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Sofia, Bulgaria

The University of Forestry , pronounced: ), in Yezin near Nay Pyi Taw, is the only university specialized in forestry in Myanmar. It mainly offers a five-year Bachelor of Science degree program in forestry as well as two-year master's and three-year doctoral programs. The university is administered by the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry and is affiliated with the Forest Research Institute , a government R&D agency. Undergraduate students are required to take part in a field training program each winter. Graduates of the university typically become forestry officers at the Forestry Department, the Dry Zone Greening Department or the Myanmar Timber Enterprise. Wikipedia.

Dyakov N.R.,University of Forestry
Applied Ecology and Environmental Research | Year: 2016

At the current stage of vegetation ecology development as a science it has not been reached consensus between the competing theories trying to explain vegetation pattern emerging under the influence of underlying environmental gradients. It is still not clear what is the response of different plant species towards the influence of complex gradients? This study tries to revise some classical and temporary hypotheses concerning species response surface/curve shape along environmental gradients – whether it is symmetric (Gaussian) or with other shape. It also attempts to check if species modes along complex gradients are distributed randomly, uniformly or they are clumped, as well as to inspect the species mode distribution among species importance value octaves – whether it is lognormal or lograndom. Field samples were gathered using gradsect method for laying down sampling plots. Obtained data were analyzed in the context of four complex gradients – elevation, habitat dryness, slope inclination and slope convexity. CCA ordination, GAM and LOEES regression and nonparametric correlation were used as analyzing tools. We have found that species response surface/curves do not have symmetric shape but rather they show asymmetric and complex forms. Mode distribution of dominant tree and shrub species was random but that of herbs followed clumped pattern. When species mode distribution was divided into octaves, trees and shrubs showed lograndom distribution but all species together had lognormal one. Herbs alone do not conform to neither lognormal nor lograndom distributional patter. It seems that each species has its own response shape towards the environment, determined by its physiology, interaction with other species and historical events. It is hoped that the current study will add a little drop to the vast ocean of vegetation ecology knowledge helping with the clarification of the basic understanding of the vegetation pattern. © 2016, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary.

Dimitrov M.A.,University of Forestry | Petrova D.D.,Ekoinovation Ltd.
Acta Zoologica Bulgarica | Year: 2014

Within the territory of Ponor Special Protection Area (included in Natura 2000 network), nine types of forest habitats are identified: 9110, 9130, 9150, 9170, 9180, 91E0, 91H0, 91M0 and 91W0. The conservation status of habitats 9110, 9180, 91E0, 91M0 and 91W0 is assessed as "Unfavourable - inadequate" while for habitats 9130, 9150, 9170 and 91H0 is assessed as "Unfavourable - bad". The low average age and the lack of old-growth forests are the parameters whose values are the major cause for the unfavorable conservation status. In habitat 91H0, another major reason is the existence of successional processes reflected by the parameter values of tree species composition and high participation of Oriental hornbeam. The recommendations for improving the conservation status relate mostly to: determining the amount of dead wood and keeping it in the reference values; increasing the age of tree species; leaving areas to ensure the formation of old-growth forests; shaping areas for conservation of forest habitats; including habitats 9180, 91H0 and 91E0; monitoring of the threats for the purpose of prevention and elimination.

Deliiski N.,University of Forestry
Wood Research | Year: 2013

An approach for the computation of wood thermal conductivity X during defrosting of wood has been suggested. The approach takes into account the physics of the process of thawing of ice, which is created in wood by both the hygroscopically bounded and free water. It reflects for the first time also the influence of the fiber saturation point of wood species on the value of their X during wood defrosting and the influence of the temperature on the fiber saturation point of frozen and non-frozen wood. For the computation of X according to the suggested approach a software program has been prepared in FORTRAN, which has been input in the developed by Microsoft calculation environment of Visual Fortran Professional. With the help of program computations have been made for the determination of X of often used in the veneer and plywood production beech wood with moisture content 0 ≤ u ≤, 1.2 kg.kg-1 at the temperature range between 0°C and -60°C during defrosting of wood. The created mathematical description of X for frozen and non-frozen wood has been input in the earlier suggested by the author non-stationary models of defrosting processes in prismatic and cylindrical wood materials. The updated models have been solved with the help of explicit schemes of the finite difference method. The change in the transient temperature distribution in 1/4 of the longitudinal section of subjected to defrosting beech frozen logs is graphically presented, analyzed and visualized with the help of 2D color plots.

A 3-dimensional mathematical model has been developed, solved, and verified for the transient non-linear heat conduction in frozen and non-frozen wood with prismatic shape at arbitrary initial and boundary conditions encountered in practice. The model takes into account for the first time the fiber saturation point of each wood species, ufsp, and the impact of the temperature on ufsp of frozen and non-frozen wood, which are then used to compute the current values of the thermal and physical characteristics in each separate volume point of the material subjected to defrosting. This paper presents solutions of the model with the explicit form of the finite-difference method. Results of simulation investigation of the impact of frozen bound water, as well as of bound and free water, on 3D temperature distribution in the volume of beech and oak prisms with dimensions 0.4 × 0.4 × 0.8 m during their defrosting at the temperature of the processing medium of 80 °C are presented, analyzed and visualized through color contour plots.

Dimitrov M.A.,University of Forestry | Petrova D.D.,Ekoinovation Ltd.
Acta Zoologica Bulgarica | Year: 2014

A survey on the forest habitats on the territory of Besaparski Ridove Special Protection Area (included in Natura 2000 network) is presented. Three types of forest habitats were identified: "91AA ∗Eastern White Oak Forests", "91M0 Pannonian-Balkanic Turkey Oak - Sessile Oak Forests", and "91Z0 Moesian Silver Lime Woods". Their conservation status was assessed as "Unfavourable bad". The low average age, the lack of old-growth forests, inadequately planned and implemented fellings, removal of dead wood and grazing were the parameters whose values are the major cause for the unfavourable conservation status. The recommendations for improving the conservation status relate mostly to determine the area for conservation of the forest habitats, to determine the amount of dead wood and keep it in the reference values increasing the age of tree species, leaving areas to ensure the formation of old growth forests, shaping area for conservation forest habitats, monitoring of the threats for the purpose of prevention and elimination.

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