fudan University | Wang X.,Fudan University | Deng Y.,Tsinghua University | Fu X.,University of Goettingen
Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM | Year: 2011

As the physical link speeds grow and the size of routing table continues to increase, IP address lookup has been a challenging problem at routers. There have been growing demands in achieving high-performance IP lookup cost-effectively. Existing approaches typically resort to specialized hardwares, such as TCAM. While these approaches can take advantage of hardware parallelism to achieve high-performance IP lookup, they also have the disadvantage of high cost. This paper investigates a new way to build a cost-effective IP lookup scheme using graphics processor units (GPU). Our contribution here is to design a practical architecture for high-performance IP lookup engine with GPU, and to develop efficient algorithms for routing prefix update operations such as deletion, insertion, and modification. Leveraging GPU's many-core parallelism, the proposed schemes addressed the challenges in designing IP lookup at GPU-based software routers. Our experimental results on real-world route traces show promising gains in IP lookup and update operations. © 2011 IEEE.


Kilias A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Frisch W.,University of Tuebingen | Avgerinas A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Dunkl I.,University of Goettingen | And 2 more authors.
Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

Geological mapping and detailed structural investigations combined with geochronological and stratigraphic data, as well as fissiontrack age dating carried out on the northern part of the Pelagonian basement and the adjacent Vardar/Axios sedimentary and metamorphic sequences in the Hellenic Alps (northwestern Greece and Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia) allow us to reconstruct the geometry, kinematics and deformation history of the Pelagonian nappe pile during the Alpine orogeny. We distinguish seven deformational events (D Hp and D 1 to D 6). Deformation started in Middle to Late Jurassic time and was associated with inneroceanic P thrusting, ophiolite obduction, and NW to WNW-directed nappe stacking of the Lower and Upper Pelagonian unit (D 1). The lower unit was metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions with relatively high pressures (T=450-620°C, P=8-12,5 kb). Blueschist-facies metamorphic assemblages (D HP, T=450-500°C, P>12,5 kb) are restricted to the boundary zone between both Pelagonian units. Transgressive Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous shallow-water limestones and clastic sediments on top of the obducted ophiolites are probably related to extension and basin formation simultaneously with nappe stacking and metamorphism in the Pelagonian nappes beneath. Contractional tectonics with the same kinematics as during D 1 continued in Aptian-Albian time and was asso-1 ciated with intense retrogression (D 2, T=280-380°C, P=4-5 kb). Low-angle mylonitic extensional shear zones of low-grade metamorphism with top-to-NE sense of movement (D 3) developed simultaneously with basin formation and sedimentation of shallow-water limestones and flysch-like sediments in Late Cretaceous to Paleocene times. Intense imbrication under semi-ductile to brittle conditions of all tectonic units occurred during Paleocene to Eocene time with SW-directed movement towards the foreland (D 4). A large Pelagonian antiformal structure formed during D 4 shortening. In Oligocene to recent time, D 5 and D 6 created brittle low and highangle normal faults, respectively.


Hernandez V.H.,University Medical Center Goettingen | Hernandez V.H.,University of Goettingen | Hernandez V.H.,University of Guanajuato | Gehrt A.,University Medical Center Goettingen | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Visualized Experiments | Year: 2014

Cochlear implants (CIs) enable hearing by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. However, poor frequency and intensity resolution limits the quality of hearing with CIs. Here we describe optogenetic stimulation of the auditory nerve in mice as an alternative strategy for auditory research and developing future CIs. © JoVE 2006-2014. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | University of Goettingen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2016

4080 Background: Within a phase-II study a single dose RAIT (40-60 mCi/m2131iodine-labetuzumab, Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ/USA) after salvage resection of CRC-LM has been well tolerated. Compared with a control group (OPCTX) the RAIT-patients showed an improved overall survival (Ann Surg Oncol 2007, 14 (9): 2577-2590). The aim of the ongoing phase-II-study was to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy (DFS, OS) in pts who received a repeated RAIT with 50 mCi/m32 consecutive pts (age 61 years; 8x rectal cancer, 24x colon cancer; CRC-LM: 16x syn-, 16x metachroneous) were re-staged with CT/MRT and FDG-PET after R0-resection of extended CRC-LM prior to RAIT. On account of established risk scores (Nordlinger-, Fong- and Gayowski-Scores) 87% of the pts had an intermediate or high risk of recurrence of CRC-LM within the next 2 years (after R0- resection). During staging procedures 16 pts showed no suspect lesions (adjuvant), while 16 pts showed lesions suspicious of residual or new malignant disease (nonadjuvant). All pts were treated with 40-50mCi/m8/32 (25%) of the pts developed hematologic toxicity WHO-grade 4 (leukocytes or thrombocytes). After the second cycle of RAIT no cumulative toxicity could be observed. Complete bone marrow regeneration in all cases was noted. The pts compliance was 100% during follow-up of 21 months. The adjuvant pts had a enhanced median DFS of 18 months in comparison to the non-adjuvant patients (DFS: 6 months) and the control group (DFS: 12 months). The OS in pts with repeated RAIT is 96% until now.Repeated Anti-CEA-RAIT with 40- 50mCi/m

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