Nawar H.,University of Gezira
Technoetic Arts | Year: 2012
Can we find different means of communicative visual solutions to aid societies in the development of multicultural global communities? This means not revolving only around a particular language or even human language, but rather the concept and structure of communication. This transforms any kind of sign, body gesture or visual element into a method of communication, not simple phenomena. The aim of the research is to use media art and new technology to establish a better (wide) visual communicative language in multicultural societies and provide a solid bridge between east and west, through in-depth visual/technological experimentation, seek-ing a transcultural visual solution to the problem of visual integration. Can any perceivable phenomenon become a conveyor of meaning? While language is based very much on common agreements, the way each of us responds to a message can be entirely different. Communication therefore creates diversity from uniformity: the idea of mixing setups of humans and machines (robots, computers, etc.) that are somehow able to communicate. The communication would give rise to some sort of choreography of movements that is synchronized because of the communication but diverse because of different responses to the communication. © 2012 Intellect Ltd Miscellaneous. English language.
Ahmed S.M.,University of Gezira
Sustainability Science | Year: 2014
Agriculture, especially the irrigated sector, is the mainstay of Sudan's economy as it accounts for 40 % of gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 70 % of the workforce. The economic viability of irrigated schemes is dependent on three factors: crop yield, water management and cropped area. The research question of this study was whether or not the current status of these factors can be sustained in order to maintain the economic viability of irrigation systems? To answer this question, a new (to the best of the author's knowledge) approach was developed based on time series analysis, and on the Theil-Sen estimator of slope. The study defined sustainability conceptually as "the ability of an irrigation system to sustain crop yields using the optimum cropped area and water consumption to realize the economic viability of the irrigation system without a decline in soil quality and environment". Time series datasets of crop yields, cropped area and irrigation water consumption are collected routinely by statistical departments. Any abrupt years in the development of trends were detected and related to their driving forces/causes, of which climatic conditions and marketing policies were found to be the most important. The simple approach developed proved its suitability for quantifying the progress of irrigated schemes' towards sustainability development as tested under the conditions of Gezira irrigated scheme in Sudan-the largest singly managed irrigation scheme in the world. The scheme was found to be sustainable under the condition that the crop yield is considered as the top priority; otherwise, the sustainability of the scheme is jeopardized. © 2013 Springer Japan.
Elmadani A.E.,University of Gezira
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013
To evaluate the ultrasound findings of urinary schistosomiasis in Quran school (Khalwas) children in Gezira State Sudan, we studied all the students from two schools. A total of 103 boys were tested for urinary schistosomiasis using the urine filtration method. Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) eggs were counted. Ultrasound was performed for all the positive subjects. Seventy-three (71%) subjects were positive for S. haematobium. The mean age was 11.3 ± 2.9 years. Sixty-six (90.4%) subjects showed urinary tract abnormalities. The findings revealed the following degrees of wall thickening: 53.0% mild, 18.2% moderate and 21.2% severe. Urinary bladder polyp(s) were noted in 43.3% (single) and 40.9% (multiple) of the subjects, and calcification of the bladder wall was observed in 7.6% subjects. Ureteric dilatation was noted in 38/73 (52.0%), while hydronephrosis was detected in 19/73 (26.3%). The vast majority of urinary tract schistomiasis lesions were in the urinary bladder. Ultrasound is a useful tool for identifying the morbidity of S. haematobium in endemic areas.
Dafalla A.M.,University of Gezira
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2011
The main objective of this study is to provide a database for renal transplantation in Sudan and to determine the HLA antigens and haplotype frequencies (HFs) in the study subjects. HLA typing was performed using the complement-dependant lymphocytotoxicity test in 250 unrelated healthy individuals selected as donors in the Sudanese Renal Transplantation Program. Considerable polymorphism was observed at each locus; A2 (0.28), A30 (0.12), A3 (0.09), A24 (0.09), A1 (0.09), and A68 (0.06) were the most frequent antigens in the A locus, while B51 (0.092), B41 (0.081), B39 (0.078), B57 (0.060), B35 (0.068), B 50 (0.053) and B 52 (0.051) were the most common B locus antigens. DR13 (0.444) and DR15 (0.160) showed the highest antigen frequencies (AFs) in the DR locus. In the DQ locus, DQ1 showed the highest gene frequency (0.498), while DQ2 and DQ3 AFs were (0.185) and (0.238), respectively. The most common HLA-A and -B haplotypes in positive linkage disequilibrium were A24, B38; A1, B7; and A3, B52. The common HLA-A and -B HFs in positive linkage disequilibrium in the main three tribe-stocks of the study subjects (Gaalia, Nile Nubian and Johyna) were A24, B38 for Gaalia; A24, B38 and A2, B7 for Johyna; and A2, B64 and A3, B53 for Nile Nubian. These results suggest that both class I and class II polymorphisms of the study subjects depict considerable heterogeneity, which reflects recent admixture of this group with neighboring Arabs and African populations.
Elagib N.A.,University of Bahrain |
Elhag M.M.,University of Gezira
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2011
There has been a rigorous debate during the 2000s about the recovery of the African Sahel from the long-lasting drought. To examine the situation in Sudan, this paper develops the standardized anomaly indices (SAIs) of mean annual temperature and annual rainfall, and accordingly, establishes the Pedj drought index (PDI) since the 1940s to 2008 for 14 stations spread over the country. There has been a drastic increase in temperatures (maximum, minimum, and mean) over the whole country in line with a significant decline of rainfall over the northern half of the country. Evidence of a correlation between temperature and rainfall anomalies has been reported, emphasizing the concurrence of dry and hot periods. These results suggest less effective rainfall. Contrary to the postulation of recovery from the long-lasting drought in the African Sahel, the results for Sudan indicate intensifying drought evidenced by significant rising trends in PDI. The 2000s depict a widespread and prolonged drought (mild to severe), except for the extreme southern and south-western parts of the country which displayed excess of humidity. The frequency of occurrence of drought classes during 1975-2008 ranged from 44.1% to 70.6% compared to a frequency extending from 8.8% to 40.0% for 1941-1974. The PDI succeeded to represent satisfactorily drought episodes captured by other drought indices recommended worldwide. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index has a significant footprint on the PDI, strongly affecting the country south of latitude 15°N. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.