University of Frat

Elazığ, Turkey

University of Frat

Elazığ, Turkey
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Bayndr H.,Dicle University | Isk M.Z.,Batman University | Argunhan Z.,Batman University | Yucel H.L.,University of Frat | Aydn H.,Batman University
Energy | Year: 2017

High percentages of biodiesel blends or neat biodiesel cannot be used in diesel engines due to high density and viscosity, and poor atomization properties that lead to some engine operational problems. Biodiesel was produced from canola oil by transesterification process. Test fuels were prepared by blending 80% of the biodiesel with 20% of kerosene (B80&K20) and 80% of the biodiesel with 10% of kerosene and 10% diesel fuel (B80&K10&D10). Fuels were used in a 4 cylinders diesel engine that was loaded with a generator. Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the blend fuels and D2 in the diesel engine for certain loads of 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 kW output power and 1500 rpm constant engine speed were experimented and deeply analyzed. It was found that kerosene contained blends had quite similar combustion characteristics with those of D2. Mass fuel consumption and Bscf were slightly increased for blend fuels. HC emissions slightly increased while NOx emissions considerably reduced for blends. It was resulted that high percentages of biodiesel can be a potential substitute for diesel fuel provided that it is used as blending fuel with certain amounts of kerosene. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Kurum S.,University of Frat | Tanyldz O.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2017

The massive volcanic suite of Upper Cretaceous Elazığ Magmatic Complex, and Miocene basic volcanic rocks of crop out to the southern vicinity of Elazığ. The petrographical studies indicated that the massive volcanic suite of Upper Cretaceous are of basalt, spilitic basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, trachite, dacite/ryolithe and dolerite in composition, and the Miocene volcanic rocks are basalt in composition. According to the geochemical data, which are conformable with the petrographical ones, Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks are of low and medium-K contaning types and calc-alkalin in general, and enriched with respect to LILE and HREE contents. They also contain low Ti, have negative Nb and Ta anomaly and low 143Nd/147Nd and high 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Geochemical and isotopic data for the massive volcanic suite point out that these volcanic rocks were originated from an upper mantle source (lithospheric) which undergone fractional crystallisation and crustal contamination and enriched by these processes and metasomatized within a subduction zone. Miocene volcanic rocks are of high-K alkaline type, alkali basalt/basanite in composition and products of intraplate volcanism. These rocks are richer in some major oxide contents such as Na2O, K2O, MgO and trace element contents such as Nb, Sr, Zr compared to the massive volcanic rocks of Upper Cretaceous, and they are also enriched with respect to their LILE and HREE contents. The remarkable decrease from LREE towards HREE in the REE/Chondrite-normalized variation diagram indicates a magmatic differentiation process. The MgO and Ni ratios of Miocene volcanic rocks are not conformable with those of primitive basalt composition. However, all the chemical and isotopic (low 87Sr/86Sr ratio and positive (+) εNd values) data indicate that the source magma of these volcanic rocks was derived from a depleted garnet free magma (astenospheric mantle) and was modified once again by the post collosional geodynamical events and show interplate Zr and Th enrichment. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Kayakoku H.,Bitlis Eren University | Dogru M.,University of Frat
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2017

In this study, concentrations of the radioactive isotopes 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured in soil samples from the shores of Lake Van using a high purity germanium detector. Activity concentrations obtained for these nuclides were compared with world average values. The average 226Ra, 232Th and 4 0K activity concentrations calculated for the soil samples were higher than the world average values reported by UNSCEAR. The lowest 226Ra, 232Th and 4 0K activity concentrations were recorded in sample T-1 whereas the highest values were recorded in sample T-11. Concentrations of 137C in the samples ranged between 0.91 ± 0.01 and 29.68 ± 0.33 Bq kg−1. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards resulting from natural radioactivity, radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rates, and internal and external hazard indices were calculated and the results were compared with internationally recognized values. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Ylmaz S.,University of Frat | Coskun M.,University of Frat
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2017

In this work, ABC-type triblock copolymer grafted onto the surface of the MWCNT/acid functionalized MWCNT (MWCNT-COOH) composites were prepared and the properties of nanocomposites were characterized extensively using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ac electrical conductivity and dielectrical measurements. DSC study showed that the glass transition temperatures of the nanocomposites are a some higher than that of the matrix polymer. The increase in oxidized MWCNT in the nanocomposite improved the thermal stability of the composite, according to initial decomposition temperatures. The ac electrical conductivity has increased moderately with increasing frequency, but has increased slowly with increase in the oxidized MWCNT content in the nanocomposites. The electrical conductivity increases slowly with increasing temperature to about the glass transition temperature, then it increases faster. The dielectric constants for the matrix polymer and all the composites decreases slightly with increasing frequency from 0.1 kHz to 2.0 kHz. The dielectric constant increases slightly with increasing temperature up to about the glass transition temperature region and then the increase in temperature is accelerated the increase in the dielectric constant. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Mercan S.,Cumhuriyet University | Ozdemir N.,University of Frat
Welding in the World | Year: 2017

The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanical and microstructure properties of AISI 2205 and AISI 1020 steel couples joined by using friction welding method and having different chemical compositions. Therefore, macroscopic examinations of specimens joined by using different welding parameters were performed and their mechanical properties were determined by using tension and fatigue tests. Effects of welding parameters on joint interfaces were completed by microhardness measurements and SEM analysis. Consequently, it was determined that mechanical and microstructure properties of AISI 2205 and AISI 1020 steel couples changed based on welding parameters and the quality of the joint could be enhanced in case that parameters compatible with each other were selected. © 2017, International Institute of Welding.


Yildirim T.T.,University of Frat
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2016

Introduction: Dental fear is one of the most common problems in dentistry, for both the patient and for the dentist. This issue can have an important effect on an individual’s dental health. Aim: The aim of this paper was to report on the prevalence of dental anxiety and to explore if high levels of anxiety are associated with sociodemographic factors, oral health status, and level of oral health awareness. Materials and Methods: The sample for this cross-sectional study included 294 patients (154 males and 140 females). All participants filled out a Dental Fear Survey (DFS) to evaluate their level of dental fear. Gender, age, education level, socioeconomic status and oral health awareness were also noted. Oral health behaviors and oral health awareness levels were investigated using seven questions. Also, the periodontal status of all participants was evaluated using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Differences between different subgroups were tested using the chi-square test. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the DFS groups with regard to sociodemographic data. Women had significantly higher scores than men, and young patients had significantly higher scores than others. Patients with low education levels and low socioeconomic status had high DFS scores. Periodontal status was better in groups that had scores in the low and moderate ranges compared to groups that had high scores on the DFS. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups of DFS and CPITN (p<0.05). Patients with low and moderate levels of DFS answered the oral health knowledge questions correctly.There was a statistically significant difference between the DFS groups based on correct answers to the oral health knowledge questions (p<0.05). Conclusion: The elimination of dental fear is very important and should be treated according to a patient-centered assessment. These individuals were informed about the dental treatment procedure so their prejudices were eliminated. Patients with a high level of dental fear may be given psychiatric support for comfortable treatment procedure. © Copyright 2007-2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, India. All Rights Reserved.


Atila G.,Kafkas University | Yuce A.,University of Frat
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2016

Our objective was to determine the effects of the Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract and chromium picolinate in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats. We used 60 female Sprague Dawley rats aged between 2-3 months, who were divided into 6 groups: control (C);vehicle received physiological saline solution intraperitoneally (i.p.) + physiological saline solution orally, diabetescontrol group (DC); 50 mg/kg STZ i.p. + physiological saline solution orally, T. foenum-graecum (TFG); 50 mg/kg STZ i.p + 150 mg/kg TFG seed extract orally, chromium picolinate (Crpic); 50 mg/kg STZ i.p + 30 μg/kg Chromium picolinate orally, T. foenum-graecum + chromium picolinate (TFG+Crpic); 50 mg/kg STZ i.p. + received 150 mg/kg TFG + 30 μg/kg Crpic orally, insulin (I); 50 mg/kg STZ i.p. + 1 IU insulin subcutaneously. The treatment lasted for 21 days. On the 14th and 21st days, we found a decrease in the FBG of animals treated with insulin, TFG, TFG + Crpic combined (all p < 0.001), and Crpic (p < 0.01) compared with the diabetes control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels after a treatment with Crpic, I, TFG, and TFG+Crpic compared with diabetes control group (p < 0.001). Administration of TFG+Crpic caused a significant increase in plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels (p < 0.05) compared with diabetes control group. There was a significant decrease in the plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level after a treatment with Crpic (p < 0.05). The TFG, TFG and Crpic combined, and insulin treatment significantly increased the insulin-positive β cells compared with diabetes control group (p < 0.001). These results show that the TFG extract may have an insulinotropic effect on the β cells of the islets of Langerhans, or may prevent the damage of the pancreatic β cells. Crpic did not stimulate insulin secretion from the β cells in the Langerhans islets. We concluded that Crpic may exert its antihyperglycemic effects by facilitating the interaction between insulin and its receptor. It is recommended that the TFG seed extract and Crpic supplements may help in alleviating or reducing the hyperglycemia-related chronic complications of diabetes. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


Turhan E.,University of Frat
Acta Scientiarum - Technology | Year: 2015

In this paper, we study S – tangent surfaces according to Sabban frame in the Lorentzian Heisenberg group H. We obtained differential equations in terms of their geodesic curvatures in the Lorentzian Heisenberg group H. Finally, we found explicit parametric equations of one parameter family of S – tangent surfaces according to Sabban Frame. © 2014, Eduem - Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringa. All rights reserved.


Gundogdu N.,University of Frat | Coskun M.,University of Frat
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2016

In this study, the molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) was prepared using α-naphtholphthalein as a template, 2-(diethylamino)ethyl acrylate as a functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinking agent by aid of free radical polymerization onto surfaces of vinyltrimethoxysilane modified silica gel. The MIP was extracted with acetonitrile for overnight to remove the template molecule from the MIP. Non-imprinted polymer (NIMP) was synthesized using the same materials except α-naphtholphthalein as template molecule. α-Naphtholphthalein adsorption on surfaces of the both polymer was studied at three different temperatures (19°C, 25°C and 35°C). It was observed that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing temperature and with time. The time required to reach the equilibrium for two polymers and all temperature was accepted to be nearly 6 h. The saturated adsorption amounts at the equilibrium were found as 120 mg/g, 123 mg/g and 127 mg/g at 19°C, 25°C and 35°C, respectively, for MIP, and 78 mg/g, 98 mg/g and 120 mg/g at 19°C, 25°C and 35°C, respectively, for NIMP. The mechanism of adsorption of α-naphtholphthalein onto MIP and NIMP is nearly appropriate to pseudo-first-order kinetic model with an activation energy of 11.63 kJ/mol for MIP, and 23.69 kJ/mol for NIMP. Thermodynamic parameters of activated complex in the adsorption process showed that the adsorption was carried out with an endothermic activation enthalpy, large negative entropy changes and the positive values of ΔG* that the adsorption processes is not favorable. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with olive leaf extract on some blood parameters and egg yolk fatty acid composition of laying quails. A total of 192 Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) 60 d old were allocated to 4 treatment groups with 4 replicates each containing 12 birds. Birds housed in cages and water and feed were given ad libitum during the total period of experiment. The quails received a basal diet (maize and soyabean meal based; 19.1% CP, 2.940 kcal/kg ME, 3.0% Ca and 0.39% P av) that was formulated including vitamins and minerals. Diets were prepared as control (basal diet, group Control), basal diet plus 200 mg α-tocopherol acetat/kg (group E), and basal diet plus 80 or 120 ppm Oleuropein (OLE) (group OLE-80 and OLE-120). At the end of the experiment, egg yolks samples were analysed; cholesterol levels of groups fed diets with OLE-80 and OLE-120 were significantly higher than the groups fed control diet (p<0.01); vitamin A levels of groups fed diets with vit. E were significantly lower than the groups fed control diet and containing OLE-80 (p<0.05) and vitamin E levels were significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.001). The supplementation of olive leaf extract were influenced to fatty acid composition of egg yolk lipids. The concentration of oleic and linoleic acids in egg yolks were higher in OLE-80 than the others groups (p<0.05). The concentration of PUFA, n-6 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio were the highest in OLE-80 groups than the other groups. These results showed that the supplementation of 80 ppm OLE in quail diets was conducted to increase of oleic, linoleic and n-6 fatty acids, and n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio in egg yolks. © 2016, Chartered Inst. of Building Services Engineers. All rights reserved.

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