Awadelkarim K.D.,University of Gezira |
Mariani-Costantini R.,University of Chieti Pescara |
Elwali N.E.,University of Gezira
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012
The Sudan, the largest and most diverse country in Africa, is experiencing a growing cancer problem, but little is presently known on tumor patterns, cancer epidemiology and ethnic or environmental cancer risk factors. We review here the current status of knowledge, summarizing data from local and international publications as well as primary information from the only two cancer hospitals of the country, both located in Central Sudan (Khartoum and Wad Medani). We provide frequencies reported for cancers detected in adults and children, and summarize studies on specific cancer types, as well as information on risk factors that most likely impact on tumor patterns. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Elagib N.A.,University of Bahrain |
Elhag M.M.,University of Gezira
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2011
There has been a rigorous debate during the 2000s about the recovery of the African Sahel from the long-lasting drought. To examine the situation in Sudan, this paper develops the standardized anomaly indices (SAIs) of mean annual temperature and annual rainfall, and accordingly, establishes the Pedj drought index (PDI) since the 1940s to 2008 for 14 stations spread over the country. There has been a drastic increase in temperatures (maximum, minimum, and mean) over the whole country in line with a significant decline of rainfall over the northern half of the country. Evidence of a correlation between temperature and rainfall anomalies has been reported, emphasizing the concurrence of dry and hot periods. These results suggest less effective rainfall. Contrary to the postulation of recovery from the long-lasting drought in the African Sahel, the results for Sudan indicate intensifying drought evidenced by significant rising trends in PDI. The 2000s depict a widespread and prolonged drought (mild to severe), except for the extreme southern and south-western parts of the country which displayed excess of humidity. The frequency of occurrence of drought classes during 1975-2008 ranged from 44.1% to 70.6% compared to a frequency extending from 8.8% to 40.0% for 1941-1974. The PDI succeeded to represent satisfactorily drought episodes captured by other drought indices recommended worldwide. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index has a significant footprint on the PDI, strongly affecting the country south of latitude 15°N. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Abuidris D.O.,University of Gezira |
Elsheikh A.,University of Gezira |
Ali M.,University of Gezira |
Musa H.,University of Gezira |
And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013
Background: Breast cancer has a low cure rate in low-income and middle-income countries because patients often present with late-stage disease that has metastasised to other organs. We assessed whether the implementation of a cancer awareness and breast examination programme that uses local, volunteer women could increase the early detection of breast cancer in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We did this pilot study in two counties in Gezira State, Sudan. We chose Keremet (56 villages) as the experimental county and Abugota (79 villages) as the control county. Female volunteers from villages in Keremet were trained in the detection of breast abnormalities. When trained, volunteers visited households in their village and screened women aged 18 years or older for breast abnormalities, referring women with suspected breast cancer for medical diagnosis and, if necessary, treatment at the district hospital. We also ran a cancer awareness programme for both men and women in study villages. Villages in the control population received no intervention. This study is ongoing. Findings: Between Jan 1, 2010, and Oct 10, 2012, 10 309 (70%) of 14 788 women in Keremet were screened. 138 women were identified as having breast abnormalities and were referred to the district hospital for diagnosis and treatment. 20 of these women did not report to the hospital. Of the 118 women who did report, 101 were diagnosed with benign lesions, eight with carcinoma in situ, and nine had malignant disease. After treatment, 12 of the 17 women with either carcinoma in situ or malignant disease (four had early breast cancer and eight had ductal carcinoma in situ) were disease-free and had a good prognosis. In the control villages, only four women reported to the centre: one was found to have a benign lesion while three were diagnosed with advanced disease. Interpretation: Our findings show that a screening programme using local volunteers can increase the detection of breast cancer in asymptomatic women in low-income rural communities. These findings can inform policy-makers' decisions in the design of cancer control programmes in Sudan and other similar areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Funding: Sudan National Cancer Institute. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Dafalla A.M.,University of Gezira
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2011
The main objective of this study is to provide a database for renal transplantation in Sudan and to determine the HLA antigens and haplotype frequencies (HFs) in the study subjects. HLA typing was performed using the complement-dependant lymphocytotoxicity test in 250 unrelated healthy individuals selected as donors in the Sudanese Renal Transplantation Program. Considerable polymorphism was observed at each locus; A2 (0.28), A30 (0.12), A3 (0.09), A24 (0.09), A1 (0.09), and A68 (0.06) were the most frequent antigens in the A locus, while B51 (0.092), B41 (0.081), B39 (0.078), B57 (0.060), B35 (0.068), B 50 (0.053) and B 52 (0.051) were the most common B locus antigens. DR13 (0.444) and DR15 (0.160) showed the highest antigen frequencies (AFs) in the DR locus. In the DQ locus, DQ1 showed the highest gene frequency (0.498), while DQ2 and DQ3 AFs were (0.185) and (0.238), respectively. The most common HLA-A and -B haplotypes in positive linkage disequilibrium were A24, B38; A1, B7; and A3, B52. The common HLA-A and -B HFs in positive linkage disequilibrium in the main three tribe-stocks of the study subjects (Gaalia, Nile Nubian and Johyna) were A24, B38 for Gaalia; A24, B38 and A2, B7 for Johyna; and A2, B64 and A3, B53 for Nile Nubian. These results suggest that both class I and class II polymorphisms of the study subjects depict considerable heterogeneity, which reflects recent admixture of this group with neighboring Arabs and African populations.
Elmadani A.E.,University of Gezira
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013
To evaluate the ultrasound findings of urinary schistosomiasis in Quran school (Khalwas) children in Gezira State Sudan, we studied all the students from two schools. A total of 103 boys were tested for urinary schistosomiasis using the urine filtration method. Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) eggs were counted. Ultrasound was performed for all the positive subjects. Seventy-three (71%) subjects were positive for S. haematobium. The mean age was 11.3 ± 2.9 years. Sixty-six (90.4%) subjects showed urinary tract abnormalities. The findings revealed the following degrees of wall thickening: 53.0% mild, 18.2% moderate and 21.2% severe. Urinary bladder polyp(s) were noted in 43.3% (single) and 40.9% (multiple) of the subjects, and calcification of the bladder wall was observed in 7.6% subjects. Ureteric dilatation was noted in 38/73 (52.0%), while hydronephrosis was detected in 19/73 (26.3%). The vast majority of urinary tract schistomiasis lesions were in the urinary bladder. Ultrasound is a useful tool for identifying the morbidity of S. haematobium in endemic areas.
Ahmed G.M.,University of Gezira
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2012
A well-functioning arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is essential for the maintenance of hemodialysis (HD) in patients with chronic renal failure. Our aim is to review our experience of creating AVF and to asses its success rate and common complication. A prospective, hospital-based study was conducted on 73 patients (48 males and 25 females) on chronic HD in Gezira Hospital for Renal Diseases and Surgery, from January to July 2007. Their mean age was 43.9 years (range from 18 to 72 years). Seventy-one (97.3%) of the study subjects had been dialyzed before creation of the AVF, 67 (91.8%) of them having undergone HD with temporary access. All patients (n=73) had a native AVF as the permanent vascular access (VA). A primary radiocephalic AVF was created in 78.1% of the patients, cubital fossa in 20.5% and one case had left snuff box AVF (1.4%). Percentage of AVF maturation was reported in 67.1% of the cases within the first six weeks and in 9.6% of the cases AVF never matured. Failure of AVF function occurred in 26% of the cases, due to thrombosis in 20.5% (n=15) and aneurysm in 5.5% of the cases. We conclude that an optimum outcome is likely when there is a multidisciplinary team approach, and early referral to vascular surgery is paramount.
Abdelwahab M.M.,University of Gezira
Proceedings - 2015 International Conference on Computing, Control, Networking, Electronics and Embedded Systems Engineering, ICCNEEE 2015 | Year: 2015
The proposed implementation in this paper describes a new advance encryption architecture. The implementation developed for the purpose of obtaining high performance and achieving efficient utilization area of the field programmable gate array (FPGA) resources. The maximum clock frequency is 134.686 MHz and the number of the uses slices is 394. The design consists of four encryption stages based on xor operand. The design used a single mixcolumn stage in order to reduce the chip area which improves the throughput results. The design model is typically developed by a hardware description language and implemented on xilinix device class spartan3. © 2015 IEEE.
Musa A.B.,University of Gezira
International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics | Year: 2013
Support vector machine (SVM) is a comparatively new machine learning algorithm for classification, while logistic regression (LR) is an old standard statistical classification method. Although there have been many comprehensive studies comparing SVM and LR, since they were made, there have been many new improvements applied to them such as bagging and ensemble. Recently, bagging and ensemble learning have become hot topics, widely used to improve the generalization performance of single learning algorithm. Therefore, comparing classification performance between SVM and LR using bagging and ensemble is an interesting issue. The average of estimated probabilities' strategy was used for combining classifiers in this paper. Different evaluation metrics assess different characteristics of machine learning algorithm. It is possible for a learning method to perform well on one metric, but be suboptimal on other metrics. Therefore this study includes a variety of criteria to evaluate the classification performance of the learning methods: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, precision, F-score and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. This has not been included in previous studies of SVM, owing to the fact that it did not support estimated probabilities at that time. Other metrics used in medical diagnosis, such as, Youden's index (γ), positive and negative likelihoods (ρ+, ρ-) and diagnostic odds ratio were evaluated to convey and compare the qualities of the two algorithms. This study is distinct by its inclusion of a comprehensive statistical analysis for the results of the SVM and LR algorithms on various data sets. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Ahmed S.M.,University of Gezira
Sustainability Science | Year: 2014
Agriculture, especially the irrigated sector, is the mainstay of Sudan's economy as it accounts for 40 % of gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 70 % of the workforce. The economic viability of irrigated schemes is dependent on three factors: crop yield, water management and cropped area. The research question of this study was whether or not the current status of these factors can be sustained in order to maintain the economic viability of irrigation systems? To answer this question, a new (to the best of the author's knowledge) approach was developed based on time series analysis, and on the Theil-Sen estimator of slope. The study defined sustainability conceptually as "the ability of an irrigation system to sustain crop yields using the optimum cropped area and water consumption to realize the economic viability of the irrigation system without a decline in soil quality and environment". Time series datasets of crop yields, cropped area and irrigation water consumption are collected routinely by statistical departments. Any abrupt years in the development of trends were detected and related to their driving forces/causes, of which climatic conditions and marketing policies were found to be the most important. The simple approach developed proved its suitability for quantifying the progress of irrigated schemes' towards sustainability development as tested under the conditions of Gezira irrigated scheme in Sudan-the largest singly managed irrigation scheme in the world. The scheme was found to be sustainable under the condition that the crop yield is considered as the top priority; otherwise, the sustainability of the scheme is jeopardized. © 2013 Springer Japan.
Musa A.B.,University of Gezira
International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics | Year: 2014
Relevant information extraction and dimensionality reduction of the original input features is an interesting research area in machine learning and data analysis. Logistic regression (LR) is a well-known classification method that has been used widely in many applications of data mining, machine learning, and bioinformatics. However, its performance is affected by the multi-co-linearity among its predictors, and the features’ redundancy. ℓ1-regularizion and features extraction methods are commonly used to enhance the performance of logistic regression under multi-co-linearity and ovefitting problems, and to reduce computational complexity by discarding less relevant or redundant features. These methods include principal component analysis, kernel principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Recently, ℓ1-regularized logistic regression has received much attention as a promising method for features selection in classification tasks. So there is a great need to be compared with these existing methods. In this paper, we assess the performance of the aforementioned feature selection methods on LR and ℓ1-regularized logistic regression using different statistical measures. A variety of performance metrics has been utilized: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, precision, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve and the receiver operating characteristic analysis. This study is distinct by its inclusion of a comprehensive statistical analysis. © 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.