Fustec K.,University of French Polynesia
Houille Blanche | Year: 2017
This article studies the water crises in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). The Israeli-Palestinian conflict as well as the water issues are generally described as an issue between two entities: the Israeli Authorities and the Palestinian Authorities. This is an oversimplification, other actors play a key role. This article focuses on donors' policies about water. The Oslo Agreements are one of the first factor influencing water issues in the OPT. This study demonstrates that donors associate the respect of the Oslo Agreements as the basis for peace and that they focus mainly on the process of Palestinian state-building and on urban water. We show that this framework does not take into account rural water and community-based management. For a few years donors seem to orient their projects toward rural areas and agriculture. In their discourses, donors also link this new interest to the solution of the conflict. Water is depicted as a technical issue. Nevertheless, this article demonstrates that, in this context, donors' representations of water and land are very specific. Water and land are highly political issues. Donors favor irrigated and export agriculture whereas rain-fed agriculture and small exploitations remain the majority. They favor some territories and some social groups to build a specific bio-physical and socio-political reality. Finally, this participates to the construction of a governmental entity "above the ground". All these processes may predict important changes of social organizations and water resources. © Société Hydrotechnique de France, 2017.
Ferard E.,University of French Polynesia
Cryptography and Communications | Year: 2017
Let t be an integer ≥ 3 such that t ≡ 1 mod 4. The absolute irreducibility of the polynomial ϕt(x,y)=xt+yt+1+(x+y+1)t(x+y)(x+1)(y+1) (over F2) plays an important role in the study of APN functions. We prove that this polynomial is absolutely irreducible under the assumptions that the largest odd integer which divides t − 1 is large enough and can not be written in a specific form. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Terry J.P.,National University of Singapore |
Etienne S.,University of French Polynesia
Natural Hazards | Year: 2011
Tsunamis and intense tropical storms compete as viable mechanisms for catastrophic marine inundations of coastlines, and so interpretation of deposits laid down by palaeo-events is often problematic. Here, examples are presented from the tropical South Pacific Islands to demonstrate how indigenous knowledge may provide vital clues supporting sedimentological investigation and thereby helping to explain the origin of giant boulders emplaced on top of coral reef platforms. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Ye F.-Y.,University of French Polynesia |
Barriot J.-P.,University of French Polynesia |
Carretier S.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Geomorphology | Year: 2013
In this paper, we study the origin and evolution of the 42 knickpoints spanning the Island of Tahiti, a large extinct shield volcano in the South Pacific Ocean (French Polynesia), by combining DEM analysis and numerical modeling. These knickpoints are located along rivers (107 in total) with a total length exceeding 6km and with a total drainage of >3km2. The knickpoint locations do not correspond to lithology, tributary confluence, or uplift. We argue that these knickpoints have been initiated by a sudden sea level drop of 135m 20ky ago, and that the littoral cliffs circling two-thirds of Tahiti are the result of marine erosion that took place 7ky ago from a stand level that was 5m higher than now. The head-to-toe height of the knickpoints increases with respect to the knickpoints' distance from the ocean. The major process controlling the knickpoints is plunge-pool incision and the n=2 stream-power model works well for modeling the profile form. The mean retreat rate of the knickpoints corresponds very well with a drainage-area dependant model with velocities ranging from 0.17 to 1.2m/y. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Etienne S.,University of French Polynesia
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2012
Marine inundation hazards in French Polynesia are various and unevenly distributed in the territory; they are strongly related to the physiography (topography, bathymetry, coral reef development) of these oceanic islands. Cyclones and tsunamis appear as predominant processes in the definition of coastal flooding risks for Polynesian people. This study examines the geomorphic impacts of Tropical Cyclone Oli, which struck the western part of French Polynesia in February 2010. Submarine reef erosion is quantified through coral colony degree of destruction and massive coral colony displacement. Sediment transport and beach retreat are quantified, and flow velocities at the coastline are estimated through boulder analysis. Erosion and resilience of a sandy bank (cay) at the reef margin is also considered on Tubuai Island through satellite image analysis and GPS field survey. Outer-reef slope angle appears as a major control factor for coral destruction, with vertical submarine cliffs relatively shielded compared to gentle slopes. Submarine boulder measurements provide valuable estimates of flow velocity profile with depth. Beachrock slab measurements also provide estimates of flow velocities at the reef- beach junction. Combining these different geomorphic markers might be a way to apprehend the flow velocity variation when the cyclone waves cross the coral reef. © The Geological Society of London 2012.
Pouteau R.,University of French Polynesia |
Stoll B.,University of French Polynesia
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2012
Accuracy of land cover classification is generally improved by inputting multi-sensory and GIS data since complex vegetation type identification benefits from synergism of complementary information. However, multi-source fusion can also deteriorate accuracy when some classes do not benefit from all sources. On the basis of this premise, we introduce a Selective Fusion (SELF) scheme based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) which use a single source for source-specific classes and fuse all sources for classes considered as "in difficulty". Our method yields better overall accuracy and Kappa than the classical systematic approach since it takes advantage of the accuracy achieved by SVM and its ability to weight numerous and heterogeneous sources without the drawback of being sensible to irrelevant data for source-specific classes. This operational method can be used efficiently to enhance accuracy when analyzing the wealth of information available from remote sensing products. © 2012 IEEE.
Ortega P.,University of French Polynesia
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation | Year: 2010
On the one hand, a quadratic relationship between the charge Qi of the first corona and the associated inception voltage Ui has been recently put in evidence for a 1m point-plane air gap submitted to impulse voltages. On the other hand, different models have been proposed to evaluate that relation for coaxial geometries and conductor-plane also submitted to impulse voltages. The aim of this paper is to put in evidence the quadratic charge-voltage relations for all the configurations and to discuss how the assumptions made for one configuration can be exported to the other electrodes geometries. © 2010 IEEE.
Ducarme B.,Catholic University of Leuven |
Ducarme B.,University of French Polynesia
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2012
Seventeen long series of tidal gravity observations with superconducting gravimeters (SGs) belonging to the GGP network allowed to determine the main tidal waves generated by the tidal potential of third degree in the Diurnal (M1), Semi-Diurnal (3MK2, 3MO2) and Ter-Diurnal (M3) bands with a precision of 0.1%, although the amplitudes of these waves are below 10 nm s -2 (1 μgal). Special analysis techniques have been used to separate M1, 3MK2 and 3MO2 from the neighbouring waves generated by the second degree potential. The 11 European stations form a geographically homogeneous subgroup and it is thus possible to derive some conclusions concerning the ocean tides loading and the body tides models. The results for M1, 3MK2 and 3MO2 are not in contradiction with the recent models and the results for M3 are even in agreement with them. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Poirine B.,University of French Polynesia
Pacific Economic Bulletin | Year: 2010
French Polynesia has a history of economic dependence on French public transfers. The dependence on military spending grew during the 1960s and 1970s due to France's atomic-testing activities in the Tuamotu Archipelago, which ended in 1995. Since then, the official strategy, stated in the Pacte de Progrès in 1993, has been to promote export and tourism revenues, as a substitute for French public transfers. The strategy has not, however, been successful because the policy measures necessary to reach this goal have not been implemented. High costs and prices due to protectionist policies, the high cost of public administration and the Pacific franc's high real exchange rate continue to have negative effects on export and tourism. © 2010 The Australian National University.
Rachidi M.,University Paris Diderot |
Lopes C.,University of French Polynesia
American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities | Year: 2010
Down syndrome, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, is associated with brain disorders due to chromosome 21 gene overdosage. Molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the neuromorphological alterations and cognitive impairments are reported herein in a global model. Recent advances in Down syndrome research have lead to the identification of altered molecular pathways involved in intellectual disability, such as Calcineurin/NFATs pathways, that are of crucial importance in understanding the molecular basis of intellectual disability pathogenesis in this syndrome. Potential treatments in mouse models of Down syndrome, including antagonists of NMDA or GABAA receptors, and microRNAs provide new avenues to develop treatments of intellectual disability. Nevertheless, understanding the links between molecular pathways and treatment strategies in human beings requires further research. © American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.