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Maul E.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Topfer R.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Carka F.,Agricultural University of Tirana | Cornea V.,Research and Practical Institute for Horticulture and Food Technologies | And 32 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2015

The Near East and the Caucasus regions are considered as gene and domestication centre for grapevine. In an earlier project "Conservation and Sustainable Use of Grapevine Genetic Resources in the Caucasus and Northern Black Sea Region" (2003-2007) it turned out that 2,654 accessions from autochthonous cultivars maintained by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine in ten grapevine collections may belong to 1,283 cultivars. But trueness to type assessment by morphology and genetic fingerprinting still needed to be done. In COST Action FA1003 a first step in that direction was initiated. The following countries participated: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Latvia, Moldova, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine. Mainly Vitis vinifera accessions (1098 samples) and 76 Vitis sylvestris individuals were analyzed by nine SSR-markers (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, VVMD25, VVMD27, VVMD28, VVMD32, VrZag62, VrZag79). Cultivar identity confirmation/rejection was attempted for 306 genotypes/cultivars by comparison of the generated genetic profiles with international SSR-marker databases and ampelographic studies. The outcome proved unambiguously the necessity of morphologic description and photos (a) for comparison with bibliography, (b) for a clear and explicit definition of the cultivar and (c) the detection of sampling errors and misnomers. From the 1,098 analyzed accessions, 997 turned out to be indigenous to the participating countries. The remaining 101 accessions were Western European cultivars. The 997 fingerprints of indigenous accessions resulted in 658 unique profiles/cultivars. From these 353 (54 %) are only maintained in the countries of origin and 300 (46 %) unique genotypes exist only once in the Eastern European collections. For these 300 genotypes duplicate preservation needs to be initiated. In addition, the high ratio of non redundant genetic material of Eastern European origin suggests an immense unexplored diversity. Documentation of the entire information in the European Vitis Database will assist both germplasm maintenance and documentation of cultivar specific data.

Karmin M.,Estonian Biocentre | Karmin M.,University of Tartu | Saag L.,Estonian Biocentre | Saag L.,University of Tartu | And 122 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2015

It is commonly thought that human genetic diversity in non-African populations was shaped primarily by an out-of-Africa dispersal 50-100 thousand yr ago (kya). Here, we present a study of 456 geographically diverse high-coverage Y chromosome sequences, including 299 newly reported samples. Applying ancient DNA calibration, we date the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in Africa at 254 (95% CI 192-307) kya and detect a cluster of major non-African founder haplogroups in a narrow time interval at 47-52 kya, consistent with a rapid initial colonization model of Eurasia and Oceania after the out-of-Africa bottleneck. In contrast to demographic reconstructions based on mtDNA, we infer a second strong bottleneck in Y-chromosome lineages dating to the last 10 ky. We hypothesize that this bottleneck is caused by cultural changes affecting variance of reproductive success among males. © 2015 Karmin et al.

Sartelli M.,Macerata Hospital | Weber D.G.,Royal Perth Hospital | Ruppe E.,University of Geneva | Bassetti M.,University of Santa María in Ecuador | And 166 more authors.
World Journal of Emergency Surgery | Year: 2016

Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs. © 2016 The Author(s).

Bassi F.M.,North Dakota State University | Bassi F.M.,International Center for the Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Ghavami F.,North Dakota State University | Ghavami F.,Eurofins | And 12 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2016

The nuclear-encoded species cytoplasm specific (scs) genes control nuclear–cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat (genus Triticum). Alloplasmic cells, which have nucleus and cytoplasm derived from different species, produce vigorous and vital organisms only when the correct version of scs is present in their nucleus. In this study, bulks of in vivo radiation hybrids segregating for the scs phenotype have been genotyped by sequencing with over 1.9 million markers. The high marker saturation obtained for a critical region of chromosome 1D allowed identification of 3318 reads that mapped in close proximity of the scs. A novel in silico approach was deployed to extend these short reads to sequences of up to 70 Kb in length and identify candidate open reading frames (ORFs). Markers were developed to anchor the short contigs containing ORFs to a radiation hybrid map of 650 individuals with resolution of 288 Kb. The region containing the scs locus was narrowed to a single Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) contig of Aegilops tauschii. Its sequencing and assembly by nano-mapping allowed rapid identification of a rhomboid gene as the only ORF existing within the refined scs locus. Resequencing of this gene from multiple germplasm sources identified a single nucleotide mutation, which gives rise to a functional amino acid change. Gene expression characterization revealed that an active copy of this rhomboid exists on all homoeologous chromosomes of wheat, and depending on the specific cytoplasm each copy is preferentially expressed. Therefore, a new methodology was applied to unique genetic stocks to rapidly identify a strong candidate gene for the control of nuclear–cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat. © 2016 The Authors.

Sartelli M.,Macerata Hospital | Moore F.A.,University of Florida | Ansaloni L.,Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital | Di Saverio S.,Maggiore Hospital | And 64 more authors.
World Journal of Emergency Surgery | Year: 2015

Computed tomography (CT) imaging is the most appropriate diagnostic tool to confirm suspected left colonic diverticulitis. However, the utility of CT imaging goes beyond accurate diagnosis of diverticulitis; the grade of severity on CT imaging may drive treatment planning of patients presenting with acute diverticulitis. The appropriate management of left colon acute diverticulitis remains still debated because of the vast spectrum of clinical presentations and different approaches to treatment proposed. The authors present a new simple classification system based on both CT scan results driving decisions making management of acute diverticulitis that may be universally accepted for day to day practice. © 2015 Sartelli et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Gagua T.,MedicalUniversity Aieti | Besarion T.,The University of Georgia
Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecologia | Year: 2013

Objective: The study aimed to measure the effect of primary dysmenorrhea on the quality of life of female adolescents living in Tbilisi, Georgia, and to compare Quality of Life (QoL) with healthy controls. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study of 424 women aged 14-20, living in Tbilisi, Georgia, coming from academic and research institutions. The women were divided into those suffering dysmenorrhea (exposure group) and those without pain (control group). Reproductive history, demographic features, menstrual pattern, severity of dysmenorrhea and quality of life using the generic instrument EQ-5D, were measured. The Independent T student test was used for group comparison. Results: The group with dysmenorrhea (276) showed a lower Quality of Life score of 0.69 ± 0.20 vs. 0.94 ± 0.10 in the control group (p = 0.000); the Quality of Life VAS was also lower at 74.38 ± 17.83 vs. 87.02 ± 12.03 (p = 0.000). Of the subjetcs with primary dismenorrhea, 56.6% reported school absenteeism due to pain. Conclusion: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common problem in the adolescent population of Tbilisi, Georgia. The results of this study demonstrate that adolescents with primary dysmenorrhea in Georgia experience significantly lower physical and psychosocial health-related QoL than their healthy peers.

Hierro J.L.,CONICET | Khetsuriani L.,The University of Georgia | Andonian K.,De Anza College | Eren O.,Adnan Menderes University | And 4 more authors.
Ecography | Year: 2016

How variation in factors controlling species abundance and distribution between native and non-native ranges compares to that within ranges remains poorly understood. We used a globally distributed ruderal, Centaurea solstitialis (Centaurea), to explore the possibility that the importance of those factors exhibits great variation between and within ranges. To test our hypothesis, we established seed addition experiments with soil disturbance (turnover and control) and biocide (fungicides, insecticide, and control) treatments in two regions within native (the Caucasus and south-western Turkey) and non-native (the western United States - US - and central Argentina) distributions. Also, we estimated the rate of vegetation recovery after disturbance (resilience) and related it to Centaurea density in experimental plots. Disturbance strongly increased Centaurea density in all regions. Density was similar between the native Caucasus and non-native Argentina and much greater in those regions than in the native Turkey and non-native US in biocide-free plots. Fungicides had positive effects on density in the US and negative ones in the Caucasus and Argentina, resulting in no differences between those three regions and greater density in the US than Turkey. Insecticide applications promoted Centaurea density in Turkey and Argentina, but inter-regional comparisons of density in treated plots were comparable to those in biocide-free plots. Overall, plants were smaller and less fecund in Turkey than the other regions, except the US. The greatest fungal attack was documented in Turkey, and herbivory was stronger there and in Argentina than in the Caucasus and US. The resilience of the local community explained a large proportion of variation in Centaurea density. These results support our hypothesis, and reveal that the speed at which competition is re-gained after disturbance may influence global variation in Centaurea abundance. Because many ruderals exhibit native and non-native distributions, our results are likely to be generalized to other systems. © 2016 Nordic Society Oikos.

Gavardashvili G.V.,The University of Georgia | Iremashvili I.R.,Environmental Protection Ecocenter
Vulnerability, Uncertainty, and Risk: Quantification, Mitigation, and Management - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management, ICVRAM 2014 and the 6th International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, ISUMA 2014 | Year: 2014

In order to evaluate the risk factor of population safety in the transport corridor of Georgian military roads, field expeditions and monitoring research were implemented in 2000-2012. On the basis of the conducted research, vulnerability was established in sectors of mountain landscape and the transport corridor, impacting on populated sectors. Population safety and the risk of car accidents on sectors of military roads during the formation of natural disaster phenomena have been estimated by the use of the reliability and risk theory. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Kipiani M.,The University of Georgia | Mirtskhulava V.,The University of Georgia | Tukvadze N.,The University of Georgia | Magee M.,Georgia State University | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background. There are limited data on the clinical impact of rapid diagnostic tests to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We sought to determine whether the use of a molecular diagnostic test to detect MDR-TB improves clinical outcomes. Methods. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to analyze the impact of the Genotype MTBDRplus assay on clinical outcomes among patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary MDR-TB. Patients received treatment at the National Center for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Tbilisi, Georgia. Time to MDR-TB treatment initiation, culture conversion, and infection control measures were compared to a time period prior to the implementation of the molecular test. Results. Of 152 MDR-TB patients, 72 (47%) were from prior to and 80 (53%) following implementation of the MTBDRplus assay ("post-implementation group"). Patients in the post-implementation group initiated a secondline treatment regimen more rapidly than those in the pre-implementation group (18.2 vs 83.9 days, P<.01). Among patients admitted to a "drug-susceptible" tuberculosis ward, those from the post-implementation group spent significantly fewer days on the drug-susceptible ward compared to patients in the pre-implementation group (10.0 vs 58.3 days, P<.01). Among patients with 24 weeks follow-up (n = 119), those in the post-implementation group had a higher rate of culture conversion at 24 weeks (86% vs 63%, P <.01) and a more rapid rate of time to culture conversion (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 4.15, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-6.9). Conclusions. The implementation of a rapid molecular diagnostic test led to significant clinical improvements including reduced time to initiation of MDR-TB treatment, culture conversion, and improved infection control practices. © The Author 2014.

Paulson W.D.,Charlie Norwood Medical Center | Paulson W.D.,University of Georgia | Kipshidze N.,The University of Georgia | DeVita M.V.,New Hill | And 2 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2012

Background. Neointimal hyperplasia causes a high rate of hemodialysis synthetic graft failure. Thus, therapies that inhibit neointimal hyperplasia are urgently needed. The Coll-R is a sirolimus-eluting collagen matrix designed for intra-operative perivascular implantation around the graftvenous anastomosis. Sirolimus is an anti-proliferative drug that has proven clinical utility in suppressing neointimal tissue growth in coronary artery disease when delivered locally to the vascular wall by an endovascular drug eluting stent. Methods. A cohort of 12 chronic hemodialysis patients underwent surgical placement of 13 polytetrafluoroethylene grafts 1 Coll-R and were followed for up to 24 months. The primary endpoint was safety (freedom from device related adverse events). Secondary endpoints were pharmacokineticsof sirolimus release, success of Coll-R implantation and primary unassisted graft patency. Results. There were no technical failures, infections, vascular anastomotic or wound-healing problems. Whole blood sirolimus levels rose to a mean peak of 4.8 ng/mL at 6 h and fell to <1 ng/mL at 1 week (n = 5). Twelve and 24-month primary unassisted patencies were 76 and 38%, respectively, and the thrombosis rate was 0.37/patient-year. Conclusions. Perivascular implantation of the Coll-R during graft surgery safely delivered sirolimus to the vascular wall. Systemic sirolimus levels were sub-therapeutic for immunosuppression. This small first-in-human study supports the concept that the Coll-R can safely deliver sirolimus to the graft-venous anastomosis. Safety and patency in this small study were sufficiently encouraging to justify randomized controlled trials to further test the efficacy of the Coll-R. © 2011 The Author.

Sartelli M.,Macerata Hospital | Abu-Zidan F.M.,United Arab Emirates University | Catena F.,Maggiore Hospital | Griffiths E.A.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital | And 137 more authors.
World Journal of Emergency Surgery | Year: 2015

Background: To validate a new practical Sepsis Severity Score for patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) including the clinical conditions at the admission (severe sepsis/septic shock), the origin of the cIAIs, the delay in source control, the setting of acquisition and any risk factors such as age and immunosuppression. Methods: The WISS study (WSES cIAIs Score Study) is a multicenter observational study underwent in 132 medical institutions worldwide during a four-month study period (October 2014-February 2015). Four thousand five hundred thirty-three patients with a mean age of 51.2years (range 18-99) were enrolled in the WISS study. Results: Univariate analysis has shown that all factors that were previously included in the WSES Sepsis Severity Score were highly statistically significant between those who died and those who survived (p < 0.0001). The multivariate logistic regression model was highly significant (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.54) and showed that all these factors were independent in predicting mortality of sepsis. Receiver Operator Curve has shown that the WSES Severity Sepsis Score had an excellent prediction for mortality. A score above 5.5 was the best predictor of mortality having a sensitivity of 89.2%, a specificity of 83.5% and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.4. Conclusions: WSES Sepsis Severity Score for patients with complicated Intra-abdominal infections can be used on global level. It has shown high sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio that may help us in making clinical decisions. © 2015 Sartelli et al.

Brotons C.,Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau | Bulc M.,Community Health Center Ljubljana | da Silva Martins C.M.,Portuguese Association of General Practitioners | Bjorkelund C.,Gothenburg University | And 17 more authors.
Family Practice | Year: 2012

Background: For preventive interventions in general practice to succeed, patients' points of view must be taken into account in addition to those of GPs. Objective: To explore patients' views and beliefs about the importance of lifestyle and preventive interventions, to assess their readiness to make changes to their lifestyle and their willingness to receive support from GPs. Methods: Cross-sectional survey conducted by EUROPREV in primary care practices in 22 European countries. Patients were consecutively selected and interviewed from September 2008 to September 2009. Results: Seven thousand nine hundred and forty-seven participants, 52.2% females. Only 30.5% of risky drinkers think they need to change, as opposed to 64% of smokers, 73.5% of patients with unhealthy eating habits and 73% with lack of physical activity. Risky drinkers reported that GPs initiated a discussion on alcohol consumption less often (42%) than on smoking (63%), eating habits (59%) or physical activity (55%). Seventy-five per cent, 66% and 63% of patients without hypertension, diabetes or hypercholesterolaemia, respectively, think blood pressure, blood sugar and serum cholesterol should be checked yearly. Women (80%) think they should be screened with the cervical smear test and 72.8% of women aged 30-49 years with mammography, yearly or every 2 years. Conclusions: A high proportion of patients attending primary care with unhealthy lifestyles (especially risky drinkers) do not perceive the need to change their habits, and about half the patients reported not having had any discussion on healthy lifestyles with their GPs. Patients overestimate their need to be screened for cardiovascular risk factors and for cancer. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Tirana, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Kuban State Medical University, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan and 39 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2016

High-coverage whole-genome sequence studies have so far focused on a limited number of geographically restricted populations, or been targeted at specific diseases, such as cancer. Nevertheless, the availability of high-resolution genomic data has led to the development of new methodologies for inferring population history and refuelled the debate on the mutation rate in humans. Here we present the Estonian Biocentre Human Genome Diversity Panel (EGDP), a dataset of 483 high-coverage human genomes from 148 populations worldwide, including 379 new genomes from 125 populations, which we group into diversity and selection sets. We analyse this dataset to refine estimates of continent-wide patterns of heterozygosity, long- and short-distance gene flow, archaic admixture, and changes in effective population size through time as well as for signals of positive or balancing selection. We find a genetic signature in present-day Papuans that suggests that at least 2% of their genome originates from an early and largely extinct expansion of anatomically modern humans (AMHs) out of Africa. Together with evidence from the western Asian fossil record, and admixture between AMHs and Neanderthals predating the main Eurasian expansion, our results contribute to the mounting evidence for the presence of AMHs out of Africa earlier than 75,000 years ago.

PubMed | University of Newcastle, Infectologia Institucional SRL, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Thammasat University and 149 more.
Type: | Journal: World journal of emergency surgery : WJES | Year: 2016

Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the worlds leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.

PubMed | The University of Georgia and Tbilisi State Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International surgery | Year: 2015

The aim of our study is to compare the results of emergency surgery versus conservative treatment with interval surgery in patients diagnosed with appendiceal mass and abscess. A retrospective review of 48 patients with appendiceal mass and abscess treated from January 2002 to January 2013 at General Surgery Department of Kipshidze Central University Hospital was performed. Patients with emergency surgery were compared to patients treated by nonoperative management with interval surgery. Demographics, clinical profile, and operative outcomes were studied. The emergency surgery group included 25 patients, and the interval surgery group included 23 patients. The clinical characteristics of the emergency surgery and interval surgery groups were not statistically different. In the emergency surgery group, an open appendectomy was performed on 17 patients, and colonic resections (ileocecectomy or right hemicolectomy) were performed on 8 patients. In the interval surgery group, an open appendectomy was performed on 21 patients, and colonic resections were performed on 2 patients. There were no statistical differences in types of surgery, postoperative complications, operation time without colonic resections, and postoperative hospitalization period among these 2 groups. Operation time with colonic resections was of greater duration in the emergency surgery group than in the interval surgery group (P = 0.04). Both treatment methods for appendiceal mass and abscess have the same results. The surgeon must consider clinical symptoms and results of investigations in each particular case when choosing an appropriate treatment method. Prospective randomized controlled trials are required for comparing the results of all 3 treatment methods of appendiceal mass.

Bogdanov F.G.,Georgian Technical University | Kevanishvili G.Sh.,Georgian Technical University | Kekelia G.V.,The University of Georgia
DIPED-2010 - 15th International Seminar/Workshop on Direct and Inverse Problems of Electromagnetic and Acoustic Wave Theory, Proceedings | Year: 2010

A rigorous electromagnetic theory is suggested to analyze characteristics of four- and multi-port waveguide junctions with a number of resonance regions. The numerical results are presented to provide the validity of the obtained solution and demonstrate the electrodynamic properties of analysed geometries.

Margiani N.G.,Georgian Technical University | Mumladze G.A.,Georgian Technical University | Papunashvili N.A.,Georgian Technical University | Adamia Z.A.,The University of Georgia | Dzanashvili D.I.,Tbilisi State University
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism | Year: 2014

(Bi,Pb)-2223 HTSs (high temperature superconductors) were synthesized from nominally pure (reference) and BN-added Bi1.7Pb0.3Ca 2Sr2Cu3O y (BN) x precursors (x=0,0.10,0.15, and 0.20) by the solid state reaction method using alumina crucibles. The influence of boron nitride addition on the phase formation kinetics and transport properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTSs was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistivity and critical current density measurements. BN-added compounds reveal a significant enhancement in both the high-T c 2223 phase formation and critical current density compared to the reference specimen. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Areshidze G.,The University of Georgia | Barbakadze K.,The University of Georgia | Brostow W.,University of North Texas | Datashvili T.,University of North Texas | And 5 more authors.
Medziagotyra | Year: 2010

A novel method of isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three Georgian petroleum fields has been developed. PAHs are classified as carcinogenic compounds and monitored worldwide in a wide range of environments including drinking water, waste water, furnace emissions, soil, hazardous waste extracts and in air over major cities. Our method is a combination of photo-chemical condensation of petroleum PAHs via reaction with maleic anhydride, followed by photodecomposition of resulting photo-adducts. Extraction with gas-liquid chromatography constitutes a final step for isolating narrow fractions of phenanthrene, naphthalene and benzene. Gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, chromato-mass spectrometry and spectrofluorimetry were used to analyze individual compounds. Our method of isolation of PAHs can be successfully used for crude petroleum, petroleum fractions and for petroleumderived materials-in spite of differences in their compositions.

Kandelaki G.,The University of Georgia | Kandelaki G.,National Center for Disease Control and Public Health | Malania L.,National Center for Disease Control and Public Health | Bai Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 6 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Lymphadenopathy and fever that developed in a woman in Tbilisi, Georgia, most likely were caused by a ratborne Bartonella strain related B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae. The finding suggests that this Bartonella strain could be spread y infected rats and represents a potential human risk. © 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

Bogdanov F.G.,Georgian Technical University | Kevanishvili G.S.,Georgian Technical University | Kekelia G.V.,The University of Georgia | Prosvirnin S.L.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a rigorous theory of the H-plane four-port (cruciform) waveguide junction with a conducting diaphragm and a dielectric layer in the main (input) waveguide arm. This theory is based on the mode matching method in conjunction with Fourier transform technique and including the edge conditions in vicinity of the diaphragm edges. The numerical analysis of the cruciform waveguide junction is done, and optimal parameters of inclusions are predicted based on the minima of voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) in the main arm.

Rustioni L.,University of Milan | Maghradze D.,The University of Georgia | Popescu C.F.,University of Bucharest | Cola G.,University of Milan | And 40 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2014

A standard protocol for phenotyping structural and compositional aspects of the grape berry has been adopted by 18 East and West European germplasm collections during one season by testing a total of 469 accessions, including reference cultivars as well as local and minor germplasm accessions of specific interest. The protocol consists in the collection of triplicates for 26 phenotypic traits, from biological samples, each formed by 10 berries collected from 9 representative bunches from every analyzed accessions. The protocol concatenates the data from measurements and acquisitions, with the objective to generate new derived variables, which are expressed with different units (%; content per kg of grapes, per berry, per g of tissue). For each variable, the Least Significant Differences (LSD), to contrast a pair of single accession mean values, and the Confidence Intervals (CI), to estimate each single accession mean value, were computed. The application of the protocol revealed satisfactory results with high accuracy and efficiency in estimation of phenotypic traits of each accession. The whole data set will be useful for researchers, breeders and viticulturists in yield evaluation of grapevine cultivars, as well as in comparative analyses of environment-variety interaction.

Margottini C.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Antidze N.,National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia | Corominas J.,University of Barcelona | Crosta G.B.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 11 more authors.
Landslides | Year: 2015

This paper reports preliminary results of a feasibility project developed in cooperation with National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia, and aimed at envisaging the stability conditions of the Vardzia monastery slope (rupestrian city cave in the south-western Georgia). The aim is the implementation of a low-impact monitoring system together with long-term mitigation/conservation policies. A field analysis was conducted to reconstruct geometry of the rocky cliff, characteristics of discontinuities, main failure modes, and volume of potential unstable blocks and geomechanical parameters. Instability processes are the combination of causative factors such as the following: lithology, frequency and orientation of discontinuities, slope orientation, physical and mechanical characteristics of slope-forming materials, and morphological and hydrological boundary conditions. The combined adoption of different survey techniques (e.g., 3D laser scanner, ground-based radar interferometry) could be the best solution in the interdisciplinary field of cultural heritage preservation policies. The collected data will be the basis for future activities to be completed in collaboration with local authorities for a complete hazard and risk characterization for the monastery site and the development of an early warning system to allow safe exploitation for touristic activities and for historical site preservation. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Gabriadze G.,Tbilisi State University | Bodganov F.,Georgian Technical University | Tsereteli P.,The University of Georgia | Jobava R.,EMCoS Ltd. | Tskhovrebashvili V.,EMCoS Ltd.
Proceedings of International Seminar/Workshop on Direct and Inverse Problems of Electromagnetic and Acoustic Wave Theory, DIPED | Year: 2014

This paper describes the application of ACA (Adaptive Cross Approximation) algorithm for acceleration of MoM solution of large scale radiation problems. System of linear equations is solved using iterative solution and ACA is used to reduce required memory for matrix storage and speed up matrix-vector-product operation. To demonstrate applicability and performance of described technique, two numerical experiments are presented: a) calculation of radiation pattern of Magellan spacecraft high gain reflector antenna operating at 3GHz and b) calculation of radiation pattern of Wi-Fi antenna mounted on the roof of the vehicle, operating at 5.9GHz frequency. We show that ACA calculation is much faster than direct solution, while accuracy is quite acceptable. © 2014 IEEE.

News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Athens, Ga. - The University of Georgia's Ping Ma will use a new grant to crunch big data numbers, not uncommon for a statistics professor. What is unusual is that his work may help save lives. Ma has been awarded $1.3 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health to develop statistical tools to further clarify the causes of many diseases--including cancer, heart disease and aging-related illnesses. Over four years, Ma and his team of researchers will look at something known as small RNAs, hoping to unravel their regulatory role on abnormal variations in genetic transcription. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is present in all living cells and is incredibly important in the human body. Small RNA primarily acts as a messenger for DNA and regulates various biological processes. Ma, a professor in UGA's Franklin College of Arts and Sciences department of statistics and lead investigator on the project, will work to analyze big data sets that contain biomedical information on various diseases and create smart algorithms. His goal is to allow researchers to accurately analyze large sets of data without the need for expensive supercomputers. "Multiple interconnected research programs for tackling the challenge of big data have been actively pursued by my lab," he said. "An example of exciting progress, achieved through a collaborative project, is our finding that by sampling very small representative sub-data sets using smart algorithms, one can effectively extract almost all of the relevant information contained in the original vast data sets." Using these statistical methods allows biomedical researchers who may not have direct access to supercomputers to analyze biomedical data accurately and scale outcomes to larger data sets. The results of developing useful statistical methods for analysis, he said, means that biomedical researchers can use their desktop computers, iPads and smartphones to analyze data. "The advent of new biotechnologies has great potential to view the gene expression at unprecedented detail and clarity, which opens many new doors for studying the mechanisms of alternative splicing of various abnormal splicing related diseases," he said. "Given the huge volumes of data, we believe that this is an opportune time for taking an analytical approach to study small RNAs' regulatory role on alternative splicing." Recent studies have indicated that over 95 percent of human genes undergo alternative splicing. Aberrant splicing of pre-mRNAs can cause various human diseases. "Small RNAs regulate alternative splicing," he said, "and enhanced understanding of the regulation of alternative splicing is crucial for finding therapeutic targets and providing better treatment." Small RNAs, including microRNAs and short interfering RNAs, regulate gene expression through complementary base pairing with target RNAs. Together with their protein partners, small RNAs have been implicated in multiple aspects of gene functions. Very recently, siRNAs have also been implicated in alternative splicing processes in human cells, but the global regulatory role of small non-coding RNA on alternative splicing remains elusive. Advances in biomedical sciences and technologies in the past decade have created an extraordinary amount of biomedical data that was inaccessible just a decade ago and offers biomedical researchers an unprecedented opportunity to tackle much larger and more complex research challenges. The opportunity has not yet been fully realized because effective and efficient statistical and computing tools for analyzing super-large data sets are still lacking. "The proposed work will establish a comprehensive statistical framework and computational strategies to investigate the global mechanisms of alternative splicing regulation by small RNAs," he said. "As a byproduct of this effort, we will also be able to provide an efficient, robust, publicly available and user-friendly software for the analysis."

Motsonelidze A.,The University of Georgia | Raoof M.,Loughborough University | Abuladze V.,Caucasus University
Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation II - Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

The presently reported FE based model for the analysis of old concrete gravity dams takes the structure's past loading history into account, with the structural influence of the following primary design factors included in the predictive model: (a) fatigue of the dam materials under slow cyclic loading corresponding to its performance history; (b) elastic-plastic constitutive relationship for the dam concrete, the foundation rock and the interfaces/joints in accordance with the dam loading history; and (c) crack formation and propagation in the concrete and the interfaces/joints, taking the stress degrading effects of cracked concrete into account. It has been found that: (1) the rate and extent of degradation of the concrete mechanical properties increases with the increasing numbers of drawdown/filling cycles of the reservoir; and (2) the degradation of the material properties of concrete due to the combined actions of loading/unloading cycles and ageing of concrete can still be practically significant. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

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