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The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. The university was founded in 1451 and is often ranked in the world's top 100 universities in tables compiled by various bodies. In 2013, Glasgow moved to its highest ever position, placing 51st in the world and 9th in the UK in the QS World University Rankings.In common with universities of the pre-modern era, Glasgow educated students primarily from wealthy backgrounds, but was also, with the University of Edinburgh, a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment during the 18th century. The University became a pioneer in British higher education in the 19th century by also providing for the needs of students from the growing urban and commercial middle classes. Glasgow served all of these students by preparing them for professions: the law, medicine, civil service, teaching, and the church. It also trained smaller but growing numbers for careers in science and engineering. In 2007, the Sunday Times ranked it as "Scottish University of the Year." The university is a member of the Russell Group which represents the highest-ranked public research-based universities in the UK. It is also a member of Universitas 21, the international network of research universities.Originally located in the city's High Street, since 1870 the main University campus has been located at Gilmorehill in the West End of the city. Additionally, a number of university buildings are located elsewhere, such as the University Marine Biological Station Millport on the Island of Cumbrae in the Firth of Clyde and the Crichton Campus in Dumfries.Glasgow has departments of Law, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, and Dentistry. Its submission to the most recent UK university research assessment was one of the broadest in the UK. Glasgow's financial endowment is the fifth largest among UK universities.Alumni or former staff of the University include philosopher Francis Hutcheson, engineer James Watt, economist Adam Smith, physicist Lord Kelvin, surgeon Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, seven Nobel laureates, two British Prime Ministers, several leaders of Britain's and Scotland's major political parties, and numerous leading figures from legal, scientific and business professions. Entry to the university is highly competitive; applications for each place on many of its courses run into double figures, and successful entrants have on average almost 485 UCAS points. This ranks as the 11th highest among UK higher education institutions . Wikipedia.

Azzopardi L.,University of Glasgow
SIGIR 2014 - Proceedings of the 37th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval | Year: 2014

Understanding how people interact when searching is central to the study of Interactive Information Retrieval (IIR). Most of the prior work has either been conceptual, observational or empirical. While this has led to numerous insights and findings regarding the interaction between users and systems, the theory has lagged behind. In this paper, we extend the recently proposed search economic theory to make the model more realistic. We then derive eight interaction based hypotheses regarding search behaviour. To validate the model, we explore whether the search behaviour of thirty-six participants from a lab based study is consistent with the theory. Our analysis shows that observed search behaviours are in line with predicted search behaviours and that it is possible to provide credible explanations for such behaviours. This work describes a concise and compact representation of search behaviour providing a strong theoretical basis for future IIR research. Copyright 2014 ACM.

Bulloch J.M.,University of West of Scotland | Daly C.J.,University of Glasgow
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

The evidence describing the autonomic innervation of body fat is reviewed with a particular focus on the role of the sympathetic neurotransmitters. In compiling the evidence, a strong case emerges for the interaction between autonomic nerves and perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). Adipocytes have been shown to express receptors for neurotransmitters released from nearby sympathetic varicosities such as adrenoceptors (ARs), purinoceptors and receptors for neuropeptide Y (NPY). Noradrenaline can modulate both lipolysis (via α2- and β3-ARs) and lipogenesis (via α1- and β3-ARs). ATP can inhibit lipolysis (via P1 purinoceptors) or stimulate lipolysis (via P2y purinoceptors). NPY, which can be produced by adipocytes and sympathetic nerves, inhibits lipolysis. Thus the sympathetic triad of transmitters can influence adipocyte free fatty acid (FFA) content. Substance P (SP) released from sensory nerves has also been shown to promote lipolysis. Therefore, we propose a mechanism whereby sympathetic neurotransmission can simultaneously activate smooth muscle cells in the tunica media to cause vasoconstriction and alter FFA content and release from adjacent adipocytes in PVAT. The released FFA can influence endothelial function. Adipocytes also release a range of vasoactive substances, both relaxing and contractile factors, including adiponectin and reactive oxygen species. The action of adipokines (such as adiponectin) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cells of the vascular adventitia and nerves has yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesise a strong link between PVAT and autonomic fibres and suggest that this poorly understood relationship is extremely important for normal vascular function and warrants a detailed study. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Jenkins G.I.,University of Glasgow
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2014

UVR8 is a UV-B photoreceptor that employs specific tryptophans in its primary sequence as chromophores in photoreception. UV-B absorption causes dissociation of the dimeric photoreceptor by neutralizing interactions between monomers. The monomeric form initiates signalling through interaction with the COP1 protein, leading to transcriptional responses. This article discusses the structural basis of UVR8 function, highlighting recent research on the mechanism of photoreception and on interactions with other proteins involved in signalling and regulation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Gatherer D.,Lancaster University | Kohl A.,University of Glasgow
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2016

Zika virus (family Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by the mid-twentieth century. In the twenty-first century, it spread across the Pacific islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly have appeared recently. The final geographical range and ultimate clinical impact of Zika virus are still a matter for speculation. © 2016 The Authors.

Cooper A.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2010

Protein unfolding in aqueous solution is usually accompanied by an increase in heat capacity (Cp), and this has long been regarded as somewhat anomalous. However, neither the absolute heat capacities (Cp) of folded globular proteins nor the heat capacity increments upon unfolding (C p) are unusual in comparison to values observed for order-disorder (melting) transitions in other organic substances. The consequences for protein stability, including cold denaturation, enthalpy-entropy compensation, and the temperature of maximum stability, may seem counterintuitive but should not be unexpected. Nevertheless, while perhaps not so anomalous as once thought, quantitative interpretation of protein heat capacity and related effects remains a theoretical challenge. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

O'Shaughnessy P.J.,University of Glasgow
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2014

Spermatogenesis is completely dependent on the pituitary hormone follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androgens locally produced in response to luteinising hormone (LH). This dual control has been known since the 1930s and 1940s but more recent work, particularly using transgenic mice, has allowed us to determine which parts of the spermatogenic pathway are regulated by each hormone. During the first spermatogenic cycle after puberty both FSH and androgen act to limit the massive wave of germ cell apoptosis which occurs at this time. The established role of FSH in all cycles is to increase spermatogonial and subsequent spermatocyte numbers with a likely effect also on spermiation. Mice lacking FSH or its receptor are fertile, albeit with reduced germ cell numbers, and so this hormone is not an essential regulator of spermatogenesis but acts to optimise germ cell production Androgens also appear to regulate spermatogonial proliferation but, crucially, they are also required to allow spermatocytes to complete meiosis and form spermatids. Animals lacking androgen receptors fail to generate post-meiotic germ cells, therefore, and are infertile. There is also strong evidence that androgens act to ensure appropriate spermiation of mature spermatids. Androgen regulation of spermatogenesis is dependent upon action on the Sertoli cell but recent studies have shown that androgenic stimulation of the peritubular myoid cells is also essential for normal germ cells development. While FSH or androgen alone will both stimulate germ cell development, together they act synergistically to maximise germ cell number. The other hormones/local factors which can regulate spermatogenesis include activins and estrogens although their role in normal physiological regulation of this process needs to be more clearly established. Regulation of spermatogenesis in primates appears to be similar to that in rodents although the role of FSH may be greater. While our knowledge of hormone function during spermatogenesis is now well developed we still lack understanding of the mechanisms by which these hormones act to regulate this process. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

York C.B.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2010

Benchmark stacking sequence configurations with up to 21 plies are presented for laminates with properties similar to conventional materials, and against which new forms of coupled laminate behavior can be assessed. The benchmark configurations include fully uncoupled extensionally isotropic laminates and fully isotropic laminates, together with a special class of uncoupled laminate, possessing matching elastic properties in both extension and bending; more commonly referred to as a quasi-homogeneous orthotropic laminate. The concept of an equivalent isotropic laminate is also introduced as a universally applicable datum, useful for characterization of ply number groupings for which no benchmark configurations exist. Most of the benchmark configurations are found to possess nonsymmetric stacking sequences, which also serves to demonstrate that stacking sequence symmetry is neither sufficient nor necessary for fully uncoupled laminate designs. Finally, dimensionless parameters are provided for each stacking sequence, from which the ABD matrix is shown to be readily derived. © 2010 ASCE.

Leslie W.S.,University of Glasgow
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2011

As a population subgroup, older people are more vulnerable to malnutrition especially those who are institutionalised. Recognition of deteriorating or poor nutritional status is key in reversing the effects of undernutrition and reinforces the value of regular weight checks and/or the use of screening tools. Commercially produced supplements are often the first option used to address undernutrition in both acute and community settings. They can be expensive and, although regularly prescribed, have undergone only limited evaluation of their effectiveness in community settings. An alternative but less researched approach to improve the nutritional status of undernourished people is food fortification. This approach may be particularly useful for older people, given their often small appetites. The ability to eat independently has been significantly related to decreased risk of undernutrition. Assisting people who have difficulty feeding themselves independently should become a designated duty and may be crucial in optimising nutritional status. Lack of nutrition knowledge has been identified as the greatest barrier to the provision of good nutritional care. Education and training of care staff are pivotal for the success of any intervention to address undernutrition. The development of undernutrition is a multi-factorial process and a package of approaches may be required to prevent or treat undernutrition. Nutrition must be at the forefront of care if national care standards are to be met. © The Author 2011.

Miras H.N.,University of Glasgow
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2014

Molecular chalcoxides (chalcoPOMs; POMs=polyoxometalates), a recently discovered new family of compounds with well-defined building block attributes, are discussed in terms of developing new functional materials. This is because the combination of sulfur-containing metallo-dimers with highly condensed metallo-oxo units allows the assembly of new clusters with hybrid properties intermediate between those of polyoxometalates and chalcogenides. Moreover, the prospect that the molecular chalcoxides could be excellent new models for a better understanding of chalcogenide's functionality, as well as promising candidates for the development of new functional molecule-based or composite nanomaterials, is proposed. The concepts that support my aim for further development of the new family of molecular chalcoxides as functional materials and my vision for their potential implications in the materials chemistry are discussed. The features and the prospects of the new family of molecular chalcoxides (chalcoPOMs; POMs=polyoxometalates) are discussed. Based on building block principles, the potential for rational design of a fundamentally new set of modular functional compounds with implications in chalcogenide chemistry and materials science is explored (see figure). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

McMillan T.,University of Glasgow
Nature Reviews Neurology | Year: 2016

The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was first published in 1975 by Bryan Jennett and Michael Bond. With over 4,000 citations to the original paper, it is the most highly cited outcome measure in studies of brain injury and the second most-cited paper in clinical neurosurgery. The original GOS and the subsequently developed extended GOS (GOSE) are recommended by several national bodies as the outcome measure for major trauma and for head injury. The enduring appeal of the GOS is linked to its simplicity, short administration time, reliability and validity, stability, flexibility of administration (face-to-face, over the telephone and by post), cost-free availability and ease of access. These benefits apply to other derivatives of the scale, including the Glasgow Outcome at Discharge Scale (GODS) and the GOS paediatric revision. The GOS was devised to provide an overview of outcome and to focus on social recovery. Since the initial development of the GOS, there has been an increasing focus on the multidimensional nature of outcome after head injury. This Review charts the development of the GOS, its refinement and usage over the past 40 years, and considers its current and future roles in developing an understanding of brain injury. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

This paper describes how shaded contour plots, applied to mortality data from the Human Mortality Database, can be used to compare between nations, and start to tease out some of the ways that place and space matters. A number of shaded contour plots are presented, in order to describe the age, period and cohort effects which are apparent within them. They show variations between different subpopulations within the same nation, over time, and between nations. In illustrating these intra- and international variations in the patterns, we hope to encourage the development of hypotheses about the influence of such factors on mortality rates. We conclude with a brief discussion about how such hypotheses might be developed into statistical models, allowing for more rigourous testing of hypotheses and projection across time, place and space. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

McMurray J.J.V.,University of Glasgow
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

A 74-year-old man with a history of hypertension and myocardial infarction that occurred 5 years previously presents with breathlessness on exertion. His current medications include a statin and aspirin. On examination, his pulse is 76 beats per minute and regular, and his blood pressure is 121/74 mm Hg. There is jugular venous distention, lateral displacement of the apex beat, and edema in his lower limbs. The lung examination is normal. An echocardiogram shows left ventricular dilatation, globally reduced contractility, and an ejection fraction of 33%. How should his case be managed? Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Hersh M.A.,University of Glasgow
Technology and Disability | Year: 2013

This paper draws on interviews with 27 deafblind people and the mother of an autistic deafblind woman carried out as part of a larger research project on travel issues for blind, partially sighted and deafblind people to investigate and report on issues related to the use of communication and mobility assistive devices, in particular long canes, guide dogs, hearing aids and wheelchairs. The interviewees came from six different countries and both similarities and differences were found between the experiences in the different countries. One of the main themes that arose in the context of the use of these devices was stigmatisation. This is already frequently a problem for deafblind people due to the additive or multiplicative effects of what could be seen as two distinct impairments. Consequently actual experiences or fears of being stigmatised as a result of using assistive devices led to some deafblind people who might benefit from these devices not using them. This generally makes them more dependent on other people for personal assistance and may reduce their quality of life, as such assistance is not always available. However, deafblind people are as diverse as any other population group and many of the interviewees used communication and mobility assistive devices and considered their benefits to outweigh any possible stigmatisation. Several of the interviewees used several assistive devices and had found some of them easier to accept than others. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Page R.D.M.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Web Semantics | Year: 2010

Although the Web has transformed science publishing, scientific papers themselves are still essentially "black boxes", with much of their content intended for human readers only. Typically, computer-readable metadata associated with an article is limited to bibliographic details. By expanding article metadata to include taxonomic names, identifiers for cited material (e.g., publications, sequences, specimens, and other data), and geographical coordinates, publishers could greatly increase the scientific value of their digital content. At the same time this will provide novel ways for users to discover and navigate through this content, beyond the relatively limited linkage provided by bibliographic citation. As a proof of concept, my entry in the Elsevier Grand Challenge extracted extended metadata from a set of articles from the journal Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution and used it to populate an entity-attribute-value database. A simple web interface to this database enables an enhanced display of the content of an article, including a map of localities mentioned either explicitly or implicitly (through links to geotagged data), taxonomic coverage, and both data and citation links. Metadata extraction was limited to information listed in tables in the articles, such as GenBank sequences and specimen codes. The body of the article was not used, a restriction that was deliberate to demonstrate that making extended metadata available does not require a journal's publisher to make the full-text freely available (although this is desirable for other reasons). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Baskerville T.A.,University of Glasgow | Douglas A.J.,University of Edinburgh
CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Dopamine is an important neuromodulator that exerts widespread effects on the central nervous system (CNS) function. Disruption in dopaminergic neurotransmission can have profound effects on mood and behavior and as such is known to be implicated in various neuropsychiatric behavioral disorders including autism and depression. The subsequent effects on other neurocircuitries due to dysregulated dopamine function have yet to be fully explored. Due to the marked social deficits observed in psychiatric patients, the neuropeptide, oxytocin is emerging as one particular neural substrate that may be influenced by the altered dopamine levels subserving neuropathologic- related behavioral diseases. Oxytocin has a substantial role in social attachment, affiliation and sexual behavior. More recently, it has emerged that disturbances in peripheral and central oxytocin levels have been detected in some patients with dopamine-dependent disorders. Thus, oxytocin is proposed to be a key neural substrate that interacts with central dopamine systems. In addition to psychosocial improvement, oxytocin has recently been implicated in mediating mesolimbic dopamine pathways during drug addiction and withdrawal. This bi-directional role of dopamine has also been implicated during some components of sexual behavior. This review will discuss evidence for the existence dopamine/oxytocin positive interaction in social behavioral paradigms and associated disorders such as sexual dysfunction, autism, addiction, anorexia/bulimia, and depression. Preliminary findings suggest that whilst further rigorous testing has to be conducted to establish a dopamine/oxytocin link in human disorders, animal models seem to indicate the existence of broad and integrated brain circuits where dopamine and oxytocin interactions at least in part mediate socio-affiliative behaviors. A profound disruption to these pathways is likely to underpin associated behavioral disorders. Central oxytocin pathways may serve as a potential therapeutic target to improve mood and socio-affiliative behaviors in patients with profound social deficits and/or drug addiction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Rodgers J.,University of Glasgow
Parasitology | Year: 2010

Neurological involvement following trypanosome infection has been recognised for over a century. However, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the mechanisms used by the parasite to gain entry to the CNS and the pathogenesis of the resulting neuroinflammatory reaction. There is a paucity of material from human cases of the disease therefore the majority of current research relies on the use of animal models of trypanosome infection. This review reports contemporary knowledge, from both animal models and human samples, regarding parasite invasion of the CNS and the neuropathological changes that accompany trypanosome infection and disease progression. The effects of trypanosomes on the blood-brain barrier are discussed and possible key molecules in parasite penetration of the barrier highlighted. Changes in the balance of CNS cytokines and chemokines are also described. The article closes by summarising the effects of trypanosome infection on the circadian sleep-wake cycle, and sleep structure, in relation to neuroinflammation and parasite location within the CNS. Although a great deal of progress has been made in recent years, the advent and application of sophisticated analysis techniques, to decipher the complexities of HAT pathogenesis, herald an exciting and rewarding period for advances in trypanosome research. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Tanner K.E.,University of Glasgow
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine | Year: 2010

One of the major challenges for bone tissue engineering is the production of a suitable scaffold material. In this review the currently available composite material options are considered and the methods of production and assessing the scaffolds are also discussed. The production routes range from the use of porogens to produce the porosity through to controlled deposition methods. The testing regimes include mechanical testing of the produced materials through to in vivo testing of the scaffolds. While the ideal scaffold material has not yet been produced, progress is being made. © 2010 Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Huntingford F.A.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2012

During the past 40 years many new techniques have emerged that have been pivotal in furthering understanding of the physiology of fish behaviour. Behavioural studies have been enhanced by video recording systems and software for computerized event recording analysis, fine scale anatomical studies by fluorescence confocal microscopy, neurophysiological studies by visualisation and neuroendocrinology with techniques for identifying, localizing and quantifying many neurochemicals within the central nervous system. This array of approaches has been complemented by developments in molecular biology that include the ability to monitor expression profiles for known genes in specific neural structures and within the whole transcriptome. This article explores how the deployment of new techniques during the last four decades has advanced the understanding of two extensively studied systems. The first of these is the fast-start escape response, concentrating on work on goldfish Carassius auratus and zebrafish Danio rerio. The second is the link between social experience and neuroendocrinology and how this relates to life-history traits in the cichlid Burton's mouthbrooder Astatotilapia burtoni. These two case studies are then used to explore the extent to which the behaviour of animals can be explained in terms of underlying physiological mechanisms. © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Tanner K.E.,University of Glasgow
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2010

Biomaterials have been used to repair the human body for millennia, but it is only since the 1970s that man-made composites have been used. Hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced polyethylene (PE) is the first of the 'second-generation' biomaterials that have been developed to be bioactive rather than bioinert. The mechanical properties have been characterized using quasi-static, fatigue, creep and fracture toughness testing, and these studies have allowed optimization of the production method. The in vitro and in vivo biological properties have been investigated with a range of filler content and have shown that the presence of sufficient bioactive filler leads to a bioactive composite. Finally, the material has been applied clinically, initially in the orbital floor and later in the middle ear. From this initial combination of HA in PE other bioactive ceramic polymer composites have been developed. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Gould G.W.,University of Glasgow
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2015

In animal cells, cytokinesis is characterised by the formation of the mitotic spindle that signals the assembly of an actomyosin ring between the spindle poles. Contraction of this ring drives ingression of the cleavage furrow, and culminates in the formation of a thin intercellular bridge between the daughter cells. At the centre of this bridge is the midbody, which is thought both to provide a site of attachment for the plasma membrane furrow and act as foci for the spatial and temporal control mechanisms that drive abscission. This review will focus upon recent studies that offer new insight into these events, in particular studies that elaborate on the mechanism of attachment between the furrow plasma membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton, and how dynamic changes in membrane composition might underpin key aspects of cytokinesis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Wlodkowic D.,University of Auckland | Cooper J.M.,University of Glasgow
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2010

Despite over 2 million papers published on cancer so far, malignancy still remains a puzzlingly complex disease with overall low survival rates. Expanding our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of malignancy and of resistance to therapy is crucial in guiding the successful design of anti-cancer drugs and new point-of-care diagnostics. The up-and-coming microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technology and micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) are arguably the most promising platforms to address the inherent complexity of cellular systems with massive experimental parallelization and 4D analysis on a single cell level. This review discusses the emerging applications of microfluidic technologies and their advantages for cancer biology and experimental oncology. We also summarize the recent advances in miniaturized systems to study cancer cell microenvironment, cancer cytomics, and real-time (4D) pharmacological screening. Microfabricated systems, such as cell microarrays, together with on-chip label-less cytometry, and micro-sorting technologies, are all highlighted with the view of describing their potential applications in pharmacological screening, drug discovery, and clinical oncology. It is envisaged that microfluidic solutions may well represent the platform of choice for next generation in vitro cancer models. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

McInnes I.B.,University of Glasgow | Buckley C.D.,University of Birmingham | Isaacs J.D.,Northumbria University
Nature Reviews Rheumatology | Year: 2016

Cytokine-mediated pathways are central to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this short Opinion article is to briefly overview the roles of cytokine families in the various phases and tissue compartments of this disease. In particular, we consider the combinatorial role played by cytokines in mediating the overlapping innate and adaptive immune responses associated with disease onset and persistence, and also those cytokine pathways that, in turn, drive the stromal response that is critical for tissue localization and associated articular damage. The success of cytokine inhibition in the clinic is also considerable, not only in offering remarkable therapeutic advances, but also in defining the hierarchical position of distinct cytokines in RA pathogenesis, especially IL-6 and TNF. This hierarchy, in turn, promises to lead to the description of meaningful clinical endotypes and the consequent possibility of therapeutic stratification in future. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Pooled analysis of individual patient data from stroke trials can deliver more precise estimates of treatment effect, enhance power to examine prespecified subgroups, and facilitate exploration of treatment-modifying influences. Analysis plans should be declared, and preferably published, before trial results are known. For pooling trials that used diverse analytic approaches, an ordinal analysis is favored, with justification for considering deaths and severe disability jointly. Because trial pooling is an incremental process, analyses should follow a sequential approach, with statistical adjustment for iterations. Updated analyses should be published when revised conclusions have a clinical implication. However, caution is recommended in declaring pooled findings that may prejudice ongoing trials, unless clinical implications are compelling. All contributing trial teams should contribute to leadership, data verification, and authorship of pooled analyses. Development work is needed to enable reliable inferences to be drawn about individual drug or device effects that contribute to a pooled analysis, versus a class effect, if the treatment strategy combines ≥2 such drugs or devices. Despite the practical challenges, pooled analyses are powerful and essential tools in interpreting clinical trial findings and advancing clinical care. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

Leuenberger S.,University of Glasgow
Inquiry (United Kingdom) | Year: 2014

The elucidations and regimentations of grounding offered in the literature standardly take it to be a necessary connection. In particular, authors often assert, or at least assume, that if some facts ground another fact, then the obtaining of the former necessitates the latter; and moreover, that grounding is an internal relation, in the sense of being necessitated by the existence of the relata. In this article, I challenge the necessitarian orthodoxy about grounding by offering two prima facie counterexamples. First, some physical facts may ground a certain phenomenal fact without necessitating it; and they may co-exist with the latter without grounding it. Second, some instantiations of categorical properties may ground the instantiation of a dispositional one without necessitating it; and they may co-exist without grounding it. After arguing that these may be genuine counterexamples, I ask whether there are modal constraints on grounding that are not threatened by them. I propose two: that grounding supervenes on what facts there are, and that every grounded fact supervenes on what grounds there are. Finally, I attempt to provide a rigorous formulation of the latter supervenience claim and discuss some technical questions that arise if we allow descending grounding chains of transfinite length. © 2013 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

Senn S.,University of Glasgow
Biometrical Journal | Year: 2010

Some personal remarks about Hans van Houwelingen's approach to biostatistics in general are followed by a discussion of his article with Koos Zwinderman and Theo Stijnen outlining a bivariate approach to meta-analysis. It is concluded that this is more radical than many may realise in that it permits inter-trial information to be recovered. This has some advantages but in theory opens the door to bias. It is concluded that in practice the size of this bias is likely to be small. I end with some further personal remarks to Hans. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Metabolomics can provide exciting insights into organismal function, but most work on simple models has focussed on the whole organism metabolome, so missing the contributions of individual tissues. Comprehensive metabolite profiles for ten tissues from adult Drosophila melanogaster were obtained here by two chromatographic methods, a hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) method for polar metabolites and a lipid profiling method also based on HILIC, in combination with an Orbitrap Exactive instrument. Two hundred and forty two polar metabolites were putatively identified in the various tissues, and 251 lipids were observed in positive ion mode and 61 in negative ion mode. Although many metabolites were detected in all tissues, every tissue showed characteristically abundant metabolites which could be rationalised against specific tissue functions. For example, the cuticle contained high levels of glutathione, reflecting a role in oxidative defence; the alimentary canal (like vertebrate gut) had high levels of acylcarnitines for fatty acid metabolism, and the head contained high levels of ether lipids. The male accessory gland uniquely contained decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine. These data thus both provide valuable insights into tissue function, and a reference baseline, compatible with the FlyAtlas.org transcriptomic resource, for further metabolomic analysis of this important model organism, for example in the modelling of human inborn errors of metabolism, aging or metabolic imbalances such as diabetes.

Reilly J.J.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2010

This review summarises recent systematic reviews and evidence-based guidelines that deal with the issue of how best to diagnose or define obesity in children and adolescents. A recent systematic review showed that parents typically fail to recognise obesity in their children and adolescents, and a good deal of other evidence suggests that health professionals under-diagnose obesity in children and adolescents when using informal methods based on observation. There is therefore a need for practical, objective, methods that both identify the fattest children and adolescents adequately, and identify those who are at greatest risk of the 'co-morbidities' of obesity. A large body of consistent evidence shows that a high body mass index (BMI) for age and sex identifies the fattest children adequately, with low-moderate false negative rate and a low false positive rate. Furthermore, children and adolescents at high BMI for age are at much greater risk of the co-morbidities of obesity. A recent systematic review found that the use of BMI for age with national reference data and cut-off points (such as the 95th percentile to define obesity) was superior to the Cole-International Obesity Task Force international approach for defining obesity based on BMI for age. The same systematic review also found no evidence that use of waist circumference for age improved the diagnosis of obesity, or the cardio-metabolic co-morbidities of obesity, in children and adolescents. Recent systematic reviews are therefore supportive of current guidelines that recommend percentile-based cut-offs relative to national reference data to (e.g. BMI at or above the 95th or 98th percentile in the UK) to define obesity for clinical applications in children and adolescents. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

Rupp A.,University of Glasgow
Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS | Year: 2013

Acute canine polyradiculoneuritis (ACP) is considered to be the canine equivalent of the human peripheral nerve disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS); an aetiological relationship, however, remains to be demonstrated. In GBS, anti-glycolipid antibodies (Abs) are considered as important disease mediators. To address the possibility of common Ab biomarkers, the sera of 25 ACP dogs, 19 non-neurological, and 15 epileptic control dogs were screened for IgG Abs to 10 glycolipids and their 1 : 1 heteromeric complexes using combinatorial glycoarrays. Anti-GM2 ganglioside Abs were detected in 14/25 ACP dogs, and anti-GA1 Abs in one further dog. All controls except for one were negative for anti-glycolipid Abs. In this cohort of cases and controls, the glycoarray screen reached a diagnostic sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 97%; a lower sensitivity (32%) was reported using a conventional glycolipid ELISA. To address the possible pathogenic role for anti-GM2 Abs in ACP, we identified GM2 in canine sciatic nerve by both mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography overlay. In immunohistological studies, GM2 was localized predominantly to the abaxonal Schwann cell membrane. The presence of anti-GM2 Abs in ACP suggests that it may share a similar pathophysiology with GBS, for which it could thus be considered a naturally occurring animal model. © 2013 Peripheral Nerve Society.

Pabst O.,Hannover Medical School | Mowat A.M.,University of Glasgow
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2012

Oral tolerance is the state of local and systemic immune unresponsiveness that is induced by oral administration of innocuous antigen such as food proteins. An analogous but more local process also regulates responses to commensal bacteria in the large intestine and, together, mucosally induced tolerance appears to prevent intestinal disorders such as food allergy, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we discuss the anatomical basis of antigen uptake and recognition in oral tolerance and highlight possible mechanisms underlying the immunosuppression. We propose a model of stepwise induction of oral tolerance in which specialized populations of mucosal dendritic cells and the unique microenvironment of draining mesenteric lymph nodes combine to generate regulatory T cells that undergo subsequent expansion in the small intestinal lamina propria. The local and systemic effects of these regulatory T cells prevent potentially dangerous hypersensitivity reactions to harmless antigens derived from the intestine and hence are crucial players in immune homeostasis. © 2012 Society for Mucosal Immunology.

Public and private organisations are investing increasing amounts into the development of healthcare software. These applications are perceived to offer numerous benefits. Software systems can improve the exchange of information between healthcare facilities. They support standardized procedures that can help to increase consistency between different service providers. Electronic patient records ensure minimum standards across the trajectory of care when patients move between different specializations. Healthcare information systems also offer economic benefits through efficiency savings; for example by providing the data that helps to identify potential bottlenecks in the provision and administration of care. However, a number of high-profile failures reveal the safety concerns that arise when staff must cope with the loss of these applications. In particular, teams have to retrieve paper based records that often lack the detail of electronic systems. Individuals who have only used electronic information systems face particular problems in learning how to apply paper-based fallbacks. The following pages compare two different failures of healthcare information systems in the UK and North America. The intention is to ensure that future initiatives to extend the integration of electronic patient records will build on the 'lessons learned' from previous systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Boocock M.R.,University of Glasgow | Rice P.A.,University of Chicago
Mobile DNA | Year: 2013

Background: The transposases encoded by the IS607 family of mobile elements are unusual serine recombinases with an inverted domain order and minimal specificity for target DNA. Results: Structural genomics groups have determined three crystal structures of the catalytic domains of IS607 family transposases. The dimers formed by these catalytic domains are very different from those seen for other serine recombinases and include interactions that usually only occur upon formation of a synaptic tetramer. Conclusions: Based on these structures, we propose a model for how IS607-family transposases could form a synaptic tetramer. The model suggests that, unlike other serine recombinases, these enzymes carry out sequence-specific DNA binding and catalysis in trans: the DNA binding and catalytic domains of each subunit are proposed to interact with different DNA duplexes. The model also suggests an explanation for the minimal target DNA specificity. ©2013 Boocock and Rice; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Craig N.,Institute for Advanced Study | Craig N.,Rutgers University | Englert C.,University of Glasgow | McCullough M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Any new scalar fields that perturbatively solve the hierarchy problem by stabilizing the Higgs boson mass also generate new contributions to the Higgs boson field-strength renormalization, irrespective of their gauge representation. These new contributions are physical, and in explicit models their magnitude can be inferred from the requirement of quadratic divergence cancellation; hence, they are directly related to the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Upon canonically normalizing the Higgs field, these new contributions lead to modifications of Higgs couplings that are typically great enough that the hierarchy problem and the concept of electroweak naturalness can be probed thoroughly within a precision Higgs boson program. Specifically, at a lepton collider this can be achieved through precision measurements of the Higgs boson associated production cross section. This would lead to indirect constraints on perturbative solutions to the hierarchy problem in the broadest sense, even if the relevant new fields are gauge singlets. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Baggaley A.W.,University of Glasgow | Laizet S.,Imperial College London
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2013

Superfluid helium is an intimate mixture of a viscous normal fluid, with continuous vorticity, and an inviscid superfluid, where vorticity is constrained to thin, stable topological defects. One mechanism to generate turbulence in this system is through the application of a heat flux, so-called thermal counterflow. Of particular interest is how turbulence in the superfluid responds to both a laminar and turbulent normal fluid in the presence of walls. We model superfluid vortex lines as reconnecting space curves with fixed circulation, and consider both laminar (Poiseuille) and turbulent normal fluid flows in a channel configuration. Using high resolution numerical simulations we show that turbulence in the normal fluid sustains a notably higher vortex line density than a laminar flow with the same mean flow rate. We examine Vinen's relation, L=γvns, between the steady state vortex line density L and the counterflow velocity vns. Our results support the hypothesis that transition to turbulence in the normal fluid is responsible for the TI to TII transition. We also consider the spectral properties of fluctuations of the superfluid vortices, which show a good agreement with previous experimental results. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Jardine A.G.,University of Glasgow | Gaston R.S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Fellstrom B.C.,Uppsala University | Holdaas H.,University of Oslo
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Although advances in immunosuppression, tissue typing, surgery, and medical management have made transplantation a routine and preferred treatment for patients with irreversible renal failure, successful transplant recipients have a greatly increased risk of premature mortality because of cardiovascular disease and malignancy compared with the general population. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, and diabetes are common in transplant recipients, partly because of the effects of immunosuppressive drugs, and are associated with adverse outcomes. However, the natural history of cardiovascular disease in such recipients differs from that in the general population, and only statin therapy has been studied in a large-scale interventional trial. Thus, the management of this disease and the balance between management of conventional risk factors and modification of immunosuppression is complex. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Bulleid N.J.,University of Glasgow
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

The recently solved crystal structure of the procollagen C propeptide reveals the basis for chain selectivity as well as an unexpected asymmetry to this homotrimeric molecule. In addition, mapping disease-causing mutations to the structure demonstrates clear correlation between severity of disease and mutation location. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mischak H.,University of Glasgow
Proteomics - Clinical Applications | Year: 2012

Clinical proteomics is defined as application of proteome analysis aiming at improving the current clinical situation. As such, the success of clinical proteomics should be assessed based on the clinical impact following implementation of the findings. While we have experienced significant technological advancements in mass spectrometry in the last years, based on the above measure, this has not at all resulted in similar advancements in clinical proteomics. Although a large number of proteomic biomarkers have been described, most of them were not subsequently validated, and certainly have had no impact in clinical decision making as yet. Under the current conditions, it appears likely that the situation will not change significantly: we will be flooded by reports on biomarkers, but not see any implementation. In this article, some key issues in proteomic biomarker research are pinpointed, based on the experience with CE-MS, likely also holding true for biomarkers resulting from other analysis domains. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

White C.D.,University of Glasgow
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We apply recently developed path integral resummation methods to perturbative quantum gravity. In particular, we provide supporting evidence that eikonal graviton amplitudes factorize into hard and soft parts, and confirm a recent hypothesis that soft gravitons are modelled by vacuum expectation values of products of certain Wilson line operators, which differ for massless and massive particles. We also investigate terms which break this factorization, and find that they are subleading with respect to the eikonal amplitude. The results may help in understanding the connections between gravity and gauge theories in more detail, as well as in studying gravitational radiation beyond the eikonal approximation. © SISSA 2011.

Robinson S.W.,A-Life Medical | Herzyk P.,United Medical Systems | Herzyk P.,University of Glasgow | Dow J.A.T.,United Medical Systems | Leader D.P.,A-Life Medical
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

The FlyAtlas resource contains data on the expression of the genes of Drosophila melanogaster in different tissues (currently 25-17 adult and 8 larval) obtained by hybridization of messenger RNA to Affymetrix Drosophila Genome 2 microarrays. The microarray probe sets cover 13250 Drosophila genes, detecting 12533 in an unambiguous manner. The data underlying the original web application (http://flyatlas.org) have been restructured into a relational database and a Java servlet written to provide a new web interface, FlyAtlas 2 (http://flyatlas.gla.ac.uk/), which allows several additional queries. Users can retrieve data for individual genes or for groups of genes belonging to the same or related ontological categories. Assistance in selecting valid search terms is provided by an Ajax 'autosuggest' facility that polls the database as the user types. Searches can also focus on particular tissues, and data can be retrieved for the most highly expressed genes, for genes of a particular category with above-average expression or for genes with the greatest difference in expression between the larval and adult stages. A novel facility allows the database to be queried with a specific gene to find other genes with a similar pattern of expression across the different tissues. © The Author(s) 2012.

Bulleid N.J.,University of Glasgow
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2012

The formation of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues occurs during the folding of many proteins that enter the secretory pathway. As the polypeptide chain collapses, cysteines brought into proximity can form covalent linkages during a process catalyzed by members of the protein disulfide isomerase family. There are multiple pathways in mammalian cells to ensure disulfides are introduced into proteins. Common requirements for this process include a disulfide exchange protein and a protein oxidase capable of forming disulfides de novo. In addition, any incorrect disulfides formed during the normal folding pathway are removed in a process involving disulfide exchange. The pathway for the reduction of disulfides remains poorly characterized. This work will cover the current knowledge in the field and discuss areas for future investigation. © 2012 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Farrugia L.J.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2012

The WinGX suite provides a complete set of programs for the treatment of small-molecule single-crystal diffraction data, from data reduction and processing, structure solution, model refinement and visualization, and metric analysis of molecular geometry and crystal packing, to final report preparation in the form of a CIF. It includes several well known pieces of software and provides a repository for programs when the original authors no longer wish to, or are unable to, maintain them. It also provides menu items to execute external software, such as the SIR and SHELX suites of programs. The program ORTEP for Windows provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for the classic ORTEP program, which is the original software for the illustration of anisotropic displacement ellipsoids. The GUI code provides input capabilities for a wide variety of file formats, and extra functionality such as geometry calculations and ray-traced outputs. The programs WinGX and ORTEP for Windows have been distributed over the internet for about 15 years, and this article describes some of the more modern features of the programs. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography. Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved.

Philo C.,University of Glasgow
History of Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Asylums and cemeteries in nineteenth-century England were kindred spirits in the anxiety and exclusionary impulses that they engendered, leading them to be similarly exiled from nineteenth-century urban areas. They were uneasy 'neighbours', however, with contemporary authorities condemning the proximity of cemeteries to asylums on medical and moral grounds. The appearance at many asylums after mid-century of a burial-ground for deceased residents, usually located on an asylum's own estate, was often criticized on grounds similar to those raised with respect to neighbouring parochial burial-grounds. Other objections arose to the 'exclusivity' of asylum-based burials, with off-site burial arrangements clearly being favoured. One consequence was that on-site asylum cemeteries ended up being treated as unwelcome occupants of asylum estates, hidden away as an embarrassment, creating a legacy of anonymity still generating concerns in the present. © SAGE Publications 2012.

Lopatovska I.,Pratt SILS | Arapakis I.,University of Glasgow
Information Processing and Management | Year: 2011

Emotions are an integral component of all human activities, including human-computer interactions. This article reviews literature on the theories of emotions, methods for studying emotions, and their role in human information behaviour. It also examines current research on emotions in library and information science, information retrieval and human-computer interaction, and outlines some of the challenges and directions for future work. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Geislinger T.M.,University of Augsburg | Franke T.,University of Augsburg | Franke T.,University of Glasgow
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2014

Hydrodynamic lift forces acting on cells and particles in fluid flow receive ongoing attention from medicine, mathematics, physics and engineering. The early findings of Fåhræus & Lindqvist on the viscosity change of blood with the diameter of capillaries motivated extensive studies both experimentally and theoretically to illuminate the underlying physics. We review this historical development that led to the discovery of the inertial and non-inertial lift forces and elucidate the origins of these forces that are still not entirely clear. Exploiting microfluidic techniques induced a tremendous amount of new insights especially into the more complex interactions between the flow field and deformable objects like vesicles or red blood cells. We trace the way from the investigation of single cell dynamics to the recent developments of microfluidic techniques for particle and cell sorting using hydrodynamic forces. Such continuous and label-free on-chip cell sorting devices promise to revolutionize medical analyses for personalized point-of-care diagnosis. We present the state-of-the-art of different hydrodynamic lift-based techniques and discuss their advantages and limitations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

White C.D.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2016

Webs are sets of Feynman diagrams that contribute to the exponents of scattering amplitudes, in the kinematic limit in which emitted radiation is soft. As such, they have a number of phenomenological and formal applications, and offer tantalizing glimpses into the all-order structure of perturbative quantum field theory. This article is based on a series of lectures given to graduate students, and aims to provide a pedagogical introduction to webs. Topics covered include exponentiation in (non-)abelian gauge theories, the web mixing matrix formalism for non-abelian gauge theories, and recent progress on the calculation of web diagrams. Problems are included throughout the text, to aid understanding. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Braithwaite C.J.R.,University of Glasgow
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2016

Although coral reefs have long been regarded as documenting climate change, largely through its effects on sea-level, the temporal continuity and sensitivity to disturbance of their records appears to fall short of those provided by ice cores, deep-sea sediments and similar proxies. The reasons for this anomaly relate principally to shifts in the loci of deposition. The temporal windows in which accretion has been able to occur in a given place, reflecting sea level at a particular height relative to the present datum, are severely constrained. Where it has been possible, coral growth and reef accretion have been and are sensitive to the signals provided by the environment in the form of changes in water depth, temperature, salinity, nutrient supply, turbidity, and pH (acidity) concomitant with changes in sea-level itself. Changes in these environmental parameters are, directly or indirectly, controlled by climate. However, because the responses of corals to stimuli are commonly site-specific, and the nature of the changes evoked so disparate, it is likely that only major sea-level cycles will provide evidence of a consistent global response in what has been a segmented record. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

York C.B.,University of Glasgow
Mechanics of Composite Materials | Year: 2011

Laminate stacking sequence configurations with quasi-homogeneous properties are derived, whereby the inplane and out-of-plane stiffness properties are concomitant. The stacking sequence configurations contain equal-thickness layers and identical orthotropic properties, differing only by their orientations, which are represented by standard angle- and cross-ply combinations. These simplifying assumptions are in fact representative of the common design practice, but help one to identify and isolate a range of highly complex physical coupling responses, which continue to be referred to collectively in the literature as bending-extension coupling. Dimensionless parameters are developed from which the elements of the extensional, coupling, and bending stiffness matrices are readily calculated for any fibre/resin properties. Feasible domains of lamination parameters are also illustrated for each coupling response to complement abridged listings of stacking sequences. Finally, hygrothermally curvature-stable configurations with quasi-homogeneous properties are identified, thus simplifying the manufacture of laminate configurations possessing tailored mechanical coupling responses. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Steinman L.,Stanford University | Merrill J.T.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | McInnes I.B.,University of Glasgow | Peakman M.,Kings College London
Nature Medicine | Year: 2012

There are multiple immune-based therapeutics available for some of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases, but for others, there are few or no approved immune therapies. This dichotomy poses discrete challenges. First, for diseases in which multiple therapy choices exist, a rational decision tree is required to select the best therapy. Second, we must devise new strategies for the autoimmune diseases that have the highest unmet clinical need. This commentary outlines new strategies for designing more efficient and selective approaches for immune therapy of autoimmune diseases. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Barnett S.M.,University of Glasgow
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

We present a theory in Maxwellian form for gravitational waves in a flat background. This requires us to identify the gravitational analogues of the electric and magnetic fields for light. An important novelty, however, is that our analogues are not vector fields but rather rank-two tensor fields; in place of a three-component vector at each point in space, as in electromagnetism, our fields are three by three symmetric matrices at each point. The resulting Maxwell-like equations lead directly to a Poynting theorem for the local energy density associated with a gravitational wave and to associated local properties including densities of momentum and angular momentum. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Barnett S.M.,University of Glasgow
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

We write the charge-free Maxwell equations in a form analogous to that of the Dirac equation for a free electron. This allows us to apply to light some of the ideas developed for the relativistic theory of the electron. Valuable insight is gained, thereby, into the forms of the optical spin and orbital angular momenta. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Malcolm G.L.,George Washington University | Nuthmann A.,University of Edinburgh | Schyns P.G.,University of Glasgow
Psychological Science | Year: 2014

Research on scene categorization generally concentrates on gist processing, particularly the speed and minimal features with which the "story" of a scene can be extracted. However, this focus has led to a paucity of research into how scenes are categorized at specific hierarchical levels (e.g., a scene could be a road or more specifically a highway); consequently, research has disregarded a potential diagnostically driven feedback process. We presented participants with scenes that were low-pass filtered so only their gist was revealed, while a gaze-contingent window provided the fovea with full-resolution details. By recording where in a scene participants fixated prior to making a basic- or subordinate-level judgment, we identified the scene information accrued when participants made either categorization. We observed a feedback process, dependent on categorization level, that systematically accrues sufficient and detailed diagnostic information from the same scene. Our results demonstrate that during scene processing, a diagnostically driven bidirectional interplay between top-down and bottom-up information facilitates relevant category processing. © The Author(s) 2014.

Rovi A.,University of Glasgow
International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics | Year: 2014

We give examples of Lie-Rinehart algebras whose universal enveloping algebra is not a Hopf algebroid either in the sense of Böhm and Szlachányi or in the sense of Lu. These examples are constructed as quotients of a canonical Lie-Rinehart algebra over a Jacobi algebra which does admit an antipode. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Page R.D.M.,University of Glasgow
ZooKeys | Year: 2016

Taxonomic databases are perpetuating approaches to citing literature that may have been appropriate before the Internet, often being little more than digitised 5 × 3 index cards. Typically the original taxonomic literature is either not cited, or is represented in the form of a (typically abbreviated) text string. Hence much of the “deep data” of taxonomy, such as the original descriptions, revisions, and nomenclatural actions are largely hidden from all but the most resourceful users. At the same time there are burgeoning efforts to digitise the scientific literature, and much of this newly available content has been assigned globally unique identifiers such as Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), which are also the identifier of choice for most modern publications. This represents an opportunity for taxonomic databases to engage with digitisation efforts. Mapping the taxonomic literature on to globally unique identifiers can be time consuming, but need be done only once. Furthermore, if we reuse existing identifiers, rather than mint our own, we can start to build the links between the diverse data that are needed to support the kinds of inference which biodiversity informatics aspires to support. Until this practice becomes widespread, the taxonomic literature will remain balkanized, and much of the knowledge that it contains will linger in obscurity. © Roderic D.M. Page.

White R.G.,Mental Health and Well being | Sashidharan S.P.,University of Glasgow
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

The World Health Organization has made concerted efforts to scale up mental health services in low- and middle-income countries through the Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) initiative. However, an overreliance on scaling up services based on those used in high-income countries may risk causing more harm than good.

Stephens M.,University of Glasgow
International Journal of Housing Policy | Year: 2011

This paper seeks to rebuild and strengthen the case for policy-related comparative housing research as an academic activity. Critiques that have discouraged the practice of international research have undermined its legitimacy whilst eroding the evidence base, and have devalued its function through the use of value-laden language and unevidenced assertions. While 'glocalisation' presents a challenge to cross-national research we argue that nation states are still policy resource rich, and that the existence of distinctive national institutions through which common international pressures are mediated strengthens the case for it. Building on an examination of the distinctive qualities of housing compared to the main 'pillars' of the welfare state, we make the case for what we call 'system-embedded research'. This marks a development from existing 'middle ways', being founded on the principle that policy is conceived within wider housing systems and housing systems themselves operate within wider social and economic structures. Through contrasting case studies we show that if founded on the principle of being system-embedded, policy-related comparative housing research can reap high rewards; but if it does not it carries grave risks. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Grassl P.,University of Glasgow | Jirasek M.,Czech Technical University
International Journal of Solids and Structures | Year: 2010

A meso-scale analysis is performed to determine the fracture process zone of concrete subjected to uniaxial tension. The meso-structure of concrete is idealised as stiff aggregates embedded in a soft matrix and separated by weak interfaces. The mechanical response of the matrix, the inclusions and the interface between the matrix and the inclusions is modelled by a discrete lattice approach. The inelastic response of the lattice elements is described by a damage approach, which corresponds to a continuous reduction of the stiffness of the springs. The fracture process in uniaxial tension is approximated by an analysis of a two-dimensional cell with periodic boundary conditions. The spatial distribution of dissipated energy density at the meso-scale of concrete is determined. The size and shape of the deterministic FPZ is obtained as the average of random meso-scale analyses. Additionally, periodicity of the discretisation is prescribed to avoid influences of the boundaries of the periodic cell on fracture patterns. The results of these analyses are then used to calibrate an integral-type nonlocal model. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Barr A.J.,Denys Wilkinson Building | Dolan M.J.,Durham University | Englert C.,University of Glasgow | Spannowsky M.,Durham University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Higgs boson self-interactions can be investigated via di-Higgs (pp → ± hh + X) production at the LHC. With a small O(30) fb Standard Model production cross section, and a large tt background, this measurement has been considered challenging, even at a luminosity-upgraded LHC. We demonstrate that by using simple kinematic bounding variables, of the sort already employed in existing LHC searches, the dominant tt background can be largely eliminated. Simulations of the signal and the dominant background demonstrate the prospect for measurement of the di-Higgs production cross section at the 30% level using 3 ab~1 of integrated luminosity at a high luminosity LHC. This corresponds to a Higgs self-coupling determination with 60% accuracy in the bbr+r~ mode, with potential for further improvements from e.g. subjet technologies and from additional di-Higgs decay channels. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

McAllister K.,University of Glasgow
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Bell's palsy is an acute paralysis of one side of the face of unknown aetiology. Bell's palsy should only be used as a diagnosis in the absence of all other pathology. As the proposed pathophysiology is swelling and entrapment of the nerve, some surgeons suggest surgical decompression of the nerve as a possible management option. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To assess the effects of surgery in the management of Bell's palsy. On 29 October 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2012) and EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012). We also handsearched selected conference abstracts for the original version of the review. We included all randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving any surgical intervention for Bell's palsy. We compared surgical interventions to no treatment, sham treatment, other surgical treatments or medical treatment. Two review authors independently assessed whether trials identified from the searches were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Two trials with a total of 69 participants met the inclusion criteria. The first study considered the treatment of 403 people but only included 44 participants in the surgical trial, who were randomised into surgical and non-surgical groups. However, the report did not provide information on the method of randomisation. The second study randomly allocated 25 participants into surgical or control groups using statistical charts. There was no attempt in either study to conceal allocation. Neither participants nor outcome assessors were blind to the interventions, in either study. The first study lost seven participants to follow-up and there were no losses to follow-up in the second study.Surgeons in both studies decompressed the nerves of all the surgical group participants using a retroauricular approach. The primary outcome was recovery of facial palsy at 12 months. The first study showed that the operated group and the non-operated group (who received oral prednisolone) had comparable facial nerve recovery at nine months. This study did not statistically compare the groups but the scores and size of the groups suggested that statistically significant differences are unlikely. The second study reported no statistically significant differences between the operated and control (no treatment) groups. One operated participant in the first study had 20 dB sensorineural hearing loss and persistent vertigo. We identified no new studies when we updated the searches in October 2012. There is only very low quality evidence from randomised controlled trials and this is insufficient to decide whether surgical intervention is beneficial or harmful in the management of Bell's palsy.Further research into the role of surgical intervention is unlikely to be performed because spontaneous recovery occurs in most cases.

Carse A.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2011

In the United Kingdom the New Approach to Transport Appraisal (NATA) is used to appraise the economic, environmental and social impacts of transport projects. This analytical tool has recently been updated, but still fails to fully evaluate individual's experiences of transport. It is important to understand more about passengers current journey quality for an informed judgement on the impact of future schemes. This paper presents findings of a methodological tool that can appraise Transport quality of life (TQoL) on all modes of transport in one city. Quality of life (QoL) techniques were applied to the transport networks of Glasgow and Manchester to determine if this is a valuable alternative in transport appraisal. Effective assessment confirmed the validity of the method highlighting in both locations that fixed modes, particularly Light Rapid Transport, are providing a significantly better quality of life compared to the bus. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Rhodium(II) acetate catalyzes the denitrogenative transformation of 4-substituted 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles with pendent allyl and propargyl ethers and thioethers to onium ylides that undergo [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to give 2-tetrasubstituted heterocycles with high yield and diastereoselectivity. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Aims: Correct assignment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in breast cancer is important. Indeterminate (2+) HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) is usually resolved by FISH for HER2 gene amplification. It was hypothesised that predicting HER2 amplification in IHC 2+ cases could improve audit of HER2 IHC and its interpretation. Methods and results: One observer (J. J. G.) interpreted 4343 assessable HercepTests on consecutive breast cancers from the West of Scotland over 45 consecutive months during 2007-2010, with 2+ cases classified prospectively as 'probably amplified', 'possibly amplified' or 'probably not amplified' prior to FISH. A HER2 to chromosome 17 FISH ratio >2 was taken to define HER2 amplification. There were 265 3+ cases (6.1%) and 883 2+ cases (20.3%). Of 187 'probably amplified' 2+ cases, 166 (88.8%) were amplified, as were 90 (37.8%) of 238 'possibly amplified' 2+ cases. Of 458 'probably not amplified' but still 2+ cases, 59 (12.8%) were in fact amplified (overall χ 2 333.89, df 2, P<0.0001). In total, 580 of 4343 (13.4%) cancers were HER2-positive (265 3+ by IHC and 315 2+ and HER2 amplified). Conclusions: Breast cancers HER2-indeterminate (2+) by HercepTest IHC can be strongly separated into those probably HER2 amplified, a core indeterminate group and those probably not HER2 amplified. The percentage of HER2 amplified cases in each category is proposed as an instrument for comparison of HER2 IHC and its interpretation between laboratories and observers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

Pryce G.,University of Glasgow
Urban Studies | Year: 2011

How do buyers decide whether a property is overpriced? Do they base their judgement on the simple difference between the asking price and expected selling price? Or do they take into account local bidding conventions-the typical asking-selling price spread in the neighbourhood? This paper explores the implications of bidding conventions for the definition and measurement of the degree of overpricing and the effect this has on a survival model of time on the market. The paper also considers the impact of uncertainty and employs fractional polynomial regression to explore whether spatiotemporal variations in attribute prices affect market perceptions of overpricing. © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

Roach P.,University of Nottingham | Parker T.,University of Nottingham | Gadegaard N.,University of Glasgow | Alexander M.R.,University of Nottingham
Surface Science Reports | Year: 2010

Material engineering methods have been used for many years to develop biomedical devices for use within the body to augment, repair or replace damaged tissues ranging from contact lenses to heart valves. Here we review the findings gathered from the wide and varied surface analytical approaches applied to study the interaction between biology and man-made materials. The key material characteristics identified to be important for biological recognition are surface chemistry, topography and compliance. Model surfaces with controlled chemistry and topography have provided insight into biological response to various types of topographical features over a wide range of length scales from nano to micrometres, along with 3D matrices that have been used as scaffolds to support cells for tissue formation. The cellular response to surfaces with localised areas of patterned chemistry and to those presenting gradually changing chemistry are discussed. Where previous reviews have been structured around specific classes of surface modification, e.g. self-assembly, or have broadly examined the response of various cells to numerous surfaces, we aim in this article to focus in particular on the tissues involved in the nervous system whilst providing a broad overview of key issues from the field of cell and protein surface interactions with surfaces. The goal of repair and treatment of diseases related to the central and peripheral nervous systems rely on understanding the local interfacial environment and controlling responses at the cellular level. The role of the protein layer deposited from serum containing media onto man-made surfaces is discussed. We highlight the particular problems associated with the repair of the nervous system, and review how neuronal attachment and axon guidance can be accomplished using various surface cues when cultured with single and multiple cell types. We include a brief glossary of techniques discussed in the body of this article aimed at the biologist without a surface science background with appropriate references for advanced reading in this area. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Preiss D.,University of Glasgow | Kristensen S.L.,Gentofte Hospital
Canadian Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2015

In the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines published in 2001, estimation of cardiovascular risk was recommended based on the Framingham score for 10-year risk of myocardial infarction and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society currently recommends the Framingham total cardiovascular risk score. During development of joint guidelines released in 2013 by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA), the decision was taken to develop a new risk score. This resulted in the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator. This risk calculator, based on major National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded cohort studies, is designed to predict 10-year risk of 'hard' atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, namely, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, nonfatal, or fatal stroke. Considerable strengths are its inclusion of stroke as anend point and race as a characteristic, which allows better risk prediction especially in African-American individuals, plus provision of lifetime ASCVD risk estimates for adults aged 20-59 years. Notable omissions from the risk factors include chronic kidney disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than the intended 7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk threshold for treatment in the joint ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines. In this review we discuss the development of the new risk calculator, its strengths and weaknesses, and potential implications for its routine use. © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society.

Jenkins G.I.,University of Glasgow
Plant Cell | Year: 2014

Low doses of UV-B light (280 to 315 nm) elicit photomorphogenic responses in plants that modify biochemical composition, photosynthetic competence, morphogenesis, and defense. UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) mediates photomorphogenic responses to UV-B by regulating transcription of a set of target genes. UVR8 differs from other known photoreceptors in that it uses specific Trp amino acids instead of a prosthetic chromophore for light absorption during UV-B photoreception. Absorption of UV-B dissociates the UVR8 dimer into monomers, initiating signal transduction through interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1. However, much remains to be learned about the physiological role of UVR8 and its interaction with other signaling pathways, the molecular mechanism of UVR8 photoreception, how the UVR8 protein initiates signaling, how it is regulated, and how UVR8 regulates transcription of its target genes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Gross J.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Neuroscience Methods | Year: 2014

Brain oscillations are increasingly the subject of electrophysiological studies probing their role in the functioning and dysfunction of the human brain. In recent years this research area has seen rapid and significant changes in the experimental approaches and analysis methods. This article reviews these developments and provides a structured overview of experimental approaches, spectral analysis techniques and methods to establish relationships between brain oscillations and behaviour. © 2014 The Author.

White C.D.,University of Glasgow
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We confirm recently proposed theorems for the structure of next-to-soft corrections in gauge and gravity theories using diagrammatic techniques, first developed for use in QCD phenomenology. Our aim is to provide a useful alternative insight into the next-to-soft theorems, including tools that may be useful for further study. We also shed light on a recently observed double copy relation between next-to-soft corrections in the gauge and gravity cases. © 2014.

Macpherson F.,University of Glasgow
Consciousness and Cognition | Year: 2015

Unlike those with type 1 blindsight, people who have type 2 blindsight have some sort of consciousness of the stimuli in their blind field. What is the nature of that consciousness? Is it visual experience? I address these questions by considering whether we can establish the existence of any structural-necessary-features of visual experience. I argue that it is very difficult to establish the existence of any such features. In particular, I investigate whether it is possible to visually, or more generally perceptually, experience form or movement at a distance from our body, without experiencing colour. The traditional answer, advocated by Aristotle, and some other philosophers, up to and including the present day, is that it is not and hence colour is a structural feature of visual experience. I argue that there is no good reason to think that this is impossible, and provide evidence from four cases-sensory substitution, achomatopsia, phantom contours and amodal completion-in favour of the idea that it is possible. If it is possible then one important reason for rejecting the idea that people with type 2 blindsight do not have visual experiences is undermined. I suggest further experiments that could be done to help settle the matter. © 2014 The Author.

Mullen W.,University of Glasgow
Expert Review of Proteomics | Year: 2012

The development methodologies for the assessment of the protein content of biological samples have been in the 'eye of the storm' in proteomics for almost two decades. The work of Zerefos et al. is a continuation of this trend, focusing on analysis of urinary proteins using a combination of separation methodologies. In this work, the authors employ a previously analyzed control urine sample. Three different methodologies are presented, involving the combination of classical separation approaches, such as SDS-PAGE, preparative electrophoresis and liquid chromatography and standard mass spectrometer instrumentation. Several hundred proteins were reported following the application of a typical proteomics workflow and the use of a data meta-analysis platform to enhance the credibility of the final output. This is also established through cross-method (within this study) as well as cross-study (comparison of this with other main studies in the field) data comparisons. Emphasis is placed on the presentation of experimental identifiers as well as information provided at the peptide level. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Edwards J.,University of Glasgow
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: Once prostate cancer becomes castration-resistant, bone metastases are a significant problem and treatment options are limited. As a result, there is a need for more effective therapies that have antitumor and anti-bone metastatic effects. Because Src and Src-family kinases (SFKs) are involved in multiple signaling pathways central to prostate cancer development, progression, and metastasis, in addition to normal and pathologic osteoclast activities, Src inhibition represents a valid therapeutic strategy for investigation. Areas covered in this review: Here, current treatment options for advanced prostate cancer, the preclinical rationale behind using Src inhibitors, emerging data from clinical trials of Src inhibitors in prostate cancer, and future therapeutic directions are described. Data published in peer-reviewed journals within the last 20 years or presented at recent European or American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences have been reviewed. What the reader will gain: Readers will gain an insight into the development of therapeutic Src inhibitors, including dasatinib and saracatinib; an understanding of their effects on prostate cancer cells and the bone microenvironment; and emerging clinical data. Take home message: Src is implicated in prostate cancer progression and metastasis, therefore treatment with Src inhibitors warrants further investigation. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen that colonizes the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. Isolates from sputum are typically all derived from the same strain of bacterium but show extensive phenotypic heterogeneity. One of these variants is the so-called small colony variant, which also shows increased ability to form a biofilm and is frequently resistant to multiple antibiotics. The presence of small colony variants in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is associated with a worse clinical condition. The underlying mechanism responsible for generation of the small colony phenotype remains unclear, but a final common pathway would appear to be elevation of intracellular levels of cyclic di-GMP. This phenotypic variant is thus not just a laboratory curiosity, but a significant bacterial adaptation that favors survival within the lung of patients with cystic fibrosis and contributes to the pulmonary damage caused by P. aeruginosa. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd.

Perrodin C.,Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics | Kayser C.,University of Glasgow | Logothetis N.K.,Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics | Logothetis N.K.,University of Manchester | Petkov C.I.,Northumbria University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Filik R.,University of Nottingham | Moxey L.M.,University of Glasgow
Cognition | Year: 2010

We report an eye-tracking study in which we investigate the on-line processing of written irony. Specifically, participants' eye movements were recorded while they read sentences which were either intended ironically, or non-ironically, and subsequent text which contained pronominal reference to the ironic (or non-ironic) phrase. Results showed longer reading times for ironic comments compared to a non-ironic baseline, suggesting that additional processing was required in ironic compared to non-ironic conditions. Reading times for subsequent pronominal reference indicated that for ironic materials, both the ironic and literal interpretations of the text were equally accessible during on-line language comprehension. This finding is most in-line with predictions of the graded salience hypothesis, which, in conjunction with the retention hypothesis, states that readers represent both the literal and ironic interpretation of an ironic utterance. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Kennedy M.W.,University of Glasgow
Biochemical Society Transactions | Year: 2011

Horses and other equids are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein that is a member of the PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone) family. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (≤1 mg/ml), and probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a thick, waterproofed pelt. Latherin binds temporarily to hydrophobic surfaces, and so may also have a disruptive effect on microbial biofilms. It may consequently have a dual role in horse sweat in both evaporative cooling and controlling microbial growth in the pelt that would otherwise be resourced by nutrients in sweat. Latherin is also present at high levels in horse saliva, where its role could be to improve mastication of the fibrous diet of equids, and also to reduce microbial adherence to teeth and oral surfaces. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that latherin adsorbs to the air/water interface, and that the protein undergoes significant conformational change and/or partial unfolding during incorporation into the interfacial layer. ©The Authors Journal compilation ©2011 Biochemical Society.

Sattar N.,University of Glasgow
Diabetologia | Year: 2013

Whilst the interplay between type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been recognised for many years, recent analyses of existing studies have helped refine several aspects of this relationship with relevance to clinical practice. First, recent data demonstrate that fasting glucose is not linearly related to CVD risk in those without diabetes; rather, risk levels escalate (modestly at first) only beyond specific glucose thresholds. Consequently, glucose-based measures may not necessarily enhance CVD risk prediction in those without diabetes. Second, other data confirm that new-onset diabetes is not a post-myocardial infarction 'risk equivalent' state and that, on average, several years of diabetes duration is needed to attain this level of risk. Third, meta-analyses and systemic reviews have confirmed that diabetes increases CVD risk by around twofold on average and this risk is subject to wide variation, being lowest in those newly diagnosed and highest in those with existing vascular disease, proteinuria or renal disease. Fourth, meta-analyses of major glucose-lowering trials suggest that, whilst glucose-lowering lessens vascular risk, risk reduction arising from statins and blood pressure-lowering is greater. Fifth, statins increase diabetes risk, albeit modestly, adding to the emerging concept that some agents that primarily target CVD risk may be diabetogenic, and vice versa. Finally, arising in part from the latter observation, as well as an understanding that CVD and diabetes risk overlap in some individuals but not others, the case for combined CVD/diabetes risk screening (generally using non-fasting lipids and HbA1c), has gained strength. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Garduno-Paz M.V.,University of Glasgow
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

The expression of alternative phenotypes within a single species is often considered to be the result of ontogenetic processes and specifically phenotypic plasticity responses to exposure to different environmental conditions. In fish, which have been widely used to test such questions, exposure to different diets is the most frequently described initiator of plastic responses. The effect of physical characteristics of the habitat on fish morphology has not been fully explored. In the present study, a clear effect of habitat complexity on fish shape was found. Threespine sticklebacks were exposed to two different habitat treatments, simple and complex, over a 17-week period. The exposure to the habitats resulted in the expression of very significant differences in body and head morphologies and spine position, showing that the physical environment can modulate the expression of traits through phenotypic plasticity during ontogeny. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.

Taylor P.C.J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Thut G.,University of Glasgow
Brain Stimulation | Year: 2012

Probing brain functions by brain stimulation while simultaneously recording brain activity allows addressing major issues in cognitive neuroscience. We review recent studies where electroencephalography (EEG) has been combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in order to investigate possible neuronal substrates of visual perception and attention. TMS-EEG has been used to study both pre-stimulus brain activity patterns that affect upcoming perception, and also the stimulus-evoked and task-related inter-regional interactions within the extended visual-attentional network from which attention and perception emerge. Local processes in visual areas have been probed by directly stimulating occipital cortex while monitoring EEG activity and perception. Interactions within the attention network have been probed by concurrently stimulating frontal or parietal areas. The use of tasks manipulating implicit and explicit memory has revealed in addition a role for attentional processes in memory. Taken together, these studies helped to reveal that visual selection relies on spontaneous intrinsic activity in visual cortex prior to the incoming stimulus, their control by attention, and post-stimulus processes incorporating a re-entrant bias from frontal and parietal areas that depends on the task. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Padgett M.,University of Glasgow | Di Leonardo R.,National Research Council Italy
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2011

During the last decade, optical tweezers have been transformed by the combined availability of spatial light modulators and the speed of low-cost computing to drive them. Holographic optical tweezers can trap and move many objects simultaneously and their compatibility with other optical techniques, particularly microscopy, means that they are highly appropriate to lab-on-chip systems to enable optical manipulation, actuation and sensing. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Nelson S.M.,University of Glasgow
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2013

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) affects 5% of IVF cycles and incurs a 100-fold increase in risk of venous thrombosis over natural conceptions. Identification of women at risk of OHSS can be achieved using antral follicle count (AFC) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). For those women with a high AFC or AMH combining a GnRH antagonist with a conventional hCG trigger will reduce the risk of OHSS and still allow a fresh transfer to occur. Complete abolition of OHSS is however now a reality by avoiding exposure to exogenous hCG. This can be achieved by segmentation of the IVF cycle using a GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation and then freezing all oocytes or embryos with subsequent replacement of a single embryo in the context of a frozen embryo transfer. This novel approach will ensure a VTE risk equivalent to natural conception and can be combined with conventional thromboprophylaxis strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jarvis M.C.,University of Glasgow
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2011

The primary walls of plant cells comprise a large part of our dietary fibre. Their properties depend on the polysaccharides comprising them but also on the manner in which they are interlinked to form the three-dimensional, functional structure of the intact cell wall. This structure is far from homogeneous, but includes local adaptations to withstand local stresses at the cell corners and the margins of intercellular spaces. There is also variation in cell-wall structure at the tissue, organ and species levels. Interlinking of cell-wall polymers by covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonding varies at all these levels and affects the mechanical properties of the cell walls. Cross-linking of pectins in particular, by a variety of covalent as well as non-covalent mechanisms, determines what kind of disruption of the cell wall is necessary to bring them into solution. Solubilisation of pectins has dietary significance in its own right but also leads to an increase in the pore size of the cell wall and hence reduces the extent to which it impedes the entry of enzymes such as α-amylase and the outflow of intracellular macromolecules during the digestion process. The nutritional value of cell walls as 'dietary fibre' may then depend on the extent to which the cell walls remain physically intact during the digestion process. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Korff C.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2010

Starting from the Verma module of Uq Si(2) we consider the evaluation module for affine Uq Ŝi(2) and discuss its crystal limit (q → 0). There exists an associated integrable statistical mechanics model on a square lattice defined in terms of vertex configurations. Its transfer matrix is the generating function for noncommutative complete symmetric polynomials in the generators of the affine plactic algebra, an extension of the finite plactic algebra first discussed by Lascoux and Schützenberger. The corresponding noncommutative elementary symmetric polynomials were recently shown to be generated by the transfer matrix of the so-called phase model discussed by Bogoliubov, Izergin and Kitanine. Here we establish that both generating functions satisfy Baxter's TQ-equation in the crystal limit by tying them to special Uqq Ŝi(2) solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation. The TQ-equation amounts to the well-known Jacobi-Trudi formula leading naturally to the definition of noncommutative Schur polynomials. The latter can be employed to define a ring which has applications in conformal field theory and enumerative geometry: it is isomorphic to the fusion ring of the Ŝi(n)k Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model whose structure constants are the dimensions of spaces of generalized θ-functions over the Riemann sphere with three punctures. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Graham J.S.,Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Center | Cassidy J.,University of Glasgow
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy | Year: 2012

Huge advances have been made in the treatment of colon cancer over the last decade. Success has been most noticeable in stage IV disease - where careful selection of patients with small-volume disease for treatment with surgical resection ± perioperative chemotherapy has resulted in an improvement in survival of approximately 5-50%; and stage III - disease where the advent of 5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin, as adjuvant treatment has also resulted in a significant prolongation in survival. Progression-free survival is now an established surrogate for overall survival, and has resulted in more timely reporting of adjuvant studies and therefore faster integration of promising agents into the clinic. Targeted agents, which have shown promise in the metastatic setting, are currently being examined in the adjuvant setting, although results so far are disappointing. Patients with high-risk stage II cancer remain a challenging group. They have a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA disease, and national and international guidance recommend offering chemotherapy after careful discussion of the pros and cons. Despite the fact that we have identified many of the biological features that make stage II disease higher risk, we still struggle to achieve the same improvement in survival for this subgroup compared with others. It may be that these patients required treatment with alternative regimens and predictive biomarkers would be particularly helpful. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Barron L.D.,University of Glasgow
Chirality | Year: 2012

A selection of my work on chirality is sketched in two distinct parts of this lecture. Symmetry and Chirality explains how the discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. The concepts of true chirality (time-invariant enantiomorphism) and false chirality (time-noninvariant enantiomorphism) that emerge provide an extension of Lord Kelvin's original definition of chirality to situations where motion is an essential ingredient thereby clarifying, inter alia, the nature of physical influences able to induce absolute enantioselection. Consideration of symmetry violations reveals that strict enantiomers (exactly degenerate) are interconverted by the combined CP operation. Raman optical activity surveys work, from first observation to current applications, on a new chiroptical spectroscopy that measures vibrational optical activity via Raman scattering of circularly polarized light. Raman optical activity provides incisive information ranging from absolute configuration and complete solution structure of smaller chiral molecules and oligomers to protein and nucleic acid structure of intact viruses. Chirality 24:879-893, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

Parr J.B.,University of Glasgow
Spatial Economic Analysis | Year: 2015

An attempt is made to investigate certain aspects of the von Thünen's Isolated State, which have received relatively little attention in past discussions of his work. Three such aspects form the basis of the comments to follow. The first explores the nature and significance of the ring pattern of agricultural-commodity production, while a second examines the structure of transport costs. A further aspect is concerned with the presence of an urban system and the patterns of economic interaction within it, particularly those involving trade. © 2015 Regional Studies Association.

Englert C.,University of Glasgow | Krauss F.,Durham University | Spannowsky M.,Durham University | Thompson J.M.,Durham University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Searches for multi-Higgs final states allow to constrain parameters of the SM (or extensions thereof) that directly relate to the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. Multi-Higgs production cross sections, however, are small and the phenomenologically accessible final states are challenging to isolate in the busy multi-jet hadron collider environment of the LHC run 2 and HL-LHC. This makes the necessity to extend the list of potentially observable production mechanisms obvious. Most of the phenomenological analyses in the past have focused on gg→. hh+. jets; in this paper we study pp→tt-hh at the HL-LHC and find that this channel for h→bb- and semi-leptonic and hadronic top decays has the potential to provide an additional handle to constrain the Higgs trilinear coupling in a global fit at the end of the high luminosity phase. © 2015 The Authors.

Biek R.,University of Glasgow | Real L.A.,Emory University | Real L.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (i) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (ii) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, for example, gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (iii) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes and (iv) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasize that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional 'landscapes' such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jacques T.,University of Geneva | Nordstrom K.,University of Glasgow
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: The move towards simplified models for Run II of the LHC will allow for stronger and more robust constraints on the dark sector. However there already exists a wealth of Run I data which should not be ignored in the run-up to Run II. Here we reinterpret public constraints on generic beyond-standard-model cross sections to place new constraints on a simplified model. We make use of an ATLAS search in the monojet + missing energy channel to constrain a representative simplified model with the dark matter coupling to an axial-vector Z′. We scan the entire parameter space of our chosen model to set the strongest current collider constraints on our model using the full 20.3 fb−1 ATLAS 8 TeV dataset and provide predictions for constraints that can be set with 20 fb−1 of 14 TeV data. Our technique can also be used for the interpretation of Run II data and provides a broad benchmark for comparing future constraints on simplified models. © 2015, The Author(s).

Xue J.-H.,University College London | Titterington D.M.,University of Glasgow
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2011

Otsu's binarization method is one of the most popular image-thresholding methods; Student's t -test is one of the most widely-used statistical tests to compare two groups. This paper aims to stress the equivalence between Otsu's binarization method and the search for an optimal threshold that provides the largest absolute Student's $t$-statistic. It is then naturally demonstrated that the extension of Otsu's binarization method to multi-level thresholding is equivalent to the search for optimal thresholds that provide the largest F-statistic through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, general equivalences between some parametric image-thresholding methods and the search for optimal thresholds with the largest likelihood-ratio test statistics are briefly discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

Gumley A.,University of Glasgow
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2011

The editors of this special section commissioned this commentary to bring together some of the conceptual, empirical and measurement issues arising from this series of articles. This commentary explores metacognition in relation to its neurobiology, and diverse syndromes and clinical phenotypes, including schizophrenia, alexithymia, and personality disorders, as well as its relation to assessment and prospects for the further delineation of mechanisms of change in psychological therapy. © 2011.

We will shortly celebrate the 25th anniversary of the publication of the Co-operative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS), a clinical trial which revolutionized the treatment of heart failure and highlighted the importance of the reninangiotensinaldosterone system (RAAS) in the pathophysiology of heart failure (Figure 1). In this article I will give a brief, historical overview of this exciting quarter-century of discovery related to the RAAS. My focus is on the treatment of heart failure in patients with a low left ventricular ejection fraction. © 2011 The Author.

People’s differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable and are associated with important life outcomes. Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies of cognitive functions have found evidence for polygenic effects yet, to date, there are few replicated genetic associations. Here we use data from the UK Biobank sample to investigate the genetic contributions to variation in tests of three cognitive functions and in educational attainment. GWA analyses were performed for verbal–numerical reasoning (N=36 035), memory (N=112 067), reaction time (N=111 483) and for the attainment of a college or a university degree (N=111 114). We report genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based associations in 20 genomic regions, and significant gene-based findings in 46 regions. These include findings in the ATXN2, CYP2DG, APBA1 and CADM2 genes. We report replication of these hits in published GWA studies of cognitive function, educational attainment and childhood intelligence. There is also replication, in UK Biobank, of SNP hits reported previously in GWA studies of educational attainment and cognitive function. GCTA-GREML analyses, using common SNPs (minor allele frequency>0.01), indicated significant SNP-based heritabilities of 31% (s.e.m.=1.8%) for verbal–numerical reasoning, 5% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for memory, 11% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for reaction time and 21% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for educational attainment. Polygenic score analyses indicate that up to 5% of the variance in cognitive test scores can be predicted in an independent cohort. The genomic regions identified include several novel loci, some of which have been associated with intracranial volume, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 5 April 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.45. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Metcalfe N.B.,University of Glasgow | Alonso-Alvarez C.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC
Functional Ecology | Year: 2010

Oxidative stress is usually defined as an imbalance arising when the rate of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds the capacity of the antioxidant defence and repair mechanisms, leading to oxidative damage to biomolecules, but the concept can be expanded to include the disruption of reduction: oxidation (redox) reactions involved in cellular signalling. In this review, we consider how the need to circumvent oxidation may shape the phenotypes of organisms throughout their life and that of their offspring, underpinning a diverse range of life-history trade-offs. A recent explosion of interest in this field has shown that both ROS production and the capacity of animals to deal with it change from early development through to adulthood, and vary with environmental conditions and lifestyle. Oxidative stress may both stimulate and be caused by reproduction, although direct evidence of either process is surprisingly weak. Many forms of secondary sexual traits may signal the individual's oxidative balance to potential mates, but the underlying mechanisms are still debated. Germline cells may be especially vulnerable to oxidative stress, leading to transgenerational effects on offspring viability and possible consequences for the evolution of mate choice. Both antioxidant defences and the ability to repair oxidative damage tend to decline with old age, contributing to cellular and whole organism senescence. This increasing vulnerability to oxidative stress, although little studied, appears especially marked in sexually selected traits. Challenges for the future include the incorporation of longitudinal approaches into experiments that analyse oxidative balance over an individual's lifetime (preferably under near-natural conditions), the exploration of the genetic basis for trade-offs involving oxidative stress, the assimilation of current redox signalling knowledge, and the study of the consequences of heritable oxidative damage to germline DNA. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

Colloms S.D.,University of Glasgow
Biochemical Society Transactions | Year: 2013

Xer site-specific recombination at cer and psi converts bacterial plasmid multimers into monomers so that they can be efficiently segregated to both daughter cells at cell division. Recombination is catalysed by the XerC and XerD recombinases acting at ~30 bp core sites, and is regulated by the action of accessory proteins bound to accessory DNA sequences adjacent to the core sites. Recombination normally occurs only between sites in direct repeat in a negatively supercoiled circular DNA molecule, and yields two circular products linked together in a right-handed four-node catenane with antiparallel sites. These and other topological results are explained by a model in which the accessory DNA sequences are interwrapped around the accessory proteins, trapping three negative supercoils so that strand exchange by the XerC and XerD yields the observed four-node catenane. © 2013 Biochemical Society.

Willison H.J.,University of Glasgow | Jacobs B.C.,Erasmus Medical Center | van Doorn P.A.,Erasmus Medical Center
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100 000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care. Understanding of the infectious triggers and immunological and pathological mechanisms has advanced substantially in the past 10 years, and is guiding clinical trials investigating new treatments. Investigators of large, worldwide, collaborative studies of the spectrum of Guillain-Barré syndrome are accruing data for clinical and biological databases to inform the development of outcome predictors and disease biomarkers. Such studies are transforming the clinical and scientific landscape of acute autoimmune neuropathies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

This paper presents an experimental study on the dynamics of a ducted, conical, laminar premixed flame subjected to low amplitude acoustic excitation from upstream. The heat release response of the flame to velocity disturbances is investigated through measurement of the so called 'flame transfer function' for a wide range of forcing frequencies. The results are compared with those predicted by the existing linear kinematic theories. It is observed that these theories are in general agreement with the experiment, although there exist some disparities. A detailed comparison of the experimental data with the kinematic theories shows that the phase speed of flame disturbances has an essential influence upon the level of agreement between the theory and experiment. The data-set presented in this work complements that reported in an earlier study. In keeping with others, visualisation of the excited flames clearly shows that the flame response includes waves on the flame front which are formed at the base and then convect along the flame. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Nelson S.M.,University of Glasgow
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2013

With our increasing appreciation that simply maximizing oocyte yield for all patients is no longer an appropriate stimulation strategy and that age alone cannot accurately predict ovarian response, there has been an explosion in the literature regarding the utility of biomarkers to predict and individualize treatment strategies. Antral follicle count (AFC) and antimüllerian hormone (AMH) have begun to dominate the clinical scene, and although frequently pitted against each other as alternatives, both may contribute and indeed be synergistic. Their underlying technologies are continuing to develop rapidly and overcome the standardization issues that have limited their development to date. In the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF), their linear relationship with oocyte yield and thereby extremes of ovarian response has led to improved pretreatment patient counseling, individualization of stimulation strategies, increased cost effectiveness, and enhanced safety. This review highlights that although biomarkers of ovarian response started in the IVF clinic, their future extends well beyond the boundaries of assisted reproduction. The automation of AMH and its introduction into the routine repertoire of clinical biochemistry has tremendous potential. A future where primary care physicians, endocrinologists, and oncologists can rapidly assess ovarian dysfunction and the ovarian reserve more accurately than with the current standard of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an exciting possibility. For women, the ability to know the duration of their own reproductive life span will be empowering and allow them to redefine the meaning of family planning. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc.

Parr C.S.,Smithsonian Institution | Guralnick R.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Cellinese N.,University of Florida | Page R.D.M.,University of Glasgow
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

The accelerating growth of data and knowledge in evolutionary biology is indisputable. Despite this rapid progress, information remains scattered, poorly documented and in formats that impede discovery and integration. A grand challenge is the creation of a linked system of all evolutionary data, information and knowledge organized around Darwin's ever-growing Tree of Life. Such a system, accommodating topological disagreement where necessary, would consolidate taxon names, phenotypic and geographical distributional data across clades, and serve as an integrated community resource. The field of evolutionary informatics, reviewed here for the first time, has matured into a robust discipline that is developing the conceptual, infrastructure and community frameworks for meeting this grand challenge. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

OBJECTIVE:: (1) Is screening of intestinal rotational anatomy obligatory in “asymptomatic” patients with heterotaxy? (2) Does detection of an anomaly warrant surgical correction? SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: Heterotaxy is an abnormal arrangement of thoraco-abdominal viscera across a left-to-right axis. Intestinal rotational anomalies are frequent among patients with heterotaxy, but debate exists as to whether they are benign in nature, requiring careful observation alone, or if surgical correction is warranted to prevent obstruction or midgut volvulus. METHODS:: A systematic review [according to PRISMA guidelines] was conducted using CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, and Cochrane Databases. Article quality was assessed using MINORS criteria. Conference proceedings and unpublished data were screened additionally. RESULTS:: Nineteen studies met the eligibility criteria but reporting was adequate for 9. All were observational studies. These included a total of 414 patients managed expectantly, that is, “asymptomatic patients” in whom no intestinal rotation screening was undertaken (group A), 191 cases in whom screening was performed routinely (group B), and 92 patients considered “symptomatic” of potential rotational anomalies and therefore underwent imaging or laparotomy (group C). In group A, 1 patient developed symptoms attributable to malrotation in whom laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis (0.24%). Among groups B and C, 151 had Laddʼs operations (53%) and 14 cases of malrotation with obstruction or volvulus were described (4.9%), of which 2 “symptomatic patients” died before laparotomy. Overall surgical complication rate was 17% with 30-day mortality rate of 2.6% to 4.6%. CONCLUSION:: The evidence base for screening “asymptomatic” patients is weak especially considering the life-limiting comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Page R.D.M.,University of Glasgow
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

There are numerous ways to display a phylogenetic tree, which is reflected in the diversity of software tools available to phylogenetists. Displaying very large trees continues to be a challenge, made ever harder as increasing computing power enables researchers to construct ever-larger trees. At the same time, computing technology is enabling novel visualisations, ranging from geophylogenies embedded on digital globes to touch-screen interfaces that enable greater interaction with evolutionary trees. In this review, I survey recent developments in phylogenetic visualisation, highlighting successful (and less successful) approaches and sketching some future directions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Costantini D.,University of Glasgow
Canadian Journal of Zoology | Year: 2010

Oxidative stress has been suggested to be affected by the growth and developmental period of animals, hence it may play an important role in the trade-off between growth and self-maintenance. In this study, I analysed the effects of two different diet regimes (high-quality diet, HQD; low-quality diet, LQD) on growth pattern, three components of the serum oxidative status (hydroperoxides, antioxidant capacity, and thiols), and serum corticosterone in nestling Pigeons (Columba livia Gmelin, 1789). The growth pattern was similar in the first week of life, after which HQD nestlings grew faster than LQD nestlings. Although there were no differences in serum corticosterone or thiol concentrations, serum oxidative damage increased faster over the nestling phase in HQD than LQD chicks. Serum antioxidant capacity remained stable over time in LQD nestlings and increased in HQD nestlings. This study provides evidence that different growth rates (induced in the absence of any physiological stress or prior nutritional deprivation) are accompanied by different serum oxidative statuses.

Oldfield J.D.,University of Glasgow
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2013

This review provides an insight into some of the main themes characterizing the work of Soviet physical geographers concerning climate during the decade following the Second World War. Post-1945, pressure was placed upon geography via the state and the Academy of Sciences to ensure that its activities were of practical use to the development of the socialist economy and this was particularly evident in the case of work related to climate and climate modification. The review is divided into four main sections. First, it provides an understanding of the range of work carried out by physical geographers with respect to climate and related phenomena in the late 1940s and 1950s. Second, it focuses on the work of geographers and climatologists in relation to the heat and water balance at the earth's surface, which attracted considerable attention within geographical circles as well as more broadly within Soviet science during the 1950s. Third, it reflects upon the way in which Soviet geography utilized its understanding of climate systems in order to participate in national schemes concerned with the modification of the climate and the transformation of nature. Finally, the review highlights the maturing of climate modification debates among geographers and cognate scientists during the late 1950s and early 1960s with the emergence of competing discussions over the potential for human activity to result in both positive and negative consequences for the global climate system. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kamenos N.A.,University of Glasgow
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

Modeling and measurements show that Atlantic marine temperatures are rising; however, the low temporal resolution of models and restricted spatial resolution of measurements (i) mask regional details critical for determining the rate and extent of climate variability, and (ii) prevent robust determination of climatic impacts on marine ecosystems. To address both issues for the North East Atlantic, a fortnightly resolution marine climate record from 1353-2006 was constructed for shallow inshore waters and compared to changes in marine zooplankton abundance. For the first time summer marine temperatures are shown to have increased nearly twice as much as winter temperatures since 1353. Additional climatic instability began in 1700 characterized by ?5-65 year climate oscillations that appear to be a recent phenomenon. Enhanced summer-specific warming reduced the abundance of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, a key food item of cod, and led to significantly lower projected abundances by 2040 than at present. The faster increase of summer marine temperatures has implications for climate projections and affects abundance, and thus biomass, near the base of the marine food web with potentially significant feedback effects for marine food security.

Kennedy P.G.E.,University of Glasgow
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2012

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a major threat to human health throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Almost always fatal if untreated or inadequately treated, a commonly used drug for treating late-stage HAT, and the only drug for late-stage Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, is intravenous melarsoprol, which kills 5% of patients receiving it. Melarsoprol cyclodextrin inclusion complexes have been tested in a highly reliable mouse model of HAT. These complexes increase the oral bioavailability of melarsoprol making them effective orally and both curative and nontoxic in doses that are equivalent to those of intravenous melarsoprol. It is argued that a small clinical trial of this drug in HAT is justified to potentially improve the outcome of patients with late-stage rhodesiense disease. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pickering M.J.,University of Edinburgh | Garrod S.,University of Glasgow
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2013

Currently, production and comprehension are regarded as quite distinct in accounts of language processing. In rejecting this dichotomy, we instead assert that producing and understanding are interwoven, and that this interweaving is what enables people to predict themselves and each other. We start by noting that production and comprehension are forms of action and action perception. We then consider the evidence for interweaving in action, action perception, and joint action, and explain such evidence in terms of prediction. Specifically, we assume that actors construct forward models of their actions before they execute those actions, and that perceivers of others' actions covertly imitate those actions, then construct forward models of those actions. We use these accounts of action, action perception, and joint action to develop accounts of production, comprehension, and interactive language. Importantly, they incorporate well-defined levels of linguistic representation (such as semantics, syntax, and phonology). We show (a) how speakers and comprehenders use covert imitation and forward modeling to make predictions at these levels of representation, (b) how they interweave production and comprehension processes, and (c) how they use these predictions to monitor the upcoming utterances. We show how these accounts explain a range of behavioral and neuroscientific data on language processing and discuss some of the implications of our proposal. Copyright © 2013 Cambridge University Press.

Barron L.D.,University of Glasgow
Chirality | Year: 2012

The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z0 particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life. Chirality 24:957-958, 2012.© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Burton R.F.,University of Glasgow
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2010

Waist circumference (WC) is an obvious indicator of adiposity, but there is a confusing diversity of approaches to its quantitative use. Because taller people of any given relative fat content tend to have bigger WCs, indices of adiposity commonly take the form WC/heightq, where q is 1 or less. Sometimes the influence of height is regarded as insignificant, so that q is taken as zero. More attention has been given to such indices than to establishing how to use them for predicting adiposity. The usual approach has been empirical and statistical, but many published findings can be integrated using a more analytical approach. This leads to several hypotheses that are supported by published evidence, but which remain to be fully tested. Testing mainly requires data sets of the kind that have already been used for related purposes. The main hypotheses are as follow. For adults, the preferred index is WC/height0.5, while for adolescents and children it is WC/height. However, to obtain equations for the prediction of percentage body fat, the latter should be regressed on the reciprocals of the squares of these indices, namely 1/(WC2/height) and 1/(WC/height)2 respectively. These expressions decrease with increasing percentage body fat, but should do so in a linear manner. Two other hypotheses are that the non-fat content of the abdomen tends to increase with percentage body fat and that the ratio WC2/height is approximately proportional to the body mass index. The analysis is based mainly on the following ideas: firstly, that the area of fat or adipose tissue in a transverse computed tomogram of the abdomen equals the total area less the fat-free area, the former being the main determinant of WC and the latter being partly determined by fat-free body size as represented by height; secondly, that guidance can be usefully be sought in simple, dimensionally-correct models of body form, but that parameters in the resulting equations may become attenuated by the necessary use of regression analysis or the maximizing of correlations. There may be a better measure of fat-free body size with which to replace height in these indices, but the waist-to-hip ratio is unhelpful. It is hoped that this analysis can be usefully extended to the problem of estimating intra-abdominal (visceral) fat from waist circumference. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sylvester A.D.,University of Glasgow
Anatomical Record | Year: 2013

Although the hominid knee has been heavily scrutinized, shape variation of the medial tibial condyle has yet to be described. Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas differ in the shape of their medial femoral condyles and in their capacity for external and internal rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. I hypothesize that these differences should be reflected in the shape of the medial tibial condyle of these hominids. Here I use geometric morphometric techniques to uncover shape differences between the medial tibial condyles of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Humans are distinguished from the other two species by having a much more oval-shaped medial tibial condyle, while those of chimpanzees and gorillas are more triangular in outline. Gorillas (especially males) are distinguished by having more concavely-curved condyles (mediolateral direction), which is interpreted as an effect of heavy loading through the medial compartment of the knee in conjunction with differences in the degree of arboreality. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Passey S.R.,University of Glasgow
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2014

Siderite spherules are described and chemically analysed from two localities (Holid í Helli section and Rókhagi coal mine) within the coal-bearing Prestfjall Formation. The formation marks a significant hiatus in the eruption of lava flows of the Paleogene Faroe Islands Basalt Group and shortly follows the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. The spherules are chemically pure, although FeCO3 (80.6-99.2mol.%) shows a marked substitution for MnCO3 (0.1-13.9mol.%). The low concentrations of MgCO3 (0.0-0.4mol.%) and the lack of associated sulphide minerals (e.g. pyrite) confirm the freshwater lake environment affinity of the formation. The siderite spherules from the Holid í Helli section contain significantly higher concentrations of MnCO3 (<13.9mol.%) than those from the Rókhagi coal mine (<2.5mol.%) suggesting the presence of a stratified water column. The Holid í Helli section most likely represents the margin of the lake basin, whereas the Rókhagi coal mine the central area, where sedimentation rates were low and saw the thickest accumulations of coal. The high concentrations of MnCO3 may also account for the abundance of siderite spherules formed by the split crystal process in the Holid í Helli section, whereas prefect spherules consisting of individual crystals growing concentrically around a cryptocrystalline centre are dominant from the Rókhagi coal mine. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Tsagourias N.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Conflict and Security Law | Year: 2012

This article examines the conditions under which a cyber attack can trigger a State's right to self-defence and argues that the current international law standards for attributing attacks to a State can cover the case of cyber attacks. More specifically, the victim State can use force by way of self-defence against another State if the attack has been committed by the latter's organs or agents or has been committed by non-State actors tolerated by that State. When no State is implicated in the cyber attack, the victim State can take direct self-defence action against the non-State actor. It is however noted that future State practice may amplify further the attribution standards or introduce new standards. © Oxford University Press 2012; all rights reserved.

Barrett M.P.,University of Glasgow | Gemmell C.G.,University of Strathclyde | Suckling C.J.,Pure Research
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Minor groove binders are small molecules that form strong complexes with the minor groove of DNA. There are several structural types of which distamycin and netropsin analogues, oligoamides built from heterocyclic and aromatic amino acids, and bis-amidines separated by aromatic and heterocyclic rings are of particular pharmaceutical interest. These molecules have helical topology that approximately matches the curvature of DNA in the minor groove. Depending upon the precise structure of the minor groove binder, selectivity can be obtained with respect to the DNA base sequence to which the compound binds. Minor groove binders have found substantial applications in anti-cancer therapy but their significance in anti-infective therapy has also been significant and is growing. For example, compounds of the bis-amidine class have been notable contributors to antiparasitic therapy for many years with examples such as berenil and pentamidine being well-known. A recent growth area has been inreased sophistication in the oligoamide class. High sequence selectivity is now possible and compounds with distinct antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic activity have all been identified. Importantly, the structures of the most active compounds attacking the various infective organisms differ significantly but not necessarily predictively. This poses interesting questions of mechanism of action with many different targets involved in DNA processing being candidates. Access of compounds to specific cell types also plays a role and in some cases, can be decisive. Prospects for a range of selective therapeutic agents from this class of compounds are higher now than for some considerable time. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kennedy P.G.E.,University of Glasgow
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2013

Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is caused by infection with parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, transmitted by the tsetse fly. The disease has two forms, Trypanosoma brucei (T b) rhodesiense and T b gambiense; and is almost always fatal if untreated. Despite a recent reduction in the number of reported cases, patients with African trypanosomiasis continue to present major challenges to clinicians. Because treatment for CNS-stage disease can be very toxic, diagnostic staging to distinguish early-stage from late-stage disease when the CNS in invaded is crucial but remains problematic. Melarsoprol is the only available treatment for late-stage T b rhodesiense infection, but can be lethal to 5% of patients owing to post-treatment reactive encephalopathy. Eflornithine combined with nifurtimox is the first-line treatment for late-stage T b gambiense. New drugs are in the pipeline for treatment of CNS human African trypanosomiasis, giving rise to cautious optimism. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Killen S.S.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2014

Most animals experience temperature variations as they move through the environment. For ectotherms, in particular, temperature has a strong influence on habitat choice. While well studied at the species level, less is known about factors affecting the preferred temperature of individuals; especially lacking is information on how physiological traits are linked to thermal preference and whether such relationships are affected by factors such feeding history and growth trajectory. This study examined these issues in the common minnow Phoxinus phoxinus, to determine the extent to which feeding history, standard metabolic rate (SMR) and aerobic scope (AS), interact to affect temperature preference. Individuals were either: 1) food deprived (FD) for 21 days, then fed ad libitum for the next 74 days; or 2) fed ad libitum throughout the entire period. All animals were then allowed to select preferred temperatures using a shuttle-box, and then measured for SMR and AS at 10 °C, estimated by rates of oxygen uptake. Activity within the shuttle-box under a constant temperature regime was also measured. In both FD and control fish, SMR was negatively correlated with preferred temperature. The SMR of the FD fish was increased compared with the controls, probably due to the effects of compensatory growth, and so these growth-compensated fish preferred temperatures that were on average 2·85 °C cooler than controls fed a maintenance ration throughout the study. Fish experiencing compensatory growth also displayed a large reduction in activity. In growth-compensated fish and controls, activity measured at 10 °C was positively correlated with preferred temperature. Individual fish prefer temperatures that vary predictably with SMR and activity level, which are both plastic in response to feeding history and growth trajectories. Cooler temperatures probably allow individuals to reduce maintenance costs and divert more energy towards growth. A reduction in SMR at cooler temperatures, coupled with a decrease in spontaneous activity, could also allow individuals to increase surplus AS for coping with environmental stressors. In warming climates, however, aquatic ectotherms could experience frequent fluctuations in food supply with long-lasting effects on metabolic rate due to compensatory growth, while simultaneously having limited access to preferred cooler habitats. © 2014 The Author.

Contemporary back-to-the-land migrants in Italy embody a wide spectrum of personal and professional backgrounds, complicating attempts to generalise their motivations for adopting farming and their later experiences in rural areas. Certain commonalities persist, however, including a dissatisfaction with city life and the hope of greater freedom in the countryside. Generally this desire for personal liberty is expressed as the ability to control one's environment, a power that undergirds values such as self-reliance and care for natural resources and animal welfare. There is evidence to suggest, however, that the experiences of back-to-the-landers can differ significantly between genders. This study, conducted in four regions of Northern Italy, reveals that some back-to-the-land women find that their transition to an agrarian lifestyle has resulted in the adoption of more traditionalist gender roles, including a greater domestic burden and diminished recognition of their labours. Other women undertake an equal if not greater share of agricultural work, and derive a significant sense of worth from the increased self-sufficiency and ability to project ethical values that such work allows. This paper argues that an apparent regression to traditionalist gender roles is not inevitable in back-to-the-land households, nor must domestic work be seen as a repudiation of women's progress. On the contrary, the diverse experiences and perceptions of gender and back-to-the-land migration might challenge more rigid feminist readings of home, work and domesticity, given that in back-to-the-land households, these concepts often unfold in novel and unpredictable ways. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Estrogen and oxidative stress have been implicated in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Mechanisms linking these systems are elusive. We hypothesized that estrogen metabolite, 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αOHE1), stimulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox)–induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and proliferative responses in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hPASMCs) and that in PAH aberrant growth signaling promotes vascular remodeling. The pathophysiological significance of estrogen–Nox–dependent processes was studied in female Nox1 and Nox4 mice with PAH. PASMCs from control subjects (control hPASMCs) and PAH patients (PAH-hPASMCs) were exposed to estrogen and 16αOHE1 in the presence/absence of inhibitors of Nox, cytochrome P450 1B1, and estrogen receptors. Estrogen, through estrogen receptor-α, increased Nox-derived ROS and redox-sensitive growth in hPASMCs, with greater effects in PAH-hPASMCs versus control hPASMCs. Estrogen effects were inhibited by cytochrome P450 1B1 blockade. 16αOHE1 stimulated transient ROS production in hPASMCs, with sustained responses in PAH-hPASMCs. Basal expression of Nox1/Nox4 was potentiated in PAH-hPASMCs. In hPASMCs, 16αOHE1 increased Nox1 expression, stimulated irreversible oxidation of protein tyrosine phosphatases, decreased nuclear factor erythroid–related factor 2 activity and expression of nuclear factor erythroid–related factor 2–regulated antioxidant genes, and promoted proliferation. This was further amplified in PAH-hPASMCs. Nox1 but not Nox4 mice were protected against PAH and vascular remodeling. Our findings demonstrate that in PAH-hPASMCs, 16αOHE1 stimulates redox-sensitive cell growth primarily through Nox1. Supporting this, in vivo studies exhibited protection against pulmonary hypertension and remodeling in Nox1 mice. This study provides new insights through Nox1/ROS and nuclear factor erythroid–related factor 2 whereby 16αOHE1 influences hPASMC function, which when upregulated may contribute to vascular injury in PAH, particularly important in women.Hypertension is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc

Laurie E.W.,University of Glasgow
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2015

Agamben's work on bare life, sovereignty and spaces of exception is widely drawn upon by those seeking to understand the topologies of abandonment within contemporary society. While the majority of work has focused on the spectacular forms of violence and extraordinary spaces of exception, neoliberal ideology has been germinating a new version of biopolitics and as such creating new sacred populations, new camps and new sovereign powers. This paper brings Agamben out from the battlefield, to employ his thinking as a means to understand the systemic violence conducted through a biopolitical regime increasingly governed by the logic of profit accumulation. Focusing on vector-borne diseases, the paper demonstrates a perpetual devaluation of lives within a prevailing economic system that searches out, and targets, 'profitable' populations, as exemplified by the current pharmaceutical industry and supporting apparatus that pursues the protection of profits over the preservation of lives. This abandonment within economic markets has spilled over into the arena of global health where equity is increasingly superseded by a goal of efficiency. Through a critique of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measurement (a calculation drawn upon to justify interventions, and frequently invoked under the rubric of 'cost-effectiveness'), this paper argues that DALYs are symptomatic of a wider shift within global health governance and constitutive of a new biopolitical regime - where the body is incorporated within political and economic systems - by judging an individual's 'worth' through their economic productivity. © 2014 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).

Freise A.,University of Birmingham | Strain K.,University of Glasgow
Living Reviews in Relativity | Year: 2010

Several km-scale gravitational-wave detectors have been constructed world wide. These instruments combine a number of advanced technologies to push the limits of precision length measurement. The core devices are laser interferometers of a new kind; developed from the classical Michelson topology these interferometers integrate additional optical elements, which significantly change the properties of the optical system. Much of the design and analysis of these laser interferometers can be performed using well-known classical optical techniques, however, the complex optical layouts provide a new challenge. In this review we give a textbook-style introduction to the optical science required for the understanding of modern gravitational wave detectors, as well as other high-precision laser interferometers. In addition, we provide a number of examples for a freely available interferometer simulation software and encourage the reader to use these examples to gain hands-on experience with the discussed optical methods.

Fearon P.,University of Glasgow
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Stroke patients conventionally receive a substantial part of their rehabilitation in hospital. Services have now been developed which offer patients in hospital an early discharge with rehabilitation at home (early supported discharge (ESD)). To establish the effects and costs of ESD services compared with conventional services. We searched the trials registers of the Cochrane Stroke Group (January 2012) and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group, MEDLINE (2008 to 7 February 2012), EMBASE (2008 to 7 February 2012) and CINAHL (1982 to 7 February 2012). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials we searched 17 trial registers (February 2012), performed citation tracking of included studies, checked reference lists of relevant articles and contacted trialists. Randomised controlled trials recruiting stroke patients in hospital to receive either conventional care or any service intervention which has provided rehabilitation and support in a community setting with an aim of reducing the duration of hospital care. The primary patient outcome was the composite end-point of death or long-term dependency recorded at the end of scheduled follow-up. Two review authors scrutinised trials and categorised them on their eligibility. We then sought standardised individual patient data from the primary trialists. We analysed the results for all trials and for subgroups of patients and services, in particular whether the intervention was provided by a co-ordinated multidisciplinary team (co-ordinated ESD team) or not. Outcome data are currently available for 14 trials (1957 patients). Patients tended to be a selected elderly group with moderate disability. The ESD group showed significant reductions (P < 0.0001) in the length of hospital stay equivalent to approximately seven days. Overall, the odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) for death, death or institutionalisation, death or dependency at the end of scheduled follow-up were OR 0.91 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.25, P = 0.58), OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.00, P = 0.05) and OR 0.80 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.97, P = 0.02) respectively. The greatest benefits were seen in the trials evaluating a co-ordinated ESD team and in stroke patients with mild to moderate disability. Improvements were also seen in patients' extended activities of daily living scores (standardised mean difference 0.12, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.25, P = 0.05) and satisfaction with services (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.38, P = 0.02) but no statistically significant differences were seen in carers' subjective health status, mood or satisfaction with services. The apparent benefits were no longer statistically significant at five-year follow-up. Appropriately resourced ESD services provided for a selected group of stroke patients can reduce long-term dependency and admission to institutional care as well as reducing the length of hospital stay. We observed no adverse impact on the mood or subjective health status of patients or carers.

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with adverse outcomes in disease-specific populations. This study examines whether it is also independent predictor of incident cancer, coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality in the general population.METHODS: The records of adult participants in the Scottish Health Survey 2003 were linked with hospital admissions, cancer registrations and death certificates. Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the associations between quintiles of physical and mental component summary score (PCS and MCS respectively) of the SF-12 and adverse outcomes. Higher quintiles of both PCS and MCS indicate better health status.RESULTS: Among the 5,272 study participants, the mean PCS score was 49 (standard deviation (SD) 10.3). Participants were followed-up for a mean of 7.6 years. On survival analysis the lowest quintile of PCS was a strong predictor of all-cause death (hazard ratio (HR) 2.81, 95% CI 1.76, 4.49), incident cancer (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.10, 2.42), and CHD events (HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.00, 3.96), compared to the highest quintile. This association was independent of adiposity and other confounders. The mean MCS score 52 (SD 8.8). MCS quintile was not associated with incident cancer and CHD, and the association between MCS and all-cause death (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01, 1.75) became non-significant after adjustment for adiposity.CONCLUSION: Physical HRQoL is a significant predictor of a range of adverse outcomes, even after adjustment for adiposity and other confounders. This study highlights the importance of perceived health in the general population.

Reid H.A.S.,University Paris Diderot | Kontar E.P.,University of Glasgow
Solar Physics | Year: 2013

Solar flare accelerated electrons escaping into the interplanetary space and seen as type III solar radio bursts are often detected near the Earth. Using numerical simulations we consider the evolution of energetic electron spectrum in the inner heliosphere and near the Earth. The role of Langmuir wave generation, heliospheric plasma density fluctuations, and expansion of magnetic field lines on the electron peak flux and fluence spectra is studied to predict the electron properties as could be observed by Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus. Considering various energy loss mechanisms we show that the substantial part of the initial energetic electron energy is lost via wave-plasma processes due to plasma inhomogeneity. For the parameters adopted, the results show that the electron spectrum changes mostly at the distances before ∼ 20 R⊙. Further into the heliosphere, the electron flux spectrum of electrons forms a broken power law relatively similar to what is observed at 1 AU. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Murrie M.,University of Glasgow
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

This short tutorial review covers recent progress in the field of polynuclear cobalt(II)-based complexes, which display slow magnetic relaxation at low temperature. Cobalt(II) single-molecule magnets (SMMs) can display much larger magnetic anisotropies and hence, potentially higher blocking temperatures than SMMs based on ions where the zero-field splitting originates from a second order spin-orbit coupling, such as manganese(III). © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

Bucher G.,University of Glasgow
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2010

The twofold ester pyrolysis of carbonates, yielding monomeric carbonic acid, was investigated by computational methods. By comparison with CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/ccpVTZ benchmark calculations, the M05-2X. method was found to give the most accurate reaction enthalpies among the DFT methods employed. While the first ester pyrolysis of diethyl carbonate, (E)-bis(acetaldoxime) carbonate or diN,N-dimethylhydroxylamine carbonate will yield the corresponding monocarbonates, these highly labile compounds are predicted, to decay via alternative reaction channels that result in the formation of carbon dioxide. Due to competing O-O bond homolyis reactions, dialkyl diperoxycarbonates are predicted to afford at best moderate yields of monomeric carbonic acid, upon flash vacuum pyrolysis. The carbonate derived from "benzene hydraté (cyclohexa-2,4-dien-l-ol), however, is predicted to be an ideal precursor for monomeric carbonic acid, undergoing ester pyrolysis in a very facile reaction, with no competing bond homolysis processes © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Holt C.,University of Glasgow | Carver J.A.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2012

In an early challenge to an aspect of Darwin's theory of natural selection, Jackson Mivart contended that milk could not have evolved 'from a scarcely nutritious fluid from an accidentally hypertrophied cutaneous gland'. The evolutionary change from a gland secretion to milk involves an increase in calcium and protein concentrations by up to 100- and 1000-fold, respectively. Even so, the challenge, we suggest, is not just a problem of scale. An increase in the concentrations of calcium and phosphate brings an increased risk of calcification of the secretory gland because calcium phosphate is highly insoluble. In addition, two of the four constituent milk casein proteins (κ and α S2) aggregate to produce toxic amyloid fibrils. It is proposed that both problems were solved through the cosecretion of ancestral β- and κ-caseins to form a stable amorphous aggregate of both proteins with sequestered amorphous calcium phosphate, that is, a primordial casein micelle. Evolutionarily, a gradual increase in the concentration of casein micelles could therefore produce progressively more nutritious fluids for the neonate without endangering the reproductive potential of the mother. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

Evans J.J.,University of Glasgow
Current Opinion in Neurology | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Goal setting in one format or another is used by most acute, post-acute and community rehabilitation teams. However, the contribution that goal setting makes to the rehabilitation process is not yet established. Similarly, the specific form of goal setting that is most useful is still to be determined. The purpose of this review was to examine recent studies of goal setting and identify implications for clinical practice both early and late after brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing patient involvement in the goal-setting process is feasible without significant additional resource, improves the patient experience of rehabilitation, and changes the nature of goals set to goals that are more meaningful to individuals without loss of levels of overall goal achievement. There is preliminary evidence that reminding technology can enhance learning of goals in both inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation. Goal-attainment scaling offers a means of measuring outcome in complex, multidisciplinary rehabilitation programmes. Its sensitivity to change may be increased by adoption of a six-point grading scale, but questions have been raised concerning its reliability as a tool for use in randomised controlled trials. SUMMARY: Goal setting is not just an administrative tool, it is a clinical intervention. Rehabilitation team members should question whether practice within their own service is optimal and in particular the extent to which their current goal setting practice genuinely involves, wherever possible, patients as collaborative partners. Provision of support to participate in goal setting as well as to remember goals and use goal progress feedback may be necessary. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Luque A.,Technical University of Madrid | Marti A.,Technical University of Madrid | Stanley C.,University of Glasgow
Nature Photonics | Year: 2012

The intermediate-band solar cell is designed to provide a large photogenerated current while maintaining a high output voltage. To make this possible, these cells incorporate an energy band that is partially filled with electrons within the forbidden bandgap of a semiconductor. Photons with insufficient energy to pump electrons from the valence band to the conduction band can use this intermediate band as a stepping stone to generate an electron-hole pair. Nanostructured materials and certain alloys have been employed in the practical implementation of intermediate-band solar cells, although challenges still remain for realizing practical devices. Here we offer our present understanding of intermediate-band solar cells, as well as a review of the different approaches pursed for their practical implementation. We also discuss how best to resolve the remaining technical issues. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Evans J.J.,University of Glasgow
Brain Impairment | Year: 2011

Positive psychology (PP) is the scientific study of positive emotion and wellbeing. In recent years, there has been a shift in the focus of PP from understanding the factors that contribute to wellbeing to developing and evaluating interventions to improve wellbeing. This article addresses the question of whether the principles and practice of PP are relevant to brain injury rehabilitation. It is concluded that PP is indeed relevant to brain injury rehabilitation; that much of our current (best) practice is consistent with the principles of PP, but there remain areas where brain injury rehabilitation practice could draw further on the specific methods of PP.

Cartigny P.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | Palot M.,University of Alberta | Thomassot E.,University of Lorraine | Harris J.W.,University of Glasgow
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences | Year: 2014

Primarily on the basis of C, N, S, and O stable isotope systematics, this article reviews recent achievements in understanding diamond formation and growth in Earth's mantle. Diamond is a metasomatic mineral that results from either the reduction or oxidation of mobile C-bearing liquids (fluids or melts) that intrude preexisting lithologies (eclogites, peridotites, and metamorphic rocks). This process seems ubiquitous, as it occurs over a large range of depths and extends through time. Diamond-forming carbon derives mainly from the convective asthenosphere. Most of its isotopic anomalies reflect fractionation processes in the lithospheric mantle, which are attributed to diamond precipitation itself and/or a mineralogical control occurring prior to diamond precipitation. Evidence for a mineralogical control would be the decoupling of the 15N/14N ratios in eclogitic diamond from other tracers of subduction in inclusions in the same diamond. C isotope anomalies related to subduction are rare and are probably best seen in diamonds from the transition zone. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Weaver L.T.,University of Glasgow
Bulletin of the History of Medicine | Year: 2010

The nineteenth century saw the incorporation of technology, such as the stethoscope, microscope, and thermometer, into clinical medicine. An instrument that has received less attention in the history of the role of technology in medicine is the weighing balance, or scale. Although not new to nineteenth-century medicine, it played an important part in the rise of the numerical method and its application to the development and shaping of pediatrics. This article explores the origin and development of the weighing of babies. During its clinical and scientifc adoption, this simple procedure was refned and applied in a number of increasingly sophisticated and far-reaching ways: as a measure of the dimensions of the fetus and newborn, as an index of the viability of the newborn, as a means of estimating milk intake, as a way of distinguishing normality from abnormality, as a summary measure of infant health, and as an instrument of mass surveillance. In so doing it changed the way in which medical care was delivered to infants.

Braithwaite C.J.R.,University of Glasgow
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2014

Reef fronts have traditionally been regarded as comprising debris derived by contemporaneous erosion of 'the reef'. However, evidence from wave transport indicates that on present-day reefs the bulk of the debris generated in this way accumulates in the back-reef area, with only finer-grained sediment carried off-reef by retreating flows or by overwash. Nevertheless, in contrast to this observation, 'fore-reef' debris slopes are commonly considered "characteristic" of Phanerozoic reefs. This apparent error reflects the conflation of processes defining contemporary growth and accretion of the reef, and the corresponding long-term accretion of the carbonate platform on which it rests. Present-day reefs are commonly (although not exclusively) additions to long-lived carbonate platforms. Growth of the latter is intermittent and has been moderated by changes in sea-level that, for recent reefs, have been on time scales of less than 100. ka. During low sea-level stands, growth ceases or is translated downslope and earlier deposits are subject to lithification and subaerial erosion. Similar changes are applied on a larger scale to the aggrading growth of carbonate platforms, but the bulk accretion of these includes quite different processes and reflects far longer timescales. During low sea-level stands, the margins of platforms commonly become unstable, with instability reflected in slope failure and in the shedding of blocks, ranging from metres to kilometres in diameter, associated with the generation of debris flows and turbidites. It is argued that these are the materials that are commonly described as 'reef talus' in ancient structures, although their formation is largely independent of any contemporary reef growth. Difficulties arise where 'the reef' and 'the platform' are treated as a single functional entity. It is important to recognize the conceptual distinction between them, 'reef talus' is a misleading description of the debris predominantly generated by platform erosion and slope failure. © 2013.

Scott E.,University of Glasgow
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2016

Despite the increasing importance of long noncoding RNA in physiology and disease, their role in endothelial biology remains poorly understood. Growing evidence has highlighted them to be essential regulators of human embryonic stem cell differentiation. SENCR, a vascular-enriched long noncoding RNA, overlaps the Friend Leukemia Integration virus 1 (FLI1) gene, a regulator of endothelial development. Therefore, we wanted to test the hypothesis that SENCR may contribute to mesodermal and endothelial commitment as well as in endothelial function. We thus developed new differentiation protocols allowing generation of endothelial cells from human embryonic stem cells using both directed and hemogenic routes. The expression of SENCR was markedly regulated during endothelial commitment using both protocols. SENCR did not control the pluripotency of pluripotent cells; however its overexpression significantly potentiated early mesodermal and endothelial commitment. In human umbilical endothelial cell (HUVEC), SENCR induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. SENCR expression was altered in vascular tissue and cells derived from patients with critical limb ischemia and premature coronary artery disease compared to controls. Here, we showed that SENCR contributes to the regulation of endothelial differentiation from pluripotent cells and controls the angiogenic capacity of HUVEC. These data give novel insight into the regulatory processes involved in endothelial development and function.Molecular Therapy (2016); doi:10.1038/mt.2016.41. © 2016 Official journal of the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

Mackenzie S.,University of Glasgow
Crime, Law and Social Change | Year: 2011

Research with dealers at the market end of the global chain of supply of cultural objects leads to the suggestion that the analytical framework associated with the concept of 'crimes of the powerful' can be useful in helping us to understand the role of dealers in driving the market, and in focussing our attention on the difficulties of engaging with the illicit trade through a conventional criminal justice approach. This paper explores the nature of the power that is associated with high-level antiquities dealers, and considers its regulatory implications. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Petrie J.R.,University of Glasgow
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2013

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with diabetes and therefore managing cardiovascular (CV) risk is a critical component of diabetes care. As incretin-based therapies are effective recent additions to the glucose-lowering treatment armamentarium for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), understanding their CV safety profiles is of great importance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been associated with beneficial effects on CV risk factors, including weight, blood pressure and lipid profiles. Encouragingly, mechanistic studies in preclinical models and in patients with acute coronary syndrome suggest a potential cardioprotective effect of native GLP-1 or GLP-1 receptor agonists following ischaemia. Moreover, meta-analyses of phase 3 development programme data indicate no increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) with incretin-based therapies. Large randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate long-term CV outcomes with incretin-based therapies in individuals with T2D are now in progress, with the first two reporting as this article went to press. © 2013 Petrie; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Reilly J.J.,University of Glasgow
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2010

Background: Physical activity (PA) undertaken at child care could assist in the achievement of PA recommendations across a large proportion of the population in early childhood. Purpose: To review recent evidence on volume of PA and amount of moderate-to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) in preschool children within child care centers. Methods: Literature search for studies published in 2000-2008 in which objective methods (accelerometry, direct observation, pedometers, HR monitoring) were used to measure typical levels of PA and MVPA of preschool children while within child care. Results: Twelve eligible articles were identified, describing 13 studies, involving 96 different child care centers and >1900 children. In all six of the accelerometry studies that quantified MVPA and in three of the four studies that used direct observation to quantify MVPA, typical levels of PA within the child care center would have led to the accumulation of <60 min•d MVPA during a full 8-h child care day. Conclusions: A body of high-quality evidence is consistent in suggesting that PA levels within child care centers are typically very low, and levels of sedentary behavior are typically high. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Sattar N.,University of Glasgow
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Men are well known to have a higher risk than women for cardiovascular disease. In recent years, however, studies show adult men also have higher risk for type 2 diabetes, an observation which has important clinical implications, particularly in the public health arena. This chapter explores the relevant data underlying this observation, examines potential mechanisms including life course changes in insulin resistance and role of adiposity, and discusses relevant clinical implications and solutions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

York C.,University of Glasgow
International Journal of Structural Integrity | Year: 2011

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate new design concepts for 24 classes of laminate, which have been derived as part of an ongoing study on the development of a unified approach to the characterization of coupled laminates. The paper presents a description of each class of coupled laminate. Design/methodology/approach - The paper gives an overview of the desired performance and requirements of a smart leading edge device, its aerodynamic design for the wind tunnel tests and the structural pre-designandsizing of the full-scaleleading edge section which will be tested in the windtunnel. Findings - Coupled laminates have potential applications in the design of aero-elastic compliant rotor blades or aircraft wing structures, by introducing tailored extension-twist and/or shear-extension coupling at the laminate level; or in the design of thermally activated morphing structures, by exploiting more complex coupling behaviour. Practical implications - These laminates contain standard cross-ply and/or angle-ply combinations, although double angle-ply laminates are also considered, and correspond to any standard fibre/matrix system with a constant ply thickness throughout. Originality/value - The vast majority of the laminate described possess coupling behaviour not previously identified in the literature. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Christie J.M.,University of Glasgow | Murphy A.S.,University of Maryland University College
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Light is a key environmental factor that drives many aspects of plant growth and development. Phototropism, the reorientation of growth toward or away from light, represents one of these important adaptive processes. Modern studies of phototropism began with experiments conducted by Charles Darwin demonstrating that light perception at the shoot apex of grass coleoptiles induces differential elongation in the lower epidermal cells. This led to the discovery of the plant growth hormone auxin and the Cholodny- Went hypothesis attributing differential tropic bending to lateral auxin relocalization. In the past two decades, molecular-genetic analyses in the model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana has identifi ed the principal photoreceptors for phototropism and their mechanism of activation. In addition, several protein families of auxin transporters have been identifi ed. Despite extensive efforts, however, it still remains unclear as to how photoreceptor activation regulates lateral auxin transport to establish phototropic growth. This review aims to summarize major developments from over the last century and how these advances shape our current understanding of higher plant phototropism. Recent progress in phototropism research and the way in which this research is shedding new light on old concepts, including the Cholodny-Went hypothesis, is also highlighted. © 2013 Botanical Society of America.

York C.B.,University of Glasgow
Composite Structures | Year: 2015

The definitive list of Extension-Shearing coupled composite laminates with up to 21 plies is derived. The listings comprise of individual stacking sequences of entirely non-symmetric laminates, which are characterised in terms of angle- and cross-ply sub-sequence relationships as well as the blend-ratio of unbalanced angle-plies. Dimensionless parameters, including lamination parameters, are provided, from which the extensional and bending stiffness terms are readily calculated. Because this new class of coupled non-symmetric laminate possesses in-plane coupling behaviour only it can also be manufactured flat under a standard elevated temperature curing process. Such laminates can be configured to produce Bending-Twisting coupling in wing-box type structures, which can be exploited to great effect in the design for passive load alleviation in wind-turbine blades, or for aero-elastic compliance in fixed wing aircraft or helicopter rotor-blades. It should be recognised that similar behaviour can also be achieved using less sophisticated designs, such as applying off-axis material alignment to otherwise balanced and symmetric laminates or by using un-balanced and symmetric designs, but additional forms of coupling behaviour arise in these cases, leading to detrimental effects on both stiffness and strength, which are demonstrated though comparisons of the structural response of competing laminate designs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Despard E.,University of Glasgow
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2016

This article uses a surprising horticultural event—an unplanned, collective ‘theft’ of plants from the Montreal Botanical Garden in 1981—as impetus to interrogate the contribution of garden plants to public life in so-called ‘green’ cities of the late twentieth century. As sites of both social nature and material culture that are perceived as socially and environmentally beneficial and frequently designed to appear more-or-less natural, gardens are normally quite difficult to see or think in politically differentiated terms. Taking a historical ‘eventalization’ of civic horticulture as a means to enable critical perception, I develop the diagram (as introduced by Foucault and interpreted by Deleuze) as an analytical tool conducive to identifying and historicizing the perceptual and socio-spatial effects produced by the use of garden plants in urban public spaces. I outline the local historical context of the theft at the Botanical Garden and analyze the functioning of a program of horticultural beautification coincident with it as a means of establishing the theft’s more general intelligibility. This illuminates, not only a change in the functioning of plants in Montreal’s urban landscape, but also a means of recognizing the historical specificity of relations between people and plants, and socio-cultural change as more-than-human. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.

Horn D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | McCulloch R.,University of Glasgow
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2010

African trypanosomes escape the host adaptive immune response by switching their dense protective coat of Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG). Each cell expresses only one VSG gene at a time from a telomeric expression site (ES). The 'pre-genomic' era saw the identification of the range of pathways involving VSG recombination in the context of mono-telomeric VSG transcription. A prominent feature of the early post-genomic era is the description of the molecular machineries involved in these processes. We describe the factors and sequences recently linked to mutually exclusive transcription and VSG recombination, and how these act in the control of the key virulence mechanism of antigenic variation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause diseases ranging from benign warts to invasive tumors. A subset of these viruses termed 'high risk infect the cervix where persistent infection can lead to cervical cancer. Although many HPV genomes have been sequenced, knowledge of virus gene expression and its regulation is still incomplete. This is due in part to the lack, until recently, of suitable systems for virus propagation in the laboratory. HPV gene expression is polycistronic initiating from multiple promoters. Gene regulation occurs at transcriptional, but particularly post-transcriptional levels, including RNA processing, nuclear export, mRNA stability and translation. A close association between the virus replication cycle and epithelial differentiation adds a further layer of complexity. Understanding HPV mRNA expression and its regulation in the different diseases associated with infection may lead to development of novel diagnostic approaches and will reveal key viral and cellular targets for development of novel antiviral therapies. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.

Ireland D.G.,University of Glasgow
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

Information entropy is applied to the state of knowledge of reaction amplitudes in pseudoscalar meson photoproduction, and a scheme is developed that quantifies the information content of a measured set of polarization observables. It is shown that this definition of information is a more practical measure of the quality of a set of measured observables than whether the combination is a mathematically complete set. It is also shown that, when experimental uncertainty is introduced, complete sets of measurements do not necessarily remove ambiguities and that experiments should strive to measure as many observables as practical to extract amplitudes. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Chetty R.,University of Glasgow
Annals of Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2011

Reticular/microcystic schwannoma is a rare variant of schwannoma with a predilection for viscera, especially the gastrointestinal tract. Of the 9 cases reported thus far, 7 have occurred in female patients. The average age of presentation is 67 years. They are usually small, asymptomatic lesions ranging in size from 0.85 to 2.2 cm with a mean size of 1.35 cm. They usually occur in the stomach, small bowel, and proximal large intestine. It differs from usual schwannomas of the gastrointestinal tract by lacking the peripheral cuff of lymphocytes. The histologic appearance of slender bipolar spindle cells in a lace-like reticular pattern set within a myxoid stroma raises a wide differential diagnosis including gastrointestinal stromal tumor, perineurioma, and in more epithelioid examples, even carcinoma. Awareness of the entity and an immunohistochemical panel of markers will ensure that the correct diagnosis is made. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Bluck B.J.,University of Glasgow
Sedimentology | Year: 2011

The height of accretionary gravel beaches, determined by the vertical distance between the large sphere zone at the seaward margin and the large disc zone at the landward margin, is determined mainly by tidal range. As the beach builds seaward, this height translates into thickness and so the complete thickness of gravel beach accumulations is a good indicator, in the geological record, of tidal range. Beaches with a small tidal range have the zone between the large discs and the large spheres compressed and sometimes steepened. These beaches are characterized mainly by cusps and berms, both of which yield steeply dipping, seaward building, cross-strata. Beaches built by large, persistent waves generally have a steep profile, whereas those with small wave height appear to have a shallow profile. Cusps generally have extremely well-sorted gravels, often in an openwork fabric and with a landward crown of coarse gravel that may grade seaward into shape-sorted, gently dipping gravels. Berms, which may extend for hundreds of metres along the coast, comprise, in section, very well-sorted cross-stratified gravels that may intermittently build seaward for a distance >15m. Extensive selection pavements typify beaches with a high tidal range and comprise sheets of gravel which are well-sorted and dip at comparatively low angles towards the sea. These selection pavements form beds that, in section, can be >50m in seaward length; they grow from clasts, supplied to them from swash or backwash, and which are selected by the fabric of the existing sheet. In some cases, the selection pavements can be very mature having only a specific clast shape and size remaining. Total preservation of the beach sequence in the geological record is more likely to take place in areas of rapid deposition of sediments, such as the marine fringes to a fan delta. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 International Association of Sedimentologists.

Hodge R.A.,University of Glasgow
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is increasingly being used to collect mm-resolution surface data from a broad range of environments. When scanning complex surfaces, interactions between the surface topography, laser footprint and scanner precision can introduce errors into the point cloud. Quantification of these errors is, however, limited by the availability of independent measurement techniques. This research presents simulated TLS as a new approach to error quantification. Two sets of experiments are presented. The first set demonstrates that simulated TLS is able to reproduce real TLS data from a plane and a pebble. The second set uses simulated TLS to assess a methodology developed for the collection and processing of field TLS data. Simulated TLS data is collected from surfaces up to ∼1 m2 created from regular arrays of uniform spheres (sphere diameters of 10 to 100 mm) and irregular arrays of mixed spheres (median sphere diameters of 16 to 94 mm). These data were analysed to (i) assess the effectiveness of the processing methodology at removing erroneous points; (ii) quantify the magnitude of errors in a digital surface model (DSM) interpolated from the processed point cloud; and (iii) investigate the extent to which the interpolated DSMs retained the geometric properties of the original surfaces. The processing methodology was found to be effective, especially on data from coarser surfaces, with the retained points typically having an inter-quartile range (IQR) of point errors of ∼2 mm. DSM errors varied as a function of sphere size and packing, with DSM errors having an IQR of ∼2 mm for the regular surfaces and ∼4 mm for the irregular surfaces. Finally, whilst in the finer surfaces point and DSM errors were a substantial proportion of the sphere diameters, geometrical analysis indicated that the DSMs still reproduced properties of the original surface such as semivariance and some percentiles of the surface elevation distribution. © 2010 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

Nelson S.M.,University of Glasgow | Telfer E.E.,University of Edinburgh | Anderson R.A.,Queens Medical Research Institute
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review details recent developments in our understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing in women and the implications for fertility and pregnancy. METHODS: Sociological online libraries (IBSS, SocINDEX), PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant demographic, epidemiological, clinical and biological studies, using key words and hierarchical MeSH terms. From this, we identified and focused on key topics where it was judged that there had been clinically relevant advances in the understanding of ovarian and uterine ageing with implications for improved diagnostics and novel interventions. RESULTS: Mapping of the ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers, across the reproductive lifespan has recently been performed. This now allows an assessment of the effects of environmental, lifestyle and prenatal exposures on follicular dynamics and the identification of their impact during periods of germ cell vulnerability and may also facilitate early identification of individuals with shorter reproductive lifespans. If women choose to time their family based on their ovarian reserve this would redefine the meaning of family planning. Despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the primordial follicle and thereby the oocyte pool, therapeutic interventions in female reproductive ageing at present remain limited. Maternal ageing has detrimental effects on decidual and placental development, which may be related to repeated exposure to sex steroids and underlie the association of ageing with adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Ageing has incontrovertible detrimental effects on the ovary and the uterus. Our enhanced understanding of ovarian ageing will facilitate early identification of individuals at greatest risk, and novel therapeutic interventions. Changes in both ovary and uterus are in addition to age-related co-morbidities, which together have synergistic effects on reducing the probability of a successful pregnancy outcome. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.

Goldie J.,University of Glasgow
Medical Teacher | Year: 2013

Context: Professionalism has become a hot topic in medical education. Professionalism needs to be assessed if it is to be viewed as both positive and relevant. Objectives: The assessment of professionalism is an evolving field. This review aims to consolidate current thinking. Implications: Assessment of professionalism has progressed from an initial focus on the development and attainment of professional identity, through identifying areas of deficiency, to the attainment of a set of identifiable positive attributes and behaviours. It is now beginning to recognise the challenge of assessing a multi-dimensional construct, looking beyond the measurement of behaviour to embrace a diversity of approaches. Conclusions: Professionalism should be assessed longitudinally. It requires combinations of different approaches, assessing professionalism at individual, interpersonal and societal/institutional levels. Increasing the depth and the quality of reliability and validity of existing programmes in various contexts may be more appropriate than concentrating on developing new instruments. Increasing the number of tests and the number of relevant contexts will increase the reliability of the result. Similarly increasing the number of observers increases reliability. Feedback, encouraging reflection, can promote change in behaviour and identity formation. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd.

John Clutterbuck A.,University of Glasgow
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2011

The genomes of 49 filamentous ascomycetes (subphylum Pezizomycotina) were examined by two independent methods for evidence of multiple C → T transitions typical of RIP. At least one transposable element or other repeat family was identified in each genome, and members were assessed for transition and transversion mutations relative to a model of their intact progenitor. Occurrence of RIP was indicated where family members differed by excess of directional transitions over transversions. Transition mutations were quantified by an algorithm taking double mutations in CpG and CpC dinucleotides into account. A second method assessed dinucleotide frequency distribution anomalies in whole genomes, a procedure that allowed quantification of fractions of the non-coding genome that had been subject to extensive directional mutation. The results of both methods revealed that RIP-like activity varied greatly, both in extent of mutation and in dinucleotide context for C → T transitions. In the most extreme case, 75% of a Blastomyces dermatitidis genome had suffered conspicuous GC-depletion, all of it in the non-coding fraction. Many genomes carried both intact repeats as well as others that had suffered heavily from transitions. Only one species, Chaetomium globosum, showed no evidence of directional mutation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Mitchell T.J.,University of Birmingham | Dalziel C.E.,University of Glasgow
Sub-Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Cholesterol dependent cytolysins are important in the ability of some bacteria to cause disease in man and animals. Pneumolysin (PLY) plays a key role in the diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). This chapter describes the role of PLY in some of the key process in disease. These include induction of cell death by pore formation and toxin-induced apoptosis as well as more subtle effects on gene expression of host cells including epigenetic effects of the toxin. The use of bacterial mutants that either do not express the toxin or express altered versions in biological systems is described. Use of isolated tissue and whole animal systems to dissect the structure/function relationships of the toxin as well as the role played by different activities in the pathogenesis of infection are described. The role of PLY in meningitis and the associated deafness is discussed as well as the role of the toxin in promoting increased lung permeability and inflammation during pneumococcal pneumonia. Different clinical strains of the pneumococcus produce different forms of PLY and the impact of this on disease caused by these strains is discussed. Finally, the impact of this knowledge on the development of treatment and prevention strategies for pneumococcal disease is discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014.

Gjini E.,University of Glasgow
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Systems that generate antigenic variation enable pathogens to evade host immune responses and are intricately interwoven with major pathogen traits, such as host choice, growth, virulence and transmission. Although much is understood about antigen switching at the molecular level, little is known about the cross-scale links between these molecular processes and the larger-scale within and between host population dynamics that they must ultimately drive. Inspired by the antigenic variation system of African trypanosomes, we apply modelling approaches to our expanding understanding of the organization and expression of antigen repertoires, and explore links across these scales. We predict how pathogen population processes are determined by underlying molecular genetics and infer resulting selective pressures on important emergent repertoire traits.

Murray-Smith D.J.,University of Glasgow
Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems | Year: 2013

Knowledge of the sensitivity of inverse solutions to variation of parameters of a model can be very useful in making engineering design decisions. This article describes how parameter sensitivity analysis can be carried out for inverse simulations generated through approximate transfer function inversion methods and also through the use of feedback principles. Emphasis is placed on the use of sensitivity models and the article includes examples and a case study involving a model of an underwater vehicle. It is shown that the use of sensitivity models can provide physical understanding of inverse simulation solutions that is not directly available using parameter sensitivity analysis methods that involve parameter perturbations and response differencing. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

White D.R.,University of Glasgow
Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines | Year: 2012

ECJ is one of the most popular evolutionary computation toolkits and one that is widely used within the field of Genetic Programming (GP). ECJ is a generic toolkit aimed at all forms of evolutionary computation. GP is one of its strongest suits and correspondingly ECJ supports many useful GP features such as strongly-typed GP using atomic and set typing, ephemeral random constants (ERCs) and automatically defined functions (ADFs). It is currently focused on tree-based GP, although support for grammar-based representations is improving. Many uses of ECJ require little programming, such as multi-thread evaluation can often be introduced with the line in a simple text file. The integration of networking and serialization support that Java provides makes developing new parallel architectures and checkpointing methods much easier than starting from scratch or using a third-party library.

Krause J.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Krause J.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Ruxton G.D.,University of Glasgow | Krause S.,FH Luebeck
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2010

Electronic media have unlocked a hitherto largely untapped potential for swarm intelligence (SI; generally, the realisation that group living can facilitate solving cognitive problems that go beyond the capacity of single animals) in humans with relevance for areas such as company management, prediction of elections, product development and the entertainment industry. SI is a rapidly developing topic that has become a hotbed for both innovative research and wild speculation. Here, we tie together approaches from seemingly disparate areas by means of a general definition of SI to unite SI work on both animal and human groups. Furthermore, we identify criteria that are important for SI to operate and propose areas in which further progress with SI research can be made. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hahn A.C.,University of Glasgow | Perrett D.I.,Andrews University
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

Facial attractiveness provides a very powerful motivation for sexual and parental behavior. We therefore review the importance of faces to the study of neurobiological control of human reproductive motivations. For heterosexual individuals there is a common brain circuit involving the nucleus accumbens, the medial prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and the orbitofrontal cortices that is activated more by attractive than unattractive faces, particularly for faces of the opposite sex. Behavioral studies indicate parallel effects of attractiveness on incentive salience or willingness to work to see faces. There is some evidence that the reward value of opposite sex attractiveness is more pronounced in men than women, perhaps reflecting the greater importance assigned to physical attractiveness by men when evaluating a potential mate. Sex differences and similarities in response to facial attractiveness are reviewed. Studies comparing heterosexual and homosexual observers indicate the orbitofrontal cortex and mediodorsal thalamus are more activated by faces of the desired sex than faces of the less-preferred sex, independent of observer gender or sexual orientation. Infant faces activate brain regions that partially overlap with those responsive to adult faces. Infant faces provide a powerful stimulus, which also elicits sex differences in behavior and brain responses that appear dependent on sex hormones. There are many facial dimensions affecting perceptions of attractiveness that remain unexplored in neuroimaging, and we conclude by suggesting that future studies combining parametric manipulation of face images, brain imaging, hormone assays and genetic polymorphisms in receptor sensitivity are needed to understand the neural and hormonal mechanisms underlying reproductive drives. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Cosgrove D.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Jarvis M.C.,University of Glasgow
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Recent insights into the physical biology of plant cell walls are reviewed, summarizing the essential differences between primary and secondary cell walls and identifying crucial gaps in our knowledge of their structure and biomechanics. Unexpected parallels are identified between the mechanism of expansion of primary cell walls during growth and the mechanisms by which hydrated wood deforms under external tension. There is a particular need to revise current "cartoons" of plant cell walls to be more consistent with data from diverse approaches and to go beyond summarizing limited aspects of cell walls, serving instead as guides for future experiments and for the application of new techniques. © 2012 Cosgrove and Jarvis.

Public Health specialists have increasingly deployed the concept of 'dose-response' in areas such as diet ('five-a-day'), alcohol ('21 weekly units') and physical activity ('150 minutes of weekly activity'). Using these examples and a case study that sought to establish an optimal dose of physical activity for mental health gain, this article offers a critical assessment of the nature, robustness and function of 'dose' in public health. Drawing on a 'sociology of knowledge', the article argues that dose-response can best be considered an analogy that does not necessarily translate favourably from its original expression in toxicology to some public health domains - an over-extended analogy. Rather than having technical robustness, its attractiveness and utility is seen to lie in it possessing 'cultural capital', here, the ability to link behavioural concerns to clinical practice, to simplify complex ideas and to act as a regulatory form of behavioural governance. The article is skeptical of further empirical pursuits in identifying optimal doses and offers an alternative course for public health framing. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Rousselet G.A.,University of Glasgow | Pernet C.R.,University of Edinburgh
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Associations between two variables, for instance between brain and behavioral measurements, are often studied using correlations, and in particular Pearson correlation. However, Pearson correlation is not robust: outliers can introduce false correlations or mask existing ones. These problems are exacerbated in brain imaging by a widespread lack of control for multiple comparisons, and several issues with data interpretations. We illustrate these important problems associated with brain-behavior correlations, drawing examples from published articles. We make several propositions to alleviate these problems. © 2012 Rousselet and Pernet.

Shaw D.,University of Glasgow
Medical Law International | Year: 2012

This paper provides an analysis of the jurisprudence and legislation concerning the fluoridation of water in the United Kingdom. Water fluoridation is currently permitted by the Water Act 2003, but this appears to contradict legislation and regulations governing food and healthcare in the UK and the EU. It is concluded that the status quo rests on the legal fiction that fluoridated water does not constitute a medication. © 2012 The Author(s).

O'Connor R.C.,University of Glasgow | Nock M.K.,Harvard University
The Lancet Psychiatry | Year: 2014

The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Oien K.A.,University of Glasgow | Dennis J.L.,St Georges, University of London
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) remains a common and challenging clinical problem. The aim of diagnostic work-up in CUP is to classify as specifically as possible the cancer affecting the patient, according to the broad tumour type, subtype and, where possible, site of origin. This classification currently best predicts patient outcome and guides optimal treatment. a stepwise approach to diagnostic work-up is described. although pathology is based on morphology, the assessment of tissue-specific genes through immunohistochemistry (IHC) substantially helps tumour classification at each diagnostic step. For IHC in CUP, recent improvements include more standardised approaches and marker panels plus new markers. Tissue-specific genes are also being used in CUP work-up through molecular profiling. Large-scale profiles of hundreds of tumours of different types have been generated, compared and used to generate diagnostic algorithms. Commercial tests for CUP classification have been developed at the mRNa and microRNa (miRNa) levels and validated in metastatic tumours and CUPs. While currently optimal pathology and IHC remain the 'gold standard' for CUP diagnostic work-up, and full clinical correlation is vital, the molecular tests appear to perform well: in the main diagnostic challenge of undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumours, molecular profiling performs as well as or better than IH C. © The author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Wall D.M.,University of Glasgow | Mccormick B.A.,University of Massachusetts Medical School
Cellular Microbiology | Year: 2014

Apoptosis is a critical process that intrinsically links organism survival to its ability to induce controlled death. Thus, functional apoptosis allows organisms to remove perceived threats to their survival by targeting those cells that it determines pose a direct risk. Central to this process are apoptotic caspases, enzymes that form a signalling cascade, converting danger signals via initiator caspases into activation of the executioner caspase, caspase-3. This enzyme begins disassembly of the cell by activating DNA degrading enzymes and degrading the cellular architecture. Interaction of pathogenic bacteria with caspases, and in particular, caspase-3, can therefore impact both host cell and bacterial survival. With roles outside cell death such as cell differentiation, control of signalling pathways and immunomodulation also being described for caspase-3, bacterial interactions with caspase-3 may be of far more significance in infection than previously recognized. In this review, we highlight the ways in which bacterial pathogens have evolved to subvert caspase-3 both through effector proteins that directly interact with the enzyme or by modulating pathways that influence its activation and activity. © 2014 The Authors. Cellular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Campbell P.,University of Glasgow
Housing Studies | Year: 2013

Homeownership has been elevated to the position of a superior form of tenure, offering seemingly limitless benefits from capital gain to more abstract notions of security, empowerment and good citizenship. The international discourse on housing policy has mirrored this privilege, particularly evident with the celebration of Hernando de Soto and his promotion of formal property rights as the solution to global poverty. Formalisation schemes are said to provide a route to economic prosperity by transforming 'slum dwellers' into 'homeowners', offering a route to access formal credit and ending the undercapitalisation of the poor. Drawing on the example of de Soto-inspired MKURABITA titling scheme in Tanzania, this paper questions the favour of ownership policies in the Global South in the wake of the subprime crisis. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

McGeachan C.,University of Glasgow
Cultural Geographies | Year: 2013

In recent years, geographical engagements with issues surrounding different forms of memory have become increasingly diverse. Responding to Owain Jones's recent call for more attention to be paid in geography to the individual and private memories that are crucial components in the makings of our lives, this paper seeks to investigate the processes of (re)remembering childhood worlds and the importance of thinking in more depth about the presentness of the past. Utilizing R.D. Laing's 'archive', his autobiography Wisdom, Madness and Folly (1985), and a documentary film that appeared as part of John McGreevy's Cities project in the late 1970s, this paper seeks to explore Laing's (re)remembered childhood worlds in order to think more explicitly about the significance of these different sites and spaces - and their memories - on his ways of interpreting and making sense of the world in the present. Storying (past) lives and (past) places in such a way brings to the fore the narrative quality of memory, opening up alternative ways of thinking about how memories are produced and (re)told. © The Author(s) 2012.

Phillips K.G.,Eli Lilly and Company | Uhlhaas P.J.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2015

Neural oscillations have received recently a great deal of interest in schizophrenia research because of the possibility to integrate findings from non-invasive electro/magnetoencephalographical recordings with pre-clinical research, which could potentially lead to the identification of pathophysiological mechanisms and novel treatment targets. In the current paper, we review the potential as well as the challenges of this approach by summarizing findings on alterations in rhythmic activity from both animal models and human data which have implicated dysfunctional neural oscillations in the explanation of cognitive deficits and certain clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Specifically, we will focus on findings that have examined neural oscillations during 1) perceptual processing, 2) working memory and executive processes and 3) spontaneous activity. The importance of the development of paradigms suitable for human and animal models is discussed as well as the search for mechanistic explanation for oscillatory dysfunctions. © The Author(s) 2015.

Freeman D.J.,University of Glasgow
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2010

Since the hypothesis linking low birth weight and poor fetal growth with future risk of cardiovascular disease was first proposed, there has been much interest in the early origins of disease. As rates of obesity increase and as maternal obesity has become common, interest has been directed towards the early origins of obesity. It is likely that a complex interaction of inherited gene effects and in-utero environment may interact in the developing fetus to programme pathways leading to future obesity. It is clear that maternal metabolism is disturbed in pregnancy in obese women, and that offspring of obese mothers have a higher percentage of body fat and are insulin resistant. This review discusses the ideas contributing to the current working concept of obesity programming, and discusses several potential mechanisms that may underlie obesity programming and susceptibility to future metabolic and vascular disease. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Spickett C.M.,University of Strathclyde | Pitt A.R.,University of Glasgow
Amino Acids | Year: 2012

Proteins can undergo a wide variety of oxidative post-translational modifications (oxPTM); while reversible modifications are thought to be relevant in physiological processes, non-reversible oxPTM may contribute to pathological situations and disease. The oxidant is also important in determining the type of oxPTM, such as oxidation, chlorination or nitration. The best characterized oxPTMs involved in signalling modulation are partial oxidations of cysteine to disulfide, glutathionylated or sulfenic acid forms that can be reversed by thiol reductants. Proline hydroxylation in HIF signalling is also quite well characterized, and there is increasing evidence that specific oxidations of methionine and tyrosine may have some biological roles. For some proteins regulated by cysteine oxidation, the residues and molecular mechanism involved have been extensively studied and are well understood, such as the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B and MAP3 kinase ASK1, as well as transcription factor complex Keap1-Nrf2. The advances in understanding of the role oxPTMs in signalling have been facilitated by advances in analytical technology, in particular tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Combinations of peptide sequencing by collisionally induced dissociation and precursor ion scanning or neutral loss to select for specific oxPTMs have proved very useful for identifying oxidatively modified proteins and mapping the sites of oxidation. The development of specific labelling and enrichment procedures for S-nitrosylation or disulfide formation has proved invaluable, and there is ongoing work to establish analogous methods for detection of nitrotyrosine and other modifications. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Costantini D.,University of Glasgow
Methods in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2011

1.In recent years, evolutionary ecologists have become increasingly interested in antioxidants and oxidative stress. Information on redox systems can provide new insights into our understanding of life-history variation and animal responses to environmental stressors. 2.A common approach of ecological studies to the study of antioxidant capacity of animals has been measurement of the total antioxidant capacity of serum or plasma. Some of these studies have suggested that most of the antioxidant capacity measured in plasma is made up of uric acid and, therefore, estimates of antioxidant capacity should be corrected for the concentration of uric acid. 3.Here, I show that (i) the correlation between plasma concentration of uric acid and plasma antioxidant capacity is method dependent and (ii) different assays for the quantification of circulating antioxidant capacity can provide information on different components of the antioxidant machinery. 4.To determine whether measurements of antioxidant capacity need to be corrected for the uric acid concentration in the sample, it is therefore important to take into account the biochemical properties of the assay used. © 2010 The Author. Methods in Ecology and Evolution © 2010 British Ecological Society.

McColl K.E.L.,University of Glasgow
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

A 29-year-old man presents with intermittent epigastric discomfort, without weight loss or evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. He reports no use of aspirin or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Abdominal examination reveals epigastric tenderness. A serologic test for Helicobacter pylori is positive, and he receives a 10-day course of triple therapy (omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin). Six weeks later, he returns with the same symptoms. How should his case be further evaluated and managed? Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

The paper presents a water retention model capable of predicting the hysteretic response of soils during both wetting-drying cycles at constant void ratio and compression-swelling cycles at constant suction. In the proposed model two main surfaces - the main wetting and main drying surfaces - enclose the domain of attainable soil states in the degree of saturation-suction-void ratio space. Inside this domain, the variation of degree of saturation is governed by a reversible scanning law, which describes the transition from one main surface to the other. A simplified calibration procedure is presented to select the values of the four parameters defining the two main surfaces by using a minimum of two compression tests at constant suction and one drying test at constant mean net stress. Model computations are validated against results from an experimental campaign on a compacted mixture of bentonite and kaolin. The proposed formulation is capable of capturing important soil features, such as the influence of hydraulic hysteresis and deformation on the variation of degree of saturation, and the dependence of water retention behaviour during compression on previous wetting-drying history. Moreover, during main wetting or main drying at high suction (i.e. at low saturation), the model correctly predicts a 'virgin' retention line that uniquely relates water ratio and suction regardless of the current value of void ratio.

Hamilton A.J.,University of Glasgow
Biochemical Society Transactions | Year: 2010

Mammalian erythrocytes are generally thought to lack RNA and therefore to be unable to translate new proteins in response to internal or external signals. Support for this long-standing view has accumulated from diverse studies, most of which have focused on the total content of RNA or the overall level of translation. However, more recent work on specific types of RNA has shown the presence in human erythrocytes of both Y RNA andmicroRNA. The latter seem particularly incongruous given that their normal role is to attenuate the translation of mRNA. Y RNA binds the Ro autoantigen which may have a role in cellular RNA quality control. Therefore the presence of both of these non-coding RNAs indicates the possible existence of other cryptic RNAs in erythrocytes. It also suggests either the existence of low levels of translation or new uncharacterized processes involving microRNA in these cells. © The Authors Journal compilation.

Hale B.G.,University of Glasgow
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2014

During infection, the influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) interacts with a diverse range of viral and cellular factors to antagonize host antiviral defences and promote viral replication. Here, I review the structural basis for some of these functions and discuss the emerging view that NS1 cannot simply be regarded as a ‘static’ protein with a single structure. Rather, the dynamic property of NS1 to adopt various quaternary conformations is critical for its multiple activities. Understanding NS1 plasticity, and the mechanisms governing this plasticity, will be essential for assessing both fundamental protein function and the consequences of strain-dependent polymorphisms in this important virulence factor. © 2014 The Authors.

Ruxton G.D.,University of Glasgow | Wilkinson D.M.,Liverpool John Moores University
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2011

Thermoregulation is often cited as a potentially important influence on the evolution of hominins, thanks to a highly influential series of papers in the Journal of Human Evolution in the 1980s and 1990s by Peter Wheeler. These papers developed quantitative modeling of heat balance between different potential hominins and their environment. Here, we return to these models, update them in line with new developments and measurements in animal thermal biology, and modify them to represent a running hominin rather than the stationary form considered previously. In particular, we use our modified Wheeler model to investigate thermoregulatory aspects of the evolution of endurance running ability. Our model suggests that for endurance running to be possible, a hominin would need locomotive efficiency, sweating rates, and areas of hairless skin similar to modern humans. We argue that these restrictions suggest that endurance running may have been possible (from a thermoregulatory viewpoint) for Homo erectus, but is unlikely for any earlier hominins. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Costantini D.,University of Glasgow
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2010

The quality of diet can affect the oxidative status of an animal and its susceptibility to oxidative damage. However, such effects can be expected to differ among phases of life cycle (e.g., reproduction, migration, moult), because they face the animals with different nutrient requirements and levels of stress. In this study, I investigated the effects of diet quality (standard vs. decreased quality diet) on the patterns of variation in serum oxidative status (oxidative damage, serum antioxidant capacity, serum thiols) and body mass in male and female pigeons (Columba livia) across the incubation and chick-rearing phases. This study shows that effects of environmental quality (diet) on oxidative status and body mass of breeding pigeons can emerge more strongly while chick feeding, but now while incubating. This study also suggests that males and females may differ in oxidative status and in how environmental quality (diet in this study) affects their oxidative status. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ronald Shaw I.G.,University of Glasgow | Akhter M.,University of Arizona
Antipode | Year: 2012

This paper provides a critical analysis of how and why US-led drone warfare is conducted in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. First, we provide detailed statistics on the scale and funding of US drone operations, noting a rapid acceleration of its adoption by the military. This is then situated within an overarching narrative of the logic of "targeting". Second, we study a legal document called the "Frontier Crimes Regulation" of 1901 that defines the relationship of FATA to the rest of Pakistan as an "exceptional" place. In the third section, we argue that the drone is a political actor with a fetishized existence, and this enables it to violate sovereign Pakistani territory. In this sense, the continued violence waged by robots in Pakistan's tribal areas is a result of the deadly interaction between law and technology. The paper concludes by noting the proliferation of drones in everyday life. © 2012 The Author. Antipode © 2012 Antipode Foundation Ltd.

Barrett M.P.,University of Glasgow | Croft S.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
British Medical Bulletin | Year: 2012

BackgroundThe current treatments for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease and leishmaniasis (collectively referred to as the kinetoplastid diseases) are far from ideal but, for some, there has been significant recent progress. For HAT the only advances in treatment over the past two decades have been the introduction of an eflornithine/nifurtimox co-administration and a shorter regime of the old standard melarsoprol.Sources of dataPubMed.Areas of AgreementThere is a need for new safe, oral drugs for cost-effective treatment of patients and use in control programmes for all the trypanosomatid diseases.Areas of controversyCutaneous leishmaniasis is not on the agenda and treatments are lagging behind.Growing pointsThere are three compounds in development for the treatment of the CNS stage of HAT: fexinidazole, currently due to entry into phase II clinical studies, a benzoxaborole (SCYX-7158) in phase I trials and a diamidine derivative (CPD-0802), in advanced pre-clinical development. For Chagas disease, two anti-fungal triazoles are now in clinical trial. In addition, clinical studies with benznidazole, a drug previously recommended only for acute stage treatment, are close to completion to determine the effectiveness in the treatment of early chronic and indeterminate Chagas disease. For visceral leishmaniasis new formulations, therapeutic switching, in particular AmBisome, and the potential for combinations of established drugs have significantly improved the opportunities for the treatment in the Indian subcontinent, but not in East Africa.Areas timely for developing researchImproved diagnostic tools are needed to support treatment, for test of cure in clinical trials and for monitoring/surveillance of populations in control programmes. © 2012 The Author.

Yovel G.,Tel Aviv University | Belin P.,University of Glasgow | Belin P.,University of Montreal | Belin P.,Aix - Marseille University
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2013

Both faces and voices are rich in socially-relevant information, which humans are remarkably adept at extracting, including a person's identity, age, gender, affective state, personality, etc. Here, we review accumulating evidence from behavioral, neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies which suggest that the cognitive and neural processing mechanisms engaged by perceiving faces or voices are highly similar, despite the very different nature of their sensory input. The similarity between the two mechanisms likely facilitates the multi-modal integration of facial and vocal information during everyday social interactions. These findings emphasize a parsimonious principle of cerebral organization, where similar computational problems in different modalities are solved using similar solutions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Buckley A.,University of Glasgow
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2015

This paper describes the PySLHA package, a Python language module and program collection for reading, writing and visualising SUSY model data in the SLHA format. PySLHA can read and write SLHA data in a very general way, including the official SLHA2 extension and user customisations, and with arbitrarily deep indexing of data block entries and a dedicated, intuitive interface for particle data and decay information. The draft SLHA3 XSECTION feature is also fully supported. PySLHA can additionally read and write the legacy ISAWIG model format, and provides format conversion scripts. A publication-quality mass spectrum and decay chain plotting tool, slhaplot, is included in the package. © 2015, The Author(s).

Uhlhaas P.J.,University of Glasgow | Singer W.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research | Singer W.,Ernst Strungmann Institute (ESI) for Neuroscience | Singer W.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2015

A considerable body of work over the last 10 years combining noninvasive electrophysiology (electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography) in patient populations with preclinical research has contributed to the conceptualization of schizophrenia as a disorder associated with aberrant neural dynamics and disturbances in excitation/inhibition balance. This complements previous research that has largely focused on the identification of abnormalities in circumscribed brain regions and on disturbances of dopaminergic mechanisms as a cause of positive symptoms and executive deficits. In the current review, we provide an update on studies focusing on aberrant neural dynamics. First, we discuss the role of rhythmic activity in neural dynamics and in the coordination of distributed neuronal activity into organized neural states. This is followed by an overview on the current evidence for impaired neural oscillations and synchrony in schizophrenia and associated abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Finally, we discuss the distinction between fundamental symptoms, which are reflected in cognitive deficits, and psychotic, accessory symptoms, the latter likely constituting a compensatory response for aberrant neuronal dynamics. © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

Daytime dysfunction and quality of life impairment are important and salient consequences of poor sleep in those with insomnia. Existing measurement approaches to functional impact tend to rely on non-specific generic tools, non-validated scales, or ad hoc single scale items. Here we report the development and validation of the Glasgow Sleep Impact Index (GSII), a novel self-report measure which asks patients to generate, and assess, three domains of impairment unique to their own individual context. These three patient-generated areas of impairment are ranked in order of concern (1-3; i.e. 1=the most concerning impairment), and then rated on a visual analogue scale with respect to impact in the past two weeks. Patients re-rate these specified areas of impairment, post-intervention, permitting both individual and group-level analyses. One-hundred and eight patients (71% female; Mean age=45 yrs) meeting Research Diagnostic Criteria for Insomnia Disorder completed the GSII, resulting in the generation of 324 areas (ranks) of sleep-related daytime and quality of life impairment. Fifty-five patients also completed the GSII pre- and post-sleep restriction therapy. The following psychometric properties were assessed: content validity of generated domains; relationship between ranks of impairment; and sensitivity to change post-behavioural intervention. Content analysis of generated domains support recent DSM-5 proposals for specification of daytime consequences of insomnia; with the most commonly cited areas reflecting impairments in energy/motivation, work performance, cognitive functioning, emotional regulation, health/well-being, social functioning and relationship/family functioning. Preliminary results with 108 patients indicate the GSII to have excellent face and construct validity. The GSII was found to be sensitive to change, post-behavioural treatment (p<0.001; Cohen's d≥0.85 for all three ranks of impairment), and improvements were associated with reductions in insomnia severity in both correlational (range of r=0.28-0.56) and responder versus non-responder analyses (all p<0.05). The development of the GSII represents a novel attempt to capture and measure sleep-related quality of life impairment in a valid and meaningful way. Further psychometric and clinical evaluation is suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barrett M.P.,University of Glasgow
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Purpose Of Review: This review covers recent developments towards novel treatments for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Recent Findings: Within the past decade, some important advances in the treatment of HAT have been made. One old drug, melarsoprol, previously administered over a period of a month or more, is now given in a 10-day regimen greatly reducing hospital costs. A combination chemotherapy, eflornithine alongside nifurtimox, has been introduced to decrease the time frame and overall dosing of eflornithine and reducing the risk of drug resistance emerging. One new, orally available diamidine prodrug, pafuramidine, that recently completed phase III clinical trials, disappointingly was halted in its progress to clinic when unforeseen toxicity issues emerged. The diamidine series, however, has recently yielded representatives that cure second-stage central nervous system (CNS)-involved infections in experimental animals while showing less tissue accumulation in mammals and thus offer considerable promise. A nitroheterocycle, fexinidazole, whose trypanocidal activity was first shown nearly 30 years ago, has entered clinical trials. Another approach, grounded in the use of pharmacokinetic data, has brought another new class of compound based on the oxaborole scaffold forward for clinical candidacy. Furthermore, several target-based and whole organism-based chemical compound screening campaigns have identified promising hits for lead development. Summary: The new developments in trypanocidal drug discovery mean that new compounds could become available within the next 5 years to support the WHO declared campaign to eliminate HAT. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Montezano A.C.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Touyz R.M.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Touyz R.M.,University of Glasgow
Annals of Medicine | Year: 2012

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that influence many physiological processes. Increased ROS bioavailability and altered redox signaling (oxidative stress) have been implicated in chronic diseases including hypertension. Although oxidative stress may not be the sole cause of hypertension, it amplifies blood pressure elevation in the presence of other prohypertensive factors (salt, renin-angiotensin system, sympathetic hyperactivity). A major source for cardiovascular ROS is a family of non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, Nox5). Other sources of ROS involve mitochondrial electron transport enzymes, xanthine oxidase, and uncoupled nitric oxide synthase. Although evidence from experimental and animal studies supports a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension, there is still no convincing proof that oxidative stress is a cause of human hypertension. However, what is clear is that oxidative stress is important in the molecular mechanisms associated with cardiovascular and renal injury in hypertension and that hypertension itself can contribute to oxidative stress. The present review addresses the putative function of ROS in the pathogenesis of hypertension and focuses on the role of Noxs in ROS generation in vessels and the kidney. Implications of oxidative stress in human hypertension are discussed, and clinical uncertainties are highlighted. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Lowe G.,University of Glasgow
Internal and Emergency Medicine | Year: 2011

Thrombosis is "haemostasis in the wrong place", and there is increasing evidence that haemostatic factors are associated with increased risk of atherothrombotic events. Increasing plasma levels of fibrinogen are associated with increased risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease, and with vascular and nonvascular mortality. However, as with other markers of haemostasis (and of inflammation), their additional predictive value to conventional risk factors is small. Ongoing studies of activation markers of coagulation (e.g. fibrin D-dimer), endothelium (e.g. von Willebrand factor, tissue plasminogen activator antigen) and platelets (mean platelet volume) may provide additional predictive value for atherothrombotic events. However, at present there is no sufficient evidence base for their routine measurement in prediction. © 2011 SIMI.

Weaver L.T.,University of Glasgow
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

The rates and patterns of growth in weight of European and North American infants have changed over the last 100 years. Since the development and first use of growth charts for postnatal health surveillance a century ago, there appears to have been an increase in the weight of 1-year olds of about 1 kg. Taking into account the higher past rates of infant morbidity and mortality, and poorer quality of artificial feeds, this change is likely to be another expression of the secular increase in physical stature consequent on improved hygiene and nutrition. Using the new WHO (World Health Organisation) standards of infant weight growth, this secular change can be observed for both breast-fed and formula-fed babies. The slower weight growth of the former, both now and in the past compared with modern formula-fed babies, may have implications of our understanding of the risk factors for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The variability of infant growth in time and space, and the plasticity of developmental processes during the life course (fetal life, infancy, puberty and reproduction), means that the WHO infant growth standard should not alone be regarded as an ideal growth trajectory for all babies. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Mowat A.M.,University of Glasgow | Agace W.W.,Lund University | Agace W.W.,Technical University of Denmark
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2014

The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease in the intestine. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Lee M.R.,University of Glasgow
Mineralogical Magazine | Year: 2010

Using high intensity beams of fast electrons, the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) enable comprehensive characterization of rocks and minerals at micrometre to sub-nanometre scales. This review outlines the ways in which samples of Earth and planetary materials can be rendered sufficiently thin for TEM and STEM work, and highlights the significant advances in site-specific preparation enabled by the focused ion beam (FIB) technique. Descriptions of the various modes of TEM and STEM imaging, electron diffraction and X-ray and electron spectroscopy are outlined, with an emphasis on new technologies that are of particular relevance to geoscientists. These include atomic-resolution Z-contrast imaging by high-angle annular dark-field STEM, electron crystallography by precession electron diffraction, spectrum mapping using X-rays and electrons, chemical imaging by energy-filtered TEM and true atomic-resolution imaging with the new generation of aberration-corrected microscopes. Despite the sophistication of modern instruments, the spatial resolution of imaging, diffraction and X-ray and electron spectroscopy work on many natural materials is likely to remain limited by structural and chemical damage to the thin samples during TEM and STEM. © 2010 Mineralogical Society.

Vance S.J.,University of Glasgow
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society | Year: 2013

Latherin is a highly surface-active allergen protein found in the sweat and saliva of horses and other equids. Its surfactant activity is intrinsic to the protein in its native form, and is manifest without associated lipids or glycosylation. Latherin probably functions as a wetting agent in evaporative cooling in horses, but it may also assist in mastication of fibrous food as well as inhibition of microbial biofilms. It is a member of the PLUNC family of proteins abundant in the oral cavity and saliva of mammals, one of which has also been shown to be a surfactant and capable of disrupting microbial biofilms. How these proteins work as surfactants while remaining soluble and cell membrane-compatible is not known. Nor have their structures previously been reported. We have used protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the conformation and dynamics of latherin in aqueous solution. The protein is a monomer in solution with a slightly curved cylindrical structure exhibiting a 'super-roll' motif comprising a four-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet and two opposing α-helices which twist along the long axis of the cylinder. One end of the molecule has prominent, flexible loops that contain a number of apolar amino acid side chains. This, together with previous biophysical observations, leads us to a plausible mechanism for surfactant activity in which the molecule is first localized to the non-polar interface via these loops, and then unfolds and flattens to expose its hydrophobic interior to the air or non-polar surface. Intrinsically surface-active proteins are relatively rare in nature, and this is the first structure of such a protein from mammals to be reported. Both its conformation and proposed method of action are different from other, non-mammalian surfactant proteins investigated so far.

Wang Z.,City of Hope National Medical Center | Holyoake T.L.,University of Glasgow | Chen W.,City of Hope National Medical Center
Cancer Cell | Year: 2012

BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) fail to eliminate quiescent leukemia stem cells (LSC) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Thus, strategies targeting LSC are required to achieve cure. We show that the NAD +-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is overexpressed in human CML LSC. Pharmacological inhibition of SIRT1 or SIRT1 knockdown increased apoptosis in LSC of chronic phase and blast crisis CML and reduced their growth invitro and invivo. SIRT1 effects were enhanced in combination with the BCR-ABL TKI imatinib. SIRT1 inhibition increased p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity in CML progenitors, and the inhibitory effects of SIRT1 targeting on CML cells depended on p53 expression and acetylation. Activation of p53 via SIRT1 inhibition represents a potential approach to target CML LSC. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Wilbur A.,University of Glasgow
Geography Compass | Year: 2013

Back-to-the-land migration can be summarised as the intended adoption of a primarily agrarian lifestyle by individuals from non-agrarian backgrounds. Back-to-the-land has historically served as both an ideal and a set of practices, a set of push-and-pull factors that influence rural in-migration and a range of activities that work in service of this ambition. The radical shift in lifestyle that characterises this kind of migration is often tethered to a political radicalism, but one that is not easily identifiable in visible social movements or organised political action. Rather, it manifests itself in practices of self-sufficiency, alternative economic structures and experiments in social organisation. This review looks at the historical roots of back-to-the-land as a radical movement, asking what relevance it has for contemporary political issues such as human and non-human welfare, environmental sustainability and non-capitalist economic relations. A strong focus on the material dimensions of back-to-the-land is maintained, highlighting the specific potential of rural spaces to host and catalyse radical ambitions. Furthermore, a case is presented for interrogating the relationship between alternative agro-food networks (AAFNs) and back-to-the-land migrants, since these structures often provide an explicit articulation of their participants' values and strategies. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Smith D.J.,University of Glasgow
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Neuroticism is a personality trait of fundamental importance for psychological well-being and public health. It is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and several other psychiatric conditions. Although neuroticism is heritable, attempts to identify the alleles involved in previous studies have been limited by relatively small sample sizes. Here we report a combined meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) of neuroticism that includes 91 370 participants from the UK Biobank cohort, 6659 participants from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) and 8687 participants from a QIMR (Queensland Institute of Medical Research) Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMR) cohort. All participants were assessed using the same neuroticism instrument, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R-S) Short Form’s Neuroticism scale. We found a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate for neuroticism of ∼15% (s.e.=0.7%). Meta-analysis identified nine novel loci associated with neuroticism. The strongest evidence for association was at a locus on chromosome 8 (P=1.5 × 10-15) spanning 4 Mb and containing at least 36 genes. Other associated loci included interesting candidate genes on chromosome 1 (GRIK3 (glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 3)), chromosome 4 (KLHL2 (Kelch-like protein 2)), chromosome 17 (CRHR1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1) and MAPT (microtubule-associated protein Tau)) and on chromosome 18 (CELF4 (CUGBP elav-like family member 4)). We found no evidence for genetic differences in the common allelic architecture of neuroticism by sex. By comparing our findings with those of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortia, we identified a strong genetic correlation between neuroticism and MDD and a less strong but significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia, although not with bipolar disorder. Polygenic risk scores derived from the primary UK Biobank sample captured ∼1% of the variance in neuroticism in the GS:SFHS and QIMR samples, although most of the genome-wide significant alleles identified within a UK Biobank-only GWAS of neuroticism were not independently replicated within these cohorts. The identification of nine novel neuroticism-associated loci will drive forward future work on the neurobiology of neuroticism and related phenotypes.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 12 April 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.49. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Paul D.J.,University of Glasgow
Laser and Photonics Reviews | Year: 2010

A review is presented of work over the last 10 years which has been aimed at trying to produce a Si-based THz quantum cascade laser. Potential THz applications and present THz sources will be briefly discussed before the materials issues with the Si/SiGe system is discussed. Waveguide designs and waveguide losses will be presented. Experimental measurements of the non-radiative lifetimes for intersubband transitions in Si 1-x Ge x quantum wells will be presented along with theory explaining the important scattering mechanisms which determine the lifetimes. Examples of p-type Si/SiGe quantum cascade designs with the experimental electroluminescence will be reviewed and examples of n-type Si-based designs will be presented. In the conclusion designs and structures will be discussed with the greatest potential to achieve an electrically pumped Si-based THz laser. © 2010 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Hart C.L.,University of Glasgow
BMJ (Clinical research ed.) | Year: 2011

To investigate the relations between causes of death, social position, and obesity in women who had never smoked. Prospective cohort study. Renfrew and Paisley, Scotland. 8353 women and 7049 men aged 45-64 were recruited to the Renfrew and Paisley Study in 1972-6. Of these, 3613 women had never smoked and were the focus of this study. They were categorised by occupational class (I and II, III non-manual, III manual, and IV and V) and body mass index groups (normal weight, overweight, moderately obese, and severely obese). All cause and cause specific mortality during 28 years of follow-up by occupational class and body mass index, using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age and other confounders. The women in lower occupational classes who had never smoked were on average shorter and had poorer lung function and higher systolic blood pressure than women in the higher occupational classes. Overall, 43% (n = 1555) were overweight, 14% (n = 515) moderately obese, and 5% (n = 194) severely obese. Obesity rates were higher in lower occupational classes and much higher in all occupational classes than in current smokers in the full cohort. Half the women died, 51% (n = 916) from cardiovascular disease and 27% (n = 487) from cancer. Relative to occupational class I and II, all cause mortality rates were more than a third higher in occupational classes III manual (relative rate 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.57) and IV and V (1.34, 1.17 to 1.55) and largely explained by differences in obesity, systolic blood pressure, and lung function. Similar upward gradients were seen for cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease but not for cancer. Mortality rates were highest in severely obese women in the lowest occupational classes. Women who had never smoked and were not obese had the lowest mortality rates, regardless of their social position. Where obesity is socially patterned as in this cohort, it may contribute to health inequalities and increase pressure on health and social services serving more disadvantaged populations.

Hebblewhite M.,University of Montana | Haydon D.T.,University of Glasgow
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

In the past decade, ecologists have witnessed vast improvements in our ability to collect animal movement data through animal-borne technology, such as through GPS or ARGOS systems. However, more data does not necessarily yield greater knowledge in understanding animal ecology and conservation. In this paper, we provide a review of the major benefits, problems and potential misuses of GPS/Argos technology to animal ecology and conservation. Benefits are obvious, and include the ability to collect fine-scale spatio-temporal location data on many previously impossible to study animals, such as ocean-going fish, migratory songbirds and long-distance migratory mammals. These benefits come with significant problems, however, imposed by frequent collar failures and high cost, which often results in weaker study design, reduced sample sizes and poorer statistical inference. In addition, we see the divorcing of biologists from a field-based understanding of animal ecology to be a growing problem. Despite these difficulties, GPS devices have provided significant benefits, particularly in the conservation and ecology of wide-ranging species. We conclude by offering suggestions for ecologists on which kinds of ecological questions would currently benefit the most from GPS/Argos technology, and where the technology has been potentially misused. Significant conceptual challenges remain, however, including the links between movement and behaviour, and movement and population dynamics. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Featherstone D.,University of Glasgow
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2013

This article explores black internationalist articulations of antifascism in the 1930s through a discussion of the "maps of grievance" mobilized by African American volunteers in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade during the Spanish Civil War. It interrogates how African American volunteers linked the conflict in Spain to Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia and to struggles against white supremacy in the United States. Through making such linkages, black internationalist intellectuals and political activists have made significant, if frequently neglected, theoretical and political engagements with fascism and antifascism. By decentering the national in internationalism and situating forms of subaltern cosmopolitanism as constitutive of internationalist political activity, it reconfigures aspects of the spatial constitution of internationalism. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Pimlott S.L.,West of Scotland Radionuclide Dispensary | Sutherland A.,University of Glasgow
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

The development of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging continues to grow due to the ability of these techniques to allow the non-invasive in vivo visualisation of biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels. As well as finding application for the diagnosis of disease, these techniques have also been used in the drug discovery process. Crucial to the growth of these techniques is the continued development of molecular probes that can bind to the target biological receptor with high selectivity. This tutorial review describes the use of PET and SPECT for molecular imaging and highlights key strategies for the development of molecular probes for the imaging of both cancer and neurological diseases. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

McMurray J.J.V.,University of Glasgow
Nature Reviews Cardiology | Year: 2012

Studies published in 2011 in the field of heart failure have reinforced the benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with mild symptoms and confirmed the value of left ventricular assist devices and CABG surgery in selected patients. Conversely, the efficacy of nesiritide in acute heart failure has been questioned. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

The marginality of rural life, understood in structural, economic, political and geographic terms, has been an underlying theme in both historical and contemporary studies of the Russian countryside. Much less attention has been paid to marginality as relational and the moral discourses of (un)belonging and (un)deservingness through which moral centres and peripheries are constructed within rural Russian contexts. This paper explores the ways in which both fixed, structural and constructed, personalised explanations of hardship are employed by rural people and how these relate to processes of integration into or exclusion from 'caring' and 'moral' communities. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Burla village, western Siberia, in 2008-10, and focusing primarily on the activities of the Centre for Social Assistance to Families and Children located there, the paper discusses the ways in which affiliation with the 'moral centre' facilitates access to both formal and informal forms of care and assistance from which those at the 'moral periphery' are more often excluded. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) stem cells are not dependent on BCR-ABL kinase for their survival, suggesting that kinase-independent mechanisms must contribute to their persistence. We observed that CML stem/progenitor cells (SPCs) produce tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a kinase-independent fashion and at higher levels relative to their normal counterparts. We therefore investigated the role of TNF-α and found that it supports survival of CML SPCs by promoting nuclear factor κB/p65 pathway activity and expression of the interleukin 3 and granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor common β-chain receptor. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in CML SPCs, inhibition of autocrine TNF-α signaling via a small-molecule TNF-α inhibitor induces apoptosis. Moreover TNF-α inhibition combined with nilotinib induces significantly more apoptosis relative to either treatment alone and a reduction in the absolute number of primitive quiescent CML stem cells. These results highlight a novel survival mechanism of CML SPCs and suggest a new putative therapeutic target for their eradication.

Verhoosel C.V.,TU Eindhoven | de Borst R.,University of Glasgow
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2013

In this paper, a phase-field model for cohesive fracture is developed. After casting the cohesive zone approach in an energetic framework, which is suitable for incorporation in phase-field approaches, the phase-field approach to brittle fracture is recapitulated. The approximation to the Dirac function is discussed with particular emphasis on the Dirichlet boundary conditions that arise in the phase-field approximation. The accuracy of the discretisation of the phase field, including the sensitivity to the parameter that balances the field and the boundary contributions, is assessed at the hand of a simple example. The relation to gradient-enhanced damage models is highlighted, and some comments on the similarities and the differences between phase-field approaches to fracture and gradient-damage models are made. A phase-field representation for cohesive fracture is elaborated, starting from the aforementioned energetic framework. The strong as well as the weak formats are presented, the latter being the starting point for the ensuing finite element discretisation, which involves three fields: the displacement field, an auxiliary field that represents the jump in the displacement across the crack, and the phase field. Compared to phase-field approaches for brittle fracture, the modelling of the jump of the displacement across the crack is a complication, and the current work provides evidence that an additional constraint has to be provided in the sense that the auxiliary field must be constant in the direction orthogonal to the crack. The sensitivity of the results with respect to the numerical parameter needed to enforce this constraint is investigated, as well as how the results depend on the orders of the discretisation of the three fields. Finally, examples are given that demonstrate grid insensitivity for adhesive and for cohesive failure, the latter example being somewhat limited because only straight crack propagation is considered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Seaton C.C.,University of Manchester | Parkin A.,University of Glasgow
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2011

An investigation into the creation of cocrystals of benzamide and substituted benzoic acids was undertaken and four new cocrystals were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The attempted cocrystallizations were only successful in those cases where electronwithdrawing functional groups were present as substituents on the benzoic acid. This experimental observation was supported by computational studies, which indicated that in these cases the intermolecular acid···amide interaction between the acid and benzamide was strengthened. A correlation between the interaction energy and the Hammett substitution constant in the applicable cases was displayed. The calculated energy of interaction between benzamide/salicylic acid dimers and benzamide/benzoic acid dimer are the same, yet only benzamide/salicylic acid forms a cocrystal. Lattice energy calculations on the salicylic acid/benzamide crystal structure and hypothetical benzoic acid/benzamide cocrystal structures indicate a difference of approximately 50 kJ mol in energy between these systems, suggesting that the other crystal packing forces are not sufficient to stabilize the benzoic acid/benzamide cocrystal. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Using conservation of synteny I show how the four thymosins expressed by teleost fish are related to the three of tetrapods, which is not evident from their protein sequences. This clarification was aided by identification of a novel thymosin of reptilians that replaces the β10 thymosin of mammals. Recent reconstruction of the ancestral vertebrate genome suggests that divergence of β-thymosins began with duplication preceding the two rounds of whole genome duplication. © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

Simitev R.D.,University of Glasgow
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors | Year: 2011

Double-diffusive convection driven by both thermal and compositional buoyancy in a rotating cylindrical annulus with conical caps is considered with the aim to establish whether a small fraction of compositional buoyancy added to the thermal buoyancy (or vice versa) can significantly reduce the critical Rayleigh number and amplify convection in planetary cores. It is shown that the neutral surface describing the onset of convection in the double-buoyancy case is essentially different from that of the well-studied purely thermal case, and does indeed allow the possibility of low-Rayleigh number convection. In particular, isolated islands of instability are formed by an additional " double-diffusive" eigenmode in certain regions of the parameter space. However, the amplitude of such low-Rayleigh number convection is relatively weak. At similar flow amplitudes purely compositional and double-diffusive cases are characterized by a stronger time dependence compared to purely thermal cases, and by a prograde mean zonal flow near the inner cylindrical surface. Implications of the results for planetary core convection are briefly discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Hartig T.,Uppsala University | Mitchell R.,University of Glasgow | De Vries S.,Wageningen University | Frumkin H.,University of Washington
Annual Review of Public Health | Year: 2014

Urbanization, resource exploitation, and lifestyle changes have diminished possibilities for human contact with nature in urbanized societies. Concern about the loss has helped motivate research on the health benefits of contact with nature. Reviewing that research here, we focus on nature as represented by aspects of the physical environment relevant to planning, design, and policy measures that serve broad segments of urbanized societies. We discuss difficulties in defining "nature" and reasons for the current expansion of the research field, and we assess available reviews. We then consider research on pathways between nature and health involving air quality, physical activity, social cohesion, and stress reduction. Finally, we discuss methodological issues and priorities for future research. The extant research does describe an array of benefits of contact with nature, and evidence regarding some benefits is strong; however, some findings indicate caution is needed in applying beliefs about those benefits, and substantial gaps in knowledge remain. ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Small-molecule fluorochromes are used in biology and medicine to generate informative microscopic and macroscopic images, permitting identification of cell structures, measurement of physiological/physicochemical properties, assessment of biological functions and assay of chemical components. Modes of uptake and precise intracellular localisation of a probe are typically significant factors in its successful application. These processes and localisations can be predicted using quantitative structure activity relations (QSAR) models, which correlate aspects of the physicochemical properties of the probes (expressed numerically) with the uptake/localisation. Pay-offs of such modelling include better understanding and trouble-shooting of current and novel probes, and easier design of future probes ("guided synthesis"). Uptake models discussed consider adsorptive (to lipid or protein domains), phagocytic and pinocytotic endocytosis, as well as passive diffusion. Localisation models discussed include those for cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lipid droplets, lysosomes, mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane. A case example illustrates how such QSAR modelling of probe interactions can clarify localisation and mode of binding of probes to intracellular nucleic acids of living cells, including not only eukaryotic chromatin DNA and ribosomal RNA, but also prokaryote chromosomes.

Dockrill B.,Trinity College Dublin | Shipton Z.K.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Structural Geology | Year: 2010

Faults and associated fracture networks can significantly influence regional flow of groundwater, hydrocarbons and other fluids. The distribution of CO2 springs and seeps along the Little Grand Wash fault and Salt Wash faults in central Utah is controlled by along-fault flow of CO2-charged groundwater from shallow aquifers (<1 km deep). The same faults are the likely conduits that charge the shallow aquifers with CO2 from depth. We document fault zone trace geometry and architecture, and evidence for palaeo-fluid flow within the footwalls of both faults. Evidence for palaeo-fluid flow consists of extensive bleaching of sandstones and some siltstones, mineralisation of carbonates and celestine veins and minor hydrocarbon staining. The field evidence shows that the pathways for multiple phases of fluid flow were structurally controlled utilising the fracture network developed in the damage zone of the faults. To investigate the likely effect of these faults on the regional fluid-migration pathways at depth, a 3D model of the faulted system was generated and a fault seal analysis applied to predict the cross-fault sealing capabilities of the studied faults. Due to the scarcity of subsurface data, the results are not conclusive but suggest probable multiple cross-fault leak points for fluids to migrate across the fault, in contrast to the field observations that indicate fault-parallel flow. This comparison of field observations to the modelling approach demonstrates the inability of conventional seal analysis techniques to predict fault-parallel fluid leakage and highlight the effects fracture networks in the damage zone, especially at structural complexities along the fault, have in producing pathways for vertical flow. Multiple fluids have utilised similar fault-parallel pathways over geological time demonstrating that such pathways have the potential to cause long-term leakage from hydrocarbon reservoirs and CO2 storage sites. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Baggaley A.W.,University of Glasgow | Baggaley A.W.,Northumbria University | Laurie J.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Barenghi C.F.,Northumbria University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Measurements of the energy spectrum and of the vortex-density fluctuation spectrum in superfluid turbulence seem to contradict each other. Using a numerical model, we show that at each instance of time the total vortex line density can be decomposed into two parts: one formed by metastable bundles of coherent vortices, and one in which the vortices are randomly oriented. We show that the former is responsible for the observed Kolmogorov energy spectrum, and the latter for the spectrum of the vortex line density fluctuations. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Prosser P.,University of Glasgow
Algorithms | Year: 2012

We investigate a number of recently reported exact algorithms for the maximum clique problem. The program code is presented and analyzed to show how small changes in implementation can have a drastic effect on performance. The computational study demonstrates how problem features and hardware platforms influence algorithm behaviour. The effect of vertex ordering is investigated. One of the algorithms (MCS) is broken into its constituent parts and we discover that one of these parts frequently degrades performance. It is shown that the standard procedure used for rescaling published results (i.e., adjusting run times based on the calibration of a standard program over a set of benchmarks) is unsafe and can lead to incorrect conclusions being drawn from empirical data. © 2012 by the author.

Fabel D.,University of Glasgow | Ballantyne C.K.,University of St. Andrews | Xu S.,Scottish Universities Environmental Research Center
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2012

Periglacial trimlines separating glacially eroded lower slopes from blockfield-covered plateaus on British and Irish mountains have been interpreted either (1) in terms of representing the maximum altitude of the last ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), or (2) as a thermal boundary separating wet-based ice at pressure melting point from cold-based ice on summit plateaus. We test these competing hypotheses through 10Be exposure dating of high-level erratic boulders above trimlines on five mountains in NW Scotland. Nine out of 14 erratics yielded post-LGM exposure ages ranging from 14.0 ± 0.7 ka to 16.5 ± 0.9 ka or from 14.9 ± 0.9 ka to 17.6 ± 1.1 ka, depending on the 10Be production rate employed in exposure age calculation. These ages refute hypothesis (1) as they imply that the last ice sheet overtopped the mountains. Preservation of apparently intact blockfields on the summits implies cold-based ice cover, supporting hypothesis (2). As altitudinally consistent high-level trimlines extend from our sampled sites across much of NW Scotland and the Hebrides, our conclusions apply to all trimlines in this broader area, and probably to all high-level trimlines elsewhere in the British Isles. Preservation of blockfields under cold-based ice is consistent with blockfield evolution on plateaus throughout much or all of the Quaternary. Averaged exposure ages of ∼15-16 ka for plateau-top erratics implies nunatak emergence from the downwasting ice sheet prior to a regional readvance of the ice margin (the Wester Ross Readvance) and before rapid warming at ∼14.7 ka at the onset of the Lateglacial Interstade, but after the timing of ice-sheet thinning as retrodicted by recent proxy climate-driven thermo-mechanical coupled models. Our findings provide an additional constraint on the future development of such models by implying that high-level trimlines represent the altitude of a former transition zone between ice at pressure-melting point and ice below pressure melting point. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Unrelieved pain remains a global health problem. There is a major difference between what could be done to relieve pain and what is being done in developing countries - this is known as the 'treatment gap'. Poor education of health professionals, limited facilities for pain treatment and poor access to drugs for pain relief are contributing factors. While enthusiasm for pain education and clinical training in developing countries has grown, restrictions by governments and health administrations have represented a significant barrier to practice changes. Since 2002, the International Association for the Study of Pain, through its Developing Countries Working Group, has established a series of programs that have resulted in significant improvements in pain education and the clinical management of pain, together with the beginnings of a system of pain centres. These pain centres will act as regional hubs for the future expansion of education and training in pain management in developing countries. Further success will be increased with the demolition of barriers to the treatment of people in pain worldwide. ©2011 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Ince A.,University of Glasgow
Antipode | Year: 2012

This paper applies an anarchist approach to ongoing debates on the politics, nature and function of territory. Recent work in geography has problematised dominant modes of territory, but has stopped short of a systematic critique of how statist spatial imaginations and practices reproduce and perpetuate the dominance of both capitalism and authority in society. In this paper, I deploy anarchist thought and practice to argue that territory must be viewed as a processual and contested product of social relations. This is linked to the notion of prefiguration; a distinctive concept in anarchist thought and practice embedding envisioned future modes of social organisation into the present. Using examples from fieldwork with anarchist-inspired groups, I explore anarchist prefigurative politics as a means to re-imagine how practices of territorialisation and bordering might be deployed as part of a broader project of social transformation. © 2012 The Author. Antipode © 2012 Antipode Foundation Ltd.

This paper is concerned with the political performance of the Clandestine Insurgent Rebel Clown Army (CIRCA) during the protests against the G8 meeting in Gleneagles, Scotland in 2005. In particular, the paper is concerned with how emotional experiences within political moments or events can be constituted through performances that fashion "sensuous solidarities". Sensuous solidarities are generated through diverse bodily movements and techniques, and are indicative of both the performative character of activist subjectivities and the content of activists' public (political) performances. Reflecting on my participation in CIRCA, this paper will argue that sensuous solidarities constituted a series of complex, contradictory and emotive co-performances and resonances with police, other protestors and the public and in doing so will consider the efficacy of those forms of activism that Duncombe (2007, Dream: Reimagining Progressive Politics in an Age of Fantasy. London: The New Press) has termed "ethical spectacles". © 2011 The Authors Antipode © 2011 Editorial Board of Antipode.

Strauss K.,University of Glasgow
Geography Compass | Year: 2012

This paper examines approaches, both within geography and more broadly, to the issue of forced labour in contemporary labour markets. Far from a vestige of pre-capitalist social relations, unfree labour is part of the continuum of exploitation that is intrinsically related the contradictory nature of commodification and to capital as a social relation. The paper focuses on the UK, but draws attention to the ways in which relations of unfreedom in the new global division of labour dissolve clear-cut distinctions between 'developed' and 'developing' nations. The first section focuses on definitions and approaches, including those related to migration and trafficking, from supra-national organisations such as the International Labour Organisation (ILO). The second section looks at geographical approaches to forced labour and examines what a spatially grounded framework can bring to analyses of unfreedom. The conclusion suggests future directions for geographical research on unfree labour, especially relating to the undertheorised relations between unfreedom, domestic labour and social reproduction. © 2012 The Author. Geography Compass © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Johnston C.,University of Glasgow
Antipode | Year: 2012

This article documents the emergence of the Denotified Rights Action Group (DNG-RAG), a national social movement orchestrated to assert the citizenship rights of adivasi (indigenous) populations in India. It assesses the movement's efforts to engage the central Indian government in meaningful dialogue to accommodate the inclusion of marginalized adivasis in the democratic politics of the nation. In doing so, the DNT-RAG reasserts the primacy of the Indian state as the principal engine driving the project of nation building, and as such, the site that activists target to further an agenda of equitable development and democratic rights for those known as India's Denotified Tribes. © 2012 The Author. Antipode © 2012 Antipode Foundation Ltd.

Philo C.,University of Glasgow
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2012

This paper argues that we may now speak of a 'new Foucault' with more to say to contemporary human geography than might at first be suspected. A number of recent publications - notably the collected and translated Collège de France lecture series - paint a picture of Foucault that arguably departs from presumptions of him as the chronicler-theorist of discursively constituted, totalising power. The paper has two objectives: first, to offer a synoptic introduction to the lecture series, spotlighting the geographical resonances; and secondly, to thread an interpretative line through these materials demonstrating Foucault's concern for the vital problematics of lively bodies and unpredictable populations, always threatening to over-spill different forms of power (sovereign, disciplinary, biopolitical, governmental, pastoral, psychiatric). An attempt is made to address Nigel Thrift's non-representationalist critique of Foucault, and to propose that the gulf between Thrift and Foucault is not as great as the former may imply - a finding of value when identifying future possibilities for critical-geographical inquiry. © 2012 The Author. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers © 2012 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).

Davison A.J.,University of Glasgow
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2011

Herpesviruses occur in an impressively wide range of animals and are associated with various diseases. The numerous routes taken during hundreds of millions of years of evolution have contributed to their striking adaptability and success as pathogens. Herpesviruses share a distinct virion structure and are classified taxonomically into a single order, the Herpesvirales, which is divided into three families. The phylogenetic relationships among members of the most populous family, the Herpesviridae, which includes all nine human herpesviruses, are generally similar to those among their hosts, supporting the view that there has been a large degree of coevolution between virus and host. Three human herpesviruses (human cytomegalovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1) are classed as agents capable of sexually transmissible infection (StxI), and one (herpes simplex virus type 2) as an agent capable of sexually transmitted infection (STI). The evolutionary characteristics of these viruses are described. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

Watt G.,University of Glasgow
Primary health care research & development | Year: 2011

The prevention and delay of chronic disease is an increasing priority in all advanced health-care systems, but sustainable, effective and equitable approaches remain elusive. In a famous pioneering example in the UK, Julian Tudor Hart combined reactive and anticipatory care within routine consultations in primary medical care, while applying a population approach to delivery and audit. This approach combined the structural advantages of UK general practice, including universal coverage and the absence of user fees, with his long-term commitment to individual patients, and was associated with a 28% reduction in premature mortality over a 25-year period. The more recent, and comprehensively evaluated Scottish National Health Service demonstration project, 'Have a Heart Paisley', took a different approach to cardiovascular prevention and health improvement, using population screening for ascertainment, health coaches and referral to specific health improvement programmes for diet, smoking and exercise. We draw from both examples to construct a conceptual framework for anticipatory care, based on active ingredients, programme pathways and whole system approaches. While the strengths of a family practice approach are coverage, continuity, co-ordination and long-term relationships, the larger health improvement programme offered additional resources and expertise. As theory and evidence accrue, the challenge is to combine the strengths of primary medical care and health improvement, in integrated, sustainable systems of anticipatory care, addressing the heterogeneity of individual needs and solutions, while achieving high levels of coverage, continuity, co-ordination and outcome.

Mercer J.R.,University of Glasgow
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Cardiovascular disease remains the commonest form of mortality and morbidity in the Western World. It accounts for more deaths than the combined incidence of all cancers. There remains an urgency to identify and translate therapies to reduce the effects of this disease and its associated co-morbidities. Atherosclerotic disease accounts for over two thirds of all cardiovascular related deaths. Arterial vessel wall plaques rupture and cause death due to loss of integrity of the overlaying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) cap. Although plaques contain a heterogeneous pool of different cell types, it is the VSMCs that by their nature are responsible for rupture. VSMC are the primary source of extracellular matrix and collagen and it has been suggested that loss of viability and vitality of these cells contributes to plaque vulnerability and rupture. While DNA damage has long been associated with atherosclerotic plaques only relatively recently has the contribution of mitochondrial DNA damage been suggested to play a role. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a source of ATP that the cell requires for all its energetic functions but is also a source of free radicals that produce reactive species (RS). While these RS exacerbate DNA damage and attack lipids and proteins, it is the loss of ATP that may ultimately be more detrimental. Therapeutic intervention for mitochondria dysfunction is one route on alleviating this burden. Finding alternative sources of ATP synthesis by energetic reconfiguration may also provide a vital link in delaying the kinetics of plaque rupture. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Kamete A.Y.,University of Glasgow
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2013

In this paper I consider 'normalisation' as a response to urban informal livelihoods in urban southern Africa. I demonstrate that urban planning systems have been mobilised to correct or eliminate 'spatial pathologies'. Using illustrative cases from southern Africa, I argue that the authorities' obsession with 'normalising' urban spaces they have designated as 'pathologies' is misplaced because it glaringly defies the reality on the ground. Interrogated in the paper is the reasoning behind, and effectiveness of, 'corrective' measures that exclude and marginalise informality through technicalisation, 'expertisation' and depoliticisation. I evaluate the basis, workings and deleterious outcomes of normalising technologies and question the relevance and efficacy of normalisation at a time when it is increasingly becoming clear that African urbanisation isand will possibly continue to besimultaneously driven and cushioned by informalisation. © 2012 The Author. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers © 2012 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).

We identify four roles that social networking plays in the 'attribution problem', which obscures whether or not cyber-attacks were state-sponsored. First, social networks motivate individuals to participate in Distributed Denial of Service attacks by providing malware and identifying potential targets. Second, attackers use an individual's social network to focus attacks, through spear phishing. Recipients are more likely to open infected attachments when they come from a trusted source. Third, social networking infrastructures create disposable architectures to coordinate attacks through command and control servers. The ubiquitous nature of these architectures makes it difficult to determine who owns and operates the servers. Finally, governments recruit anti-social criminal networks to launch attacks on third-party infrastructures using botnets. The closing sections identify a roadmap to increase resilience against the 'dark side' of social networking. Practitioner Summary: This paper provides readers with an overview of state-sponsored cyber-attacks. I show how many of these threats have exploited social networks and social media. The aim was to alert practitioners to the dark side of computing, where attackers learn to exploit new interaction techniques and new forms of working. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Muckli L.,University of Glasgow
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology | Year: 2010

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuron electrophysiology (neurophysiology) are two well-established ways to measure brain activity. Even though the spatial and temporal resolution of these techniques is very different, both measurements show a high level of consistency, i.e., for mapping feature preferences of cortical areas. There are, however, other striking differences between fMRI and neurophysiology, for example, fMRI has good accessibility to higher cognitive functions, a bias to measure synaptic activity, and a good sensitivity to detect feedback-related activity, all of which can shed a new light on the function of well-known brain areas like primary visual cortex, V1. Classically, it is believed that V1 cells are exhaustively characterized by their complex receptive field properties. Contrary to this view, however, fMRI shows that response properties in area V1 are spatially unstable, influenced by contextual information, and depend on internal states. This review will highlight some of the most striking new fMRI findings that show V1 is involved in higher cognitive functions. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Dolan M.J.,SLAC | Englert C.,University of Glasgow | Greiner N.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | Spannowsky M.,Durham University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Until now, a phenomenologically complete analysis of the hh+2j channel at the LHC has been missing. This is mostly due to the high complexity of the involved one-loop gluon fusion contribution and the fact that a reliable estimate thereof cannot be obtained through simplified calculations in the mt→∞ limit. In this Letter, we report on the LHC's potential to access di-Higgs production in association with two jets in a fully showered hadron-level analysis. Our study includes the finite top and bottom mass dependencies for the gluon fusion contribution. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Serpell M.G.,University of Glasgow | Notcutt W.,Pain Clinic | Collin C.,Royal Berkshire Hospital
Journal of Neurology | Year: 2013

Sativex is an endocannabinoid system modulator principally containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). During a 6-week randomised controlled trial, Sativex had a clinically relevant effect on spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients self-titrated oromucosal Sativex to symptom relief or maximum tolerated dose (maximum of 130 mg THC and 120 mg CBD daily). The primary objective was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of long-term treatment by recording the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Secondary outcomes were to determine evidence of developing tolerance and to assess the long-term dosing profile of Sativex. A validated 11-point Numerical Rating Scale of spasticity severity was used to assess efficacy. A total of 146 patients elected to enter this open-label follow-up safety trial. Mean treatment exposure was 334 days (standard deviation, SD = 209 days), and patients administered on average 7.3 (SD = 4.42) actuations per day. Fifty-two (36 %) patients withdrew from the study in the first year, 14 % due to AEs and 9 % due to lack of efficacy. Most AEs were mild/moderate in severity. Common (>10 %) treatment-related AEs were dizziness (24.7 %) and fatigue (12.3 %). Serious AEs occurred in five patients (3.4 %), with two psychiatric events reported by one patient. No psychoses, psychiatric AE trends, or withdrawal symptoms occurred following abrupt cessation of treatment. Baseline symptoms including spasticity did not deteriorate but were maintained to study completion in those patients who did not withdraw. No new safety concerns were identified with chronic Sativex treatment, and serious AEs were uncommon. There was no evidence of tolerance developing, and patients who remained in the study reported continued benefit. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Hild S.,University of Glasgow
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2012

This paper gives an overview of potential upgrades of second-generation gravitational wave detectors and the required key technologies to improve the limiting noise sources. In addition, the baseline design of the Einstein telescope, a European third-generation gravitational wave observatory, is briefly discussed. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Yin H.,University of Glasgow | Marshall D.,LGC Ltd.
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Substantial evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their chance of survival. Methods that use average responses from a population often mask the difference from individual cells. To fully understand cell-to-cell variability, a complete analysis of an individual cell, from its live state to cell lysates, is essential. Highly sensitive detection of multiple components and high throughput analysis of a large number of individual cells remain the key challenges to realise this aim. In this context, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technology have emerged as the most promising avenue to address these challenges.In this review, we will focus on the recent development in microfluidics that are aimed at total single cell analysis on chip, that is, from an individual live cell to its gene and proteins. We also discuss the opportunities that microfluidic based single cell analysis can bring into the drug discovery process. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Reilly J.J.,University of Glasgow | Kelly J.,A+ Network
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2011

Background and objective:The last systematic review on the health consequences of child and adolescent obesity found little evidence on consequences for adult health. The present study aimed to summarize evidence on the long-term impact of child and adolescent obesity for premature mortality and physical morbidity in adulthood.Methods:Systematic review with evidence searched from January 2002 to June 2010. Studies were included if they contained a measure of overweight and/or obesity between birth and 18 years (exposure measure) and premature mortality and physical morbidity (outcome) in adulthood.Results:Five eligible studies examined associations between overweight and/or obesity, and premature mortality: 4/5 found significantly increased risk of premature mortality with child and adolescent overweight or obesity. All 11 studies with cardiometabolic morbidity as outcomes reported that overweight and obesity were associated with significantly increased risk of later cardiometabolic morbidity (diabetes, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke) in adult life, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.1-5.1. Nine studies examined associations of child or adolescent overweight and obesity with other adult morbidity: studies of cancer morbidity were inconsistent; child and adolescent overweight and obesity were associated with significantly increased risk of later disability pension, asthma, and polycystic ovary syndrome symptoms.Conclusions:A relatively large and fairly consistent body of evidence now demonstrates that overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence have adverse consequences on premature mortality and physical morbidity in adulthood. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

In this issue of Neuron, a study by Michalareas et al. (2016) uses magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize the hierarchical organization of human visual areas based on their causal connectivity profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

We previously reported that AR phosphorylation at serine 213 was associated with poor outcome and may contribute to prostate cancer development and progression. This study investigates if specific AR phosphorylation sites have differing roles in the progression of hormone naïve prostate cancer (HNPC) to castrate resistant disease (CRPC). A panel of phosphospecific antibodies were employed to study AR phosphorylation in 84 matched HNPC and CRPC tumours. Immunohistochemistry measured Androgen receptor expression phosphorylated at serine residues 94 (pAR94), 308 (pAR308), 650(pAR650) and 791 (pAR791). No correlations with clinical parameters were observed for pAR94 or pAR650 in HNPC or CRPC tumours. In contrast to our previous observation with serine 213, high pAR308 is significantly associated with a longer time to disease specific death (p = 0.011) and high pAR791 expression significantly associated with a longer time to disease recurrence (p = 0.018) in HNPC tumours and longer time to death from disease recurrence (p = 0.040) in CRPC tumours. This observation in CRPC tumours was attenuated in high apoptotic tumours (p = 0.022) and low proliferating tumours (p = 0.004). These results demonstrate that understanding the differing roles of AR phosphorylation is necessary before this can be exploited as a target for castrate resistant prostate cancer.

Gatherer D.,University of Glasgow
BMC Systems Biology | Year: 2010

Background: An old debate has undergone a resurgence in systems biology: that of reductionism versus holism. At least 35 articles in the systems biology literature since 2003 have touched on this issue. The histories of holism and reductionism in the philosophy of biology are reviewed, and the current debate in systems biology is placed in context.Results: Inter-theoretic reductionism in the strict sense envisaged by its creators from the 1930s to the 1960s is largely impractical in biology, and was effectively abandoned by the early 1970s in favour of a more piecemeal approach using individual reductive explanations. Classical holism was a stillborn theory of the 1920s, but the term survived in several fields as a loose umbrella designation for various kinds of anti-reductionism which often differ markedly. Several of these different anti-reductionisms are on display in the holistic rhetoric of the recent systems biology literature. This debate also coincides with a time when interesting arguments are being proposed within the philosophy of biology for a new kind of reductionism.Conclusions: Engaging more deeply with these issues should sharpen our ideas concerning the philosophy of systems biology and its future best methodology. As with previous decisive moments in the history of biology, only those theories that immediately suggest relatively easy experiments will be winners. © 2010 Gatherer; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Cadman L.,University of Glasgow
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2010

In this paper I offer an interpretation of Foucault's 1978 and 1979 lectures at the Collége de France: Security, Territory, Population and The Birth of Biopolitics. Through doing so, I suspend the mainstay of social scientific research that falls within the field of governmentality studies and turn instead to the historico-critical basis for Foucault's researches. Embracing notions of governmental 'counter-conducts' and the 'critical attitude', I show how a positive desubjugating form of critique, which temporarily suspends the power of governmental norms, is wholly immanent to the formation and development of modern political governmentality. Furthermore, the ethos of this critique is key to understanding Foucault's genealogical method and his conception of the political. To advance these claims, throughout this paper I draw on the example of rights. I move away from the normative approach to rights in an era of (liberal) political governmentality towards a more performative understandingo-what Foucault terms the 'right to question' governmental regimes of truth. I finish by describing Foucault's own questioning of governmental regimes and offer a rereading of his defence of the Vietnamese boat people in the early 1980s. © 2010 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.

Van Den Berg W.B.,Radboud University Nijmegen | McInnes I.B.,University of Glasgow
Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2013

Importance: Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-17 A has broad pathogenic roles in multiple autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The development of new therapies that inhibit IL-17 pathway signaling is of clinical significance. Objectives: This review aims to summarize the current preclinical evidence on the role of Th17 cells and IL-17 and related cytokines in immune-mediated disease pathophysiology, with a focus on psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as to summarize recent clinical trials in these indications with newly developed IL-17 pathway inhibitors. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted of PubMed using relevant keywords. Studies were assessed according to recent relevance to IL-17-mediated pathophysiology and clinical IL-17 inhibition. Experimental animal models of autoimmune disease and clinical studies that focused on IL-17 pathway inhibitors were included. Results: Preclinical studies suggest that IL-17A is an attractive therapeutic target. Several IL-17A inhibitors have advanced into clinical trials, including the anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibodies, secukinumab and ixekizumab, and the anti-17RA monoclonal antibody brodalumab. Each has shown variable and sometimes favorable results in proof-of-concept and phase II clinical trials and is currently undergoing further clinical evaluation in a range of immune-mediated diseases. Conclusion: Targeting the IL-17 pathway shows promise as strategy to treat immune-mediated diseases ranging from skin to joints. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Murray-Smith D.J.,University of Glasgow
Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems | Year: 2011

Inverse simulation is a form of inverse modelling in which computer simulation methods are used to find the time histories of input variables that, for a given model, match a set of required output responses. Conventional inverse simulation methods for dynamic models are computationally intensive and can present difficulties for high-speed applications. This article includes a review of established methods of inverse simulation, giving some emphasis on iterative techniques that were first developed for aeronautical applications. It goes on to discuss the application of a different approach that is based on feedback principles. This feedback method is suitable for a wide range of linear and non-linear dynamic models and involves two distinct stages. The first stage involves design of a feedback loop around the given simulation model, and in the second stage, that closed-loop system is used for inversion of the model. Issues of robustness within closed-loop systems used in inverse simulation are not significant as there are no plant uncertainties or external disturbances. Thus, the process is simpler than that required for the development of a control system of equivalent complexity. Engineering applications of this feedback approach to inverse simulation are described through case studies that put particular emphasis on non-linear and multi-input multi-output models. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

York C.B.,University of Glasgow
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2015

This article reviews the current state of the art in the design of traditional uni-directional fibre laminate construction; beyond the ubiquitous balanced and symmetric design. A ply termination algorithm is then employed to develop permissible tapered designs, with single-ply terminations and ply contiguity constraints, which are free from undesirable changes in mechanical coupling characteristics. More importantly however, is the fact that all tapered designs have immunity to thermal warping distortion; which include all combinations of anti-symmetric (or cross-symmetric), non-symmetric and symmetric angle- and cross-ply sub-sequence symmetries. Tapered designs are presented for laminates with fully uncoupled properties, and those possessing extension-shearing and/or bending-twisting coupling. Such designs represent typical fuselage skin thicknesses, i.e., with between (n =) 12 and 16 plies, but due consideration is also given to new fuselage design concepts with grid-stiffeners and/or geodesic stiffener arrangements, for which thinner designs (n ≥ 8) are of interest. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Senn S.,University of Glasgow
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Examples are given of how the practice of statistics could be improved if statisticians showed a greater awareness of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling. Some examples are also given where a wider appreciation of statistical theory would improve current approaches to pharmacometrics. Areas in which the two disciplines are in agreement but have failed to have as much influence on others in drug development as they ought are also considered. It is concluded that there would be much benefit in increasing collaboration between these disciplines. © 2010 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Gibbs L.M.,University of Glasgow
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2010

Current approaches to valuing nature within environmental and natural resource management are based on and limited by Eurocentric knowledge and experience of northern temperate nature. Methods based on separation and domination marginalise other ways of knowing nature and thinking about value. The aims of this paper are to unsettle current ways of thinking about water values; to decentre Eurocentric thinking about water management; and to present a different way of thinking about values associated with water, based on an empirical study of the Lake Eyre Basin in central Australia. The paper takes a multidisciplinary approach, drawing on multiple knowledges of Australian water, including indigenous, local settler, and scientific knowledge, and on lessons from Australian Aboriginal people and the academic discourse of Aboriginal Studies. In particular, it considers how a focus on variabilityöa concept emerging from the Australian landscape (rather than from northern temperate landscapes)ömight foster different thinking about water and value. Variability takes as a starting point the diversity, change, and complexity of water and values, as opposed to separation and domination. This focus highlights two points currently marginalised in dominant practice of environmental valuation: that the variability of Australian water regimes is valued, and that values themselves are characterised by variability. © 2010 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.

Liew F.Y.,University of Glasgow | Liew F.Y.,King Abdulaziz University
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2012

Interleukin (IL) 33, a member of the IL-1 family, is the ligand of ST2 that is expressed mainly on activated Th2 cells and mast cells. IL-33 can skew a predominantly Th1 cell population to a mainly Th2 cells phenotype in vivo. IL-33 messenger RNA is expressed early during infection of the intestinal-dwelling nematode Trichuris muris in mice. IL-33 treatment enhances resistance to Trichuris infection. IL-33 also effectively attenuates sepsis by mobilising the innate cells, neutrophils, to the site of infection, helping to clear the pathogens. Thus, IL-33 may be evolutionally preserved for the host defence against infections. IL-33 can reduce an ongoing atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- mice and attenuate adipocytes mainly by inducing the production of type II cytokines. In contrast, IL-33 can also exacerbate allergy and the inflammation in collagen-induced or serum-induced arthritis. Hence, IL-33 is a double-edged sword, and targeting IL-33 should be approached with caution.

Allely C.S.,University of Glasgow
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background: Self-harm is a major public health issue in young people worldwide and there are many challenges to its management and prevention. Numerous studies have indicated that ADHD is associated with completed suicides and other suicidal behaviours (i.e., suicidal attempt and ideation). However, significantly less is known about the association between ADHD and self-harm.Method: This is the first review of the association between ADHD and self-harm. A systematic PRISMA review was conducted. Two internet-based bibliographic databases (Medline and CINAHL) were searched to access studies which examined to any degree the association between, specifically, ADHD and self-harm.Results: Only 15 studies were identified which investigated the association between ADHD and self-harm and found evidence to support that ADHD is a potential risk factor for self-harm.Conclusion: This association raises the need for more awareness of self-harm in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. © 2014 Allely; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

David A.,University of Glasgow
Housing Studies | Year: 2011

The problem of planning for housing development has never been wholly resolved in England but instead re-invented in different guises as successive governments have sought to reflect values and interests in ascendancy at any particular moment. This paper seeks to trace and explain how this has happened over the past 40 years, and especially between 1997 and 2010, by reviewing policy developments around the overall supply of housing land, the split between brownfield and greenfield locations and the extent to which market-based information has been considered relevant to planning decisions. The account points to policy evolution, rather than radical departure, and suggests limited manoeuvrability for policy makers, when faced with wicked problems. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Prunet J.,University of Glasgow
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

This article covers case studies in natural product syntheses with comments on various aspects of metathesis reactions and on how the difficulties encountered in these syntheses have led to better understanding of these reactions or to more effective reaction conditions and catalysts. Ring-closingmetathesis leading to small and medium-sized rings is discussed, followed by macrocycle formation, asymmetric ring-closing metathesis, and cross metathesis. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Endlein T.,University of Glasgow
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Many insects possess adhesive organs that can produce extreme attachment forces of more than 100 times body weight but they can rapidly release adhesion to allow locomotion. During walking, weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) use only a fraction of their maximally available contact area, even upside-down on a smooth surface. To test whether the reduced contact area makes the ants more susceptible to sudden and unexpected detachment forces, for example, by rain or wind gusts, we investigated the reaction of untethered ants to rapid horizontal displacements of the substrate. High-speed video recordings revealed that the pad's contact area could more than double within the first millisecond after the perturbation. This contact area expansion is much faster than any neuromuscular reflex and therefore represents a passive 'preflex', resulting from the mechanical properties and geometrical arrangement of the (pre-)tarsus. This preflex reaction protects ants effectively against unexpected detachment, and allows them to use less contact area during locomotion. Contact area expanded most strongly when the substrate displacement generated a pull along the axis of the tarsus, showing that the ants' preflex is direction-dependent. The preflex may be based on the ability of Hymenopteran adhesive pads to unfold when pulled towards the body. We tested Indian stick insects (Carausius morosus), which have smooth pads that lack this motility. Similar to the ants, they showed a rapid and direction-dependent expansion of the contact area mainly in the lateral direction. We propose that the preflex reaction in stick insects is based on the reorientation of internal cuticle fibrils in a constant-volume system, whereas the ants' pad cuticle is probably not a hydrostat, and pad extension is achieved by the arcus, an endoscelerite of the arolium.

Cabrero P.,University of Glasgow
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Insect osmoregulation is subject to highly sophisticated endocrine control. In Drosophila, both Drosophila kinin and tyramine act on the Malpighian (renal) tubule stellate cell to activate chloride shunt conductance, and so increase the fluid production rate. Drosophila kinin is known to act through intracellular calcium, but the mode of action of tyramine is not known. Here, we used a transgenically encoded GFP::apoaequorin translational fusion, targeted to either principal or stellate cells under GAL4/UAS control, to demonstrate that tyramine indeed acts to raise calcium in stellate, but not principal cells. Furthermore, the EC(50) tyramine concentration for half-maximal activation of the intracellular calcium signal is the same as that calculated from previously published data on tyramine-induced increase in chloride flux. In addition, tyramine signalling to calcium is markedly reduced in mutants of NorpA (a phospholipase C) and itpr, the inositol trisphosphate receptor gene, which we have previously shown to be necessary for Drosophila kinin signalling. Therefore, tyramine and Drosophila kinin signals converge on phospholipase C, and thence on intracellular calcium; and both act to increase chloride shunt conductance by signalling through itpr. To test this model, we co-applied tyramine and Drosophila kinin, and showed that the calcium signals were neither additive nor synergistic. The two signalling pathways thus represent parallel, independent mechanisms for distinct tissues (nervous and epithelial) to control the same aspect of renal function.

OBJECTIVES: To explore associations between IQ measured in early adulthood and subsequent hospital admissions for attempted suicide and to explore the role of psychosis and examine associations of IQ with specific methods of attempted suicide. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1 109 475 Swedish men with IQ measured in early adulthood followed up for an average 24 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital admission for attempted suicide. RESULTS: 17 736 (1.6%) men had at least one hospital admission for attempted suicide by any means during follow-up. After adjustment for age and socioeconomic status, lower IQ scores were associated with an elevated risk of attempted suicide by any means (hazard ratio per standard deviation decrease in IQ=1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.54 to 1.60), with stepwise increases in risk across the full IQ range (P for trend<0.001). Similar associations were observed for all specific methods of attempted suicide. Separate analyses indicated that associations between IQ and attempted suicide were restricted to participants without psychosis and that IQ had no marked impact on risk of attempted suicide in those with psychosis. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ scores in early adulthood were associated with a subsequently increased risk of attempted suicide in men free from psychosis. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying these associations may provide opportunities and strategies for prevention.

Mitchell A.J.,Leicester Partnership Trust | Mitchell A.J.,Royal Infirmary | Ferguson D.W.,University of Leicester | Gill J.,University of Leicester | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Cancer survival has improved in the past 20 years, affecting the long-term risk of mood disorders. We assessed whether depression and anxiety are more common in long-term survivors of cancer compared with their spouses and with healthy controls. Methods: We systematically searched Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, Science Direct, Ingenta Select, Ovid, and Wiley Interscience for reports about the prevalence of mood disorders in patients diagnosed with cancer at least 2 years previously. We also searched the records of the International Psycho-oncology Society and for reports that cited relevant references. Three investigators independently extracted primary data. We did a random-effects meta-analysis of the prevalences of depression and anxiety in cancer patients compared with spouses and healthy controls. Findings: Our search returned 144 results, 43 were included in the main analysis: for comparisons with healthy controls, 16 assessed depression and ten assessed anxiety; of the comparisons with spouses, 12 assessed depression and five assessed anxiety. The prevalence of depression was 11·6% (95% CI 7·7-16·2) in the pooled sample of 51 381 cancer survivors and 10·2% (8·0-12·6) in 217 630 healthy controls (pooled relative risk [RR] 1·11, 95% CI 0·96-1·27; p=0·17). The prevalence of anxiety was 17·9% (95% CI 12·8-23·6) in 48 964 cancer survivors and 13·9% (9·8-18·5) in 226 467 healthy controls (RR 1·27, 95% CI 1·08-1·50; p=0·0039). Neither the prevalence of depression (26·7% vs 26·3%; RR 1·01, 95% CI 0·86-1·20; p=0·88) nor the prevalence of anxiety (28·0% vs 40·1%; RR 0·71, 95% CI 0·44-1·14; p=0·16) differed significantly between cancer patients and their spouses. Interpretation: Our findings suggest that anxiety, rather than depression, is most likely to be a problem in long-term cancer survivors and spouses compared with healthy controls. Efforts should be made to improve recognition and treatment of anxiety in long-term cancer survivors and their spouses. Funding: None. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Feigin M.,University of Glasgow
Selecta Mathematica, New Series | Year: 2012

We consider ideals of polynomials vanishing on the W-orbits of the intersections of mirrors of a finite reflection group W. We determine all such ideals that are invariant under the action of the corresponding rational Cherednik algebra hence form submodules in the polynomial module. We show that a quantum integrable system can be defined for every such ideal for a real reflection group W. This leads to known and new integrable systems of Calogero-Moser type which we explicitly specify. In the case of classical Coxeter groups, we also obtain generalized Calogero-Moser systems with added quadratic potential. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

Hersh M.,University of Glasgow
Computers and Education | Year: 2014

This paper presents the first systematic approach to evaluation of inclusive ICT-based learning technologies and ICT-based learning technologies for disabled people. The first systematic approach to classification of these technologies is presented in a companion paper. The aims of the evaluation approach can be summarised as follows. 1. Evaluating various features of existing technologies from the perspectives of disabled learners and other stakeholders, comparing technologies and identifying gaps in technology provision. 2. Evaluating the impact of technology use on user outcomes, including barriers to learning, self-confidence, motivation, increasing participation in learning activities and achievement of desired learning outcomes. The evaluation framework comprises three main components: 1. Aims which specify the purpose(s) of the evaluation or what it is intended to achieve. 2. Principles which provide a framework and context in which the evaluation should be carried out and, in particular, specify the constraints, rules and factors to be taken into account. 3. Methodologies which specify the approaches used to carry out the evaluation taking account of the principles in order to achieve the aims. Development of the evaluation framework took place as part of a network project and involved a multi-stage process, including cycles of discussion, comment and validation using ICT based learning technologies used in the 16 partner countries. The resulting framework has several important applications in terms of establishing for the first time a clear evaluation framework which can be used to discuss and evaluate existing ICT-based learning technologies for disabled people, identify gaps in provision or the need for modifications and support the design and development process for new technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Background: The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown. Methods and Findings: We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018). We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226), we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7). In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71) more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24); p-value for difference in estimate <0.001. Use of ICSI increased the odds of live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of macrosomia increased with advancing maternal age and a history of previous live births. Infertility due to cervical problems was associated with increased odds of all three outcomes-preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. Conclusions: Pending external validation, our results show that couple- and treatment-specific factors can be used to provide infertile couples with an accurate assessment of whether they have low or high risk of a successful outcome following IVF. © 2011 Nelson, Lawlor.