Al Qadarif, Sudan

University of Gadarif
Al Qadarif, Sudan
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Sulieman H.M.,University of Gadarif | Elagib N.A.,University of Bahrain | Elagib N.A.,Cologne University of Applied Sciences
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2012

This study examines the changes in climate and land-use/land-cover (LULC) along the livestock seasonal migration routes in El Gedaref region (eastern Sudan). Analysis of temperature, rainfall and aridity index (ratio of rainfall to reference evapotranspiration) data during 1941-2009 shows significant warming of the climate, increasing rainfall variability and seasonality, and intensifying aridity conditions during the start and end of the wet season. The somewhat recent enhancement of the overall (annual) rainfall has reflected only in the mid wet season and were caused by few very wet days, indicating increased rainfall concentration and possible risk of soil erosion. Such climatic alterations and variability have inherent implications for land-use and land-cover over the region. LULC changes were investigated using multi-temporal satellite imagery from three sites along the livestock routes. The major trends were drastic conversions of natural vegetation areas into large-scale mechanized agricultural land. This resulted in a progressive loss and degradation of grazing area in the entire region. Overall, the documented LULC changes may cause an irreversible loss of biodiversity and a depletion of other ecological services provided by natural vegetation. The results of this study provide useful information when seeking to resolve complex land-management issues. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Abdalla K.O.,University of Cape Town | Abdalla K.O.,University of Gadarif | Rafudeen M.S.,University of Cape Town
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2012

Xerophyta viscosa Baker (family Velloziaceae) is a desiccation tolerant plant which survives extremes of dehydration down to 5% relative water content (RWC) and resumes full physiological activity within 80. h of rehydration. The nuclear proteome of Xerophyta viscosa and its response to dehydration at 35% RWC as compared to fully hydrated plants was analysed using iTRAQ together with 2DLC and ESI-MS/MS. RWC at 35% is unique for desiccation tolerant species as it represents a distinct phase of the dehydration process where induction of late protection mechanisms are initiated. We reproducibly identified 122 proteins with confidence ≥ 95% (ρ < 0.05). In response to dehydration, 65% of the identified proteins had the same protein abundance as the hydrated, 22% were shown to be more abundant while 9.8% were less abundant. Classification of the nuclear proteins according to GO annotation showed that most proteins were part of cellular processes (77.43%) and had binding activity (85.47%) respectively. Ontological classification according to Interpro and Pfam databases categorized most nuclear proteins as part of gene regulation (21%) while the functions of the mapped proteins using MapMan showed involvement in protein synthesis (22%), degradation (9%), DNA structure (8%) and regulation (8%). © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Biro K.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Biro K.,University of Gadarif | Pradhan B.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Pradhan B.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2013

Several decades of intensive dry land farming in the Gadarif region, located in the Eastern part of Sudan, has led to rapid land use/land cover (LULC) changes mainly due to agricultural expansion, government policies and environmental calamities such as drought. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse and monitor the LULC changes using multi-temporal Landsat data for the years 1979, 1989 and 1999 and ASTER data for the year 2009. In addition, efforts were made to discuss the impact of LULC changes on the selected soil properties. For this, a post-classification comparison technique was used to detect LULC changes from satellite images. Primarily, three main LULC types were selected to investigate the properties of soil, namely, cultivated land, fallow land and woodland. Moreover, soil samples were also collected at two depths of surface soil from ten sample plots for each of the LULC type. For these soil samples, various soil properties such as texture, bulk density, organic matter, soil pH, electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, phosphorous and potassium were analysed. The results showed that a significant and extensive change of LULC patterns has occurred in the last three decades in the study area. Further, laboratory tests revealed that soil properties were significantly affected by these LULC changes. The change of the physical and chemical properties of the soil may have attributed to the changes in the LULC resulting in land degradation, which in turn has led to a decline in soil productivity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hermance J.F.,Brown University | Sulieman H.M.,University of Gadarif
Remote Sensing Letters | Year: 2013

The year 2012 was a relatively 'wet' year for many areas of the African Sahel. In spite of earlier predictions of normal or below normal rainfall in the East Sahel early in the season, by September of 2012, humanitarian agencies reported that flash floods in the region had affected almost a quarter million people, destroying tens of thousands of homes. Early evidence of impending conditions was supplied by satellite images largely produced from the geosynchronous EUMETSAT METEOSATs and low earth orbiting satellites of opportunity, which have become critical tools in the arsenal of emergency responders to extreme hydrologic events around the globe. This report is an assessment of the 2012 monsoon season performance of one of these satellite-based tools - the U.S. Climate Prediction Center's (CPC) Rainfall Estimation (RFE) Algorithm Version 2.0 (RFE 2.0) - expressly developed for purposes of drought forecasting and flood prediction in Africa. We directly compare satellite-based daily RFE 2.0 rainfall estimates with ground-based daily gauge data recorded at 9 separate but closely spaced stations in the East Sahel of Sudan for the April-October, 2012 monsoon season.We find that, although the RFE 2.0 data may reasonably represent seasonal trends and annual rainfall totals when composited over substantial areas, the morphology and intensity of distinct storm events at the local level are poorly characterized, with many misses (i.e. non-detects), or alternatively, false alerts (i.e. false alarms). © 2013 Taylor and Francis.

Haggaz A.D.,University of Geizera | Elbashir L.M.,University of Khartoum | Adam G.K.,University of Gadarif | Rayis D.A.,University of Khartoum | Adam I.,University of Khartoum
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Microscopic examination using Giemsa-stained thick blood films remains the reference standard for detection of malaria parasites and it is the only method that is widely and practically available for quantifying malaria parasite density. There are few published data (there was no study during pregnancy) investigating the parasite density (ratio of counted parasites within a given number of microscopic fields against counted white blood cells (WBCs) using actual number of WBCs. Methods. Parasitaemia was estimated using assumed WBCs (8,000), which was compared to parasitaemia calculated based on each woman's WBCs in 98 pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Medani Maternity Hospital, Central Sudan. Results: The geometric mean (SD) of the parasite count was 12,014.6 (9,766.5) and 7,870.8 (19,168.8) ring trophozoites /μl, P <0.001 using the actual and assumed (8,000) WBC count, respectively. The median (range) of the ratio between the two parasitaemias (using assumed/actual WBCs) was 1.5 (0.6-5), i e, parasitaemia calculated assuming WBCs equal to median (range) 1.5 (0.6-5) times higher than parasitaemia calculated using actual WBCs. There were 52 out of 98 patients (53%) with ratio between 0.5 and 1.5. For 21 patients (21%) this ratio was higher than 2, and for five patients (5%) it was higher than 3. Conclusion: The estimated parasite density using actual WBC counts was significantly lower than the parasite density estimated using assumed WBC counts. Therefore, it is recommended to use the patient's actual WBC count in the estimation of the parasite density. © 2014 Haggaz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sulieman H.M.,University of Gadarif | Ahmed A.G.M.,University of Khartoum
Pastoralism | Year: 2013

The pastoral resources in eastern Sudan are changing under the combined impact of increasing anthropogenic activities such as clearance of natural vegetation and the effect of state policies that favour crop farming against pastoralism. Remotely sensed data are used to detect spatial and temporal changes from 1979 to 2009 in the land use/land cover (LULC) across three study sites. Areas of natural vegetation have been reduced from 26.1% in 1979 to 12.6% in 1999 and further to 9.4% in 2007. The majority of this reduction went into agricultural land. Local knowledge of pastoralists on their perceived changes in plant species is obtained. Major LULC trends are progressive degradation and loss of grazing areas, loss of biodiversity and depletion of other ecological support provided by natural vegetation. Declining rainfall, land clearance due to agricultural expansion, overgrazing and herbicide applications by crop farmers are identified as underlying forces changing plant species in the region. The study revealed that pastoralists have considerable knowledge and experience in dealing with degradation and climate variability. However, pastoralists are marginalized in decisions concerning expansion of large-scale agriculture at the expense of pasture land. Their lack of education and other basic services restricts the pastoralists' potential to adapt to the new situation. © 2013, Sulieman and Ahmed; licensee Springer.

Ali A.A.,Kassala University | Khojali A.,Kassala University | Okud A.,Kassala University | Adam G.K.,University of Gadarif | Adam I.,University of Khartoum
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2011

Background: Investigation of maternal near-miss is a useful complement to the investigation of maternal mortality with the aim of meeting the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal. The present study was conducted to investigate the frequency of near-miss events, to calculate the mortality index for each event and to compare the socio-demographic and obstetrical data (age, parity, gestational age, education and antenatal care) of the near-miss cases with maternal deaths.Methods: Near-miss cases and events (hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders, anemia and dystocia), maternal deaths and their causes were retrospectively reviewed and the mortality index for each event was calculated in Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan over a 2-year period, from January 2008 to December 2010. Disease-specific criteria were applied for these events.Results: There were 9578 deliveries, 205 near-miss cases, 228 near-miss events and 40 maternal deaths. Maternal near-miss and maternal mortality ratio were 22.1/1000 live births and 432/100 000 live births, respectively. Hemorrhage accounted for the most common event (40.8%), followed by infection (21.5%), hypertensive disorders (18.0%), anemia (11.8%) and dystocia (7.9%). The mortality index were 22.2%, 10.0%, 10.0%, 8.8% and 2.4% for infection, dystocia, anemia, hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders, respectively.Conclusion: There is a high frequency of maternal morbidity and mortality at the level of this facility. Therefore maternal health policy needs to be concerned not only with averting the loss of life, but also with preventing or ameliorating maternal-near miss events (hemorrhage, infections, hypertension and anemia) at all care levels including primary level. © 2011 Ali et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

The present study seeks to provide a contribution to the understanding of vegetation regrowth on abandoned agricultural land by investigating the impacts of the previous cultivation period and the duration of the fallow on the subsequent natural regeneration in terms of vegetation composition, structure and diversity. The results of the study show that both factors have significant effects on the subsequent regeneration of plant species and thus the vegetation development in the southern Gadarif Region, Sudan. The oldest abandoned farmlands were recolonized by tree/shrub species, whereas recently abandoned ones are covered with herbaceous vegetation. There is a general tendency regarding the number of species to decrease with an increase in the period of cultivation. The plant species diversity pattern shows domination of herbaceous species with some scattered woody species. Vegetation changes due to land abandonment may have implications for the conservation of plant species diversity and composition of fauna harboured in the region. Although natural regeneration could be recommended as means of restoring natural vegetation that previously dominated that region, the current regeneration capacity might not be sufficient to reach the climax vegetation except for some pockets, which received more regenerative resources. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Sulieman H.M.,University of Gadarif
Land Use Policy | Year: 2015

Capturing of communal resources by investors is one of the pressing tragedies facing customary land tenure systems in Africa. This article aims to look into how large-scale mechanized agriculture is encroaching into communal rangeland in Sudan and its social and environmental consequences. It scrutinizes the steps that large-scale farmers (LSFs) have to follow in order to acquire communal resources. It is clear that the government overwhelmingly serves the interest of economic elites from urban centers by offering a diversity of support in a way that the rights of traditional local land users e.g., pastoralists and smallholder farmers are detriment. The most important formal change was the 1996 ministerial act which legitimized the illegal situation of the LSFs. At the same time, LSFs have not been forced to comply with regulations issued by state institutions. Using their financial potentialities, LSFs are not only accumulating large amounts of land but are also heavily involved in livestock rearing. Among the immediate consequences of converting communal property to individual property is creating a fertile environment for conflicts between different land users. Moreover, introducing of agricultural machinery in such marginal area is causing adverse environmental consequence such as severe soil degradation and desertification. The paper concludes that failure of the pastoralists and smallholder farmers to defend their land tenure rights might be explained by their political marginalization and the absence of their representative institutions. This calls for a new national land use legislation approach that incorporates the rights of rural communities and their associated traditional land use systems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Sulieman H.M.,University of Gadarif
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

This study was an effort to produce synthetic knowledge on the rapid land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes and on the integrating rates of change with fundamental patterns in southern Gadarif region, Sudan, for the period 1972 - 2003 using remote sensing imagery. The area is known for its sorghum and sesame production. Comparisons of LULC changes showed that the land-cover of the southern Gadarif region has changed drastically since the introduction of mechanized rain-fed agriculture in the area. The agricultural expansion was on the expenses of the natural vegetation cover. The average natural vegetation clearing rate was around 0.8% per year, and the most rapid clearing occurred during the seventies when conversion rates increased to about 4.5% per year. The average rate of vegetation clearing in the region exceeded the national average of deforestation. Recently, the conversion of natural vegetation to agricultural land has slowed because almost no land was left for further expansion. In the period 1999 - 2003 significant natural re-vegetation on abandoned land was detected. Being the most important rain-fed agricultural region in the country, information about patterns of LULC changes through time provides a better understanding of land utilization aspects and also plays a crucial role in the formulation of policies and program required for sustainable development of the region. © 2010 Academic Journals.

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