Sofia, Bulgaria
Sofia, Bulgaria

The University of Forestry , pronounced: ), in Yezin near Nay Pyi Taw, is the only university specialized in forestry in Myanmar. It mainly offers a five-year Bachelor of Science degree program in forestry as well as two-year master's and three-year doctoral programs. The university is administered by the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry and is affiliated with the Forest Research Institute , a government R&D agency. Undergraduate students are required to take part in a field training program each winter. Graduates of the university typically become forestry officers at the Forestry Department, the Dry Zone Greening Department or the Myanmar Timber Enterprise. Wikipedia.


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Dyakov N.R.,University of Forestry
Contemporary Problems of Ecology | Year: 2016

Plant invasion of natural ecosystems is one of the most serious ecological crises of our time. The invasive plants are one of the causes for native species decline and ecosystem degradation. This study tries to answer the question whether studied mountainous area is relatively free of plant invasions. We also try to provide a clue about the possible causes for the current invasion state of the studied territory. We used direct ordination, correlation and multiple regression techniques coupled with different statistical tests to describe the current invasion pattern of the studied vegetation. We found that the most invaded vegetation types are lowelevational mixed xerophilous and subxerophilous oak forests and pine plantations. The open subalpine communities are relatively uninvaded. Alien species richness is highest in the xeric habitats at low elevations and in the mesic ones at higher elevations. The common beech forests in the mesic habitats at low to middle elevations are almost completely free of invasion. The leading factors, driving invasion processes in the area are thought to be the anthropogenic and natural disturbances, placed in the context of main local environmental gradients like elevation, habitat moisture and slope inclination. Understanding the factors that drive mountain vegetation invasion helps us taking timely actions to prevent further degradation of precious natural habitats around the globe. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2011.2.1.6-1 | Award Amount: 8.85M | Year: 2011

The vital environmental and socio-economic role of European forests is well documented and acknowledged in policy documents of both the European Union and its member states. However, there are critical incoherencies within and between trans-national, national and local forest-related land use policies, the central issue being mismatches between the policies and their implementation at the landscape level. Hence, there is a need to improve existing policy and management approaches capable of delivering a better balance between multiple and conflicting demands for forest goods and services. Diminishing mismatches and providing a new policy and management approach that is sensitive to ecological, socioeconomic and political issues of are the main objectives of INTEGRAL. The objectives are achieved by following a research approach with 3 phases: diagnostic analysis of the status-quo (phase 1), participatory development and evaluation of scenarios (phase 2), and problem-solving oriented back-casting for policy development and evaluation (phase 3). The research design will be applied in a total of 20 landscapes in 10 European countries that differ in key characteristics, such as ownership, the importance of forestry and forest-based industries and the priorities of allocation and management of new and existing forest lands. The involvement of national and local stakeholder groups all the way through the project plays a decisive role in the project. The most important long term impact of INTEGRAL consists of the knowledge and competence base for integrating international, national and local levels in participatory decision and planning processes. This includes the development of manuals for how to conduct such processes, methods for utilizing quantitative decision support tools in the participatory process, and the establishment of a body of knowledge among those participating in the extensive case studies. Thus, the consistency of implemented forest policies can be enhanced.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008.2.1.6.1. | Award Amount: 9.07M | Year: 2009

The project MOdels for AdapTIVE forest Management (MOTIVE) will evaluate the consequences of the intensified competition for forest resources given climate and land use change. The project focuses on a wide range of European forest types under different intensities of forest management. In particular, MOTIVE examines impacts with respect to the disturbance regimes determining forest dynamics. MOTIVE seeks to develop and evaluate strategies that can adapt forest management practices to balance multiple objectives under changing environmental conditions. The evaluation of different adaptive management systems will take place within a scenario analysis and a regional landscape framework. A wide range of possible scenarios will be taken into account on different time scales. The main forest types in Europe for the most important bioclimatic regions will be covered and the most important goods and services delivered by Eurpean forests will be assessed using the most up to date models. The ultimate objective of the MOTIVE project is to provide insights, data and tools to improve policymaking and adaptive forest resource management in the face of rapidly changing climatic and land-use conditions. In order to reach its objectives, MOTIVE is organized into six scientific work packages in addition to a management-oriented work package : Baseline trends and possible futures for the EU. Development of improved models for Adaptive Forest Management. Testing and evaluating management options and risks. Evaluating and selecting good adaptive forest management strategies. Improved decision support in adaptive forest management. Stakeholder/Decision maker interaction and Dissemination. One of the main deliverables of MOTIVE will be an Adaptive Forest Management toolbox. The toolbox will provide up-to-date methods for planning and decision making in AFM to the decision maker (forest resource manager, policy maker) for actual use in strategic and tactical forest management planning


A 3-dimensional mathematical model has been developed, solved, and verified for the transient non-linear heat conduction in frozen and non-frozen wood with prismatic shape at arbitrary initial and boundary conditions encountered in practice. The model takes into account for the first time the fiber saturation point of each wood species, ufsp, and the impact of the temperature on ufsp of frozen and non-frozen wood, which are then used to compute the current values of the thermal and physical characteristics in each separate volume point of the material subjected to defrosting. This paper presents solutions of the model with the explicit form of the finite-difference method. Results of simulation investigation of the impact of frozen bound water, as well as of bound and free water, on 3D temperature distribution in the volume of beech and oak prisms with dimensions 0.4 × 0.4 × 0.8 m during their defrosting at the temperature of the processing medium of 80 °C are presented, analyzed and visualized through color contour plots.


Dimitrov M.A.,University of Forestry | Petrova D.D.,Ekoinovation Ltd.
Acta Zoologica Bulgarica | Year: 2014

A survey on the forest habitats on the territory of Besaparski Ridove Special Protection Area (included in Natura 2000 network) is presented. Three types of forest habitats were identified: "91AA ∗Eastern White Oak Forests", "91M0 Pannonian-Balkanic Turkey Oak - Sessile Oak Forests", and "91Z0 Moesian Silver Lime Woods". Their conservation status was assessed as "Unfavourable bad". The low average age, the lack of old-growth forests, inadequately planned and implemented fellings, removal of dead wood and grazing were the parameters whose values are the major cause for the unfavourable conservation status. The recommendations for improving the conservation status relate mostly to determine the area for conservation of the forest habitats, to determine the amount of dead wood and keep it in the reference values increasing the age of tree species, leaving areas to ensure the formation of old growth forests, shaping area for conservation forest habitats, monitoring of the threats for the purpose of prevention and elimination.


Deliiski N.,University of Forestry
Wood Research | Year: 2013

An approach for the computation of wood thermal conductivity X during defrosting of wood has been suggested. The approach takes into account the physics of the process of thawing of ice, which is created in wood by both the hygroscopically bounded and free water. It reflects for the first time also the influence of the fiber saturation point of wood species on the value of their X during wood defrosting and the influence of the temperature on the fiber saturation point of frozen and non-frozen wood. For the computation of X according to the suggested approach a software program has been prepared in FORTRAN, which has been input in the developed by Microsoft calculation environment of Visual Fortran Professional. With the help of program computations have been made for the determination of X of often used in the veneer and plywood production beech wood with moisture content 0 ≤ u ≤, 1.2 kg.kg-1 at the temperature range between 0°C and -60°C during defrosting of wood. The created mathematical description of X for frozen and non-frozen wood has been input in the earlier suggested by the author non-stationary models of defrosting processes in prismatic and cylindrical wood materials. The updated models have been solved with the help of explicit schemes of the finite difference method. The change in the transient temperature distribution in 1/4 of the longitudinal section of subjected to defrosting beech frozen logs is graphically presented, analyzed and visualized with the help of 2D color plots.


Dyakov N.R.,University of Forestry
Applied Ecology and Environmental Research | Year: 2016

At the current stage of vegetation ecology development as a science it has not been reached consensus between the competing theories trying to explain vegetation pattern emerging under the influence of underlying environmental gradients. It is still not clear what is the response of different plant species towards the influence of complex gradients? This study tries to revise some classical and temporary hypotheses concerning species response surface/curve shape along environmental gradients – whether it is symmetric (Gaussian) or with other shape. It also attempts to check if species modes along complex gradients are distributed randomly, uniformly or they are clumped, as well as to inspect the species mode distribution among species importance value octaves – whether it is lognormal or lograndom. Field samples were gathered using gradsect method for laying down sampling plots. Obtained data were analyzed in the context of four complex gradients – elevation, habitat dryness, slope inclination and slope convexity. CCA ordination, GAM and LOEES regression and nonparametric correlation were used as analyzing tools. We have found that species response surface/curves do not have symmetric shape but rather they show asymmetric and complex forms. Mode distribution of dominant tree and shrub species was random but that of herbs followed clumped pattern. When species mode distribution was divided into octaves, trees and shrubs showed lograndom distribution but all species together had lognormal one. Herbs alone do not conform to neither lognormal nor lograndom distributional patter. It seems that each species has its own response shape towards the environment, determined by its physiology, interaction with other species and historical events. It is hoped that the current study will add a little drop to the vast ocean of vegetation ecology knowledge helping with the clarification of the basic understanding of the vegetation pattern. © 2016, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary.


Dimitrov M.A.,University of Forestry | Petrova D.D.,Ekoinovation Ltd.
Acta Zoologica Bulgarica | Year: 2014

Within the territory of Ponor Special Protection Area (included in Natura 2000 network), nine types of forest habitats are identified: 9110, 9130, 9150, 9170, 9180, 91E0, 91H0, 91M0 and 91W0. The conservation status of habitats 9110, 9180, 91E0, 91M0 and 91W0 is assessed as "Unfavourable - inadequate" while for habitats 9130, 9150, 9170 and 91H0 is assessed as "Unfavourable - bad". The low average age and the lack of old-growth forests are the parameters whose values are the major cause for the unfavorable conservation status. In habitat 91H0, another major reason is the existence of successional processes reflected by the parameter values of tree species composition and high participation of Oriental hornbeam. The recommendations for improving the conservation status relate mostly to: determining the amount of dead wood and keeping it in the reference values; increasing the age of tree species; leaving areas to ensure the formation of old-growth forests; shaping areas for conservation of forest habitats; including habitats 9180, 91H0 and 91E0; monitoring of the threats for the purpose of prevention and elimination.


Gruychev G.,University of Forestry
Turkish Journal of Zoology | Year: 2016

Between 2007 and 2011,the distribution and breeding density of Chukar Partridges in Bulgaria were examined. Seventy-six UTM squares of the study area were deemed as including suitable habitat for the Chukar. In 14 of them varying degrees of breeding evidence of the Chukar Partridge were observed. Confirmed breeding was found in only 6 habitats,with breeding densities of 2 to 4 pairs/100 ha. In applying the IUCN criteria to data from this study,the Chukar Partridge falls within the category of critically endangered species in Bulgaria. © TÜBİTAK.


Stefanov S.H.,University of Forestry
International Journal of Fatigue | Year: 2011

Integration of Damage Differentials (IDD) is proposed for fatigue life assessment, and such a method is completely different from any other life prediction approach. IDD can be applied under arbitrary loading including the general case of plane stress condition, that is, the stress-time functions σx(t), σy(t) and τxy(t) can be deterministic or random and are not restricted to be cyclic, neither with specified variations, nor the three of them proportional. Then, no reversals and cycles could be distinguished along the loading path in the σx - σy - τxy coordinate space. Hence, any trial to apply again the well-known notions of loading cycles (amplitudes) and damage per cycle would conceptually fail. That is why damage differentials dD are introduced in order to be summed (integrated), where ach damage differential dD is per loading (stressing) differential ds. Two empirical factors of (material's sensitivity to) multiaxial loading non-proportionality, fc and fτ, are involved in the definition of dD. The IDD method has been implemented in software. Results of IDD verifications under multiaxial non-proportional loadings are shown. Based on them, an empirical data bank developed so far is given for IDD parameters. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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