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Al Qadarif, Sudan

The present study seeks to provide a contribution to the understanding of vegetation regrowth on abandoned agricultural land by investigating the impacts of the previous cultivation period and the duration of the fallow on the subsequent natural regeneration in terms of vegetation composition, structure and diversity. The results of the study show that both factors have significant effects on the subsequent regeneration of plant species and thus the vegetation development in the southern Gadarif Region, Sudan. The oldest abandoned farmlands were recolonized by tree/shrub species, whereas recently abandoned ones are covered with herbaceous vegetation. There is a general tendency regarding the number of species to decrease with an increase in the period of cultivation. The plant species diversity pattern shows domination of herbaceous species with some scattered woody species. Vegetation changes due to land abandonment may have implications for the conservation of plant species diversity and composition of fauna harboured in the region. Although natural regeneration could be recommended as means of restoring natural vegetation that previously dominated that region, the current regeneration capacity might not be sufficient to reach the climax vegetation except for some pockets, which received more regenerative resources. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Abdalla K.O.,University of Cape Town | Abdalla K.O.,University of Gadarif | Rafudeen M.S.,University of Cape Town
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2012

Xerophyta viscosa Baker (family Velloziaceae) is a desiccation tolerant plant which survives extremes of dehydration down to 5% relative water content (RWC) and resumes full physiological activity within 80. h of rehydration. The nuclear proteome of Xerophyta viscosa and its response to dehydration at 35% RWC as compared to fully hydrated plants was analysed using iTRAQ together with 2DLC and ESI-MS/MS. RWC at 35% is unique for desiccation tolerant species as it represents a distinct phase of the dehydration process where induction of late protection mechanisms are initiated. We reproducibly identified 122 proteins with confidence ≥ 95% (ρ < 0.05). In response to dehydration, 65% of the identified proteins had the same protein abundance as the hydrated, 22% were shown to be more abundant while 9.8% were less abundant. Classification of the nuclear proteins according to GO annotation showed that most proteins were part of cellular processes (77.43%) and had binding activity (85.47%) respectively. Ontological classification according to Interpro and Pfam databases categorized most nuclear proteins as part of gene regulation (21%) while the functions of the mapped proteins using MapMan showed involvement in protein synthesis (22%), degradation (9%), DNA structure (8%) and regulation (8%). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Biro K.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Biro K.,University of Gadarif | Pradhan B.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Pradhan B.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2013

Several decades of intensive dry land farming in the Gadarif region, located in the Eastern part of Sudan, has led to rapid land use/land cover (LULC) changes mainly due to agricultural expansion, government policies and environmental calamities such as drought. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse and monitor the LULC changes using multi-temporal Landsat data for the years 1979, 1989 and 1999 and ASTER data for the year 2009. In addition, efforts were made to discuss the impact of LULC changes on the selected soil properties. For this, a post-classification comparison technique was used to detect LULC changes from satellite images. Primarily, three main LULC types were selected to investigate the properties of soil, namely, cultivated land, fallow land and woodland. Moreover, soil samples were also collected at two depths of surface soil from ten sample plots for each of the LULC type. For these soil samples, various soil properties such as texture, bulk density, organic matter, soil pH, electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, phosphorous and potassium were analysed. The results showed that a significant and extensive change of LULC patterns has occurred in the last three decades in the study area. Further, laboratory tests revealed that soil properties were significantly affected by these LULC changes. The change of the physical and chemical properties of the soil may have attributed to the changes in the LULC resulting in land degradation, which in turn has led to a decline in soil productivity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Sulieman H.M.,University of Gadarif | Ahmed A.G.M.,University of Khartoum
Pastoralism | Year: 2013

The pastoral resources in eastern Sudan are changing under the combined impact of increasing anthropogenic activities such as clearance of natural vegetation and the effect of state policies that favour crop farming against pastoralism. Remotely sensed data are used to detect spatial and temporal changes from 1979 to 2009 in the land use/land cover (LULC) across three study sites. Areas of natural vegetation have been reduced from 26.1% in 1979 to 12.6% in 1999 and further to 9.4% in 2007. The majority of this reduction went into agricultural land. Local knowledge of pastoralists on their perceived changes in plant species is obtained. Major LULC trends are progressive degradation and loss of grazing areas, loss of biodiversity and depletion of other ecological support provided by natural vegetation. Declining rainfall, land clearance due to agricultural expansion, overgrazing and herbicide applications by crop farmers are identified as underlying forces changing plant species in the region. The study revealed that pastoralists have considerable knowledge and experience in dealing with degradation and climate variability. However, pastoralists are marginalized in decisions concerning expansion of large-scale agriculture at the expense of pasture land. Their lack of education and other basic services restricts the pastoralists' potential to adapt to the new situation. © 2013, Sulieman and Ahmed; licensee Springer. Source

Sulieman H.M.,University of Gadarif | Elagib N.A.,University of Bahrain | Elagib N.A.,Cologne University of Applied Sciences
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2012

This study examines the changes in climate and land-use/land-cover (LULC) along the livestock seasonal migration routes in El Gedaref region (eastern Sudan). Analysis of temperature, rainfall and aridity index (ratio of rainfall to reference evapotranspiration) data during 1941-2009 shows significant warming of the climate, increasing rainfall variability and seasonality, and intensifying aridity conditions during the start and end of the wet season. The somewhat recent enhancement of the overall (annual) rainfall has reflected only in the mid wet season and were caused by few very wet days, indicating increased rainfall concentration and possible risk of soil erosion. Such climatic alterations and variability have inherent implications for land-use and land-cover over the region. LULC changes were investigated using multi-temporal satellite imagery from three sites along the livestock routes. The major trends were drastic conversions of natural vegetation areas into large-scale mechanized agricultural land. This resulted in a progressive loss and degradation of grazing area in the entire region. Overall, the documented LULC changes may cause an irreversible loss of biodiversity and a depletion of other ecological services provided by natural vegetation. The results of this study provide useful information when seeking to resolve complex land-management issues. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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