Geneva, Switzerland
Geneva, Switzerland

The University of Geneva is a public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland. It was founded in 1559 by John Calvin, as a theological seminary and law school. It remained focused on theology until the 17th century, when it became a center for Enlightenment scholarship. In 1873, it dropped its religious affiliations and became officially secular. Today, the university is the second-largest university in Switzerland by number of students. In 2009, the University of Geneva celebrated the 450th anniversary of its founding.UNIGE has programs in various fields but has academic and research programs in international relations , law, astrophysics, astronomy, genetics . The university holds and actively pursues teaching, research, and community service as its primary objectives. In 2011, it was ranked 73rd worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, and 69th in the QS World University Rankings.UNIGE is a member of the League of European Research Universities, the Coimbra Group and the European University Association. Wikipedia.


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This invention concerns the field of sample identification, in particular a method and apparatuses for identifying or discriminating biological species from non biological species, both as individual particles and as components of a composition, by pump-probe fluorescence spectroscopy for time-resolved detection or imaging. The method uses the finding that the UV-induced fluorescence of biological molecules is varied, in particular is depleted, by the addition of visible radiation, whereas this does not occur with non-biological organic molecules. The invention discriminates the fluorescence signals of bio and non-bio particles or species using a differential approach, i.e. the comparison. of the total fluorescence recorded with and without additional visible radiation. This allows to discriminate biological particles comprising aromatic amino-acids (AA), like peptides, proteins, bacteria, viruses, pollens, spores, etc., from non-biological particles, like aromatic (AH) or polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbonaceous aerosols, soot, etc.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-04-2016 | Award Amount: 10.77M | Year: 2017

Our main objective is to identify determinants of brain, cognitive and mental health at different stages of life. By integration, harmonisation and enrichment of major European neuroimaging studies of age differences and changes, we will obtain an unparalleled database of fine-grained brain, cognitive and mental health measures of more than 6.000 individuals. Longitudinal brain imaging, genetic and health data are available for a major part, as well as cognitive/mental health measures for extensively broader cohorts, exceeding 40.000 examinations in total. By linking these data, also to additional databases and biobanks, including birth registries, national and regional archives, and by enriching them with new online data collection and novel measures, we will address risk and protective factors of brain, cognitive and mental health throughout the lifespan. We will identify the pathways through which risk and protective factors work and their moderators. Through exploitation of, and synergies with, existing European infrastructures and initiatives, this approach of integrating, harmonising and enriching brain imaging datasets will make major conceptual, methodological and analytical contributions towards large integrative cohorts and their efficient exploitation. We will thus provide novel information on brain, cognitive and mental health maintenance, onset and course of brain, cognitive and mental disorders, and lay a foundation for earlier diagnosis of brain disorders, aberrant development and decline of brain, cognitive and mental health, as well as future preventive and therapeutic strategies. Working with stakeholders and health authorities, the project will provide the evidence base for policy strategies for prevention and intervention, improving clinical practice and public health policy for brain, cognitive and mental health. This project is realized by a close collaboration of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) and major European brain research centres


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-01-2016 | Award Amount: 16.02M | Year: 2017

The SYSCID consortium aims to develop a systems medicine approach for disease prediction in CID. We will focus on three major CID indications with distinct characteristics, yet a large overlap of their molecular risk map: inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematodes and rheumatoid arthritis. We have joined 15 partners from major cohorts and initiatives in Europe (e.g.IHEC, ICGC, TwinsUK and Meta-HIT) to investigate human data sets on three major levels of resolution: whole blood signatures, signatures from purified immune cell types (with a focus on CD14 and CD4/CD8) and selected single cell level analyses. Principle data layers will comprise SNP variome, methylome, transcriptome and gut microbiome. SYSCID employs a dedicated data management infrastructure, strong algorithmic development groups (including an SME for exploitation of innovative software tools for data deconvolution) and will validate results in independent retrospective and prospective clinical cohorts. Using this setup we will focus on three fundamental aims : (i) the identification of shared and unique core disease signatures which are associated with the disease state and independent of temporal variation, (ii) the generation of predictive models of disease outcome- builds on previous work that pathways/biomarkers for disease outcome are distinct from initial disease risk and may be shared across diseases to guide therapy decisions on an individual patient basis, (iii) reprogramming disease - will identify and target temporally stable epigenetic alterations in macrophages and lymphocytes in epigenome editing approaches as biological validation and potential novel therapeutic tool. Thus, SYSCID will foster the development of solid biomarkers and models as stratification in future long-term systems medicine clinical trials but also investigate new causative therapies by editing the epigenome code in specific immune cells, e.g. to alleviate macrophage polarization defects.


Rochaix J.-D.,University of Geneva
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Photosynthetic organisms are continuously subjected to changes in light quantity and quality, and must adjust their photosynthetic machinery so that it maintains optimal performance under limiting light and minimizes photodamage under excess light. To achieve this goal, these organisms use two main strategies in which light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), the light-harvesting system of photosystem II (PSII), plays a key role both for the collection of light energy and for photoprotection. The first is energy-dependent nonphotochemical quenching, whereby the high-light-induced proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane triggers a process in which excess excitation energy is harmlessly dissipated as heat. The second involves a redistribution of the mobile LHCII between the two photosystems in response to changes in the redox poise of the electron transport chain sensed through a signaling chain. These two processes strongly diminish the production of damaging reactive oxygen species, but photodamage of PSII is unavoidable, and it is repaired efficiently. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.


Wehrle-Haller B.,University of Geneva
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Integrin-dependent cell adhesions come in different shapes and serve in different cell types for tasks ranging from cell-adhesion, migration, and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix to the formation and stabilization of immunological and chemical synapses. A major challenge consists in the identification of adhesion-specific as well as common regulatory mechanisms, motivating the need for a deeper analysis of protein-protein interactions in the context of intact focal adhesions. Specifically, it is critical to understand how small differences in binding of integrins to extracellular ligands and/or cytoplasmic adapter proteins affect the assembly and function of an entire focal adhesion. By using the talin-integrin pair as a starting point, I would like to discuss how specific protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions can control the behavior and function of focal adhesions. By responding to chemical and mechanical cues several allosterically regulated proteins create a dynamic multifunctional protein network that provides both adhesion to the extracellular matrix as well as intracellular signaling in response to mechanical changes in the cellular environment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Wehrle-Haller B.,University of Geneva
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2012

The formation of tissues and organs requires cells to adhere to each other and/or to migrate and polarize in contact with components of the extracellular matrix. The connection between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular environment is provided by heterodimeric transmembrane receptors of the integrin family. In response to extracellular ligand binding, integrins undergo a conformational switch that permits the recruitment of cytoplasmic adapter proteins, eventually linking the integrin receptors to the actin cytoskeleton, progressively forming highly complex cell-matrix adhesions. A major challenge in the field consists in identifying the regulatory mechanisms, which drive the assembly of cell-matrix adhesions as they are based on posttranslational modifications as well as allosteric conformational changes caused by protein-protein as well as protein-lipid interactions. In response to mechanical tension, generated either by intra-cellular acto-myosin contraction, shear stress or mechanical strain on the extracellular scaffold, the composition and signaling of cell-matrix adhesion changes, leading either to increased anchorage or controlled disassembly of cell matrix adhesions, both processes critically involved in cell migration. The aim of this review is to provide insight into the mechanisms leading to the progressive assembly of focal adhesions, how they are modulated in response to mechanical challenges and which mechanisms are used for their disassembly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Chiaradia M.,University of Geneva
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2014

Porphyry copper systems supply about 75% of the world's copper. They form above subduction zones and are preferentially associated with calc-alkaline magmas. Such magmas result from continuous iron depletion during differentiation, in contrast to tholeiitic magmas that show initial iron enrichment during differentiation. The formation of calc-alkaline magmas is favoured by high water content and oxygen fugacity. These characteristics, as well as magmatic metal contents, are thought to be imparted in the mantle source by fluids of the subducted slab. Yet this process does not explain why porphyry copper systems preferentially occur in thicker arcs. Here I present a statistical assessment of more than 40,000 published geochemical analyses of magmatic rocks from 23 Quaternary-aged volcanic arcs worldwide. I find that magmas of thicker arcs are systematically more calc-alkaline and more depleted in copper than magmas of thinner arcs. This implies that the missing copper in the former accumulates as copper sulphides within or at the base of thicker arcs. Such copper accumulations are an essential step in forming porphyry systems. These results suggest that the thickness of the overriding plate provides a more important control on magma differentiation than the composition of the mantle source, and can explain the preferential association of porphyry copper systems with calc-alkaline magmas and thicker arcs. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Rodriguez I.,University of Geneva
Cell | Year: 2013

Understanding the mechanisms of monogenic and monoallelic transcription of the large repertoire of olfactory receptor genes represents a challenging task. A picture is now emerging in which odorant receptor choice and stabilization involve an escape from silencing followed by the activation of an unconventional feedback loop. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Maeder A.,University of Geneva | Meynet G.,University of Geneva
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2012

This article first reviews the basic physics of rotating stars and their evolution. The changes of the mechanical and thermal equilibrium of rotating stars are examined. An important, predicted and observed, effect is that rotating stars are hotter at the poles and cooler at the equator. The mass loss by stellar winds, which are influenced by the anisotropic temperature distribution, is discussed. These anisotropies in the interior are also driving circulation currents, which transports the chemical elements and the angular momentum in stars. Internal differential rotation, if present, creates instabilities and mixing, in particular, the shear mixing, the horizontal turbulence and their interactions. A major check of the model predictions concerns the changes of the surface abundances, which are modified by mass loss in the very massive stars and by rotational mixing in O-type and B-type stars. The observations are shown to confirm the existence of rotational mixing, with much larger effects at lower metallicities. The predictions of stellar models concerning the evolution of the surface velocities, the evolutionary tracks in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and lifetimes, the populations of blue, red supergiants and Wolf-Rayet stars, and the progenitors of type Ibc supernovae are discussed. In many aspects, rotating models are shown to provide a much better fit than nonrotating ones. Using the same physical ingredients as those which fit the best observations of stars at near solar metallicities, the consequences of rotating models for the status of Be stars, the progenitors of gamma ray bursts, the evolution of Pop III stars and of very metal-poor stars, the early chemical evolution of galaxies, the origin of the C-enhanced metal poor stars and of the chemical anomalies in globular clusters are explored. Rotation together with mass loss are two key physical ingredients shaping the evolution of massive stars during the whole cosmic history. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Usmani I.,University of Geneva
Nature communications | Year: 2010

The future challenge of quantum communication is scalable quantum networks, which require coherent and reversible mapping of photonic qubits onto atomic systems (quantum memories). A crucial requirement for realistic networks is the ability to efficiently store multiple qubits in one quantum memory. In this study, we show a coherent and reversible mapping of 64 optical modes at the single-photon level in the time domain onto one solid-state ensemble of rare-earth ions. Our light-matter interface is based on a high-bandwidth (100 MHz) atomic frequency comb, with a predetermined storage time of ≳ 1 μs. We can then encode many qubits in short (<10 ns) temporal modes (time-bin qubits). We show the good coherence of mapping by simultaneously storing and analysing multiple time-bin qubits.

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