Besancon, France

University of Franche Comte
Besancon, France

The University of Franche-Comté is a French university in the Academy of Besançon with five campuses: Besançon , Belfort , Montbéliard , Vesoul , and Lons-le-Saunier .It was founded in 1423 in Dole, at that time in the Duchy of Burgundy, and moved to Besançon in 1691 as Dole was being punished for having resisted too long against the king of France Louis XIV during its conquest of the region.The Centre for Applied Linguistics of the University of Franche-Comté ranks among the top language teaching institutions in the world. The CLA has research contacts in more than 110 countries, and partners with the French Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.The Centre of Distance Teaching allow to people who are working to continue to study in different matters like history, informatics, mathematics, AEG, ... The Centre received years ago many demands from students from Djibouti, and then collaborated at the creation of the University of Djibouti.Much of the international visibility in pure and applied science at the University of Franche-Comté comes through the CNRS FEMTO-ST with its expertise in numerous fields, including physics, optics, mechanics, time-frequency, microsystems and nanotechnology. Wikipedia.

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A method for producing a ridge optical waveguide having low coupling losses between the ridge optical waveguide and an optical fibre includes forming on the surface of a dielectric substrate an optical waveguide having a first end and a second end opposite the first end; cutting out two parallel recesses spaced apart by a distance wr on the surface of the dielectric substrate to form a rigid optical waveguide with an increased width (wr) between the two recesses. The recesses are cut such that the depth of each recess changes continuously and gradually between a zero depth at the height of the first end of the optical waveguide and a maximum depth (H_(m)) at a pre-determined distance (I_(p)) from the first end.

Steiner H.,Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science | Van Waes V.,University of Franche Comte
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2013

The psychostimulants methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), amphetamine (Adderall), and modafinil (Provigil) are widely used in the treatment of medical conditions such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy and, increasingly, as " cognitive enhancers" by healthy people. The long-term neuronal effects of these drugs, however, are poorly understood. A substantial amount of research over the past two decades has investigated the effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines on gene regulation in the brain because these molecular changes are considered critical for psychostimulant addiction. This work has determined in some detail the neurochemical and cellular mechanisms that mediate psychostimulant-induced gene regulation and has also identified the neuronal systems altered by these drugs. Among the most affected brain systems are corticostriatal circuits, which are part of cortico-basal ganglia-cortical loops that mediate motivated behavior. The neurotransmitters critical for such gene regulation are dopamine in interaction with glutamate, while other neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin) play modulatory roles. This review presents (1) an overview of the main findings on cocaine- and amphetamine-induced gene regulation in corticostriatal circuits in an effort to provide a cellular framework for (2) an assessment of the molecular changes produced by methylphenidate, medical amphetamine (Adderall), and modafinil. The findings lead to the conclusion that protracted exposure to these cognitive enhancers can induce gene regulation effects in corticostriatal circuits that are qualitatively similar to those of cocaine and other amphetamines. These neuronal changes may contribute to the addiction liability of the psychostimulant cognitive enhancers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: FCH2-RIA | Phase: FCH-02.3-2014 | Award Amount: 2.36M | Year: 2015

HEALTH-CODE aims at implementing an advanced monitoring and diagnostic tool for -CHP and backup PEM fuel cell systems equipped with different stacks. Such a tool is able to determine the FC current status (condition monitoring) to support stack failures detection and to infer on the residual useful lifetime. Five failure modes will be detected: i) change in fuel composition; ii) air starvation; iii) fuel starvation; iv) sulphur poisoning; v) flooding and de-hydration. The main project objectives are: i) the enhancement of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) based diagnosis; ii) the development of a monitoring and diagnostic tool for state-of-health assessment, fault detection and isolation as well as degradation level analysis for lifetime extrapolation; iii) the reduction of experimental campaign time and costs. Moreover, the improvement of power electronics for FC is also considered. These targets will be achieved through the implementation of several methodologies and techniques, well suited for industrial application. Several algorithms will be developed relying on on-board EIS measurements of the fuel cell system impedance. Moreover, low-cost diagnostic concepts are also proposed for a straightforward implementation on FCS controllers. The project exploits the outcomes of the previous FCH 1 JU funded project D-CODE, during which a proof of-concept validated in laboratory (TRL3-4) was developed. HEALTH-CODE will increase the TRL up to level 5. The exploitation of the project outcomes will lead to low-cost and reliable monitoring and diagnostic approaches and related applications (e.g. power electronics). These results will have an impact on stationary FCS with a direct increase in electrical efficiency, availability and durability, leading to a reduction in maintenance and warranty costs, thus increasing the customers satisfaction. Therefore, HEALTH-CODE contributes to the enhancement of FC competitiveness towards a wider market deployment.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: MSCA-NIGHT-2016 | Award Amount: 1.11M | Year: 2016

We are proposing ERNs for 2016 and 2017 in 12 French cities. Our consortium of 11 partners will organise afternoons for schoolchildren, events in the cities and, above all, evenings where 1000 researchers will meet up to 30,000 people a year. The general public will be able to meet a number of researchers directly and experience something memorable with them. Since 2006, we have acquired a solid knowhow in the art of interaction. In 2014-2015, we went one step further by including the public in the actual research experiments, thereby creating scientist-citizen cooperation. We will renew these experiences and go even further: we are encouraging the public and researchers to experience creative moments together! Several creative interactions will be set up, around the Ideas theme in 2016 and the Impossible? theme in 2017, to allow researchers and the public to interact. The evenings will be full of ideas, challenges, and encounters with diverse individuals. In this way, we will rally European researchers to get involved in each city. Specific strategies will be used (such as public radio recordings) to allow them to share their European experience. These moments of cooperation will without a doubt reinforce the mutual appreciation between researchers and citizens. Our communication strategy (attracting specific audiences through networking, web, partnerships with youth-oriented press, etc.) will be based on the slogan: General Creativity. This slogan denotes the interactive nature of the evening and gives us a chance to talk about the richness of European research. To this effect, and for the first time, Cdric Villani, an inspiring and renowned researcher, has accepted to be the ERNs patron. Lastly, we plan to renew the Great Participatory Experiment in 2017. In each city (and perhaps even Italy), the public will contribute to the same playful scientific experiment chosen in 2016 after a challenge involving all our research institutions.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: FCH2-RIA | Phase: FCH-01.2-2015 | Award Amount: 3.26M | Year: 2016

Fuel-Cell Electric Buses (FCEBs) have been deployed in multiple demonstrations in Europe, Canada and the USA, but they still suffer from high costs and low availability. Oddly enough, the low availability has almost always been due to control issues and hybridisation strategies rather than problems in the fuel cells themselves. Giantleap aims to increase the availability and reduce the total cost of ownership of FCEBs by increasing the lifetime and reliability of the fuel cell system; this will be achieved with advanced online diagnostics of the fuel cells and the balance-of-plant components of the system, coupled with prognostics methods to calculate the systems residual useful life, and advanced control algorithms able to exploit this information to maximise the systems life. The same control system will also be engineered for robustness, in order to increase availability to the level of diesel buses or better. Giantleap will improve the understanding of degradation in fuel-cell systems with extensive experimentation and analysis; diagnostic and prognostic methods will focus on exploitation of current sensors to make the novel control approach cost-effective. Giantleap includes the demonstration of a prototype in relevant environment, allowing the project to reach technology readiness level 6. The prototype will be a trailer-mounted fuel-cell based range extender meant for battery city buses. The ability to swap out the range extender in case of malfunctions greatly increases the availability of the bus, while the large battery capacity allows the bus to complete its route should malfunctions occur during usage. Furthermore, the large battery capacity will give the control system ample opportunity to optimise fuel-cell usage via hybridisation management strategies.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 202.50K | Year: 2016

Real cell membranes are essentially asymmetric and non-planar. Outer leaflets of the plasma membranes contain neutral lipids and glycolipids, while the inner leaflets host practically all anionic lipids and phosphoinositides. In addition to asymmetric composition the membranes are usually curved due to spontaneous curvature of the membrane lipids and an influence of membrane proteins and cytoskeleton. There are many cellular phenomena, which are influenced by the asymmetry and the membrane curvature such as formation of synaptic vesicles, blebs and apoptotic bodies, membrane fusion and splitting, budding of enveloped viruses, endo and exocytosis, etc. In this work we propose comprehensive interdisciplinary study of the influence of membrane asymmetry and curvature on the functioning of integral membrane proteins and the transmembrane transport of therapeutic compounds (such as cisplatin and its derivatives). The goal is to reveal major physical factors, which distinguish asymmetric and curved membrane environment and govern interactions, orientation and diffusion of the small molecules (drugs) and large integral proteins. The combination of experimental methods (wet biochemistry and molecular biology, enhanced infrared and Raman spectroscopy) and computer simulations (coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics, quantum chemistry) would be used in the project in complimentary manner.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EJD | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-EJD | Award Amount: 3.13M | Year: 2016

VIPER is a European Joint Doctorate network focused on research in VIbroacoustic of PERiodic media. Structural periodic design is a powerful strategy for lightweight structures achievements while remaining a convenient solution for manufacturing aspects. One of the research targets is the inclusion of vibroacoustic design rules at early stage of products development through the use of periodic media which exhibit proper dynamic filtering effects. In order to understand how periodic concepts can improve the broadband vibroacoustic signatures and performances, the VIPER project will develop and validate tools for the design of global vibroacoustic treatments based on periodic patterns allowing passive control of structural and acoustical paths in layered concepts. Dealing with large scale periodic structural-acoustic concepts involves a multi-scale aspect that needs specific numerical tools. A two scale strategy will be pursued to handle periodicity effects: the meso-scale, related to the cell or the span size, and the macro-scale related to the final structure size. Bridging the cell scale behavior and the vibroacoustic indicators is a challenging issue which will dramatically improve the macro structural design. As the cell topology and constitutive materials are important data, VIPER will consider the combination of different materials and structural arrangements, in which viscoelastic, poroelastic, auxetic materials will play a major role. Finally, this project will also address the lack of perfect periodicity which can be considered both in view of robustness and design analysis of proposed periodicity based concepts. VIPER has a multi-disciplinary character, coupling expertise from material science, vibration and acoustics as well as applied mathematics. It can offer different applications in transports (aeronautics and space, automobile), energy and civil engineering sectors, where vibroacoustic integrity and comfort can be crucial points.

Crini G.,University of Franche Comte
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Cyclodextrins (CD) are synthetic substances obtained from the enzymatic degradation of one of the most essential polysaccharides, starch. CDs belong to the family of cage molecules; that is, the core of their structure is composed of a dimensionally stable hydrophobic cavity that can trap or encapsulate other molecules. Villiers concluded that the properties of these particular dextrins were very clearly different from those of the various saccharides known at the time. Nevertheless, he did not pursue research into CDs, preferring to focus on alkaloids. The major discovery of Schardinger was to isolate the microorganism able to synthesize the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of starch into cyclodextrins. This was identified a few years later as cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase, which more exactly attacked amylose, the linear component of starch. It can be noted that even today the most frequently used source of enzyme for the production of CDs is Bacillus macerans.

Li X.-Z.,Veterinary Drugs Directorate | Plesiat P.,University of Franche Comte | Nikaido H.,University of California at Berkeley
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2015

The global emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a growing threat to antibiotic therapy. The chromosomally encoded drug efflux mechanisms that are ubiquitous in these bacteria greatly contribute to antibiotic resistance and present a major challenge for antibiotic development. Multidrug pumps, particularly those represented by the clinically relevant AcrAB-TolC and Mex pumps of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily, not only mediate intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) but also are involved in other functions, including the bacterial stress response and pathogenicity. Additionally, efflux pumps interact synergistically with other resistance mechanisms (e.g., with the outer membrane permeability barrier) to increase resistance levels. Since the discovery of RND pumps in the early 1990s, remarkable scientific and technological advances have allowed for an in-depth understanding of the structural and biochemical basis, substrate profiles, molecular regulation, and inhibition of MDR pumps. However, the development of clinically useful efflux pump inhibitors and/or new antibiotics that can bypass pump effects continues to be a challenge. Plasmid-borne efflux pump genes (including those for RND pumps) have increasingly been identified. This article highlights the recent progress obtained for organisms of clinical significance, together with methodological considerations for the characterization of MDR pumps. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

The pathogenic role of B cells in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has justified the therapeutic use of anti-CD20 antibodies such as rituximab (RTX). However, 60% of ITP patients do not respond to RTX. To decipher the mechanisms implicated in the failure of RTX, and because the spleen plays a well-recognized role in ITP pathogenesis, 12 spleens from ITP patients who had been nonresponders to RTX therapy were compared with 11 spleens from RTX-untreated ITP patients and 9 controls. We here demonstrate that in RTX-nonresponder ITP patients, preferential Th1 and Tc1 T lymphocyte polarizations occur, associated with an increase in splenic effector memory CD8(+) T-cell frequency. Moreover, in the RTX- nonresponder patient group, the CD8(+) T-cell repertoire displays a restricted pattern. In the blood, the phenotype of CD8(+) T cells before and after RTX treatment is not modified in responders or nonresponders. Altogether, these results demonstrate for the first time an activation of splenic CD8(+) T cells in ITP patients who did not respond to RTX and suggest their involvement in platelet destruction in these patients.

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