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Glasgow, United Kingdom

The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. The university was founded in 1451 and is often ranked in the world's top 100 universities in tables compiled by various bodies. In 2013, Glasgow moved to its highest ever position, placing 51st in the world and 9th in the UK in the QS World University Rankings.In common with universities of the pre-modern era, Glasgow educated students primarily from wealthy backgrounds, but was also, with the University of Edinburgh, a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment during the 18th century. The University became a pioneer in British higher education in the 19th century by also providing for the needs of students from the growing urban and commercial middle classes. Glasgow served all of these students by preparing them for professions: the law, medicine, civil service, teaching, and the church. It also trained smaller but growing numbers for careers in science and engineering. In 2007, the Sunday Times ranked it as "Scottish University of the Year." The university is a member of the Russell Group which represents the highest-ranked public research-based universities in the UK. It is also a member of Universitas 21, the international network of research universities.Originally located in the city's High Street, since 1870 the main University campus has been located at Gilmorehill in the West End of the city. Additionally, a number of university buildings are located elsewhere, such as the University Marine Biological Station Millport on the Island of Cumbrae in the Firth of Clyde and the Crichton Campus in Dumfries.Glasgow has departments of Law, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, and Dentistry. Its submission to the most recent UK university research assessment was one of the broadest in the UK. Glasgow's financial endowment is the fifth largest among UK universities.Alumni or former staff of the University include philosopher Francis Hutcheson, engineer James Watt, economist Adam Smith, physicist Lord Kelvin, surgeon Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, seven Nobel laureates, two British Prime Ministers, several leaders of Britain's and Scotland's major political parties, and numerous leading figures from legal, scientific and business professions. Entry to the university is highly competitive; applications for each place on many of its courses run into double figures, and successful entrants have on average almost 485 UCAS points. This ranks as the 11th highest among UK higher education institutions . Wikipedia.

O'Shaughnessy P.J.,University of Glasgow
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2014

Spermatogenesis is completely dependent on the pituitary hormone follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androgens locally produced in response to luteinising hormone (LH). This dual control has been known since the 1930s and 1940s but more recent work, particularly using transgenic mice, has allowed us to determine which parts of the spermatogenic pathway are regulated by each hormone. During the first spermatogenic cycle after puberty both FSH and androgen act to limit the massive wave of germ cell apoptosis which occurs at this time. The established role of FSH in all cycles is to increase spermatogonial and subsequent spermatocyte numbers with a likely effect also on spermiation. Mice lacking FSH or its receptor are fertile, albeit with reduced germ cell numbers, and so this hormone is not an essential regulator of spermatogenesis but acts to optimise germ cell production Androgens also appear to regulate spermatogonial proliferation but, crucially, they are also required to allow spermatocytes to complete meiosis and form spermatids. Animals lacking androgen receptors fail to generate post-meiotic germ cells, therefore, and are infertile. There is also strong evidence that androgens act to ensure appropriate spermiation of mature spermatids. Androgen regulation of spermatogenesis is dependent upon action on the Sertoli cell but recent studies have shown that androgenic stimulation of the peritubular myoid cells is also essential for normal germ cells development. While FSH or androgen alone will both stimulate germ cell development, together they act synergistically to maximise germ cell number. The other hormones/local factors which can regulate spermatogenesis include activins and estrogens although their role in normal physiological regulation of this process needs to be more clearly established. Regulation of spermatogenesis in primates appears to be similar to that in rodents although the role of FSH may be greater. While our knowledge of hormone function during spermatogenesis is now well developed we still lack understanding of the mechanisms by which these hormones act to regulate this process. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

McMurray J.J.V.,University of Glasgow
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

A 74-year-old man with a history of hypertension and myocardial infarction that occurred 5 years previously presents with breathlessness on exertion. His current medications include a statin and aspirin. On examination, his pulse is 76 beats per minute and regular, and his blood pressure is 121/74 mm Hg. There is jugular venous distention, lateral displacement of the apex beat, and edema in his lower limbs. The lung examination is normal. An echocardiogram shows left ventricular dilatation, globally reduced contractility, and an ejection fraction of 33%. How should his case be managed? Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Farrugia L.J.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2012

The WinGX suite provides a complete set of programs for the treatment of small-molecule single-crystal diffraction data, from data reduction and processing, structure solution, model refinement and visualization, and metric analysis of molecular geometry and crystal packing, to final report preparation in the form of a CIF. It includes several well known pieces of software and provides a repository for programs when the original authors no longer wish to, or are unable to, maintain them. It also provides menu items to execute external software, such as the SIR and SHELX suites of programs. The program ORTEP for Windows provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for the classic ORTEP program, which is the original software for the illustration of anisotropic displacement ellipsoids. The GUI code provides input capabilities for a wide variety of file formats, and extra functionality such as geometry calculations and ray-traced outputs. The programs WinGX and ORTEP for Windows have been distributed over the internet for about 15 years, and this article describes some of the more modern features of the programs. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography. Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved.

Jenkins G.I.,University of Glasgow
Plant Cell | Year: 2014

Low doses of UV-B light (280 to 315 nm) elicit photomorphogenic responses in plants that modify biochemical composition, photosynthetic competence, morphogenesis, and defense. UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) mediates photomorphogenic responses to UV-B by regulating transcription of a set of target genes. UVR8 differs from other known photoreceptors in that it uses specific Trp amino acids instead of a prosthetic chromophore for light absorption during UV-B photoreception. Absorption of UV-B dissociates the UVR8 dimer into monomers, initiating signal transduction through interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1. However, much remains to be learned about the physiological role of UVR8 and its interaction with other signaling pathways, the molecular mechanism of UVR8 photoreception, how the UVR8 protein initiates signaling, how it is regulated, and how UVR8 regulates transcription of its target genes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

White C.D.,University of Glasgow
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We confirm recently proposed theorems for the structure of next-to-soft corrections in gauge and gravity theories using diagrammatic techniques, first developed for use in QCD phenomenology. Our aim is to provide a useful alternative insight into the next-to-soft theorems, including tools that may be useful for further study. We also shed light on a recently observed double copy relation between next-to-soft corrections in the gauge and gravity cases. © 2014.

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