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Accra, Ghana

The University of Ghana is the oldest and largest of the thirteen Ghanaian universities and tertiary institutions. It was founded in 1948 as the University College of the Gold Coast, and was originally an affiliate college of the University of London, which supervised its academic programmes and awarded degrees. It gained full university status in 1961, and now has nearly 40,000 students.The original emphasis was on the liberal arts, social science, basic science, agriculture, and medicine, but the curriculum was expanded to provide more technology-based and vocational courses and postgraduate training.The university is mainly based at Legon, about twelve kilometres northeast of the centre of Accra. The medical school is in Korle Bu, with a teaching hospital and secondary campus in the city of Accra. It also has a graduate school of nuclear and allied science at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, making it one of the few universities on the Africa continent offering programmes in nuclear physics and nuclear engineering. Wikipedia.

Yidana S.M.,University of Ghana
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

This study demonstrates the strength of R-mode factor analysis and Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis in determining spatial groundwater salinity groups in southeastern Ghana. Three hundred and eighty three (383) groundwater samples were taken from six hydrogeological terrains and surface water bodies and analyzed for the concentrations of the major ions, electrical conductivity and pH. Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis and R-mode factor analysis were respectively used to spatially classify groundwater samples and determine the probable sources of variation in groundwater salinity. The quality of groundwater for irrigation was then determined using three major indices. The analyses revealed two major sources of variation in groundwater salinity: silicate mineral weathering on one hand, and seawater intrusion and anthropogenic contamination on the other. A plot of the factor scores for the two major sources of variation in the salinity revealed trends which can be used in hydrogeological mapping and assist in drilling potable water boreholes in southeastern Ghana. This study also revealed four major spatial groundwater groups: low salinity, acidic groundwaters which are mainly derived from the Birimian and Togo Series aquifers; low salinity, moderate to neutral pH groundwaters which draw membership mainly from samples of the Voltaian, Buem and Cape Coast granitoids; very high salinity waters which are not suitable for most domestic and irrigation purposes and are mainly from the Keta Basin aquifers; and intermediate salinity groundwaters consisting of groundwater from the Keta basin aquifers with minor contributions from the other major terrains. The major water type identified in this study is the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, which degrades into predominantly Na-Cl-SO4 more saline groundwaters towards the coast. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Background: This survey provides data on the Mental Health System in Ghana for the year 2011. It supplies essential planning information for the implementation of Ghana's new Mental Health Act 846 of 2012, a renewal of the Ghana 5 year plan for mental health and it contributes to international knowledge base on mental health. It provides a baseline from which to measure future progress in Ghana and comparison data for use in other countries. In addition to reporting our findings we describe and analyse deficiencies and strengths of the Ghana mental health system.Methods: We used the World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) to collect, analyse, and report data on the mental health system and services for all districts of the ten regions of Ghana. Data was collected in 2012, based on the year 2011.Results: In 2011, Ghana was a lower middle income country with a population of approximately 25 million. A mental health policy, plan and legislation were in place. Mental health legislation was outdated and no longer in line with best practice standards. Services were significantly underfunded with only 1.4% of the health expenditure going to mental health, and spending very much skewed towards urban areas. There were 123 mental health outpatient facilities, 3 psychiatric hospitals, 7 community based psychiatric inpatient units, 4 community residential facilities and 1 day treatment centre, which is well below what would be expected for Ghana's economic status. The majority of patients were treated in outpatient facilities and psychiatric hospitals and most of the inpatient beds were provided by the latter. There were an estimated 2.4 million people with mental health problems of which 67,780 (ie 2.8%) received treatment in 2011. The were 18 psychiatrists, 1,068 Registered Mental Nurses, 19 psychologists, 72 Community Mental Health Officers and 21 social workers working in mental health which is unbalanced with an unbalanced emphasis on nurses compared to what would be expected.Conclusions: The main strength of the mental health system was the presence of a long established service with staff working across the country in outpatients departments and hospitals. The main weakness was that government spending on mental health was very low and the bulk of services, albeit very sparse, were centred around the capital city leaving much of the rest of the country with almost no provision. Service provision was dominated by nurses with few other professions groups present. © 2014 Roberts et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Almost all diarrhea deaths in young children occur in developing countries. Immunization against rotavirus, the leading cause of childhood severe dehydrating acute diarrhea may reduce the burden of severe diarrhea in developing countries. Ghana introduced rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccination in the national expanded program on immunization in May 2012. Review of all-cause diarrheal hospitalization data for children aged 59 months and younger at 2 pediatric referral hospitals in southern Ghana from 2008 to 2014. The proportion of acute diarrhea (defined as 3 or more watery, non-bloody stools within 24 hours that has lasted for less than 7 days) cases caused by rotavirus was determined. Temporal trend and age group distribution of all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus gastroenteritis before and after introduction of the new vaccines were compared. Of the 5847 children hospitalized with all-cause diarrhea during the 74 months (January 2008 - February 2014), 3963 (67.8%) children were recruited for rotavirus surveillance and stool specimens were tested for rotavirus in 3160/3963 (79.7%). Median monthly hospitalization for all-cause diarrhea reduced from 84 [interquartile range (IQR) 62 - 105] during the 52 months pre-vaccination introduction to 46 (IQR 42 - 57) in the 22 months after implementation of vaccination. Significant decline in all-cause diarrhea hospitalization occurred in children aged 0 - 11 months: 56.3% (2711/4817) vs. 47.2% 486/1030 [p = 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77 - 0.88] and there was significant reduction of rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalization: 49.7% (1246/2505) vs. 27.8% (182/655) [p = 0.0001, 95% CI 0.32 - 0.47] before and after vaccine introduction respectively. Implementation of rotavirus vaccination program may have resulted in significant reduction of severe diarrhea hospitalization even though this observational study could not exclude the effect of other confounding factors. Continued surveillance is recommended to monitor the progress of this program. Source

Background: Malaria transmission intensity is traditionally estimated from entomological studies as the entomological inoculation rate (EIR), but this is labour intensive and also raises sampling issues due to the large variation from house to house. Incidence of malaria in the control group of a trial or in a cohort study can be used but is difficult to interpret and to compare between different places and between age groups because of differences in levels of acquired immunity. The reversible catalytic model has been developed to estimate malaria transmission intensity using age-stratified serological data. However, the limitation of this model is that it does not allow for persons to have their seropositivity boosted by exposure while they are already seropositive. The aim of this paper is to develop superinfection mathematical models that allow for antibody response to be boosted by exposure. Method. The superinfection models were fitted to age-stratified serological data using maximum likelihood method. Results: The results showed that estimates of seroconversion rate were higher using the superinfection model than catalytic model. This difference was milder when the level of transmission was lower. This suggests that the catalytic model is underestimating the transmission intensity by up to 31%. The duration of seropositivity is shorter with superinfection model, but still seems too long. Conclusion: The model is important because it can produce more realistic estimates of the duration of seropositivity. This is analogous to Dietz model, which allowed for superinfection and produced more realistic estimates of the duration of infection as compared to the original Ross-MacDonald malaria model, which also ignores superinfection. © 2014 Bosomprah; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Afrane G.,University of Ghana
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

The perennial political and social upheavals in major oil-producing regions, the increasing energy demand from emerging economies, the global economic crisis and even environmental disasters, like the recent major oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, all contribute to price fluctuations and escalations. Usually price instability affects the least-developed countries with the most fragile economies, like Ghana, the most. This paper gives a brief overview of the Ghanaian energy situation, describes the liquid biofuel production processes and examines the possibility of replacing some of the fossil fuels consumed annually, with locally produced renewable biofuels. Various scenarios for substituting different portions of petrol and diesel with biofuels derived from cassava and palm oil are examined. Based on 2009 crop production and fuel consumption data, replacement of 5% of both petrol and diesel with biofuels would require 1.96% and 17.3% of the cassava and palm oil produced in that year, respectively; while replacement of 10% of both fossil fuels would need 3.91% and 34.6% of the corresponding biofuels. Thus while petrol replacement could be initiated with little difficulty, regarding raw material availability, biodiesel would require enhanced palm oil production and/or oil supplement from other sources, including, potentially, jatropha. An implementation strategy is proposed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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