Sofia, Bulgaria

University of Forestry
Sofia, Bulgaria

The University of Forestry , pronounced: ), in Yezin near Nay Pyi Taw, is the only university specialized in forestry in Myanmar. It mainly offers a five-year Bachelor of Science degree program in forestry as well as two-year master's and three-year doctoral programs. The university is administered by the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry and is affiliated with the Forest Research Institute , a government R&D agency. Undergraduate students are required to take part in a field training program each winter. Graduates of the university typically become forestry officers at the Forestry Department, the Dry Zone Greening Department or the Myanmar Timber Enterprise. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2011.2.1.6-1 | Award Amount: 8.85M | Year: 2011

The vital environmental and socio-economic role of European forests is well documented and acknowledged in policy documents of both the European Union and its member states. However, there are critical incoherencies within and between trans-national, national and local forest-related land use policies, the central issue being mismatches between the policies and their implementation at the landscape level. Hence, there is a need to improve existing policy and management approaches capable of delivering a better balance between multiple and conflicting demands for forest goods and services. Diminishing mismatches and providing a new policy and management approach that is sensitive to ecological, socioeconomic and political issues of are the main objectives of INTEGRAL. The objectives are achieved by following a research approach with 3 phases: diagnostic analysis of the status-quo (phase 1), participatory development and evaluation of scenarios (phase 2), and problem-solving oriented back-casting for policy development and evaluation (phase 3). The research design will be applied in a total of 20 landscapes in 10 European countries that differ in key characteristics, such as ownership, the importance of forestry and forest-based industries and the priorities of allocation and management of new and existing forest lands. The involvement of national and local stakeholder groups all the way through the project plays a decisive role in the project. The most important long term impact of INTEGRAL consists of the knowledge and competence base for integrating international, national and local levels in participatory decision and planning processes. This includes the development of manuals for how to conduct such processes, methods for utilizing quantitative decision support tools in the participatory process, and the establishment of a body of knowledge among those participating in the extensive case studies. Thus, the consistency of implemented forest policies can be enhanced.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 9.07M | Year: 2009

The project MOdels for AdapTIVE forest Management (MOTIVE) will evaluate the consequences of the intensified competition for forest resources given climate and land use change. The project focuses on a wide range of European forest types under different intensities of forest management. In particular, MOTIVE examines impacts with respect to the disturbance regimes determining forest dynamics. MOTIVE seeks to develop and evaluate strategies that can adapt forest management practices to balance multiple objectives under changing environmental conditions. The evaluation of different adaptive management systems will take place within a scenario analysis and a regional landscape framework. A wide range of possible scenarios will be taken into account on different time scales. The main forest types in Europe for the most important bioclimatic regions will be covered and the most important goods and services delivered by Eurpean forests will be assessed using the most up to date models. The ultimate objective of the MOTIVE project is to provide insights, data and tools to improve policymaking and adaptive forest resource management in the face of rapidly changing climatic and land-use conditions. In order to reach its objectives, MOTIVE is organized into six scientific work packages in addition to a management-oriented work package : Baseline trends and possible futures for the EU. Development of improved models for Adaptive Forest Management. Testing and evaluating management options and risks. Evaluating and selecting good adaptive forest management strategies. Improved decision support in adaptive forest management. Stakeholder/Decision maker interaction and Dissemination. One of the main deliverables of MOTIVE will be an Adaptive Forest Management toolbox. The toolbox will provide up-to-date methods for planning and decision making in AFM to the decision maker (forest resource manager, policy maker) for actual use in strategic and tactical forest management planning

Shahanov V.,University of Forestry
Forestry Ideas | Year: 2016

Different kinds of compositions are used in landscape architecture practice, despite the fact that composition types are not deeply theorized or defined precisely as composition styles. The conception of styles concerned in landscape history and theory is a general issue. The current paper aims to explore the geometrical construction types as a concept which gives to composition specific and aesthetic qualities. The research methodology includes the following three steps: several compositions have been analyzed and evaluated by different experts; a model for typology has been made, and as a result a conception for typology has been created. Exemplary compositions are explored through their drawings, plans or satellite images and are perceived as abstract, plane, graphic images. In this way their aesthetic qualities are explored isolated. The evaluation has been statistically checked. On the basis of comparative analysis of the best compositions, criteria for creation of a type model have been suggested. As a combination between the variables of the particular criteria certain types of compositions have been finally established. Thus the geometrical patterns could be understand better and effectively use in the creation of plan drawings.

Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. is a picturesque multi-Trunked pine tree native to north-eastern and central China with symmetrical crown and grey-green, mottled, exfoliating bark. This species is already introduced into European urban parks, although there is still limited information about its appearance when full grown. The first P. bungeana tree in Bulgaria was planted in the arboretum of the University of Forestry in Sofia. The aim of this study is to compare needle gas exchange in this tree and Pinus sylvestris L. Both experimental trees are at similar age and grow out of their natural range of distribution. The net photosynthesis (AN) in response to various air temperatures and light conditions was analyzed in both P. bungeana and P. sylvestris needles. Temperature and light responses of photosynthesis obtained in this study show insignificant differences between P. bungeana and P. sylvestris. The established features are sings for higher tolerance of P. bungeana to shade and cold, than P. sylvestris. Therefore, it can be assumed that P. bungeana has physiological potential to grow in Bulgarian urban parks, similar to P. sylvestris.

Anev S.,University of Forestry
Forestry Ideas | Year: 2016

The balance between CO2 income during photosynthesis and H2O release during transpiration is strongly influenced by differentiation of leaves within the canopy. Gas-exchange and water use efficiency (WUE) were studied in respect to branch position in the crown of 37-year-old Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] tree, growing in the Western Stara Planina. The needles of the middle-crown branches had significantly highest rate of net photosynthesis compared to the upper and lower crown. The rate of transpiration and vapour pressure deficit gradually decreased to the upper-crown branches. The highest water use efficiency was established for the needles in the top of the crown. The lowest photosynthesis and WUE, along with the highest transpiration and vapour pressure deficit of the branches in the crown base of the tree are indicative for the diminished adaptive capacity. The study results could contribute to better understanding of the physiological mechanisms of branch self-pruning.

Thirty-seven nests of Turtle Doves were found in the Sakar Mountains in 2014-2016. The average height of their situation was 5.3±1.8 (2.1-10) m. The average height of the trees-substrates was 7.9±2.5 (3-12) m. The earliest nesting was observed at the beginning of May. First laid eggs were found in the second half of May. Groups of flying juvenile Turtle Doves appeared in early June to the end of the research period. The first nests were observed on 01.05., eggs - on 21.05., and well-flying juveniles on 04.06. The largest number of nests was found in Oak (Quercus spp.) forests (n=12) and Austrian Pine (Pinus nigra) plantations (n=9). Breeding in small villages of the turtle dove in Bulgaria was established.

The distribution and density of Coypu were researched in the downstream of the Maritsa River. Twenty-four new localities were found, twenty of them are situated along the Maritsa River. Three more new localities were found in ponds near the researched area. The average density was 3.4±2.3 (0-8 ind./9.6 km) - 0.35 ind./km. The average size of the social groups was 1.6±0.9 (1-4 ind.; n=42) from the Maritsa River and 2.4±0.99 (1-4 ind.; n=12) in the other three new localities in the ponds. An invasion of Coypu in the downstream of the Maritsa River is observed.

Tomov V.,University of Forestry
Forestry Ideas | Year: 2017

Four-year-old container Norway maple seedlings were forced in a glasshouse and were shaded. Etiolation of the shoots, as well as banding their base with black electric tape, was used in order to increase the rooting ability of the softwood cuttings. IBA as a 0.8 % powder was used for root stimulation. Both methods and the combination of them resulted in high percentage of rooted cuttings, but those which were only etiolated stroke faster and developed a better rooting system. Further research with mature genotypes can be included in future studies.

Deliiski N.,University of Forestry
Wood Research | Year: 2013

An approach for the computation of wood thermal conductivity X during defrosting of wood has been suggested. The approach takes into account the physics of the process of thawing of ice, which is created in wood by both the hygroscopically bounded and free water. It reflects for the first time also the influence of the fiber saturation point of wood species on the value of their X during wood defrosting and the influence of the temperature on the fiber saturation point of frozen and non-frozen wood. For the computation of X according to the suggested approach a software program has been prepared in FORTRAN, which has been input in the developed by Microsoft calculation environment of Visual Fortran Professional. With the help of program computations have been made for the determination of X of often used in the veneer and plywood production beech wood with moisture content 0 ≤ u ≤, 1.2 at the temperature range between 0°C and -60°C during defrosting of wood. The created mathematical description of X for frozen and non-frozen wood has been input in the earlier suggested by the author non-stationary models of defrosting processes in prismatic and cylindrical wood materials. The updated models have been solved with the help of explicit schemes of the finite difference method. The change in the transient temperature distribution in 1/4 of the longitudinal section of subjected to defrosting beech frozen logs is graphically presented, analyzed and visualized with the help of 2D color plots.

Stefanov S.H.,University of Forestry
International Journal of Fatigue | Year: 2011

Integration of Damage Differentials (IDD) is proposed for fatigue life assessment, and such a method is completely different from any other life prediction approach. IDD can be applied under arbitrary loading including the general case of plane stress condition, that is, the stress-time functions σx(t), σy(t) and τxy(t) can be deterministic or random and are not restricted to be cyclic, neither with specified variations, nor the three of them proportional. Then, no reversals and cycles could be distinguished along the loading path in the σx - σy - τxy coordinate space. Hence, any trial to apply again the well-known notions of loading cycles (amplitudes) and damage per cycle would conceptually fail. That is why damage differentials dD are introduced in order to be summed (integrated), where ach damage differential dD is per loading (stressing) differential ds. Two empirical factors of (material's sensitivity to) multiaxial loading non-proportionality, fc and fτ, are involved in the definition of dD. The IDD method has been implemented in software. Results of IDD verifications under multiaxial non-proportional loadings are shown. Based on them, an empirical data bank developed so far is given for IDD parameters. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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