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Gainesville, FL, United States

Control strategies enforced by health agencies are a major type of practice to contain influenza outbreaks. Another type of practice is the voluntary preventive behavior of individuals, such as receiving vaccination, taking antiviral drugs, and wearing face masks. These two types of practices take effects concurrently in influenza containment, but little attention has been paid to their combined effectiveness. This article estimates this combined effectiveness using established simulation models in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, USA. Three control strategies are investigated, including: Targeted Antiviral Prophylaxis (TAP), workplace/school closure, community travel restriction, as well as the combination of the three. All control strategies are simulated with and without regard to individual preventive behavior, and the resulting effectiveness are compared. The simulation outcomes suggest that weaker control strategies could suffice to contain influenza epidemics, because individuals voluntarily adopt preventive behavior, rendering these weaker strategies more effective than would otherwise have been expected. The preventive behavior of individuals could save medical resources for control strategies and avoid unnecessary socio-economic interruptions. This research adds a human behavioral dimension into the simulation of control strategies and offers new insights into disease containment. Health policy makers are recommended to review current control strategies and comprehend preventive behavior patterns of local populations before making decisions on influenza containment. © 2011 Liang Mao.

Fakhimzadeh K.,Apiary Inspection Section | Fakhimzadeh K.,University of Florid | Ellis J.D.,University of Florid | Hayes J.W.,Apiary Inspection Section
Journal of Apicultural Research | Year: 2011

In this study, we investigated the impact of ten different materials on the fall of varroa (Varroa destructor) mites from adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) in vitro. To do this, we confined ∼250 adult bees each to 144, 0.47 l glass jars, feeding them bee candy (honey / powdered sugar) ad lib. Seventy-two hours later, the bees were treated with 5 g of one of the ten materials and placed in one of two locations (in an incubator = 35°C, 70% RH, or in a dark room = 22°C, 50% RH; replicate schedule = 10 dusts and 2 controls × 6 jars / rep × 2 locations). Immediately after and 24 h after treatment application, we counted the number of mites that fell from the jar through the mesh lid when the jar was rolled for 30 s, inverted, and shaken for 30 s. Four days later, we estimated the number of bees alive in each jar and washed the bees to remove any remaining mites. With these data, we determined the mite drop efficacy of the materials and their acute impact on adult bee survivorship. In general, powdered sugar from Slovenia (82.7 ± 4.1: mean ± s.e. % mite fall), vacuum collected sugar (83.2 ± 2.8), baby powder (83.8 ± 5), and ground table sugar (69.6 ± 5.5) induced higher levels of mite fall than the other materials. Fewer bees survived four days post treatment, however, with Slovenian powdered sugar and baby powder (9.6 ± 5.6% and 3.2 ± 1.2% survival, respectively) than bees treated with any other material (survival range from 67.1 - 95.5%). We also include a discussion of the particle size of each material and how it may affect material efficacy. © 2011 IBRA.

Graham J.R.,University of Florid | Graham J.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ellis J.D.,University of Florid | Benda N.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Apicultural Research | Year: 2011

In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina tumida Murray, Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) to honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies. Swabs of commercial bumble bee colonies and homogenates of bumble bee colony components (adults, brood, honey, pollen and wax) were plated on selective media. The resulting yeast isolates were compared to K. ohmeri previously isolated from SHB. Yeasts were detected in all of the commercial bumble bee colony swab samples (n = 56) and a selected subsample was shown through molecular, chemical, and microbiological evidence to be K. ohmeri. For the second part of the study, feral bumble bee colonies were excavated and evaluated for the presence of any SHB life stage (none was found). Adult bees and swabs from the colonies were plated on selective media. Kodamaea ohmeri was isolated in all samples collected from the feral bumble bee colonies. The presence of K. ohmeri in commercial and feral bumble bee colonies is of concern, as SHB, which harbour K. ohmeri, are attracted to the volatiles produced by K. ohmeri growing on bee collected pollen. © 2011 IBRA.

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