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Gloucestershire, United Kingdom

The University of Gloucestershire is a public university based in Gloucestershire, England. It is located over three campuses, two in Cheltenham and one in Gloucester, namely Francis Close Hall, Park and Oxstalls.The university is traces its history back to the Mechanics Institute of 1834 and the Cheltenham Training College, established in 1874 by the Reverend Francis Close. In October 2001, Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education was awarded University status.The university offers over 120 undergraduate courses and around 70 taught post-graduate courses within three faculties; Media, Arts and Technology, Business Education and Professional Studies, and Applied science.A 10-year Memorandum of Understanding exists between the University, Gloucestershire College and South Gloucestershire and Stroud College to support access to higher education. Wikipedia.

This study assessed the associations between socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and daily smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and agreement with smoking ban (dependent variables). Data from 3,706 undergraduate students were collected from seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland using a standardised questionnaire. About 15.8% of the whole sample reported daily smoking, while 12% were occasional smokers. Smoking was significantly more prevalent among males, but the difference was due to a higher rate of occasional smokers. About every second smoker (55%) had attempted to quit smoking. Almost 45% of the whole sample agreed or strongly agreed with implementing a total smoking ban on campus. Daily smoking was more likely among students with not sufficient income, students whose fathers had at least a bachelor degree; and, students who reported binge drinking. Conversely, daily smoking was less likely among students who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate ≥5 portions of fruit or vegetables, and those who had never taken illicit drugs. Previous attempt/s to quit smoking were more likely among students who have never taken illicit drugs and those who agreed with a total smoking ban; and less likely among those with not sufficient income. Daily smokers were less likely to report quit attempts as compared to occasional smokers. An agreement with smoking ban was more likely among students who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate ≥5 portions of fruit or vegetables daily, and those who had never taken illicit drugs, but less likely among daily smokers. Favourable health practices and positive attitudes towards smoking ban were associated with each other. Interventions would need to comprise multi-component programmes that do not solely focus on smoking prevention/cessation, but also on other health promoting practices as well. Source

Dwyer J.,University of Gloucestershire
Land Use Policy | Year: 2011

This paper, originally contributed as part of the government's Foresight investigation of Land Use Futures, considers the likely shape of policies affecting UK rural land use up to 2060, based on literature review, analysis of past and current trends and drivers, and discussion with selected policy experts. The postwar, centralised approach to spatial planning and countryside management has come under increasing challenge from domestic and international needs and concerns. European policy influence has increased in respect of agriculture and the natural environment. Zoning of land-use and a restrictive approach to built development have gradually weakened, and land-use drivers have become more multifunctional. Policy has moved away from a 'top-down' process designed in Whitehall towards a multi-layered structure within which international agreements and negotiations must be reconciled with regional and local, partnership-based approaches to planning and management, via national frameworks and a complex mix of regulatory and market-based instruments. Climate and energy policy, as well as policies on food and health, will require new and more diverse forms of development. A major challenge for the future could be the extent to which current, multi-layered spatial planning policies can accommodate the scale of change implied by the new mix of drivers from other policy areas. There is the possibility of an increasingly differentiated response across the UK countryside, as well as much more radical change in the system driven from the centre, as pressures increase.While the Government Office for Science commissioned this review, the views are those of the author, are independent of Government, and do not constitute Government policy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Quantitative assessments of the impacts of extreme floods on channel morphology are rare. Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveys of a 500-m reach of the Thinhope Burn, an upland gravel-bed stream in the UK, taken in 2003 and 2004 permitted an assessment of geomorphic work whilst the channel was at steady-state. A large flood that occurred on 17 July 2007 resulted in a catastrophic impact to the Thinhope Burn valley floor. The reach was re-surveyed after the event in 2007, and again in 2008 and in 2011. Digital elevation models were produced from the survey data, which allowed the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition and volumetric changes between surveys to be established. A total of 5202m3 of deposition and 2125m3 of erosion was recorded in the reach following the flood event. Field walking of the catchment and comparison of aerial photographs for 2003 and 2007 suggested that most of the material mobilised had originated from existing sediment held in terraces and paleoberms on the valley floor. Although slope failures were evident, including peat slides in the headwaters, delivery of sediment from coupling zones to the channel was thought to play a secondary role in the geomorphic response shown by the channel. Similarly, large volumes of erosion and deposition were found after resurveys in 2008 and 2011, suggesting that the system was still in its relaxation phase. The results obtained in this investigation coupled with historical information on the flood history of Thinhope Burn dating back to 1766 suggested that rare large floods are the geomorphically effective flows in the catchment. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Goodenough A.,University of Gloucestershire
Community Ecology | Year: 2010

The study of invasion ecology usually focuses on the negative impacts of alien species, while potential positive impacts are often overlooked. Understanding of biotic interactions may thus be skewed towards the negative, which could have important implications for ecological management and conservation. This article provides a comprehensive review of all types of impacts, both beneficial and detrimental, that can result from species translocation. An extensive review of literature on species introductions to terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems and involving a wide range of taxa (including microorganisms, parasites, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, fish and Crustacea) showed that, despite limited research into facilitative alien-native interactions, such interactions occur surprisingly frequently. Examples were found of introduced species acting as hosts, food sources, pollinators or seed dispersers for native species, as well as providing herbivory, predatory or parasite release. However, research showed that numerous negative interactions also occurred and combination impacts (when an alien benefits some natives but disadvantages others) were common. In many cases, the traditional view that biological invasions constitute a significant threat to native biota is both accurate and appropriate. Efforts to prevent translocation and control non-native species can be vital. However, the "native good, alien bad" maxim does not convey the complexity of invasion ecology: alien species do not axiomatically pose a threat to native biota. In order to move understanding of invasion ecology forward and to develop maximally-effective management strategies, facilitative alien-native interactions need to be added into the alien species debate. Source

Hall T.,University of Gloucestershire
Geographical Journal | Year: 2014

The paper discusses a survey of British academic human geographers enquiring about change and diversification within personal research activities, their nature, motivations and impacts. It argues that this is widespread and a significant aspect of the production of contemporary geographical knowledge. The findings highlight the range of motivations underpinning research change, its impacts and mediation through the institutional context of British human geography. It concludes that despite a more prescriptive institutional context geographers have a degree of autonomy, albeit somewhat fettered, to shape their own research trajectories to some extent. This provides some important capacity with which to engage with imminent challenges facing the discipline in the UK). The paper complements recent critical histories of geography and sociological accounts of the discipline. © 2013 Royal Geographical Society. Source

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