Geneva, Switzerland

University of Geneva
Geneva, Switzerland

The University of Geneva is a public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland. It was founded in 1559 by John Calvin, as a theological seminary and law school. It remained focused on theology until the 17th century, when it became a center for Enlightenment scholarship. In 1873, it dropped its religious affiliations and became officially secular. Today, the university is the second-largest university in Switzerland by number of students. In 2009, the University of Geneva celebrated the 450th anniversary of its founding.UNIGE has programs in various fields but has academic and research programs in international relations , law, astrophysics, astronomy, genetics . The university holds and actively pursues teaching, research, and community service as its primary objectives. In 2011, it was ranked 73rd worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, and 69th in the QS World University Rankings.UNIGE is a member of the League of European Research Universities, the Coimbra Group and the European University Association. Wikipedia.

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University of Geneva and Hopitaux Universitaires Of Geneva | Date: 2017-01-27

The present invention relates to new BARD1 isoforms specific to lung cancer and colorectal cancer, a method for detecting thereof and a method for treating and/or preventing lung cancer and colorectal cancer.

This invention concerns the field of sample identification, in particular a method and apparatuses for identifying or discriminating biological species from non biological species, both as individual particles and as components of a composition, by pump-probe fluorescence spectroscopy for time-resolved detection or imaging. The method uses the finding that the UV-induced fluorescence of biological molecules is varied, in particular is depleted, by the addition of visible radiation, whereas this does not occur with non-biological organic molecules. The invention discriminates the fluorescence signals of bio and non-bio particles or species using a differential approach, i.e. the comparison. of the total fluorescence recorded with and without additional visible radiation. This allows to discriminate biological particles comprising aromatic amino-acids (AA), like peptides, proteins, bacteria, viruses, pollens, spores, etc., from non-biological particles, like aromatic (AH) or polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbonaceous aerosols, soot, etc.

University of Geneva | Date: 2015-06-29

The invention relates to methods of inducing insulin production in delta-cells and/or converting delta-cells into insulin producing cells, as well as methods of preventing and/or treating diabetes and agents and compositions useful in said methods.

Paoletti P.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Bellone C.,University of Geneva | Zhou Q.,Genentech
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2013

NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels and are crucial for neuronal communication. NMDARs form tetrameric complexes that consist of several homologous subunits. The subunit composition of NMDARs is plastic, resulting in a large number of receptor subtypes. As each receptor subtype has distinct biophysical, pharmacological and signalling properties, there is great interest in determining whether individual subtypes carry out specific functions in the CNS in both normal and pathological conditions. Here, we review the effects of subunit composition on NMDAR properties, synaptic plasticity and cellular mechanisms implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the rules and roles of NMDAR diversity could provide new therapeutic strategies against dysfunctions of glutamatergic transmission. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Vutskits L.,University of Geneva | Xie Z.,Harvard University
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2016

General anaesthesia is usually considered to safely induce a reversible brain state allowing the performance of surgery under optimal conditions. An increasing number of clinical and experimental observations, however, suggest that anaesthetic drugs, especially when they are administered at the extremes of age, can trigger long-term morphological and functional alterations in the brain. Here, we review available mechanistic data linking general-anaesthesia exposure to impaired cognitive performance in both young and mature nervous systems. We also provide a critical appraisal of the translational value of animal models and highlight the important challenges that need to be addressed to strengthen the link between laboratory work and clinical investigations in the field of anaesthesia-neurotoxicity research. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.

Luscher C.,University of Geneva | Malenka R.,Stanford University
Neuron | Year: 2011

Addictive drugs have in common that they target the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system. This system originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projects mainly to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we review the effects that such drugs leave on glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission in these three brain areas. We refer to these changes as drug-evoked synaptic plasticity, which outlasts the presence of the drug in the brain and contributes to the reorganization of neural circuits. While in most cases these early changes are not sufficient to induce the disease, with repetitive drug exposure, they may add up and contribute to addictive behavior. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Rochaix J.-D.,University of Geneva
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Photosynthetic organisms are continuously subjected to changes in light quantity and quality, and must adjust their photosynthetic machinery so that it maintains optimal performance under limiting light and minimizes photodamage under excess light. To achieve this goal, these organisms use two main strategies in which light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), the light-harvesting system of photosystem II (PSII), plays a key role both for the collection of light energy and for photoprotection. The first is energy-dependent nonphotochemical quenching, whereby the high-light-induced proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane triggers a process in which excess excitation energy is harmlessly dissipated as heat. The second involves a redistribution of the mobile LHCII between the two photosystems in response to changes in the redox poise of the electron transport chain sensed through a signaling chain. These two processes strongly diminish the production of damaging reactive oxygen species, but photodamage of PSII is unavoidable, and it is repaired efficiently. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.

Wehrle-Haller B.,University of Geneva
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Integrin-dependent cell adhesions come in different shapes and serve in different cell types for tasks ranging from cell-adhesion, migration, and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix to the formation and stabilization of immunological and chemical synapses. A major challenge consists in the identification of adhesion-specific as well as common regulatory mechanisms, motivating the need for a deeper analysis of protein-protein interactions in the context of intact focal adhesions. Specifically, it is critical to understand how small differences in binding of integrins to extracellular ligands and/or cytoplasmic adapter proteins affect the assembly and function of an entire focal adhesion. By using the talin-integrin pair as a starting point, I would like to discuss how specific protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions can control the behavior and function of focal adhesions. By responding to chemical and mechanical cues several allosterically regulated proteins create a dynamic multifunctional protein network that provides both adhesion to the extracellular matrix as well as intracellular signaling in response to mechanical changes in the cellular environment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Wehrle-Haller B.,University of Geneva
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2012

The formation of tissues and organs requires cells to adhere to each other and/or to migrate and polarize in contact with components of the extracellular matrix. The connection between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular environment is provided by heterodimeric transmembrane receptors of the integrin family. In response to extracellular ligand binding, integrins undergo a conformational switch that permits the recruitment of cytoplasmic adapter proteins, eventually linking the integrin receptors to the actin cytoskeleton, progressively forming highly complex cell-matrix adhesions. A major challenge in the field consists in identifying the regulatory mechanisms, which drive the assembly of cell-matrix adhesions as they are based on posttranslational modifications as well as allosteric conformational changes caused by protein-protein as well as protein-lipid interactions. In response to mechanical tension, generated either by intra-cellular acto-myosin contraction, shear stress or mechanical strain on the extracellular scaffold, the composition and signaling of cell-matrix adhesion changes, leading either to increased anchorage or controlled disassembly of cell matrix adhesions, both processes critically involved in cell migration. The aim of this review is to provide insight into the mechanisms leading to the progressive assembly of focal adhesions, how they are modulated in response to mechanical challenges and which mechanisms are used for their disassembly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Rodriguez I.,University of Geneva
Cell | Year: 2013

Understanding the mechanisms of monogenic and monoallelic transcription of the large repertoire of olfactory receptor genes represents a challenging task. A picture is now emerging in which odorant receptor choice and stabilization involve an escape from silencing followed by the activation of an unconventional feedback loop. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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