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Girona, Spain

Pruimboom L.,University of Gerona | Pruimboom L.,University of Graz
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2011

The evolution of human kind has taken millions of years in which environmental factors gradually shaped the actual genome adapted to those circumstances. One of the most vital behavioural adaptations of mammals in general and especially humans is their capability of self-sufficiency through physical activity. Physical activity abilities, including long distance running, jumping, climbing and carrying things have probably been necessary to outrun wild animals, search for food and hide for danger. In contrast, individuals physically or psychologically unable to "take care of themselves" were more susceptible for early death and therefore for genetic extinction. The actual society is characterized by sedentary instead of "moving" individuals. Physical inactivity is not just a possible factor related with chronic disease, but should be considered the actual cause of the majority of human illness.Individuals know that exercise is necessary and beneficial. Nevertheless almost 75% of the actual population does not reach the estimated minimum of necessary activity. Physical inactivity belongs to the characteristics of sickness behaviour; the latter which probably is protective for the organism. Sickness behaviour, including depressive mood, seems to protect against infection, injury, social conflict and facilitates energy conservation. Sickness behaviour is based on immune-brain mechanisms and can be defined as non-permissive behaviour. Long-term non-permissive behaviour can lead to chronic disease because of reduction of physical activity and self-defeating coping styles, converting non-permissive behaviour in a non-permissive brain disorder. We propose that physical inactivity disease is synonymous for a non-permissive brain disorder and that NPBD produces a so called "reptile phenotype", characterized by hypothermia, poor hair growth, decreased fertility and low basal metabolic rate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ward B.,National University of Ireland | Fristedt T.,Swedish Defence Research Agency | Callaghan A.H.,University of California at San Diego | Sutherland G.,National University of Ireland | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology | Year: 2014

The upper few meters of the ocean form a critical layer for air-sea interaction, but because of observational challenges this region is undersampled. However, the physical processes controlling momentum transfer, gas exchange, and heat transfer are all concentrated in the uppermost region of the ocean. To study this region, the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP) was developed. This is an autonomous microstructure vertical profiling instrument that provides data from a maximum depth of 100m to the ocean surface and allows measurements to be performed in an undisturbed environment. The core sensor package on ASIP includes shear probes, microstructure and CTD-quality temperature and conductivity sensors, a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensor, and an oxygen optode providing a repeated high-resolution dataset immediately below the air-sea interface. Autonomous profiling is accomplished with thrusters that submerge the positively buoyant instrument. Once the desired depth is reached, ASIP ascends through the water column acquiring data. At the surface, ASIP acquires its position and transmits this over the Iridium satellite network. ASIP is then placed in a low-power mode for a specified period, whereupon it repeats the profile cycle. Two-way communication over the Iridium network allows mission parameters to be changed in real time. ASIP has been used to study several scientific questions, such as the impact of diurnal warming on atmospheric processes, turbulence scaling in the upper ocean, parameterizing air-sea gas exchange, salinity gradients in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL), and consequences for remote sensing. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source

Mhadhbi M.,University of Sfax | Khitouni M.,University of Sfax | Escoda L.,University of Gerona | Sunol J.J.,University of Gerona
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2010

A nanostructured disordered Fe(Al) solid solution was obtained by mechanical alloying (MA) for 20 h in a high-energy planetary ball-mill. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring in the studied material during MA and during subsequent heat treatments were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The recovery and the recrystallization of this compound are occurred due to the ordered nature of the grain boundaries after annealing at temperature ranging from 250 and 650 °C. The evolution of the thermal behaviour of the milled and heated powders was examined by differential scanning and calorimetry. We have shown that the occurrence of Fe2Al 5 Fe4Al13and Fe3Al nanocrystalline phases at elevated temperature. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

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